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His Book

Peter Benson Walker

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No. III.












al. allusion (to some event or observation).

dis. distinguish from.

exp. explain. This is intended to signify that the word to which it is affixed needs to be further explained, and the object or a representation of it exhibited.

fig. figurative—signifying that the word is here used figuratively.

il. illustrate by reference to.

meta. pers. &c. refers to the particular figure.

rt. root. Here reference is intended to the end of the volume, in which information is given relative to the origin and relations of the word.

sen. sense in which the word is used in the connexion in which it stands.

vide. see.

The words selected for explanation, or for reference to the root, may also be used as a spelling lesson.





The main Design of the present volume, which will ultimately he preceded by others of a more elementary character, and will then form the third of a Series of Reading Books, is to favour the production of good moral and religious influences in connexion with a rigorous course of intellectualinstructionanddiscipline. With this view each day’s lesson has been made to include, first, a text of Holy Scripture, which, being committed to memory, may serve as a motto for the day ; secondly, a brief poetical extract, adapted to improve the taste and excite the affections; and, lastly, a portion of useful knowledge intended as a general exercise in reading. To each of these portions, Analyses and practical lessons have been appended, in the form of notes, at the foot of every page.

The Class of Children for whom the book is specially intended, are supposed to have overcome to a considerable extent the mechanical difficulty of reading, and to be already prepared, with a little assistance, not only to comprehend the general scope and bearing of a writer, but in some degree to appreciate the value or beauty of his thoughts. It is precisely at this period—-just when the pupil is beginning to enjoy the perusal of a book—that the present volume ^should be introduced.

The following may be regarded as its Distinctive Features :—

1.    In the space of two pages an adequate and varied portion is provided for each day’s instruction, every lesson being complete in itself—the notes furnishing a clue to all needful explanations.

2.    The Pieces selected are of a kind directly calculated to improve the mind and character of the reader. The Poetry will be found to favour loving and trustful feelings,—a taste for the enjoyment of natural scenery,—and the cultivation of a humble, contented, and domestic spirit. The prose pieces include extracts relating to natural history, travels,

home and foreign productions, the elements of political economy, slavery, war, temperance, economy, cleanliness, trust-worthiness, obedience to laws, sanctification of the Sabbath, piety, See. Sec.

3.    The Analyses are prepared on a new plan, including not merely the roots of words, but every thing requisite to the most exact understanding of the lesson, as well as to the practical application of it, both to the intellect and to the heart.1

4.    The Saturday’s Lesson proceeds on the assumption that a part of this day is generally devoted in good schools to recapitulatory exercises. It is therefore half the usual length, and consists simply of illustrations of words or things which have been referred to in the course of the week, and which could not be fully explained in the small space devoted to analytical notes.

5.    The Simultaneous Lesson, of which a brief outline only is furnished, should be given orally by the teacher to the children when seated at their desks or in a gallery. It should take the character of a familiar and colloquial lecture ; and, in order to secure attention, it should be broken in upon by brief questions, and enlivened by the introduction of elliptical sentences, —the children being called upon to fill up the pause by supplying an appropriate word. In this way the interest of a class or of the whole school may be sustained for at least twenty minutes, beyond which time it is not advisable to lengthen the address. At the close, those who can write with sufficient facility should be directed to put down from memory what they can recollect of the lecture. This exercise will be found eminently useful, not only in forming habits of attention, but also in facilitating the expression of thought with ease and accuracy.



Page |

I. Moral and Religious. |

Improvement of the Mind 8 Word of Encouragement 20 Wonders of Creation ....    32

III. Foreign Parts.

Voyage to West Indies ..    16

Lost Child in America ..    40

North American Indians 52 Black Hole, Calcutta.... 64

Treatment of Drowned .. 118 Gymnastic Exercises .... 156

Barnaby on Truth ...... 44

Infidelity.............. 5(5

The Understanding ---- 68

Nature and Revelation ..    80

Blackberries .......... 82

Self-conceit............ 104

Temptation............ 116

Rashness.............. 128

Care of Clothes ........ 132

Way to be Happy......140

Clever Boys............ 146

The Sabbath .......... 152

Profane Swearing ...... 164

Slavery—Sharpe........ 166

War.................. 176

Dying Year............. 184

II. England, &c. &c.

Ancient Britoiis........ 10

Introduction of Christianity to Britain......    22

England in January ....    34

--—in July ...... 106

English Fire-side ...... 46

Porcelain.............. 94

Iron-Foundry.......... 130

South-Sea Islander......    76

Greenland Winter......    88

Sabbath in Africa ...... 92

Poisonous Valley ...... 112

Fire at Sea............ 124

Pitcairn’s Island........ 136

The Ganges............ 172


St. Bernard............ 148

Egyptian Tombs........ 160

IV. Natural History.

The Lion.............. 26

Tiger.............. 38

Polar Bear ........ 50

Swan ............ 62

Dog........ 74,86, 170

Elephant....... ..*. HO

Lobster............ 122

White Stork ...... 134

Humming Bird .... 144

Redbreast.......... 182

Auguries of Birds ...... 14

Enjoyments of Fishes....    98

The Chamois Hunter .... 100

Flying ...............158

Dew.................. 58

Flowers .............. 70

Tea .................. 142

Coffee.............. 28

Mahogany ............ 178

V. Political Economy, &e.

Human Industry ...... 12

-continued ....    24

Exchanges ............ 36

Use of Laws,........... 84

Wages......... 96

Machinery ............ 108

Way to Wealth ........ 120

Cottage Comforts ......154

Savings Banks.......... 168

British Constitution .... 180

VI. Health, &c.

Air and Ventilation ....    48

Cleanliness............ 60

Temperance............ 72



The School .... Sigourney 8 Ancient Britons .. Cowper 10 Song of the Bees . .. Gould 12 To a Water-fowl ..Bryant 14

The Sea ..........Vann 16

Feed my Lambs, Edmeston 20 Christian Peasant, Cowper 22 Time Speeds Away .. Knox 24

Slavery..........Cowper 26

Commerce.......Cowper 28

The Wood........Bryant 32

The Wagoner .... Cowper 34 Commerce ....... Cowper 36

The Eagle........Donne 38

My Neighbour......Anon 40

The Truth, Original Poems 44 The Fire-side .... Cowper 46

Health ........Thomson    48

Mercy ......Shakspeare 50

Ardent Spirit......Willis 52

Infidelity .... Wordsworth 56 Early Morning .... Milton 58

Health ........Thomson    60

Birds ......Montgomery 62

Night ......Montgomery 64

Pride ......Wordsworth 68

Heart’s-Ease ..Vill. Mag. 70 Water-Drinker ..Johnson 72

Evening Bells......Moore 74

Missionary Hymn ..Heher 76 Invitation to Christ, Dana 80 Saturday Afternoon, Willis 82 A Comparison .... Cowper 84

The Deep ......Brainerd 86

Traveller’s Return, Moodie 88

Sabbath Bell......A bbott 92

Birds of Passage, Demons 94 Hymn ............Opie    96


Happiness........Willis    98

The Worm ....Gisborne 100

Vanity..........Cowper    104

Sultry Noon ....Wilcox 106

Liberty ........Cowper    108

The Elephant... .Southey 110 Dead Traveller .. Bryant 112

Prayer..........Crubbe    116

The Deep ......Demans 118

The Woodman ..Cowper 120 Stormy Petrel.. Cornwall 122 The Life-Boat, Strickland 124 Crueltyto Animals, Cowper 128 Friendship ....Coleridge 130 Defaced Alcove .. Cowper 132 White Stork, M. of Woods 134 Pitcairn’s Island, Bryant 1.36 Way to be Happy, Wilcox 140 Benevolence .... Wilcox 142 Humming Bird ..Smith 144 Aspirations, Montgomery 146 The Seasons, Montgomery 148

Retirement......Cowper 152

Wine............Willis 154

Exercise ......Thomson 156

Sky-Lark .. Wordsworth 158

Night......Montgomery 160

Wisdom........Cowper    164

The Free Mind, Garrison 166 Home Comforts . .Montg. 168

The Dog ........Rogers    170

Stanzas ........Bowles    172

War ..........Southey    176

M utability of Love, Moore 178

Britain ........Cowper    180

Robin Redbreast .. Cottle 182 Death of Flowers, Bryant 184




The Bounty...........

. 138

St. Bernard...........



VI. Metaphysical,



VII. Natural History.

Procellaria ...........

. 18

Polar Bear ...........

. 54

Bat .................

. 66

Heart’s-Ease .........

. 78

Coral ...............

. 78

. 90

Chamois .............

. 102

Myrrh Trees .........

. 102

Bamboo .............

Ibis .................


Tea Tree .............

Humming Bird .......

. 150

VIII. Optics.



. 42


. 90

I. Anatomy.

Muscles .............. 162

II.    Antiquities.

July.................. 114

Tombs................ 162


Months of the Year .... 186

III.    Astronomy.

Meridian.............. 114

IY. Biographical.

Eusebius .............. 30

Gregory .............. 30

Washington...........    54

Franklin.............. 78

V. Histouical, &c.

Mistletoe.............. 18

Ancient Ships.......... 30

Plague....... 66

India ........ 78

English Constitution ....    90

Bells in Canada........    90

The Nile.............. 102

Sharon................ 102

Boats ................126

Accidents.............. 126


I. Moral and Religious. Improvement of the Mind 19

Infidelity.............. 67

Cleanliness....... 67

Pride ................ 99

Self-eonceit............ 115

Temptation............ 127

Cruelty to Animals...... 139

Injuring Property......139

Profane Swearing ...... 175

Nature and Revelation ..    91

Happiness ......... 151

The Sabbath .......... 163

Slavery .............. 175

War.................. 187

II. Natural History. Elephant.............. 115

Lobster ........ 127

Flowers .............. 79

Coffee ................ 31

Tea .................. 151

Mahogany ............ 187

III.    Economical, &c.

Industry and Exchanges 43

Wages................ 103

Cottage Comforts ...... 163

Porcelain.............. 103

IV.    Miscellaneous.

Sea and Ships.......... 19

Ancient Britons........ 31

Wonders of Creation ....    43

Greenland ............ 91

Text for the day.—Prov. i. 7,—“ The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; but fools despise wisdom and instruction”

The School.

Group after group are gathering. Such as press’d Once to their Saviour’s arms, and gently laid Their cherub heads upon his shielding breast,

Though sterner souls their fond approach forbade ;— Group after group glide on with noiseless tread,

And round the accustom’d spot with pleasure meet, Where holy thoughts in infant hearts are bred,

And holy words their ruby lips repeat Oft with a chasten’d glance in modulation sweet.”

Mrs. Sigourney.


In the cultivation of the mental powers in the young, a point of essential importance is the selection of proper and worthy objects of acquirement.

The great object to be kept in view from the very earliest period, is the importance of being well acquainted with subjects of real utility ; the actual cultivation of habits of observation, inquiry, association, and induction ; and, as the foundation of the whole, the habit of steady and continued attention.

The cultivation of these mental habits is of greater value by far than any one acquirement whatever; for they are the basis of all future improvement, and are calculated to give a tone to the whole character.

Subject. Children entering school, cm. in groups—noiseless —with pleasure.

Analysis. Group, dis. crowd, host, &c. Cherub, i.e. fullness of knowledge, see Eze. x. 20. Cherubim plu. sen. innocent and lovely, shielding, fig. shield, exp. vide Gen. xv. 1 ; Ps. v. 12. Sterner, al. Matt. xix. 13. glide, dis. slide—slip, holy, sen. consecrate (to religion and virtue), ruby, AL. stone, chastened, sen. subdued (by seriousness), dis. chastisement.

Lesson I. Great object of school instruction to store the memory with truth, and to train the mind to think aright. II. Christ’s willingness to receive little ones.

The most common and trivial occurrences may thus be made the source of mental improvement : as the habits of animals ; the natural history of the articles that are constantly before us, in clothes, food, furniture ; articles of manufacture, from a watch to a pin ; the action of the mechanic powers, as illustrated by various contrivances in constant use ; the structure of a leaf, a flower, a tree.

To those farther advanced, a constant source of interest may be found in history, geography, and memoirs of eminent individuals ; and in the leading principles of natural history, natural philosophy, and chemistry.

Every new subject of thought which is thus presented to the mind, is both valuable in itself by the powers which it calls into action, and by proving a nucleus to which new facts may be afterwards associated.

In the concerns which relate to man as a moral being, this active, inquiring, and reflective habit of mind is not less applicable than in matters of inferior moment.

The man who cultivates it is more likely to direct his attention intensely and eagerly to the great truths which belong to his moral condition, to seek to estimate distinctly his relation to them, and to feel their influence upon his moral principles, than he who is under the influence of listlessness or inactivity.”— Abercrombie.

Subject. How we may improve our minds. 1. By selecting suitable objects of study. 2. By the cultivation of good mental habits.

Analysis. Cultivation,rt. mental powers, dis. bodily, exp. perception — memory — comparison, essential, dis. desirable. acquirement, rt. observation, il. natural history, astronomy, p. 18. Inquiry, i. e. in books, and of well-informed persons. association, rt. il. pain with fire, pictures, &c., p. 18. induction, rt. i. e. forming a general rule from a number of facts, il. roundness of the earth—1. by shadow on moon. 2. sailing about it. 2. vessel approaching, habit, rt. attention, p. 18. basis, i. e. foundation, tone, fig. harmony and vigour, il. habits of animals, il. bee and beaver, articles, il. cotton, sugar, earthenware. manufacture, rt. mechanic powers, exp. six. contrivance, il. pump, &c. structure, rt. nucleus, i.e. kernel, fig. moral being, i. e. conscience and responsibility, reflective, rt. sen. compare, judge, moral principles, sen. truth, fidelity, honesty, rule—Bible.

Lesson I. Importance of improving our faculties. II. Thankfulness that the means of doing so are thickly scattered around and open to all.


Text for the day.—Prov. iii. 5.—“ Trust in the Lord with all thine heart ; and lean not unto thine own understanding.”

Ancient Britons.

“ Time was, when clothing sumptuous or for use,

Save their own painted skins, our sires had none.

The hardy chief upon the rugged rock,

Wash’d by the sea, or on the gravelly bank Thrown up by wintry torrents roaring loud,

Fearless of wrong, reposed his wearied strength.

Religion, if in heavenly truths attired,

Needs only to be seen to be admired;

But thine, as dark as witcheries of the night,

Was form’d to harden hearts, and shock the sight;

Thy Druids struck the well-hung harps they bore With fingers deeply dyed in human gore ;

And while the victim slowly bled to death,

Upon the rolling chords rung out his dying breath.”



“ It is supposed that Great Britain and Ireland were originally settled by a colony from Gaul. These were called Gaels or Celts. Their descendants are found at this day in Ireland and Wales, and the highlands of Scotland. Some of these still speak the ancient Gaelic or Celtic language.

Subject. Britons, cir. naked—hardy—fearless. Dniidical religion, cir. dark—heart-hardening—cruel.

Analysis. Wintry torrents, exp. water rushing down hills, carrying soil and stones, roaring, fig. terrible sound as of lion. witcheries of the night, al. fabled that witches met and had great power from midnight to sunrise, harden hearts, exp. cruelty does this, dis. Christian principle of love softens natural heart, Ezekiel xi. 19.

Lesson I. Thankfulness for advantages possessed by living at this time. II. Love the pervading principle of Christianity, as opposed to that of slavish fear in the Druidical.

Very little is known about these islands till the time of Julius Caesar. He invaded England in the year 55 before the Christian era. The country was then called Britannia or Britain. It was inhabited by barbarians, some of whom wore the skins of wild beasts, while others were entirely naked. Their bodies were painted. Their weapons were clubs, spears, and swords, with which they fiercely attacked the Roman invaders.

The ancient Britons, like the other northern nations of Europe, were idolaters. Their priests were called Druids. Their places of worship were in the open air, and consisted, of huge stone pillars standing in a circle. A large stone in the middle was used as an altar, and human victims were sacrificed upon it. The ruins of one of these temples still remain at Stonehenge, and are very wonderful.

The Druids considered the oak a sacred tree. They set a great value on the mistletoe, a sort of plant which sometimes grows on the oak. Wherever they found a mistletoe, they held a banquet beneath the spreading branches of the oak on which it grew.

The Druids incited the Britons to oppose the Roman power. They fought fiercely, and the country was • not entirely subdued till sixty years after the Christian era. Suetonius, a Roman general, then cut down the sacred groves of oak, destroyed the temples, and threw the Druids into the fires which they had themselves kindled to roast the Romans.”—Parley’s Universal History.

Subject. The origin of the Britons — invasion by Julius C®sar—their religion.

Analysis. Originally, rt. colony, rt. transplanted people. Celts, exp. descendants of Gomer, son of Japhet. Julius Caesar, exp. first emperor of Rome, then governor of Gaul or France. invaded, rt. Christian era, exp. birth of Christ, inhabited, rt. Druid, il. Greek word for oak. consisted, rt. sacrificed, rt. mistletoe, oak, exp. p. 18. Britain, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Gaul or France, Rome, exp. maps, incited, rt. opposed, rt.

Lesson I. Men depraved naturally descend to barbarism. II. Possession of arts and sciences gives a superiority. III. Cruelty is always one trait in savage life. IV. Worship of some kind is found among every people.

B 2

Text for the day.—Prov. viii. 17.—“ I love then thctf love me, and those that seek me early shall find me.”

Song of the Bees.

“We watch for the light of the morn to break And colour the eastern sky,

With its blended hues of saffron and lake,

Then say to each other, ‘ Awake ! awake !

For our winter’s honey is all to make,

And our bread for a long supply.’

As each on the good of others is bent,

Is busy and cares for all,

We hope for an evening with heart’s content,

For the winter of life without lament That summer is gone with its hours mispent,

And the harvest is past recall.”

Miss Gould.


Industry is human exertion of any kind, employed for the creation of value. If we consider the different kinds of value which it is in the power of man to create, we shall see that human industry may he employed in three different ways.

1. The farmer sows seeds, and in the process of vegetation the air, and sunlight, and water, and earth, and

Subject. Bees excite each other to wake and work. Evening after a day of labour is grateful.

Analysis. Saffron, exp. yellow, lake, exp. vermilion, tinted with red. honey, exp. economy of bees, bent, sen. strongly inclined, winter of life, Flo. AL. infancy to spring, youth to summer, manhood to autumn, old age to winter, harvest, al. Prov. x. 5. Jer. viii. 20.

Lesson I. Every one has some end to answer by existence here. II. We should excite each other to do good deeds. III. A life spent for the good of others justifies the hope of cheerful old age.

manure, are changed into wheat; that is, the elementary particles of these substances assume a different form. It is the same with the chemist, and with many other producers; and in all such cases the industry is said to change the elementary form of matter.

2.    The blacksmith merely changes the shape of a bar of iron into horse-shoes, nails, hinges, &c.; the carpenter changes the shape of a board into that of a table; the cotton-spinner changes the raw cotton into thread, &c. This kind of industry is said to change the aggregate form of matter.

3.    The sailor changes neither the elementary nor the aggregate form; he delivers the goods just as he received them, but he removes them from one place to another. The same remark applies to the waggoner, the rail-road proprietor, and many others. In these cases industry is said to change the place of matter.

The ultimate design of all human industry as employed in production is, to effect either the one or the other of these results, which are frequently denominated agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial industry.

It is evident that every one of these kinds of labour is absolutely necessary, in order to promote the convenience and happiness of man, and also that no one could prosper without the aid of the others.

Hence we see how unwise it is for any jealousy to exist between the farmer, the mechanic, and the merchant ; all are equally necessary to each other.— Wayland.

Subject. Human industry employed in three ways. 1. As it acts on elementary matter. 2. On the aggregate form. 3. On conveyance.

Analysis. Elementary particles, sen. most minute parts. matter, sen. that of which all bodies are composed, producers, rt. cotton, exp. raw, i. e. unprepared, ultimate, RT.

Lesson I. Labour is divided, and each person should contentedly pursue his own and respect his neighbour.

Text for the day.—Prov. iii. 7.—“ Be not wise in thine own eyes; fear the Lord, and depart from evil.”

To a Waterfowl,

“ Whither midst falling dew,

While glow the heavens with the last steps of day, Far through their rosy depths dost thou pursue Thy solitary way ?

Vainly the fowler’s eye

Might mark thy distant flight to do thee wrong, As, darkly painted on the crimson sky,

Thy figure floats along.

There is a power whose care Teaches thy way along that pathless coast,

The desert and illimitable air,

Lone wandering, but not lost.”



All the accidents of the seas, all the changes of calm and storm, are predicted by birds. The thrush alights on a desolate strand, contracts her neck within her plumage, conceals one foot in her down, and, standing motionless on the other, apprises the fisherman of the moment when the billows are rising. The sea-lark skimming the surface of the wave, and utter-

Subject. Waterfowl’s flight, cir. solitary—at evening time —far from the fowler—its way determined of God.

Analysis. Falling deiv, al. evening, glow, al. warmth and colour of sunset, last steps of day, pig. pers. rosy depths, al. western clouds, foivler, exp. darkly painted, al. distance. pathless coast, fig. sky for sea. not lost, al. Ps. cxxxix.

Lesson I. God’s providence embraces every creature he has made ; all their wants and all their enjoyments he has provided for.

ìng a gentle and melancholy cry, announces on the contrary the moment of their reflux.

The little procellaria stations herself in the midst of the ocean ; the faithful companion of the mariner, she follows the course of ships, and prophesies tempests. The sailor ascribes to her something sacred, and religiously fulfils the duties of hospitality when the violence of the wind tosses her on board his vessel.

In like manner the husbandman pays respect to the redbreast, which predicts fine weather, and receives it beneath his thatch during the intense cold of the winter. These labouring men, placed in the two hardest conditions of human life, have friends whom Providence has prepared for them. From a feeble animal they receive counsel and hope, which they would often seek in vain among their fellow-men.

This reciprocity of benefits between little birds and hard-working men, is one of those moving incidents which abound in the works of God. Between the redbreast and the husbandman, between the procellaria and the sailor, there is a resemblance of manners and of fortunes exceedingly affecting.

Oh, how dry, how barren, is nature when explained by sophists ; but how productive and how rich, when a simple heart describes her wonders with no other view than to glorify the Creator!”—Chateaubriand.

Subject. Birds indicate approaching changes of the weather :—thrush and the sea-lark to the fisherman; procellaria to the mariner; redbreast to the husbandman.

Analysis. Predicted, rt. thrush, exp. desolate, rt. strand, i. e. edge of sea. contracts, RT. reflux, rt. procellaria, exp. p. 18. duties of hospitality, i. e. protects and feeds it. thatch, sen. straw roof, providence, rt. reciprocity, i. e. interchange. moving, al. feelings, fortunes, sen. course of life, dry, sen. tasteless, insipid, barren, sen. no food for thankfulness, nature, sen. God’s works, sophists, sen. unsound and unholy reasoners. productive and rich, sen. subjects for gratitude and praise. simple heart, sen. 2 Cor. i. 12.

Lesson I. Observation increases our comforts. II. Observation of God’s works constantly discovers proofs of design. III. To enjoy the works of God, we must look at them with proper feelings.

Text for the day.—Prov. iv. 7.—“ Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom : and with all thy getting, get understanding

The Sea.

He views the ships that come and go,

Looking so like to living things.

Oh, ’tis a proud and gallant show Of bright and broad-spread wings,

Flinging a glory round them, as they keep

Their course right onward through the unsounded deep.

And where the far off sand-bars lift Their backs in long and narrow line,

The breakers shout, and leap, and shift,

And send the sparkling brine Into the air; then rush to mimic strife:—

Glad creatures of the sea ! how all seems life ! ”



A favourable voyage across the Atlantic cannot of necessity be very rich in incident. Each succeeding day bears the features of its predecessor ; and its events are only varied by perhaps a sail in the distance, or the appearance of some one of the various inhabitants of the deep.

After losing sight of the shores of England, if the winds be favourable, the voyager soon finds himself

Subject. Appearance of ships when sailing. Beauties of the sea viewed from them.

Analysis. Proud, sen. productive of pride, wings, al. birds, glory, il. imagination excited, sand bars, i. e. ridges of sand, backs, sen. ridges, breakers, i. e. waves broken by the sand-banks or low rocks, shout and leap, pis. noise like that, al. Ps. cxiv. sparkling brine, al. sunshine on the waves. mimic, dis. real, creatures, vide Ps. civ. 25, 26.

rolling in the restless bay of Biscay. We entered it in the month of January. Its dark blue waves heaved heavily. A few wandering sea-gulls roamed over the face of the deep, and the sun beamed upon the waters with a warmer and a brighter ray.

From hence to the Islands the traveller must content himself with the few objects of natural history which present themselves. To watch the grampus, the porpoise, or perhaps the great white shark playing around the vessel, and darting before its bow, as if offering to guide its course through the trackless deep, are the daily amusements of every landsman in these seas; and, with a few flocks of stormy petrels, a wandering albatross, or that most beautiful of all the finny tribe, the dorado, relentlessly pursuing its unhappy victim, the flying fish, they constitute almost the only novelties.

But at sea, the every-day occurrences of nature seem to exhibit themselves in new forms, and acquire a freshness which clothes them with a new interest.

Oftentimes will the sun set with a peculiar splendour, pouring a flood of glory over the whole horizon; ancl as he dips beneath the waters, the reflection of his beams clothes the western clouds in a thousand different hues, abundantly supplying to the fancy golden lakes, and palaces adorned with all the magic tints of a fairy creation.”—Editor.

Subject. Incidents and feelings in a voyage across the Atlantic.

Analysis. Atlantic, exp. features, pig. al. human countenance, predecessor, rt. sail, pig. meta. sen. ship, inhabitants, rt. Bay of Biscay, exp. Islands, sen. West India Islands, grampus, porpoise, white shark, exp. bow, sen. front part, trackless, AL. ship not leaving permanent track, petrel, albatross, dorado, exp. horizon, sen. far as caD be seen around. dips, sen. disappears, dis. appearance from reality, magic tints, al. colours brilliant and transient, fairy creation, al. fabled sylphs.

Lesson I. Every situation affords opportunity to the inquisitive mind for acquiring information. II. The sea is a world of wonders, in which God is to be seen in his works.


Attention (see p. 8). It is related of Sir Isaac Newton, that when he was questioned respecting the mental qualities which formed the peculiarities of his cnaracter, he referred his success entirely to the power which he had acquired of continuous attention.

Association (see p. 8).    “ In a party of gentlemen,

the conversation turned on the warlike character of the Mahrattas, as compared with the natives of Lower India, and the explanation given of it by an author who refers it to their use of animal food. Some were of one opinion, and some of another; and the point was left undecided. Reading soon after the journal of Bishop Heber, I found it stated, that at one time during his journey, when a large supply of meat was brought to him, he ordered three lambs to be sent to his Hindoo attendants, and that the gift was received with every expression of gratitude. On another occasion, such a fact might have been passed by without producing any impression, or it might have been slightly associated with the good bishop’s attention to the comfort of all around him. Associated with the discussion now mentioned, it became a fact of great interest, and will never be forgotten.”—Abercrombie.

Mistletoe (seep. 11). The cutting of the mistletoe was a ceremony of great solemnity with our ancient ancestors. The people went in procession. The bards walked first, singing canticles and hymns. Then followed the prince of the Druids, accompanied by all the people. He mounted the oak, and cutting the mistletoe with a golden sickle, presented it to the other Druids, who received it with great respect, and, on the first day of the year, distributed it among the people as a sacred and holy plant, crying, The mistletoe for the new year.” In many farm-houses, the mistletoe is at Christmas time hung up in great state with its white berries in the kitchen, and is a source of much amusement.

Procellaria (see p. 15). The bird referred to under this title is the stormy petrel. It is in length six inches, and about the bulk of a house swallow. Its colour is black. It presages bad weather, and cautions the seamen of the approach of a tempest, by collecting under the stern of the ships. It braves the utmost fury of the storm, and skims with incredible velocity along the hollow of the waves.


Improvement op the Mind.

The Mind, dis. body as—invisible—immaterial—immortal. May be,—active or passive—strengthened or weakened—adorned or ruined.

1.    Food of the mind, pig. al. body,—supported by food —injured by some kinds,—benefited by other kinds. The mind,—fed by thoughts;—nourished bv good books—weakened by trifling books—ruined by bad books ;—hence importance of wise selection—how to discriminate.

2.    Discipline of the mind, pig. al. training—exercise— self-denial—self-control.

Attention, exp. evils of listlessness—loss of time— loss of power—il. casting an account when thinking of something else.—Sir Isaac Newton (see p. 18). Observation—use of eyes—beauties of nature— woods—way out discovered by observing trees, &c.— il. habits of American Indians.

(Association, induction, §o. defer for another lesson, j

Lessons.—1. Value of good mental habits—fitting the mind to receive pleasure—instruction, from that which is seen—heard—read.

2. Great end of knowledge,—not worldly advantage,— not merely to get on,—not mere gratification,—not display,—but to make us happier and better,—to do good to others,—to lead to God.—“ Fear of the Lord beginning of wisdom.”

The Sea and Ships.

The Sea.—Water—vast expanse, dis. brook—stream— river, il. pond—lake—attach idea of extent—depth— saltness.

1.    Aspects of the sea.—Calm—glassy—heaving—rippled — agitated—tossed—high waves—roaring — foam— crested billows,—phosphoric appearances at night.

2.    Inhabitants of the sea.—Whales, sharks, dolphins, flying fish, &c. &c.

3.    Travellers on the sea.—Ships,—size—strength—masts —sails—keel; moved by wind—guided by helm ; effects of storms—tides—currents; wrecked on sand— rocks; founder from leaks, &c.

Lesson 1. Amazing power of God,—extent of his creation,—providing for all,—blessing all,—facilitating communication between nations.

Text for the day.—Prov. ix. 10.—“ The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom; and the knowledge of the holy is understanding.”

Feed my Lambs.

Feed my lambs/ ’twas kindly spoken, ’Twas a legacy of love,

Still his followers keep the token Of their Saviour pass’d above.

Heaven receives him, and conceals him,

Yet we still in him confide ;

Still to us his word reveals him For our Saviour and our Guide.

While there beats one heart possessing Holy love and heavenly fear,

We may rest secure in blessing,

We shall find a Shepherd there.”



A word with you, my boys and girls. Not you who are quick at your books and your play ;—not you who are before your companions in learning;— not you who are always gay as larks, and lighthearted as lambs in a sunny field! I can speak to you another time.

But listen to me, you that are timid, and somewhat backward in your books. You that find it hard to

Subject. The Saviour’s injunction, “ Feed my lambs," (John xxi. 15) cir. love of Christ—Christ revealed in the Scriptures—though absent, still our Saviour, Guide, and Shepherd.

Analysis. Feed my lambs, fig. instruct the young, legacy of love, sen. a duty laid on Christians as heirs, keep the token, sen. receive and obey the command, conceals, Sfc. al. 2 Cor. v. 7. his word, sen. Bible. Saviour, Luke ii. 11, Acts v. 30, 31. Guide, al. John x. 27. heart beats, sen. lives, holy love, il. John xiv. 15. heavenly fear, Phil. ii. 12.

Lesson I. To instruct the ignorant is enjoined on every Christian by the Saviour. II. Whilst we fear God aright, he will he our guide and protector.

learn, and cannot easily keep up with your schoolfellows, listen patiently to Friend Barnaby.

There is no reason why you should be out of spirits; only be attentive and do your best, and I will answer for your making progress in your studies.

It is said that, once on a time, a hare and a tortoise ran a race. The hare was by far the best runner, but, being vain and confident, she took a nap by the way. The tortoise got on very slowly ; but being diligent, and never slackening her pace, she passed by the sleeping hare, and won the race.

Now who can tell, my little fearful friends, but that you, after all, by obedience, diligence, and plodding onwards, may win the race, and get more solid and useful knowledge, than those who run on so fast before you ?

Some of the best trees are a long time in coming to perfection. Some of the best fruits ripen slowly, and many of the most learned men were, at first, by no means clever scholars ; therefore take courage, only be attentive, and do your very best.

Mind, I am not excusing thoughtlessness and inattention, but only want of ability. If you are idle, careless, and disobedient, you are doing yourselves a great injury ; but if you are doing your best, again I say, Barnaby will answer for your success.

Your learning is not meant so much to make you clever, as it is to render you useful. He who has learned to fear God, to keep his commandments, and to love and serve those around him, is abetter scholar, in my opinion, than he who has learned Latin and Greek, but knows not how to make himself useful.

Subject. Encouragement to timid pupils. Tale of the hare and tortoise. Learning is to render us useful.

Analysis. Progress, rt. hare, exp. tortoise, exp. dis. turtle. Latinf exp. language of Latins, then of Romans. Greek, il. Greece, alphabet, il. two first Greek letters alpha bet-a.

Lesson I. Perseverance in the attainment of knowledge must be successful. II. Great end of knowledge to know and serve God, and to be useful to others.

Text for the day.—Prov. xiv. 34.—“ Righteousness exalteth a nation, hut sin is a reproach to any people.”

The Christian Peasant.

“ Yon cottager, who weaves at her own door,

Pillow and bobbins all her little store,

Content though mean, and cheerful if not gay, Shuffling her threads about the live-long day,

Just earns a scanty pittance, and at night Lies down secure, her heart and pocket light;

She, for her humble sphere by nature fit,

Has little understanding, and no wit,

Receives no praise ; but though her lot be such (Toilsome and indigent), she renders much ;

Just knows, and knows no more, her Bible true-— A truth the brilliant Frenchman never knew ;

And in that charter reads with sparkling eyes Her title to a treasure in the skies.”

/    CoWPER.


When or by whom the true light was introduced into this land is uncertain, though there is no doubt it was at a very early period.

Eusebius states that some of the apostles passed over to the British Isles.” Theodoret supposes, that after Paul had spent two years at Rome,” he visited the islands of the sea; and he actually numbers some of the inhabitants of Gaul and Britain among the disciples of the tent-maker.” It is not improbable that Paul preached the gospel both in Spain and Britain.

Subject. A cottager weaving, cir. poor—unlearned—simple-minded—knows her Bible to be true, and is happy—this knowledge better than all human learning.

Analysis. Pillow, bobbins, exp. mean, sen. low in station, Dis, base in conduct, gay, sen. cheerful, dis. merry. pittance, but just enough, al. allowance of meat at a monastery gate, sphere, Fie. situation in life, wit, sen. quickness of imagination and scholastic knowledge, renders much, sen. grateful, al. Luke xxi. 2—4. brilliant Frenchman, Voltaire, charter, sen. written evidence.

Lesson I. Contentment. II. However poor we may be happy.

It is not unlikely that the “ glad tidings” of salvation were brought to this country by some of those Roman colonists who settled here, and who had previously to their arrival embraced Christianity; or that some of those British youths who were educated at Rome, were converted in that city, and attempted on their return the conversion of their countrymen.

Through the blessing of God upon the exertions of the friends of truth, Christianity made silent but extensive progress through the islands; multitudes were baptised; pagan temples were gradually converted into Christian sanctuaries; and numerous flourishing churches were planted and supported.

In the fifth century, the Britons being invaded and harassed by the Piets and Scots, and having sought in vain the aid of the Romans, invited the Saxons to assist them against these formidable enemies. They came, but soon subjugated the country to themselves.

From their arrival in 449, a check was put to the progress of the Gospel, which continued to decline for nearly a century and a half; its adherents retiring before their idolatrous conquerors into the mountains of Wales or of Scotland, or into Cornwall and the north, all the country north of the river Humber.

Here the Christian religion continued to exist; and there is reason to believe that something beyond outward profession was to be found in those secluded districts. In this state of things it was that Gregory I. sent his famous mission into our island.

Subject. Christianity early introduced into Britain. Period not exactly defined.

Analysis. True light, pig. sen. gospel, al, to Christ, John i. 9. Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, A.D. 313. Theodoret, bishop of Cyricus, in Syria, A.D. 420. inhabitants, rt. tent-maker, al. Acts xviii. 3. Spain and Britain, exp. converted, rt. pagan, sen. heathen, il. countryman—when in Italy cities had embraced Christianity and country people remained heathens. Sanctuaries, rt. Piets and Scots, then inhabitants of Scotland. subjugated, rt. decline, rt. century, rt. adherents, rt. Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, Humber, exp. secluded, rt. mission, rt. Gregory, exp. (p. 30.)

Text for the day.—Prov. x. 22.—“ The blessing of the Lord, it maketh rich, and he addeih no sorrow with it."

Time speeds away.

“ Time speeds away—away—away;

No eagle through the skies of day,

No wind along the hills can flee So swiftly or so smooth as he:

Like fiery steed—from stage to stage He bears us on from youth to age ; Then plunges in the fearful sea Of fathomless eternity.”



But some men are neither mechanics, nor farmers, nor merchants; they are students, or philosophers, or lawyers, or physicians, or clergymen ; and it may very reasonably be asked, of what use are such men ? They neither raise the food which we eat, nor make the carriages or ships in which our property is transported, nor manufacture the clothing that we wear.

In order to answer this question, it will be necessary to take another view of the subject. Observe, for instance, a ship. A ship-carpenter builds a ship; but how does he know how to build it ? It is built better, will sail faster, and is incomparably more commodious

Subject. The flight of time compared,—to that of an eagle, —to the wind,—to a steed.

Analysis. Time, fig. measure of duration, fragment of eternity, smooth, smoothly, sen. unnoted, fiery, fig. sen. spirited, stage to stage, fig. al. travelling, sen. one period of age to another, infancy, childhood, youth, and to old age. plunges, fig. sen. death, moment of passing from time to eternity. fathomless eternity, fig. sen. without limits—infinite ; time being limited.

Lesson I. Time a talent involving great responsibility: II. Its flitting nature—necessary to seize quickly each portion. III. Each portion is seized quickly or lost for ever.

than ships in the time of Alexander and Julius Caesar. Every one who will reflect will say, Because we know better how to build ships than they did then. But how have we come to know better ? Because some persons have studied the art of ship-building, and have found out what form of vessels is best adapted to going through the water, and what form is strongest and least liable to be injured by the storms and tempests.

The man who studied this subject, and thus gave rules for ship-building, did more to promote commerce than all the mere ship-builders that ever lived : he certainly was not a useless member of the community, though perhaps he never drove a nail or lifted a broad-axe in his life.

Suppose the ship to be built, and to be sent to the East Indies ; she must sail for months together without coming within sight of land. How are we to learn in what manner to direct her course ? Why from learned men who have studied astronomy and mathematics, and have taught us the rules by which we may ascertain our place in any part of the globe, either on land or water.

The men who taught us these rules were not useless members of the community, though they had sat in their studies every day of their lives.

Hence we see, that if a man is only industrious he is a benefit to his country. He only is to be stigmatised as useless who is allowing his faculties to lie idle, and is doing nothing to benefit his fellow-men.— Wayland.

Subject. The value of persons in a nation who do not labour with their hands.

Analysis. Student, sen. seeking knowledge in books. philosophers, rt. lawyers, exp. transported, m. manufacture, rt. Alexander, A.C. 356. Julius Ccesar, A.C. 58. ships, exp. (p. 30.) East Indies, exp. astronomy, rt. exp. mathematics, exp. rt. industrious, sen. working hard to a useful end. stigmatised, sen. marked out for blame, faculty, sen. powers of mind.

Lesson I. Not to judge hastily of others. II. Only the idle or vicious are to be accounted useless in a state.

Text for the day.—Prov. xi. 20.—“ They that are of a froward heart are abomination to the Lord; but such as are upright in their way are his delight


“ I would not have a slave to till my ground,

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep,

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth That sinews bought and sold have ever earn’d.

No ! I would rather be myself the slave,

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him.

We have no slaves at home—then why abroad ?

And they themselves, once ferried o’er the wave That parts us, are emancipate and loosed.

Slaves cannot breathe in England ; if their lungs Receive our air, that moment they are free ;

They touch our country, and their shackles fall.”



The day was exceedingly pleasant, and not a cloud was to be seen. For a mile or two we travelled along the banks of the river, which in this part abounded in tall mat-rushes. The dogs seemed much to enjoy prowling about, and examining every bushy place, and at last met with some object among the rushes, which caused them to set up a most vehement and determined barking.

We explored the spot with caution, as we suspected, from the peculiar tone of their bark, that it was what it proved to be, lions. Having encouraged the dogs to drive them out, a task which they performed with great

Subject. Hatred of slavery. Inconsistency of having slaves abroad, with freedom at home.

Analysis. Slave, sen. a person made property, ms. Ex. xxi. 6, vide Ex. xxi. 16. till, sen. cultivate, sinews, pig. human labour, bonds, cords, dis. laws, ferried, exp. ferry. wave, pig. sea. emancipate, kt. lungs, sen. existence of a moment here.

Lesson I. That it is better to suffer wrong than to inflict wrong. II. Thankfulness to God that we live in a country where all are free.

willingness, we had a full view of an enormous blackmaned lion, and a lioness. The latter was seen only for a minute, but the lion came steadily forward and stood still to look at us.

I had given up my horse to the hunters, and was on foot myself; but there was no time for fear, and it was useless to attempt avoiding him. At this instant the dogs boldly flew in between us and the lion, and surrounding him, kept him at bay by their violent and resolute barking. The courage of these faithful animals was most admirable; they advanced up to the side of the huge beast, and stood, making the greatest clamour in his face, without the least appearance of fear. The lion, conscious of his strength, remained unmoved at their noisy attempts, and kept his head turned towards us.

At one moment the dogs, perceiving his eyes thus engaged, had advanced close to his feet, and seemed as if they would actually seize hold of him; but they paid dearly for their imprudence, for, without discomposing the majestic and steady attitude in which he stood fixed, he merely moved his paw, and at the next instant I beheld two lying dead.

Of the time which we had gained by the interference of the dogs, not a moment was lost; we fired upon him: one of the balls went through his side, just between the short ribs, and the blood immediately began to flow, but the animal still remained standing in the same position. We had now no doubt that he would spring upon us; every gun was instantly reloaded : but happily we were mistaken, and were not sorry to see him move quietly away.” — The Menageries.

Subject. An encounter with a lion.

Analysis. Mat-rushes—rushes of which mats are made. prowling, sen. running about for prey, Ps. civ. 20, 21. vehement, sen. violent, explored, il. cavern, visible, rt. at bay, sen. occupied in self-defence, courage, il. coeur, heart, dis. bravery and valour, imprudence, exp.

Lesson 1. Courage often averts danger. II. Presence of mind—its value—hints for its cultivation, il. clothes igniting, fire at night, lady springing umbrella in face of tiger instead of running away.

Text for the day.—Prov. xiii. 18.—“ Poverty and shame shall he to him that refuseth instruction, hut he that regardeth reproof shall he honoured.”


The band of commerce surely was design’d To associate all the branches of mankind ;

And if a boundless plenty be the robe,

Trade is the golden girdle of the globe.

Wise to promote whatever end he means,

God opens fruitful Nature’s various scenes :

Each climate needs what other climes produce, And offers something to the general use ;

No land but listens to the common call,

And in return receives supply from all.”



Coffee is a native of Abyssinia. It wras introduced into Yemen, in Arabia, in the sixth century, and was probably first used as a substitute for wine, when that liquor was prohibited by the Koran.

It appears originally to have grown wild in Abyssinia, where the natives were in the habit of eating the bean as food. They roasted and pounded it, and then mixed the powder with grease or butter to give it consistency.

The coffee-shrub is an evergreen; its average height is from twelve to fifteen feet; the branches are elastic,

Subject. Commerce the means of bringing into communion the scattered portions of the human race.

Analysis. Band, pig. al. mutual wants, branches of mankind, pig. human family as a tree, and each people a branch, &c. robe, fig. that which covers the whole, girdle, fig. running round all and connecting all. climate, dis. hot and cold, il. things wanted by each, land listens, pig. sen. each country interested, receives from all, il. England gives manufactured goods of various kinds, receives cotton, spices, tea, coffee, &c.

Lesson I. God has mercifully made man’s labour a source of blessing to him. II. Men throughout the world are dependent on each other.

the bark rough and of a whitish colour; the flowers resemble those of the jasmine, and though bitter to the taste, they diffuse a strong balmy fragrance. Though it is cultivated only in the hilly regions, it requires both moisture and coolness ; and it is for this reason that the Arabs plant other trees in their coffee-grounds, in order to afford it shade. In times of intense heat the plantations are regularly irrigated.

At Bulgosa, Niebuhr found the trees in full bloom in the beginning of March, and the whole atmosphere perfumed with their delicious odour. When the blossom dies the fruit appears in its place, green at first, but red and resembling a cherry when ripe; in the centre of which lies the bean, enclosed in a thin membrane, and easily separated into halves.

There are two or three crops in the year, and it is quite common to see fruit and flowers on the same tree; but the first produce is always the best. May is the proper harvest-month : the berries are shaken from the branches on cloths spread underneath : they are then dried in the sun, after which a heavy roller of wood or stone is passed over them, to separate the bean from the husk. In the West Indies this operation is performed by a mill.

The quantity of coffee imported into England, chiefly from the West Indies, in the year ending January 5th, 1833, was 49,982,939 lbs.; about one-half of which was retained for home consumption, and the remainder exported.”—Weekly Visitor.

Subject. History of coffee—its introdnction into Yemen— mode of preparation-description of the plant.

Analysis. Abyssinia, exp. Yemen, Arabia, exp. introduced, rt. prohibited, rt. Koran, Mahometan scriptures. consistency, sen. thickness, dis. agreement, shrub, exp. il. tea-plant, average, exp. 6 average of 2, 4, 8,10. jasmine, exp. regions, sen. parts of the country, irrigated, i. e. watered. Bulgosa, exp. atmosphere, sen. air of the neighbourhood, blossom,

i. e. flowery part, membrane, i. e. web or net-work, imported, rt. exported, rt. West Indies, exp.

Lesson I. The advantages which all persons, even the poorest, derive from foreign trading. II. The comforts which we possess above those which were possessed at various periods ol English history.


Eusebius (see p. 22.) Eusebius was a celebrated bishop of Caesarea, in Palestine, and one of the most learned men of his time. He was born in Palestine, about the latter end of the reign of Gallienus, and was ordained bishop of Caesarea in 313. He died in 338. He wrote an Ecclesiastical History, a Life of Constantine, and some other books.

Gregory (see p. 23.) Gregory, surnamed the Great, was born at Rome. He early discovered great abilities, and was elected pope by the united voice of the clergy, senate, and people. He undertook the conversion of the English, and sent Augustine with forty monks to England, about the year 596. King Ethelbert received them favourably, and assigned their place of residence at Canterbury, then called Uorovernum. From that time Canterbury became the metropolitan church of England. Augustine died on the 26th of May, 607.

Ships of ancient times (seep. 25.) A very small portion of art or contrivance was seen in the first ships. A few planks laid together, or the hulk of a tree hollowed, served to keep the first sailors afloat. As the arts extended their influence, naval architecture advanced. In the times of Alexander, ships were constructed with considerable care and skill, but they were very cumbrous and unwieldy when compared with those which are now built. The chief parts of which ships anciently consisted were three— the belly or middle part of the ship, the prow, and the stern. On the sides of the ships the rowers had their places. They had various ornaments of sculpture on the prow, as helmets, animals, triumphant wreaths. The stem was adorned with wings and shields. Sometimes a little mast was erected, whereon to hang ribands of different colours, which served instead of a flag to distinguish the ship; and a weathercock, to signify the part from whence the wind blew. The ships of war had turrets and buildings, to defend the soldiers and to annoy the enemy. Caligula had a vessel built, adorned with jewels in the poop, with sails of many colours, and furnished with baths, banqueting-rooms, rows of vines, fruit-trees, &c.; but these, and all such monstrous fabrics, served only for show and ostentation, being rendered by their vast bulk unwieldy and unfit for service.


Ancient Britons, and Introduction of Christianity.

Savages.—Hardy—fearless—nearly naked; frequently want food,—cause of this—roaming life—no accumulation of labour—no laws—no security; fall in multitudes under diseases,—cause—irregular life—ungovernable passions—ignorant of remedies ; moral state —idolatrous — cruel—unhappy. This not original state of man, effect of sin.

1.    Englishmen once savage.—Painted bodies,—partially covered by skins of beasts ; weapons— clubs—spears ; idolatry of Britons,—cruel rites—altars—priests— sacred spots.

2.    Romans invaded England.—Show Italy on map,— character of the Romans,—polished—wealthy—ambitious—warlike; their motive—aggrandisement; result civilization—introduction of Christianity.

Lessons.—1. God sometimes uses wicked men for good ends, il.—Joseph and his brethren.

2.    Christianity—its advantages;—its spirit—gentle— loving—elevates a people—cares for the masses — Matt. xi. 5.

3.    Gratitude to God for the change—shown by improving advantages—obedience—sending the gospel to others.


Seed of a shrub,—evergreen,—height 12 to 15 or 20 feet —leaves 4 or 5 inches long,—2 inches broad,—smooth —green,—glossy; flowers—grow in bunches—white —sweet scent—fruit—oval—dark red. Each berry contains two seeds, which is—coffee before roasting—¦ show it.

1.    Where from l—Native Abyssinia,—show on map,— introduced Arabia about A.D. 550,—show Yemen or Arabia on map. Cultivated in moist situations, on sloping grounds.

2.    How prepared ?—When ripe—shook from the tree on cloths—spread on mats—exposed to sun—husk broken by heavy rollers — winnowed—dried,—a good tree produce 3 or 4 lbs.

3.    Introduction to England.—Sold in London 1652,— planted in Jamaica 1730. Now obtained from Mocha —-Java—East and West Indies, — show on map. Roasting—in cylindrical box—holes—on spit.

Lesson.—Advantages of coffee over ardent spirit to refresh and gently stimulate.

Text fob the day.—Prov. xiv. 6.—“ A scorner seeketh wisdom andfindeth it not; but knowledge is easy to him that understandeth.”

The Wood.

These shades are still the abodes

Of undissembled gladness: the thick roof Of green and stirring branches is alive And musical with birds, that sing and sport In wantonness of spirit; while, below,

The squirrel, with raised paws, and form erect,

Chirps merrily.

Throngs of insects in the glade Try their thin wings and dance in the warm beam That waked them into life. Even the green trees Partake the deep contentment: as they bend To the soft winds, the sun from the blue sky Looks in, and sheds a blessing on the scene.

Scarce less the cleft-born wild flower seems to enjoy Existence, than the winged plunderer

That sucks its sweets.-The rivulet

Sends forth glad sounds, and tripping o’er its bed Of pebbly sands, or leaping down the rocks,

Seems with continuous laughter to rejoice In its own being.”


Subject. Objects of delight in a wood to a thoughtful mind, era. branches — squirrel — insects — trees—wild flower—bee— rivulet.

Analysis. Shades, i.e. places in the shade (of trees), undissembled, sen. not pretended, like much of man’s, squirrel, exp. insects, kt. exp. glades, i.e. openings, warm beams, i.e. sun’s rays, sheds a blessing, fig. enlivens by shining on. cleft born, i. e. springing from crevice or cleft in rock, wild flowers, exp. names of some, plunderer, ms. stealing, sweets, i. e. nectar for honey, rivulet, i. e. little river or stream.

Trees partake contentment, flower enjoys, rivulet laughing, FIG. personification.

Lesson I. Importance of cultivating a cheerful disposition— the sunshine of the mind shining on all God’s works. II. Taste improved by contemplation of natural scenery.


“ About the time of the invention of the telescope, another instrument was formed, which laid open a scene no less wonderful, and rewarded the inquisitive spirit of man. This was the microscope.

The one led me to see a system in every star : the other leads me to see a world in every atom. The one told of the insignificance of the world I tread upon : the other redeems it from all its insignificance; for it tells me, that in the leaves of every forest, and in the flowers of every garden, and in the waters of every rivulet, there are worlds teeming with life, and numberless as are the glories of the firmament.

The one has suggested to me, that beyond and above all that is visible to man, there may be fields of creation which sweep immeasurably along, and carry the impress of the Almighty’s hand to the remotest scenes of the universe : the other suggests to me, that within and beneath all that minuteness which the aided eye of man has been able to explore, there may be a region of invisibles ; and that, could we draw aside the mysterious curtain which shrouds it from our senses, we might see a theatre of as many wonders as astronomy has unfolded, a universe within the compass of a point, so small as to elude all the powers of the microscope, but where the wonder-working God finds room for the exercise of all his attributes.”— Chalmers.

Subject. Comparison of the powers of the telescope and microscope.

Analysis. Telescope, ht. microscope, rt. system, sen. each star a sun, having, like our sun, planets round it. atom, i. e. smallest portion of visible matter, dis. smallest particle of matter, insignificance, sen. compared with thousands of suns seen by the telescope, worlds, i. e. multitudes of inhabitants. teeming, sen. full of. glories, sen. stars. , firmament, i. e. sky. suggested, sen. produced the thought, mysterious curtain, pig. metaphor, sen. man’s restricted power of vision, senses, exp. five senses, theatre, sen. place containing many rare sights. unfolded, pig. il. map. elude, sen. escape, attributes, exp.

Lesson I. The more we discover of the works of God, the more we are impressed with proofs of design. II. Humility—so much above, around, and within us, even in the grasp of our hand, which we cannot comprehend.


Text for the day.—Prov. xiv. 7.—“ Go from the presence of a foolish man, when thou perceivest not in him the lips of knowledge.”

The Waggoner in a Snow Storm.

The wain goes heavily, impeded sore By congregated loads adhering close To the clogg’d wheels ; and in its sluggish pace Noiseless appears a moving hill of snow.

The toiling steeds expand the nostrils wide,

While every breath, by respiration strong Porced downward, is consolidated soon Upon their jutting chests. He, form’d to bear The pelting brunt of the tempestuous night,

With half-shut eyes, and pucker’d cheeks and teeth Presented bare against the storm, plods on.”



In the month of January, the weather in the British islands is commonly either a clear dry frost, or fog and snow, occasionally intermingled with rain. Nothing can be more wonderful than the effects of frost; which, in the space of a single night, stops the running stream in its course, and converts the lake, that was curled by every breeze, into a firm plain.

The water of clouds freezing slowly, crystallizes in little icy darts or stars, forming by their assemblage the beautiful flakes of snow. Its whiteness is owing to the smallness of the particles into which it is divided; for ice when pounded becomes equally white.

Snow is very useful by protecting the plants it covers

Subject. Waggon travelling in a snow storm, cir. appearance—hill of snow—steeds—waggoner.

Analysis. Wain, \. e. carriage, impeded, RT. congregated, rt. respiration, rt. brunt, i. e. violent shocks, puckered, swollen with breath.

Lesson I. Every situation of life has some trials as exercises of obedience, patience, perseverance, &c. II. Hardships and exposure consistent with happiness.

from the severity of the frost. Hail-stones are drops of rain suddenly congealed into a hard mass, so as to preserve their figure. They often fall in warmer seasons of the year, as even then the upper regions of the atmosphere are very cold. When dew or mist freezes, as it frequently does, on every object on which it falls, it becomes hoar frost, producing figures of incomparable beauty and elegance.

As the cold of this inclement season advances, the birds collect in flocks, and, rendered bold by want, approach the habitations of man. The wild quadrupeds also are driven from their accustomed haunts ; hares enter the gardens to browse on cultivated vegetables ; and, leaving their tracks in the snow, are frequently hunted down, or caught in snares. The hen-roosts are pillaged by foxes, polecats, and other small beasts of prey which breed in this country; but, in these islands, we are happily unacquainted with the ravenous troops of wolves, bears, and other fierce creatures, which, urged by famine at this season of the year, often terrify the villages in the mountains and woody regions on the continent.

The domestic cattle now require all the care and protection of the farmer. Sheep are often lost in sudden storms, by which the snow is drifted into hollows so as to bury them a considerable depth beneath it; yet they have been known to survive many days in this situation. Cows receive their subsistence from the provision of the farm-yard: and early lambs and calves are kept within doors, and tended with nearly as much care as the farmer’s own children.”—Sunday Scholar’s Magazine.

Subject. Description of the weather, cir. effect of frost— inodes of protection from it.

Analysis. British islands, exp. crystallizes, i. e. forms into regular angular shapes, il. salt and geometrical solids. flakes, i. e. thin layers, particles, i. e. smallest portions, congealed, i. e. changed from fluid to frozen state, quadruped, rt. haunts, i. e. places of living, hares, foxes, polecats, wolves, bears, exp. continent, i. e. of Europe, domestic, rt.

Lesson I. Change marks every thing on earth—we are ever advancing or receding. II. Each change in nature calls for man’s renewed exertion. III. God has made our comforts to depend on our labour.

c 2

Text for the day.—Prov. xiv. 9.—“ Fools make a mock at sin; but among the righteous there is favour


--“ Art thrives most

Where commerce has enrich’d the busy coast ;

He catches all improvements in his flight,

Spreads foreign wonders in his country’s sight, Imports what others have invented well,

And stirs his own to match them, or excel.

’Tis thus reciprocating, each with each, Alternately the nations learn and teach ;

While Providence enjoins to every soul A union with the vast terraqueous whole.”



Society, both in its rudest form and in its most refined and complicated relations, is nothing but a system of exchanges.

An exchange is a transaction in which both the parties who make the exchange are benefited; and, consequently, society is a state presenting an uninterrupted succession of advantages for all its members.

Every time that you make a free exchange, you have a greater desire for the thing which you receive than for the thing which you give;—and the person

Subject. Advantages of Commerce, cir. excitesart—teaches improvement—brings home new objects—causes interchange of benefits.

Analysis. Art, sen. manufactures, he, pig. pers. foreign wonders, sen. skilful productions from abroad, reciprocating, sen. mutually giving and receiving, alternately, i. e. each in turn.

Lesson I. Lawful ambition to wish to excel and to become useful. II. As with money, so with knowledge, it is increased by judicious circulation—not by keeping it secretly shut up.

with whom you make the exchange has a greater desire for that which you offer him than for that which he offers you.

When you give labour for wages, it is because you have a higher estimation of the wages than of the profitless ease and freedom of remaining unemployed ; —and, on the contrary, the employer who purchases your labour, feels that he shall be more benefited by the results of that labour than by retaining the capital which he exchanges for it.

In a simple state of society, when one man exchanges a measure of wheat for the measure of wine which another man possesses, it is evident that the one has got a greater store of wheat than he desires to consume himself; and that the other, in the same way, has got a greater store of wine: the one exchanges something to eat for something to drink, and the other something to drink for something to eat.

In a refined state of society, when money represents the value of the exchanges, the exchange between the abundance beyond the wants of the possessor of one commodity, and of another, is just as real as the barter of wheat for wine. The only difference is, that the exchange is not so direct, although it is incomparably more rapid.

But, however the system of exchange be carried on,—whether the value of the things exchanged be determined by barter or by a price in money,—all the exchangers are benefited, because all obtain what they want through the store which they possess of what they do not want.”—Rights of Industry.

Subject. Society a system of exchanges, cir. labour for wages—wheat for wine—by barter or for money—universally beneficial.

Analysis. Society, sen. union of many for general good. rudest form, il. Indians and Africans, complicated relations, many departments—variety of interests, results, sen. things made, capital, sen. money.

Lesson I. To obtain the comforts of life, we must labour so as to have something to give in exchange for the things which we want. II. If any would not work, neither should he eat.”

Text for the day.—Prov. xiy. 12.—“ There is a way which seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the mays of death"

The Eagle. u What is that, mother?—

The Eagle, boy,

Proudly careering his course of joy,

Firm in his own mountain vigour relying, Breasting the dark storm, the red bolt defying;

His wing on the wind, and his eye on the sun,

He swerves not a hair, but bears onward right on. Boy, may the eagle’s flight ever be thine,

Onward and upward, true to the line!”


the tiger.

The tiger is one of the most beautiful, but, at the same time, one of the most rapacious and destructive, of the whole animal race. It has an insatiable thirst after blood, and, even when satisfied with food, is not satiated with slaughter.

Happily for the rest of the animal race, as well as for mankind, this destructive quadruped is not very common, nor the species very widely diffused, being confined to the warm climates of the east, especially India and Siam. It generally grows to a larger size than the largest mastiff dog, and its form so completely

Subject. Eagle’s flight, cir. joyfully—regardless of the storm—or of the sun—his course straight onward and upward.

Analysis. Eagle, exp. looks at the sun. careering, sen. flying freely about, mountain vigour, al. bracing influence of mountain air. relying, i. e. depending on or trusting to. red holt, sen. lightning and thunder, swerve, sen. depart or bend from.

Lesson I. As the eagle’s flight is toward the sun, so we should with all our vigour strive to rise in knowledge, in usefulness, and in goodness,—pursue a straightforward course—“ looking to Jesus.” resembles that of a cat, as almost to induce us to consider the latter animal as a tiger in miniature.

A party of gentlemen from Bombay, one day visiting the stupendous cavern temple of Elephanta, discovered a tiger’s whelp in one of the obscure recesses of the edifice.

Desirous of kidnapping the cub without encountering the fury of its dam, they took it up hastily and cautiously, and retreated. Being left entirely at liberty, and extremely well fed, the tiger grew rapidly, appeared tame and fondling as a dog, and in every respect entirely domesticated. At length, when having attained a vast size, and notwithstanding its apparent gentleness, it began to inspire terror by its tremendous powers of doing mischief, it fell in with a piece of raw meat dripping with blood.

It is to be observed, that up to that moment it had been studiously kept from raw animal food. The instant, however, it had dipped its tongue in blood, something like madness seemed to have seized the animal; a destructive principle, hitherto dormant, was awakened; it darted fiercely, and with glaring eyes, upon its prey, tore it with fury to pieces, and growling and roaring in the most fearful manner, rushed off towards the jungles.

How forcibly descriptive is this propensity of the tiger of the evil inclinations of the human heart! In various situations in which we may be placed, they appear to have no power; but let only the opportunity occur, and the temptation approach, and the unhallowed heart of man rushes forward as recklessly and as impetuously after evil as the tiger after his prey.

Subject. Description of the tiger, cir. beautiful—rapacious—found in hot climates—finding of a tiger’s whelp.

Analysis. Tiger, exp. rapacious, sen. delighting in blood and destruction, insatiable, i. e. never satisfied. India and Siam, exp. mastiff, exp. stupendous, sen. astonishing. Elephanta, an island in India in which are excavations celebrated in Hindu Mythology, hidnapping, sen. stealing young alive. domesticated, rt. terror, sen. excessive fear, dormant, i. e. sleeping, sen. not excited, jungles, bushes, unhallowed, sen. unregenerate.

Text for the day.—Prov. xiv. 26.—“ In the fear of the Lord is strong confidence; and his children shall have a place of refuge."

Who is my Neighbour?

“Thy neighbour? It is he whom thou Hast power to aid and bless,

Whose aching heart or burning brow Thy soothing hand may press.

Whene’er thou meet’st a human form Less favour’d than thine own,

Remember ’tis thy neighbour worm,

Thy brother, or thy son.”



“A few years since, in the United States of America, a child was lost in the woods—the darkness of a cloudy night was rapidly coming on, and the alarmed father, gathering a few of his neighbours, hastened in search of the lost child.

The search continued in vain till nine o’clock in the evening, when the bell rung the alarm, and the cry of fire resounded through the streets. It was, however, ascertained that it was not fire which caused the alarm, but that the bell tolled to spread the more solemn tidings of a child lost.

Every heart sympathised in the sorrows of the distracted parents ; and multitudes of the people were soon seen ascending the hill upon the declivity of which the village was situated, to aid in the search. The night passed away, and the morning dawned, and

Subject. Christian definition of neighbour—one who r.eeds our assistance.

Analysis. Aching heart, sen. effect of affliction, burning brow, sen. fevered with anxiety, soothing, See., fig. sen. reducing the suffering by applying relief, less favoured, sen. possessing fewer comforts, worm, al. Job xxv. 6; Isa. xli. 14.

Lesson I. Suffering should ever excite us to render assistance. II. We should regard all men as being one family.

yet no tidings came. The sun arose, the whole landscape glittered in the rays of the bright morning. But that village was deserted and still; the shops were closed, and business was hushed. Mothers were walking the streets with sympathising countenances and anxious hearts—there was but one thought there— what was become of the lost child ? All the affections of the community were flowing in one deep and broad channel towards the little wanderer.

About nine in the morning, the signal gun was fired which announced that the child was found ; and for a moment how dreadful was the suspense ! Was it found a mangled corpse, or was it alive and well? Soon a joyful shout proclaimed the safety of the child. A procession was immediately formed by those engaged in the search. The child was placed upon a litter hastily constructed from the boughs of trees, and borne in triumph at the head of the procession.

When they arrived at the brow of the hill, they rested for a moment, and proclaimed their success with three loud and animated cheers. The mother, with streaming eyes and throbbing heart, could no longer restrain herself or her feelings. She rushed into the street, clasped her child to her bosom, and wept aloud. Every eye was suffused with tears, and for a moment all was silent.

But suddenly some one gave a signal for a shout. One long, and loud, and happy note of joy rose from the assembled multitude, and they then dispersed to their business and their homes.”—Abbott’s Reader.

Subject. A child, lost in the woods, cir. father and neighbours go to seek it—increasing interest among the neighbours— search in the woods—discovery—rejoicings.

Analysis. United States, exp. resounded, i. e. sound echoed, tolled, i. e. slowly, dis. quickly ringing, sympathised, rt. distracted, rt. sen. agitated by contending thoughts, declivity, i. e. slope, village, exp. mangled corpse, sen. dead and torn by some wild animal, in triumph, sen. exalted with many rejoicing around, brow of hill, i. e. edge, sen. point at which village reappeared, throbbing, al. heart sending the blood more powerfully when the feelings are excited, suffused, rt

Lesson. Encourage the exercise of a generous sympathy.— “ Rejoice with those that rejoice,—weep with those that weep. ”


Telescope (see p. 33). This instrument is formed by means of convex and concave lenses. It seems probable that some monks first hit upon the invention of spectacles. They probably observed that a very small convex glass when held at a greater distance from the book would magnify the letters more than when it was placed close to them. They would then find that two of these glasses, one for each eye, would answer the purpose of reading better than one ; and, lastly, they might find that different degrees of convexity suited different persons.

The use of concave glasses, to help those persons who are short-sighted, was probably a discovery that followed not long after that of convex ones. Whoever made this discovery, it was probably the result of a random experiment.

From this time, though both convex and concave lenses were sufficiently' common, yet no attempt was made to form a telescope by a combination of them till the end of the sixteenth century. It is said that a boy named Jansen was the first constructor of a telescope. He was amusing himself with some glasses belonging to his father, who was a spectacle-maker, when he casually thought of looking through two of his lenses at a time ; and happening to take one that was concave and another that was convex, and happening also to hit upon a pretty good adjustment of them, he found that by looking through them distant objects appeared very large and distinct. In fact, without knowing it, he had made a telescope.

Microscope (see p. 33). The invention of microscopes was not much later than that of telescopes ; and it is said we are also indebted to Jansen for them. At what time lenses were made so small as we now generally use them for magnifying in single microscopes, is not known ; it was doubtless done gradually.

The double or compound microscope was certainly the invention of Jansen, about the year 1615. About the year 1688, Hartsocker greatly improved single microscopes, by using small globules of glass, made by melting them in the flame of a candle instead of the lenses, which had before been made use of. A microscope of this kind may be made to magnify 300 times.


Wonders op Creation.

Creation, dis. making or moulding ;—universe—its extent—magnificence—minuteness—il. sun,—grain of sand ; full of life—animal—vegetable, il. blade of grass—insect—elephant—man. dis. life,—power of motion,—instinct—reason and accountability.

1.    Telescope,—construction—use—how discovered—boy and glasses, (see p. 42 J—brings distant near;—discovers stars—their movements—courses.

2.    Microscope, construction, (seep. 42)use,—magnifies the minutediscloses unseen beautyorderlife. il. Solar microscope—drop of water—grain of sand. Yet only partially reveals God’s wonders.

Lesson.—Omnipotence of God,—his works incomprehensible in extent — variety — grandeur — minute beauty.

Industry and Exchanges.

Industry. Man not intended to he idle ;—the unemployed unhappy—vicious, il. lazy boy or man ;— condition of countries where little labour essential to existence,—indolent—few comforts—immoral.    In

dustry promotes—health—cheerfulness—happiness— procures advantages.

1.    Object of Industry to create value, il. A garden : —neglected, weeds—disorder—ruin—of no value ; the same cultivated—fruits—vegetables—flowers—of value; il. Watts’s song, “I passed by,” &c.—no wealth — no improvement — no happiness without labour.

2. Division of Labour, advantages—saving of time— improved skill. Three great divisions, Agricultural, —raising food ; Manufacturing,—making tools— clothes—various conveniences ; Commercial,—carrying—exchanging.

3.    Exchange of Labour,—for wages or for tools—clothes —or comforts—one thing for another—goods for raw cotton—manufactures for tea, &c. Advantages,—increased comfort—cheapness—mutual benefit.

Lessons.—1. Sin and Misery of Idleness.—lazy habits in youth lead to misery and want in age.

2 Advantages of Love and Unity among men,—divides toil—promotes comforts—exchanges productions.

Text for the day.—Prov. xii. 22.—“ Lying lips are abomination to the Lord: but they that deal truly are his delight.”

The Truth.

“Why should you fear the truth to tell?

Does falsehood ever do so well ?

Can you be satisfied to know There’s something wrong to hide below.

No ; let your fault be what it may,

To own it is the happy way.

So long as you your crime conceal,

You cannot light and gladsome feel;

Your little heart will seem oppress’d,

As if a weight were on your breast;

And e’en your mother’s eye to meet Will tinge your face with shame and heat.”

Original Poems.


“Come listen to an old man, who would willingly do you good. If you wish to have a clear path, an unclouded brow, and a light heart; if you desire, while on earth, to have a fair prospect of heaven, love truth. Truth is like a finger-post at a cross-road, a lantern in a dark night, and a mariner’s compass on board a ship.

What flinging and floundering, what stuttering and stammering, what blinking, boggling, and backing out there is among those whose object is to deceive ! Love truth, think truth, speak truth, and act truth !

Subject. Reasons for confessing a fault—to avoid falsehood —to relieve the mind—to have any enjoyment—to be able to meet the eye of friends.

Analysis. Truth, sen. confession of a fault, hide below, al. truth uncovered, open and plain, mother’s eye, al. conscience, Prov. xxviii. 1.

Lesson I. He is a coward who is afraid to tell the truth. II. God, who knows all things, will not allow any one to be happy whilst persisting in a falsehood.

Whenever we persuade ourselves that we shall profit by injuring another, we think an untruth ; when we willingly falsify a fact, we tell an untruth ; and when we do a deed to mislead another, we act an untruth. In thinking, speaking, and acting, let truth be continually kept in view.

Oh, truth is a blessed thing, and he who makes it his guard and guide will find it a mine of wealth, a fountain of instruction, and a source of satisfaction and peace!

‘ The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God this is an instance of Ihinking an untruth. Ananias and Sapphira were struck dead for falsifying a fact: here is an instance of speaking an untruth. And the son in the parable, who, when told to go and work in the vineyard, replied, 5 I go, Sir,’ and went not, furnishes an instance of acting an untruth. Again I sav, whether you act, or speak, or think, let truth never be forgotten.

I once asked a deaf and dumb boy, What is truth ? ’ He replied by thrusting his finger forward in a straight line. I then asked him, What is falsehood ? ’ when he made a zigzag with his finger. Try to remember this ; and let whoever will take a zigzag path, go you on in your course, as straight as an arrow to its mark.

Shrink back from falsehood as you would from a viper. A mad dog is not more dangerous than deceit; and plague, pestilence, and famine are more endurable than the lip of a liar.”

Subject. If we would be happy on earth, or hope for happiness in heaven, we must love truth.

Analysis. Clear path, sen. at peace with all, al. Ps. cxix. 9. unclouded brow, fig. met. sen. mind free from anxiety. light heart, sen. cheerful mind, prospect, sen. well-founded hope, compass, al. guide, sen. showing the direct way. flinging, Sfc. dis. straightforward, clear, plain, easy way of truth. mine, sen. abundant and inexhaustible, fountain, sen. stream of instruction, al. Bible, source, i. e. whence it ever flows. fool, i. e. making a bad choice. Ananias, al. Acts v. 1—11. son, al. Matt. xxi. 30. viper, exp. plague, il. Egyptian. pestilence, il. David, 1 Chro. xxi. 14. famine, in. Joseph’s brethren.

Lesson. That if we value peace of mind, the esteem of good men, and the approbation of God, we must never tell a lie.

Text for the day.—Prov. xiv. 29.—“ He that is slow to wrath is of great understanding: hut he that is hasty of spirit exaltetk folly.”

The Fire-side.

“ Now stir the fire, and close the shutters fast,

Let fall the curtains, wheel the sofa round,

And, while the bubbling and loud hissing urn Throws up a steamy column, and the cups That cheer but not inebriate wait on each,

So let us welcome peaceful evening in.

’Tis pleasant, through the loop-holes of retreat,

To peep at such a world ; to see the stir Of the great Babel, and not feel the crowd;

To hear the roar she sends through all her gates At a safe distance, where the dying sound Falls a soft murmur on the uninjured ear.

Thus sitting, and surveying thus at ease The globe and its concerns, I seem advanced To some secure and more than mortal height,

That liberates and exempts me from them all.”



“ If I could whisper in the ears of my best friends one piece of advice which at the moment appears to me to be of more value than another, it would be this, Make the most of your common mercies.

If we always did this, the world would not be such

Subject. Invitation to evening fire-side enjoyment. Delight of retiring from worldly bustle and excitement.

Analysis. Steamy column, steam is invisible, but cooling it forms this white watery column, inebriate, i. e. intoxicate as spirits do. loop-holes, $c., fis. met. al. house or castle, sen. means of seeing the world—newspapers, books, travellers’ reports, &c. Babel, sen. confusion of tongues, al. London. roar, al. noise on entering a busy city, uninjured, al. violent sounds hurting the ear. surveying, sen. mentally.

Lesson I. Labour gives a relish for calm enjoyment. II. Rational, temperate, and home enjoyments preferable to noisy excitements.

a dreary waste as we sometimes make it, but on the contrary, ‘ the wilderness and the solitary place’ would be glad, and the desert would 1 rejoice and blossom as the rose.’ True it is, that in the world we must have trouble; but there is a difference between the troubles which God sends, and the troubles which we bring on ourselves.

The fire-side! Where is there a heart that does not glow at the very name? Come, reader, you can scarcely be a stranger to these things; come with me, and let us sit down by the fire-side together. Whatever may have been your occupation or your cares ; however tried with disappointments, and ruffled with unexpected evils, it is all over now, for the day at least.

The sun has gone down ; the shadows of night prevail. The winds are blowing without, but the fire is sparkling within. The shutters are closed ; the curtains are drawn; there is yet an hour that may be passed peacefully and pleasantly; let it be passed by the fire-side.

Have you been accustomed to the splendour of a luxurious drawing-room, sumptuously furnished? Never mind; for once take up with an humbler abode; the prince and the peasant are alike to be pitied, if they have not the disposition to enjoy a domestic fireside. And if your lot be a lowly one; if your home be never so homely, where the faggot crackles on the hearth, and your accustomed seat is the oaken chest in the corner, come along, for I am not in the mood to idolize the rich, or to despise the poor.

I care nought for your condition : if you have a heart that glows with gratitude to God, and a pulse that beats in unison with the welfare of mankind, you must be my companion. Let us make the most of our common mercies ; let us heartily enjoy the fireside together.”—Weekly Visitor.

Subject. Common mercies. The delights of the fire-side.

Analysis. Common mercies, il. health, light, the seasons, friends, &c. waste, sen. joyless and unprofitable, wilderness, fyc., Isa. xxxv. 1. rvjjied, sen. temper disturbed, al. wind on the lake.

Text for the day.—Prov. xv. 3.—u The eyes oj the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good."


Oh! who can speak the vigorous joys of health, Unclogg’d the body, unobscured the mind !

The morning rises gay ; with pleasing stealth The temperate evening falls serene and kind.

In health the wiser brutes true gladness find :

See how the young lambs frisk along the meads As May comes on. and wakes the balmy wind. Rampant with joy, their joy all joy exceeds ;

Yet what but high-strung health this dancing pleasure breeds ?”



“Man, or any other animal, may die from having only a limited quantity of air, which he contaminates himself, and renders unfit for the purposes of life ; as when a small animal is placed under a receiver, or when human beings have been confined in air-tight chambers, cases of which kind have occurred in mines on the irruption of water.

In large assemblies, collected in disproportionately small or ill-contrived rooms, a slighter degree of the same inconvenience is felt, and the accumulation of heat adds to the evil. The lights, if there be any present, burn dimly, the robust are oppressed, and those less able to bear the altered state of the air, faint. Nor can 1 doubt that the unhealthy appearance of the poor, who happen to have large families, crowded

Subject. The pleasures of health.

Analysis. Speak, sen. greater than can be told, vigorous, dis. contemplative temperament, feeble pulse, unclogged, sen. by infirmity, gay, al. ieelings with which all things are then seen, pleasing, &c. al. time passes quickly and unnoted when we are happy, temperate, dis. boisterous and intemperate. meads, i. e. unploughed grounds. May wakes, fig. personification.

Lesson. To enjoy the objects around us we must be in health, and to be healthy we must be temperate.

into small and ill-contrired chambers, and more especially the sickly state of their children, in part originate in its agency.

The means of preventing or remedying the evils to which I have alluded, must naturally present themselves on the consideration of the causes giving rise to them ; and you will perhaps say that I might as well spare you the trouble of listening to a relation of deficiencies produced by the severe and resistless force of poverty, rather than proceeding from ignorance or negligence.

Personal observation, however, has convinced me that in this, as in many other instances, evils are allowed to pass unheeded, or are tamely submitted to, not because they are concealed, or trifling, but on the contrary, because their general and frequent occurrence has rendered them familiar.

Thus a room is sometimes rendered insufferably close in consequence of a window, which ought to let in air as well as light, not being so constructed as to allow of its being opened, although the occupier, with a little pains and ingenuity, might make it do so by giving a small portion of time to it before or after work, supposing that he may not have the means to get it done by another.

Sometimes a window, which might be opened, is kept close to avoid the draught, although a little management might protect the inmates trom this inconvenience. Sometimes a chimney, which is scarcely less useful as a ventilator than as a part of the fireplace, is either blocked up, or wholly wanting. These are defects for which the greatest poverty can hardly be urged in defence.”—Hodgkin.

Subject. Importance of an abundant supply of air. Evils of a limited supply. Suggestions.

Analysis. Contaminates, rt. receiver, i. e. bell-shaped glass, on plate of air-pump, air-tiglit, i. e. not admitting air. irruption, rt. collected, rt. accumulation, sen. heat added to heat, robust, rt. originate, rt. agency, foul air received into the lungs, constructed, rt. ventilator, sen. passage for air.

Lesson I. A free circulation of air is necessary to preserve health. II. Our health and comforts often depend on our knowledge of common things.

Text for the day.—Prov. xv. 8.—“ The sacrifice of the wicked is abomination to the Lord; but the prayer of the upright is his delight.”


“ The quality of mercy is not strain’d;

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven Upon the place beneath : it is twice bless’d :

It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:

’Tis mightiest in the mighty: it becomes The throned monarch better than his crown :

It is an attribute to God himself:

And earthly power doth then show likest God’s When mercy seasons justice. Think of this,

That in the course of justice none of us Should see salvation. We do pray for mercy :

And that same prayer doth teach us all to render The deeds of mercy.”



The polar bear is a tremendous and formidable beast. Its average length, when full grown, appears to vary from six feet to seven; there are, however, instances on record of a much greater magnitude; for example, the specimen in the British Museum, brought home by Captain Ross from his late northern expedition, measured seven feet eight inches; and its weight, after losing, it is calculated, thirty pounds of blood, was eleven hundred and thirty-one pounds ; and another

Subject. Mercy—its nature—its value—motives for the exercise of it.

Analysis. Quality, sen. its nature, mercy, sen. forgiveness of an offender, render, i. e. return, sen. give to others what we ask of God.

Lesson I. To act consistently with praying for mercy, we must be merciful. II. In being merciful we bless and are blessed, and imitate God in one of his attributes.

individual is described by Captain Lyon as measuring eight feet seven inches and a half; its weight being sixteen hundred pounds.

On the inhospitable shores where the polar bear resides, there are no forests to shelter him in their recesses ; he makes the margin of the sea or the craggy iceberg his home, and digs his lair in the snows of ages.

The polar bear is a strong and rapid swimmer, and dives with the utmost address, as a proof of which it is stated by Cartwright that he once witnessed a trial of skill between one of these animals and a salmon, which, notwithstanding the known velocity of the salmon’s movements in the water, he succeeded in capturing.

Indeed, if the bear were not at home among the rough waves of the northern seas, he would be often much straitened for food, as his chief diet is obtained from the floating carcases of whales and fishes, to which he must often swim far away from the shore.

He wages also a perpetual war upon the seal and walrus, watching for them as they appear at the openings among the ice; nor does he refuse whatever animal exuviae the waters cast upon the land, nor the few berries which the shrubs of these dreary regions afford. From the best authorities the males do not hybernate, as is the case with the others of this genus, but brave the severities of winter upon the ice by the open sea, wandering along the margin, and swimming from fioe to floe in search of prey.”— Bingley.

Subject. Polar bear—description of habits—residence— means of living.

Analysis. Polar bear, exp. specimen, sen, one shown to give a correct notion of the others, inhospitable, sen. affording neither food nor shelter, recesses, rt. margin, i. e. edge, sen. shore or strand, iceberg, i. e. masses of ice large as a field or town, lair, sen. sleeping place, snows of ages, sen. never melted, address, i. e. skill or dexterity, salmon, exp. velocity, i. e. swiftness: seal and walrus, exp. exuvias, i.e. anything cast off an animal, as skin, shell, &c. authorities, sen. persons well informed, hybernate, rt. genus, dis. species. floe, floating masses of ice.

Lesson. God’s wisdom displayed in adapting each animal to its destined place of living.

Text for the day.—Prov. xv. 16.—“ Better is little with the fear of the Lord, than great treasure and trouble therewith.”

Ardent Spirit.

“ They say ’tis pleasant on the lip,

And merry on the brain :

They say it stirs the sluggish blood,

And dulls the tooth ot pain.

Ay—but within its glowing deeps A stinging serpent, unseen, sleeps.

Its rosy lights will turn to fire,

Its coolness change to thirst;

And by its mirth, within the brain A sleepless worm is nursed.

There’s not a bubble at the brim That does not carry food for him.”

N. P. Willis.


“The North American Indians were once the sole possessors of those vast tracts of valuable land, on which European colonies are now thriving, and rapidly extending. Before the Indians were contaminated by European intemperance, they were numerous and powerful j their fine manly forms were graceful and dignified.

They were chaste, honest, and patient under suffering, to a degree which seemed to reach the very limits of human endurance.

Subject. The destructive influence of ardent spirit—it deceives the drinker—destroys him.

Analysis. Merry, sen. producing joyous feelings, sluggish, &c. i. e. slowly running, al. blood slow in calm state of mind, quick in time of joyous excitement, quicker in a fever, tooth, pig. al. keen pains like tooth’s pressure, ay, i. e. yes. glowing, &c. al. appearance in the bottle, serpent, sen. wounds slyly, and infuses poison in wound, sleeps, fig. is concealed. coolness, See. AL. seems to allay thirst, but really increases it. sleepless worm, sen. ever craving till drinker destroyed.

Lesson I. Shun ardent spirits as you would avoid a serpent —painful self-deception—the destruction of the brain itself.

They were courteous to strangers, and when won by kindness, immoveable in their friendship and gratitude.

Although it would have been impossible for such a race, subsisting on the precarious produce of hunting, to maintain their existence in competition with civilised settlers, yet the Indian race would not have been reduced in numbers, deprived of territory, and degraded, had it not been for the ardent spirits which Europeans and their descendants introduced amongst them.

By spirits they are induced to part with their furs, essential to them as clothing, for an inadequate and useless, if not pernicious exchange. By spirits they have been induced to kill more game than they required, and consequently to reduce their means of subsistence.

By spirits they have been excited to unnatural and exterminating wars among themselves ; and when their numbers had in this way been greatly reduced, whites have taken possession of their territory. By spirits they have been induced to part with the remnants of land which they yet retained ; and in effecting the sales, to which they have consented in opposition to their sober judgments, they have again, through the influence of spirits, been cheated in the price.

Amongst the many grievous ills which they have so much reason to reproach the whites with having brought upon them, they justly regard the introduction of the ‘fire-waters,’ the name by which they designate spirits, as the greatest.”—Hodgkin.

Subject. The evil consequences of the introduction of spirits among the North American Indians.

Analysis. North American Indians, exp. colony, kt. graceful, al. body, dignified, al. mind, courteous, al. manners. precarious, i. e. uncertain, territory, i. e. land, civilised, rt. furs, i e. skins, pernicious, sen. destructive, exterminating, sen. wars to destroy life rather than to plunder.

Lesson I. Knowledge without Christian principles often works injuriously to its possessor and to others. II. The worldly spirit is selfish, even to the sacrifice of life, whilst the Christian spirit sacrifices self for the well-being of others.


Washington (see p. 45). When George was about six years old, his father gave him a hatchet, of which, like most other boys, he was immoderately fond. He went about chopping every thing that came in his way. One day he unluckily tried the edge of his hatchet on a beautiful young English cherry tree, which he barked so terribly as to ruin the tree.

The next morning the old gentleman, finding out what had befallen his tree, which was a great favourite, came into the house, and with much warmth asked for the author of the mischief, declaring that he would not have taken five guineas for his tree. Presently George and his hatchet made their appearance. “ George,’’ said his father, do you know who killed that beautiful cherry tree in the garden ?”

George paused for a moment, but quickly recovering himself, replied, Father, I can’t tell a lie ; you know / can’t tell a lie. I did cut it with my hatche.t” My dearest boy,” said his father, I had rather have a thousand trees destroyed than have a liar for my son.” George was forgiven ; and the same frank, manly character distinguished him through life.

Polar Bear (seep. 51). When the Careasse frigate was locked in the northern ice, a she-bear and her two cubs, nearly as large as herself, came toward them. The crew threw to them great lumps of sea-horse blubber. The old bear fetched them away singly, and divided them between her young ones, reserving but a small piece for herself.

The sailors shot the cubs, as she was conveying the last portion, and wounded her. She could just crawl with it to them, tore it in pieces, and laid it before them. When she saw they did not eat, she laid her paws, first on one, then on the other, and tried to raise them up, moaning pitifully all the while. She then moved from them, and looked back, and moaned as if for them to follow her.

Finding they did not, she returned, smelt them, and licked their wounds ; again left them, and again returned ; and with signs of inexpressible fondness, went round them, pawing and moaning. At length she raised her head towards the ship, and uttered a growl of despair, when a volley of musket-balls killed her.



A Lie,—what constitutes it—intention to deceive—may be spoken, il. Ananias and Sapphira ; may be acted, il. stranger inquiring way—point in a wrong direction, dis.—false judgment, il. dishonesty, supposed advantage—honesty best policy—“ What shall it profit a man,” &c.

1.    Temptations to falsehood.—1. Wrong doing—fear of punishment,—why to be avoided,—fault doubled,— nobility of truth, il. George Washington and tree.

2. Vanity—boasting—wish to be thought something; meanness of this—guilt—exposure to shame. 3. Supposed advantage, il. Ananias,—his punishment. 4. Malice,—to injure another, false witness,—enormous crime.

2.    Punishment of falsehood,—fear of detection,—anxiety,—conscience, il. boy and sick parent (Todd),— distrust,—loss of confidence,—loss of self-respect,— wrath of God.

Lesson 1. Beauty of simplicity,—transparent character— frank—open—fearless—light-hearted.

2. Importance of accuracy—true impressions ; avoid exaggeration—in expression—in feeling ; observe facts attentively—minutely—exactly—then trustworthy.

Polar Bear.

Polar Bear.—Show picture—quadruped,—12 feet long, —hair white—long—coarse.—shaggy ;—foot, plantigrade :—teeth, incisors—canine—molares.

1.    Abode.—Greenland—islands of ice—frozen ocean— show on map—poles—cold—ice—snow ; other animals there—seals—fish, &c.

2.    Character and habits.—Powerful—savage—ferocious —great activity in water—can swim 6 or 7 leagues at sea—omnivorous—chiefly fish and blubber ; love of young, il. sailors and bear.

3.    How caught.—Tracked by dogs—killed with guns— speared.

4.    Uses.—Skin—shoes, &c. as leather ; flesh, food for Greenlanders—fat, melted—oil—tendons, thread for Greenlanders.

Lesson.—Wisdom of God in adapting animals to different countries—white hair—cold, il. pieces of cloth on snow in the sun—wants of the Greenlanders supplied.

Text for the day.—Prov. xv. 32.—“ He that re-fuseth instruction despiseth his own soul; but he that heareth reproof getteth understanding


“ Lives there a man whose sole delights Are trivial pomp and city noise,

Hardening a heart that loathes or slights What every natural heart enjoys ?

A soul so pitiably forlorn,

If such do on this earth abide,

May season apathy with scorn,

May turn indifference to pride,

And still be not unblest—compared With him who grovels, self-debarr’d From all that lies within the scope Of holy faith and Christian hope ;

Yea, strives for others to bedim The glorious light too pure for him.”



“ In moving among mankind, I have now and then fallen in with infidels, who have not only declared their disbelief of the Bible, but endeavoured also to destroy the faith of others in that blessed book.

Subject. He is to be pitied who has no taste for the beauties of natural scenery,—but much more wretched is he who has no belief in Christianity.

Analysis. Sole delights, sen. objects of his ambition, trivial, sen. frivolous, vain gratification, forlorn, sen. destitute (of all taste for enjoyment), season, i. e. mix, sen. despise a taste for nature, apathy, kt. turn, See. sen. cheat himself into a belief that it is not insensibility, but contempt, not unblest, sen. lacking the blessing of good natural taste, we may yet possess other mercies, grovels, i. e. worm or snake-like, sen. not rising above a reptile, self-debarred, il. Matt. xi. 28, Matt.xiii.5. holy faith, sen. belief in God’s holy book. Christian hope, i. e. Christian’s hope of glorious immortality, too pure, il. John iii. 19, 20.

Lesson I. To be without the Christian’s hope is the most wretched state of man. II. Next in degree, but infinitely less so, is it to lack the power of relishing the beauties of nature.

The way in which they have alway begun their attack, is to higgle and wriggle about some disputed point of little importance, with as much confidence as if they were on the very point ot overturning the whole truth of Scripture by their silly prattle.

Just as soon would a poor blind mole tear up from the ground an oak of a hundred years’ growth, by burrowing under one of the least of its roots.

If ever you fall in with any of these unhappy beings, do not be drawn in to cavil with them about trifles, but boldly declare your opinion, leaving them to wrangle, if they like, by themselves.

Tell them, that if there be any thing good, and pure, and holy, and heavenly in the world, the Bible exhorts us to practise it; and if there be any thing that is evil, and base, and vile in the world, the Bible commands us to avoid it. That will be a poser.

Tell them that the Bible contains more knowledge and wisdom than all the other books that were ever printed put together; and that those who believe its promises, and obey its commandments, have peace, and hope, and joy amid the cares of life, and in the trying hour of death. That will be another poser.

Ask them, before they pull the book to pieces any more, to produce one that has done a thousandth part as much good in making men happy on earth, and in guiding them in the way to heaven; and that will be the greatest poser of all to them.”—Old Humphrey.

Subject. The way to argue with infidels.

Analysis. Infidels, i. e. unbelievers, sen. persons who reject Christianity, mole, exp. oak, exp. higgle and wriggle, sen. make petty objections, unhappy, sen. without God and without hope, poser, i. e. a stop or barrier which cannot be removed.

Lesson I. Boldly to avow our religious sentiments when attacked. II. The broad and high arguments of Christianity are unanswerable, and should be ever resorted to.


Text for the day.—Prov. xv. 33.—“ The fear of the Lord is the instruction of wisdom ; and before honour is humility.”

Early Morning, &c.

“Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,

With charm of earliest birds; pleasant the sun, When first, on this delightful land, he spreads His orient beams, on herb, tree, fruit, and flower, Glistering with dew; fragrant the fertile earth After soft showers ; and sweet the coming on Of grateful evening mild ; then silent night,

With this her solemn bird, and this fair moon,

And these, the gems of heaven, her starry train.”



“Among the many beauties of the morning is tne appearance of the dew. Bright round drops of dew are upon every leaf and every blaie of grass, shining in the morning sun like so many diamonds. '

When the sun rises, all these drops, however, soon disappear, and the leaves and the grass become dry; and if the day is hot, the earth, wrhich was cool and moist in the morning, becomes parched and dusty; but again, when the sun goes down, the grass and leaves are soon found to be damp, and the earth becomes cool. The moisture, or the water of which the dew is formed, comes not from the grass, or from the leaves;

Subject. The sweetness and loveliness of nature at particular times.

Analysis. Breath, sen. early morning air. morn, pig. pers. rising, i. e. dawn, charm, al. effect on the feelings. this, i. e. Eden, orient, rt. grateful, sen. soothing after labour, night, fig. pers. bird, al. owl. train, sen. stars seeming to follow the moon, appearing as she rises.

Lesson. Gratitude to God, who made all this, and gave to man the enjoyment of it.

it does not rise up, as it seems to do, from the ground; it comes from the air above us.

When the sun shines, the heat of it is continually-drawing up water from the sea, and from lakes, and rivers, and ponds, and pools, and even, as we have seen, from the leaves and the grass; but it draws it up in the form of a thin vapour or steam. The air, then, which is above us and all round us, contains a great deal of water at all times, but the water is in a state of vapour or thin steam.

This vapour, however, as in the case of steam received into a cold glass, will become water again when it becomes of a certain coldness, and then it will be turned into dew, or into rain. When, therefore, the day has been very hot, and much water has been taken up into the air, you will have much dew at night. You will have dew' at night, because the heat of the sun is gone, and the vapour in the air which touches this cold earth is cooled, and becomes water again.

When you are walking out, either in the morning or in the evening, you will see that, whilst the grass is wet, the footh-path is dry; and that when you come to a gate or a stile, the gate or the stile is dry, although the hedges are covered with dew. How does this happen ? It happens in this way : the grass is colder than the foot-path, and the leaves of the hedges are colder than the wood of which the stile is made.— Sunday Scholar’s Magazine.

Subject. The formation of dew,—its origin—how foreseen —what it foretells.

Analysis. Beauties, &;c., il. rising sun, freshness of all things, &c. diamonds, SEN. drops of dew., like diamonds, perfectly clear and colourless, and have the power of concentrating the rays of light into a very bright focus, disappears, sen. absorbed by warm air.

Lesson. The more we become acquainted with nature, the more wonderful the works of God appear. This lesson shows his wisdom in arrangement,—his power in accomplishing,—and his goodness to us, his creatures, in doing so much for our advantage.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvi. 1.—'•'¦The preparations of the heart in man, and the answer of the tongue, is from the Lord.”


‘‘ I care not, Fortune, what you rne deny ;

You cannot rob me of free Nature’s grace,

You cannot shut the windows of the sky,

Through which Aurora shows her brightening face ; You cannot bar my constant feet to trace The woods and lawns by living stream at eve :

Let health my nerves and finer fibres brace,

And I their toys to the rich children leave;

Of fancy, reason, virtue, nought can me bereave.”



When we consider how large a portion of the Divine moral law relates to our duty to our neighbours, and how much filthy habits are injurious to them, as well as to those who adopt them, we surely need feel no hesitation, in admitting the truth of the remark, that cleanliness is next to godliness.

You are probably aware that the plague, in its most fearful forms, used formerly to visit, with almost exterminating severity, many cities in which it has long since been wholly unknown. London affords one of the most striking examples which I could adduce. It is to the improved construction of these cities, and still

Subject. The pleasures of fancy, reason, virtue, fur greater than those which riches yield.

Analysis. Fortune, pig. pees. sen. money and its advantages. free, sen. open to all. grace, sen. beauties, windows, pig. meta. sen. through which light passes. Aurora, sen. day, or its cause, the sun. bar, i. e. stop, living, sen. as ever moving, or being full of living things, nerves, i. e. small sensitive threads, toys, splendid things, coaches, horses, &c. children, al. persons being amused with trifles, reason, sen. reflective power, virtue, sen. goodness.

Lesson. Riches are only one gift among the many gifts of God, and there are manv ¡rifts more valuable than that of riches.

more to the improved and more cleanly arrangements of their inhabitants, that this happy change is in a great measure to be attributed.

Though our country has longbeen favoured to escape the plague, yet we are at times visited with prevailing fevers of greater or less severity.

Now, it is notorious that these epidemics almost invariably break out in the closest and most filthy and crowded parts of our large cities and towns, such as London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Cork. To these parts they are often confined; and when they spread&nnbsp;beyond these limits, it is still within them that they are most severely felt.

Far be it from me to express, or even to entertain an idea approaching to a want of feeling for the miseries and privations inseparable from poverty, but I do not hesitate to declare, from repeated and careful observation, that the habits of too many of the poor promote and foster various errors of negligence and omission, which not only render poverty more distressing and degrading, but which also tend to perpetuate it, and at the same time render it more exposed to the attacks and ravages of disease.

Nothing is more essential to the maintenance of cleanliness in the interior and on the exterior of the houses, as well as of the persons of their inmates, than a liberal and constant supply of good water.”

Dr. Hodgkin.

Subject. Absence of cleanliness injurious to others as well as to ourselves.

Analysis. Divine, rt: moral law, sen. ten commandments. adduce, kt. construction, rt. inhabitants, rt. attributed, sen. caused by. epidemics, i. e. complaints which affect many persons at the same time. London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Cork, exp. promote, rt. degrading, i. e. sinking the poor lower, perpetuate, i. e. keep them poor.

Lesson I. To avoid diseases we must cultivate habits of cleanliness. II. Neglect of cleanliness, like laziness, tends to make people poor, and to keep them so.

Text eor the day.—-Prov. xvi. 2.—“ All the mays of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the Lord weiglieth the spirits.”

Conversation with Birds.


Q. What shall I call thee,—bird or beast, or neither ? Ans. Just what you will; I’m rather both than either Much like the season when I whirl my flight,

The dusk of evening,—neither day nor night.


Q. Stork, why were human virtues given to thee? Ans. That human beings might resemble me ;

Kind to my offspring, to my partner true,

And duteous to my parents,—what are you ?”



This bird is the largest of that part of the feathered tribe which frequent the water, and obtain their subsistence chiefly in that element. There are two varieties, the wild or whistling swan, and the tame, or as it is sometimes called, from its silence, the mute swan.

The wild swan is a majestic bird ; the full-grown male sometimes measures four feet in length, and seven feet in the expanse of his wings. Wild swans are natives of the cold and quiet regions of the north ; there they protract their residence as long as they can, and are said, when the lakes begin to freeze, to assemble in flocks, and break the ice with their wings, or prevent it from forming by flapping and dashing in the water.

Subject. Questions to the bat and the stork, and their replies.

Analysis. Sat, exp. (vide p. 66). season, sen. time of day. whirl, al. bat flies almost in a circle, stork, exp. human virtues, al. kindness to young, to mate, and to parents especially.

Lesson. The instincts of animals worthy our close observation,—sometimes furnish even a moral hint, as the stork for affection, the dog for fidelity, &c.

In the course of their migrations, their power of wing, as birds of passage, is so great, that when they go before a brisk gale, they are said to fly at the extraordinary rate of one hundred miles an hour. Their flight is very high, and the line or wedge in which they are arranged is so close and compact, that the bill of one bird almost touches the tail of the bird that is before it.

The feathers and down of the swan are valuable in commerce, being manufactured into muffs, tippets, and other articles of female apparel for winter. Residents of the cold northerly regions dress the skins with the feathers and down upon them, for winter garments.

The swan makes a considerable figure in the fabulous history of the ancients, and many absurd stories are related respecting it by their poets and mytholo-gists. They have attributed to this bird a vocal celebrity, by no means consistent with subsequent experience ; and it was the common belief, originating, it is probable, from the doctrine of Pythagoras, that the souls of poets passed at their death into the bodies of swans, and retained their original harmony.

They represented the swan as a singing-bird, and asserted that it sung most melodiously just before its death; hence, and in allusion to this article of popular belief, the last composition of a poet, and. the last words of a dying man, have been termed his swansong.”—Sunday Scholar’s Magazine.

Subject. Habits of the swan, its history—authentic—fabulous.

Analysis. Element, sen. water formerly supposed an element, but is a compound, swan, exp. protract, ht. migrations, rt. gale, wind travelling twelve miles an hour, mytho-logists, i.e. men who explained the idolatrous religion of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, subsequent, rt. doctrine of Pythagoras, i. e. transmigration of souls into bodies of inferior animals,—lived 500 A.C.

Lesson I. Wonderful power of instinct, which enables birds of passage to travel so certainly, both as regards time and place. II. Thankfulness that God has given us a knowledge of the future happy state of good men, and saved us from believing such silly and joyless doctrines as those of heathenism.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvi. 3.—“ Commit thy works unto the Lord, and thy thoughts shall he established.


Night is the time to weep,

To wet with unseen tears Those graves of memory, where sleep The joys of other years ;

Hopes that were angels in their birth,

But finish’d young, like things on earth !” *



It was in 1756, when the Indian nabob, Surajah Dowla, consigned 146 prisoners to the dungeon so named. It was about eight o’clock when these unhappy persons, exhausted by continual action and fatigue, were crammed together into a dungeon, about eighteen feet square, in a close sultry night, in Bengal.

They had been hut a few minutes confined before every one fell into a perspiration so profuse, that no idea can be formed of it. This brought on a raging fever, which increased in proportion as the body was drained of its moisture. Before nine o’clock every man’s thirst grew intolerable, and respiration difficult. Efforts were made to force the door, but still in vain. Many insults were used to provoke the guards to fire upon the prisoners, who grew outrageous, and many of them delirious.

'Water! water!’ became the general cry. Some water was brought, but these supplies, like sprinkling

Subject. Night the time for rest, and to meditate on the past.

Analysis. Graves of memory, sen. containing recollections of joys and sorrows long since gone, other years, i. e. of childhood and of youth, angels. .birth, bright beautiful plans and expectations, finished young, sen. quickly failed and disappointed expectation.

Lesson. The mind must sometimes reflect, therefore most important that we should not lay aught on our memory to cause pain on reflection.

water on fire, only served to raise and feed the flames. The confusion became general and horrid, from the cries and ravings for water, and some were trampled to death. This scene of misery proved entertainment to the brutal wretches without, who held up lights to the bqrs, that they might lose no part of the inhuman diversion.

By half an hour after eleven, most of the living were in an outrageous delirium. They found that water heightened their uneasiness; and ‘ Air ! air!’ was the general cry. Every insult that could be devised against the guard, all the opprobrious names that the viceroy and his officers could be loaded with, were repeated, to provoke the guard to fire upon them. About two o’clock in the morning, they crowded so much to the windows, that many died standing, unable to fall, by the throng and equal pressure round.

When the day broke, the stench arising from the dead bodies was insufferable. At that juncture, the Soubah, who had received an account of the havoc death had made among them, sent one of his officers to inquire if the chief survived. Mr. Holwell was shown to him ; and it was near six when an order came for their release.

Thus they had remained in this infamous prison from eight at night until six in the morning, when, of one hundred and forty-six souls, only twenty-three . came out alive, most of them in a high putrid fever.”

Subject. Imprisonment of 146 persons in a room IS feet by 18 feet,—their intense sufferings,consequences.

Analysis. Nabob, i. e. deputed, sen. an officer usually acting under a Soubah or viceroy, exhausted, sen. by duty in defending the castle, dungeon, i. e. closely secured prison, usually subterraneous, raging, sen. heat extreme, thirst intense, respiration, bt. delirious, sen. raging, flames, al. heat of the fever, guard, sen. Indian soldiers without, viceroy, i. e. one who governs instead of the king, sen. nabob who governed for the sultan, juncture, i. e. critical time, when all must have died. Soubah, i. e. the viceroy.

Lesson I. War—dreadful in the sufferings inflicted—in the destruction of God’s gifts—in the passions which it excites—and in its anti-Christian spirit. II. That the cruelty in those who regarded these horrid sufferings as “ diversion,” is a natural result of a cruel religion.


Plague (see p- 60). The great plague of London occurred in the reign of Charles II., in 1665. The whole summer had been remarkably still and warm, so that the weather was sometimes suffocating. It originally began in the parish of St. Giles’s, and broke out with fury in the month of April. At first it took off one here and there, without any certain proof of their having infected each other, and houses began to be shut up, to prevent its spreading ; but it was too late—’the infection gained ground every day—the shutting up of the houses only made the disease spread wider.

Multitudes fled into the country; ships went out to sea, and many merchants went on board vessels, and were supplied with provisions from the Kentish coast. The distemper rapidly advanced. In the last week of July the number of burials amounted to 2010; the first week of August it rose to 3817 ; then to 3880; then to 4237; the next week to 6102; and at last to 7000 and 8000 weekly. In the last week of September it began to abate, and finally departed, after having carried off about 100,000 persons.

Bat (see p. 62). The bats constitute a very singular tribe of quadrupeds. They have the toes of their fore-feet extremely long, and connected together by a very thin and dark-coloured membrane, that extends round the hinder part of their body, and serves the place of wings, in enabling them to flit along the air in pursuit of food. Some of the bat tribe are smaller than a mouse, but others are so large, that their extended membranes measure betwixt three and four feet in width ; these are found only in torrid climates.

All the European bats feed on insects. Their habits are also singular, they being usually dormant during the day, and flying abroad by night; at which time they catch, while on the wing, myriads of night-flying moths, the caterpillars of which are extremely injurious to vegetation. Bats are therefore very useful animals. There are near thirty species of bats, six of which are occasionally found in England. The larger kinds are called vampire and spectre bats, and are found chiefly in South America, where they sometimes suck the blood of mules and other animals. —Bingley.    .



Infidelity—what it is,—disbelief in—God—revelation— accountability ; character of infidels—proud—conceited—wilful—selfish; cause of infidelity,—state of heart—love of their own way—do not like to believe.

1.    How infidels attack the Bible—ridicule—quibbling about trifles—separating Old Testament from the New —sitting in judgment on God—pretending the Bible is a bad book—too difficult to understand—only believed by ignorant—full of contradictions.

2.    Best mode of defence. Tell them to read the New Testament through ;—has made thousands happy,— forbids all evil—teaches to be kind—honest—true— obedient—love one another ; sufficiently understood by poor—by children—by aged—to make them all wiser—happier—better.

Lesson. Be thankful for the Bible. Gift of God—has blessed the world,—il. state of heathen,—cruelties— wickedness ;—reveals Christ—way of salvation—tells of heaven.


Cleanliness,—to be regarded in—person—clothes, and houses ;—consistent with great poverty—poor clothes —humble situation—dirty employments;—(show clean and dirty things in contrast).

1.    Promotes health. Personal dirt—deranges skin—obstructs pores—occasions cutaneous diseases,—il. Sailors formerly—present condition of ships—improved health ; dirty clothes—occasion insects—various eruptions ; dirty houses, produce—sickness—discomfort— —misery ; importance of plenty of water—whitewashing—ventilation—fresh air ; describe plague in London—hence importance of sewers—removing filth from doors—stagnant water—putrefying vegetables— these occasion fevers and death.

2.    Promotes good conduct. Dirty boy generally idle— slovenly—careless—good for nothing; cleanly boy— neat—orderly—liked by others—chosen for a place.

Lesson. No comfort can be enjoyed, or good habit be formed,—without attention to little things, or without a little trouble. Carelessness produces misery.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvi. 5.—“ Every one that is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord; though hand join in hand, he shall not be unpunished


Stranger, be warn’d ; and know that pride, Howe’er disguised in its own majesty,

Is littleness ; that he who feels contempt

For any living thing, hath faculties

Which he has never used. The man whose eye

Is ever on himself, doth look on one

The least of nature’s works, one who might move

The wise man to that scorn which wisdom holds

Unlawful ever. O ! be wiser, thou !

Instructed that true knowledge leads to love— True dignity abides with him alone Who still suspects, and still reveres himself In lowliness of heart.”



For a well-regulated understanding, and particularly for the application of it to inquiries of the highest import, there is indispensably necessary a sound condition of the moral feelings.

Cold and contracted, indeed, is that view of man which regards his understanding alone ; and barren is

Subject. Pride is a mean thing—the result of ignorance of ourselves. True knowledge makes us humble.

Analysis. Oivn majesty, al. to the imagined dignity of mind which a proud man thinks he possesses, never used, al. reflective faculties—-judging himself, on himself, i. e. self-worshipper, the self-complacent, dis. looking within himself, least, sen. a worm, man has no dignity in himself—apart from a right state of mind, scorn, sen. worthy contempt, unlawful, sen. deserving scorn; but wise men do not despise, but pity and instruct. true, sen. knowledge of ourselves and of God. dignity, dis. from pride, suspect, al. Jer. xvii. 9. reveres, sen. as God’s work, and all his advantages as God’s gifts.

Lesson I. Importance of self-knowledge to protect us from the folly and wickedness of pride. II. The proud man is contemptible before men, and hateful to God.

that system, however wide its range, which rests in the mere attainment of truth.

The highest state of man consists in his religious and moral being; and in the habitual culture and full exertion of those principles by which he looks forth to other scenes and other times. Among these are desires and longings, which nought in earthly science can satisfy, which soar beyond the sphere of sensible things, and find no object worthy of their capacities, until, in humble adoration, they rest in the contemplation of God.

Truths then burst upon the mind, which seem to rise before it in a progressive series, each presenting characters of new and mightier import. There is now felt, in a peculiar manner, the influence of that healthy condition of the moral feelings, which leads a man not to be afraid of the truth. For, on this subject, we are never to lose sight of the remarkable principle of our nature, by which a man comes to reason himself into the belief of what he wishes to be true,—and shuts his mind against, or even arrives at an actual disbelief of, truths which he fears to encounter.

It is striking also to remark, how closely the philosophy of human nature harmonizes with the declarations of the sacred writings, where this condition of mind is traced to its true source in the corruption of the moral feelings, and is likewise shown to involve a high degree of guilt, in that rejection of truth which is its natural consequence.”—Abercrombie.

Subject. The understanding cannot he well regulated apart from the cultivation of the moral principles and the heart.

Analysis. Understanding, i. e. intellectual powers, sound sen. healthy, cold, sen. wanting the warmth of the affections. contracted, rt. sen. narrowed, embracing but a part, system, i. e. of philosophy, truth, sen. facts, purity, Sfc. sen. goodness. dis. great learning, habitual, rt. culture, rt. operation, rt. principles, rt. other, sen. future state, soar, pig. sen. as a bird rises far above the earth, capacities, rt. adoration, rt. progressive, rt. philosophy, rt. sen. knowledge gained by observation and reasoning, involve, rt. rejection, rt.

Lesson I. He only can be said to have a sound mind who seeks to know and to do the will of God. II. Let us beware of resisting evidence because it makes against us. III. God sometimes allows men who hate truth to become the victims of falsehood.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvi. 7.—“ When a man’s ways please the Lord, he maketk even his enemies to he at peace with him.”

The Heart’s-ease.

There is a little flower that’s found In almost every garden ground,

’Tis lowly, but ’tis sweet; '

And if its name express its power,

A more invaluable flower You’ll never, never meet.

I said in every garden ground ;

Perhaps in Eden ’twas not found,

For there it was not wanted ;

But soon as sin and sorrow came,

The flower received its gladdening name,

By mercy’s angel planted.

My child ! if God within our bower Should plant this lovely little flower,

To tend it be our duty !

Then should there be a smile or tear,

So it be mutual, it will rear,

And maturate its beauty.”

Village Magazine.


“ Beautiful are the gay inhabitants of the garden ! the gorgeous and queen-like rose—purity’s emblem, the fair lily—the lofty and clustering lilac—the white

Subject. Heart’s ease considered as emblematic of peace of mind.

Axalysis. Heart's-ease, exp. pig. not wanted, sen. till sin was committed there was no heart-ache, bower, fig. meta. sen. domestic circle, mutual, sen. sympathy tends to ease the heart, maturate, i. e. bring to maturity or perfection.

Lesson I. Sin is the great destroyer of heartfelt peace. II. We must daily cultivate a contented spirit, and seek to promote the happiness of others.

snow-drop (a little billet flung from the delicate hand of the spring, to command the departure of winter)— the fringed pink—the lowly heart’s-ease—the climbing and odorous honeysuckle—the-rainbow-headed tulip; and many beside, too many to be enumerated.

But, do these alone possess beauty, and impart delight? Does not the field, the hedge-row, the river’s brink, and, indeed, every spot accessible to the silver shower, or the creative sunbeam, present the mind with volumes to amuse and instruct ?

Is there not beauty in the asphodel ? Does not the simple and modest daisy begem the fields and the lawns almost entirely throughout the year ? Hath not the meadow its golden wealth of cowslips; the hedge its hawthorn; the heath its bluebells ?

And low as they may be ranked in the scale, are not even the lichens and mosses, which clothe the most delicate places, replete with sweetness and with beauty ?

Flowers are the jewels of nature—the poetry of the earth ! yet how dull and insensible are we to the moral which they inculcate; how deaf to the language which they convey!

While the sensitive and intellectual few, of all ranks, perceive and enjoy them in all their sublimities, the unfortunate, whose orbs of vision are sealed in darkness, is not more blind to them than are the great majority of mankind.”—Anon.

Subject. Amusement and instruction derived, from flowers.

.Analysis. Emblem, figurative representation, billet, pig. meta. sen. a small letter or note, spring and winter, pig. pers. accessible, rt. odorous, rt. creative, sen. calling forth, volumes, rt. jewels, sen. most precious and beautiful objects, poetry of earth, sen. speaking directly to the fancy and the imagination, moral sense, an instructive lesson, intellectual, sen. well instructed, orbs, &c. pig. eyes, vision, rt. sealed, al. closed up as the contents of a letter, majority, rt. exp. intellectual and moral blindness, rose, lily, lilac, snow-drop, pink, keart’s-ease, honeysuckle, tulip, fyc. exp.

Lesson. Encouragement to cultivate a taste for flower« as affording rational amusement and instruction.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvi. 32.—“ He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taheth a city

Song of the Water-drinker.

“ Oh ! water for me ! Bright water for me !

It enslaves not the soul—it enchains not the free.

It cooleth the brow, it cooleth the brain,

It maketh the faint one strong again.

It comes o’er the sense like a breeze from the sea,

All freshness, like infant purity.

Fill to the brim ! fill, fill to the brim !

Let the flowing crystal kiss the rim !

For my hand is steady, my eye is true,

For I, like the flowers, drink nought but dew.

So water, pure water for me, for me !

’Tis the drink of the wise, ’tis the wine of the free.”

E. Johnson.


“On my entrance into Watts’s office,” says Dr. Franklin, I worked at first as a pressman, conceiving that I had need of bodily exercise, to which I had been accustomed in America, where the printers work alternately as compositors and at press. I drank nothing but water. The other workmen, to the number of about fifty, were great drinkers of beer.

I carried occasionally a large form of letters in each hand, up and down stairs, while the rest employed both hands to carry one. They were surprised to see

Su bject. The excellencies of water as a beverage.

Analysis. Enslaves and enchains, al. that which we cannot do without, we are in degree the slave of. breeze, sen. cool and refreshing, crystal, al. clear brightness of spring or filtered water, wise, al. the head being kept clear for thought, free, sen. not dependent on another—water abundant.

Lesson. Water affording enough to refresh and to nourish— wine is unnecessary °c ° hovorarro

by this and many other examples, that the American aquatic,’ as they used to call me, was stronger than those who drank porter.

I endeavoured to convince them that the bodily strength furnished by the beer could only be in proportion to the solid part of the barley dissolved in the water of which the beer was composed: that there was a larger portion of flour in a penny loaf, and that consequently, if they ate this loaf, and drank a pint of water with it, they would derive more strength from it than from a pint of beer.

This reasoning, however, did not prevent them from drinking their accustomed quantity oi beer, and paying every Saturday night a score of more than four or five shillings a week for this beverage, an expense from which I was wholly exempt.

Thus do these poor men continue all their lives in a state of voluntary wretchedness and poverty. After this, I lived in tile utmost harmony with my fellow-labourers, and soon acquired considerable influence among them.

My example prevailed with several of them to renounce their abominable practice of bread and cheese and beer ; and they procured, like me, from a neighbouring house, a good basin of warm gruel, in which was a slice of butter, with toasted bread and nutmeg. This was a much better breakfast, which did not cost more than a pint of beer, namely, three-halfpence, and at the same time preserved the head clearer.”

Subject. Course pursued by Dr. Franklin—whilst working as a journeyman printer in London.

Analysis. Pressman, i. e. the man who takes the impressions from the type. America, exp. compositors, i. e. those who arrange the letters into words and sentences, press, i. e. the machine which presses the sheet of paper on the inked letters. form, i. e. a large iron frame containing the metal letters, aquatic, rt. al. to his drinking only water, barley, exp. dissolved, bt. exempt, rt. voluntary, rt.

Lesson. Water is the best beverage for a healthy man.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvii. 3.—“ The fining pot is for silver, and the furnace for gold: but the Lord trieth the hearts.”

Those Evening Bells.

“Those evening bells, those evening bells,

How many a tale their music tells Of youth and home, and that sweet time When last I heard their soothing chime.

Those joyous hours are pass’d away,

And many a heart that then was gay,

Within the tomb now darkly dwells,

And hears no more those evening bells.

And so ’twill be when I am gone,

That tuneful peal will still ring on ;

While other bards shall walk these dells, • And sing your praise, sweet evening bells.”



Some years ago, an American ship called the Washington, bound for China, had on board, among other passengers, an officer, with his wife and child, a little boy five years old, and a large Newfoundland dog called Bobby.

Subject. Beflections on the past and the future—produced by the ringing of bells at evening.

Analysis. Evening hells, exp. illustrative of the power of association, {vide p. 18). tale, fig. speaking to the mind, sen. recollections, time, al. youth, hards, i. e. poets, al. poets who went with harps and sang extempore on important occasions, it. Alexander’s Feast and Welsh Bards.

' Lesson I. The lapse of time changes our associates—early friends die. II. Individuals die, but society and its arrangements live,—hence learn our individual insignificance. III. It is humbling to remember how long man’s own works survive him.

Every body in the ship liked Bobby, he was so good-tempered and frolicsome, but the little boy was the dog’s constant playmate. He was a merry little fellow, and as fond of Bobby as Bobby was of him-

One evening when it was growing dark, the little boy and the dog were romping together, the ship gave a roll, and splash went the child into the ocean.

A cry was raised, 2 3 A hand over !’    ‘ A hand over!’

and brave Bobby sprang over the taffrail, clearing it like a grey-hound, and swam towards the stern of the ship.

The little boy’s father, half frantic, leaped with others into the jolly boat; but it was too dark to see far before them. All gave up the child for lost.

At last they heard a splash to the larboard. ‘ Pull on quick,’ cried the father. The helmsman turned the tiller, the men pulled with redoubled force, and in a moment brave Bobby, holding up the child with his mouth, was alongside. Joy ! Joy ! Joy !

The boat was rowed back to the ship, the half-drowned boy was recovered, the parents were delighted, and brave Bobby was patted and caressed by all.

The little boy hugged his favourite in his arms, and every man on board the ship loved the dog as much as a father loves his child.”

(To be continued.)

Text for the day.—Prov. xvii. 14.—“ The beginning of strife is as when one letteth out water; therefore leave off contention before it be meddled

Missionary Hymn.

From Greenland’s icy mountains, From India’s coral strand,

Where Afric’s sunny fountains Roll down their golden sand,—

From many an ancient river,

From many a balmy plain,

They call us to deliver Their land from error’s chain.

In vain with lavish kindness The gifts of God are strewn ;

The heathen, in his blindness,

Bows down to wood and stone.”



As I had come to work one morning without my square, I took up a chip, and with a piece of charcoal wrote upon it a request that Mrs. Williams would send me that article. I called a chief who was superintending his portion of the work, and said to him:  Friend, take this, go to our house, and give it to Mrs. Williams.’ He took it, and asked, ‘ What must I say?’ I replied, ‘You have nothing to say, the chip -will say all I wish.’ With a look of astonishment and contempt, he held up the piece of wood, and said, How can this speak ? has this a mouth ?’ I desired him to take it immediately, and not to spend so much time in talking about it.

On arriving at the house, he gave the chip to Mrs. Williams, who read it, threw it away, and went to the tool-chest, whither the chief, resolving to see the result of this mysterious proceeding, followed her closely.

On receiving the square from her, he said, Stay, daughter, how do you know that this is what Mr. Williams wants ?’     Why,’ she replied, ‘ did you not

bring me a chip just now?’ ‘ Yes,’ said the astonished warrior, but I did not hear it say anything.’ If you did not, I did,’ was the reply, for it made known to me what he wanted; and all you have to do is to return with it as quickly as possible.’

With this the chief leaped out of the house, and catching up the mysterious piece of wood, he ran through the settlement, with the chip in one hand, and the square in the other, holding them up as high as his arms would reach, and shouting as he went, ‘ See the wisdom of these English people! they can make chips talk, they can make chips talk!’ ”— Williams’s Missionary Enterprises.


Heart's-ease, (see p. 70). This flower is also called pansy. It is the Viola tricolor of botanists ; but it has a great variety of provincial names, of which Heart’s-ease is the most common. Pansy is a corruption of the French pensée, a thought, by which name it is known in some parts of France. It is sometimes called, “ Three faces under a hood,” Call me to you,” and Loye in Idleness.” Under this last name Shakspeare alludes to this interesting flower.—Note in Bait’s Gleanings in Poetry.

Dr. Franklin (see p. 72). Benjamin Franklin, a celebrated philosopher and politician, was born at Boston, in the year 1706. At the age of 14 he went to Philadelphia, and learnt the art of printing. He early manifested that thirst after knowledge which afterwards so distinguished him. In the year 1724 he came to England, and worked as a journeyman printer w'ith Mr. Watts. On his return to America he established a newspaper, and having acquired some fortune, pursued the study of natural philosophy with great ardour. He made several important discoveries, and in 1755 the Royal Society of London voted him a gold medal ; and about the same time the degree of doctor in laws was conferred upon him by one of the universities. He subsequently had a principal share in bringing about the American revolution ; and in 1777 was appointed Plenipotentiary to the French court. He died on the 17th of April, 1790, aged 84 years.

Coral (see p. 76). Corals were formerly believed to be vegetable substances hardened by the air ; but they are now known to be composed of congeries of animals. The islands in the South Sea are mostly coral rocks covered with earth. The little creatures, which have scarce sensation enough to distinguish them from plants, build up a rocky structure from the bottom of that sea, (too deep to be measured by human art), till it reaches the surface.

India (seep. 76). Under the name of India, or the Past Indies, is now included all those vast tracts from the Eastern parts of the Persian empire to the island of Japan. In attempting to sail to the East Indies, by directing his course westward, Columbus discovered America. When he first discovered land, he supposed it to be

part of India ; and hence to this day some parts of the coast of America and the islands in the Caribbean Sea are called the West Indies.



Flowers—choicest productions of Nature, il. flower of flock, &e. dis. wild—cultivated ; enumerate some of each ; language of flowers, il^ “ Forget me not,” &c.; lessons lrom flowers,—rose—purity—lily—humility, &c.

1.    Parts of a common wall-flower—root—stem—calyx or flower-cup—petals—stamens—pistil—receptacle— nectary.

2. Use of flowers—not needful to existence—only for delight; to shed fragrance and beauty over the earth ; to humble human vanity (Matt, vi, 29); to comfort poor (Matt. vi. 30); to diffuse happiness; to refine taste ; to give evidence of variety of Divine benevolence ; to promote gentle affections, il. Dr. Carey and daisy; to teaeh faith, il. Mungo Park and moss.

Lessons.—1. Goodness of God in providing for our gratification. 2. Boundlessness of Creative Wisdom and Power scattering beauty in deserts and rocks, where man never treads.


Pride,—thinking highly of ourselves—meanly of others ; manifested in-—idolatry of self—unsociableness—reserve—haughty contempt of others—disregard to opinions of others, dis. self-respect, which leads to good ; viz. choice of worthy companions—avoidance of degrading vices—of disreputable places—cultivation of habits of neatness and cleanliness, and suitable regard to the judgment of others, dis. also from vanity, which is, love of admiration, and leads to expensive dress—boasting—falsehood—love of adulators.

1.    Cause of pride. Deceitfulness of the heart—false views of self—forgetfulness of—common dust—brotherhood ; of sin—weakness; root of evil—guilty ignorance.

2.    Cure of Pride. Self-knowledge—gained by reflection and prayer; comparison of conduct with God’s law and God’s love; knowledge of others—their good qualities—gained by—benevolent intercourse— exercise of meekness—forbearance—good-will.

Lesson.—Necessity of constant prayer for the Holy Spirit, to teach us what w'e are, and to make us what we should be—to pour light into the intellect—love into the heart.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvii. 15.—“ He that justifteth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even tlmy both are abomination to the Lord.”

Invitation to come to Christ.

-“ Wouldst thou be blest?

He’ll cleanse thy spotted soul. Wouldst thou find rest? Around thy toils and cares he’ll breathe a calm,

And to thy wounded spirit lay a balm,

From fear draw love, and teach thee where to seek Lost strength and grandeur with the bow’d and meek.

Come lowly ; He will help thee. Lay aside That subtle first of evils—human pride.

Know God, and so thyself; and be afraid To call aught poor or low that He has made.

Fear nought but sin ; love all but sin ; and learn How that in all things else, thou mayst discern His forming, his creating power—how bind Earth, self, and brother, to the Eternal Mind.”



“ The Deist points to the heaven and the earth, and says, ‘ Behold our Bible!’ But the Christian points to the same quarter, and says, ‘ Behold my bookand pointing to another quarter, says, Behold my Bible too.’

‘You bid me burn my Bible, that I may study nature. I invite you to read my Bible, that you may study nature better. You have but an odd volume from a great Author. I present to you a second, that

Subject. Christ a refuge,—source of wisdom—and strength. Analysis. Spotted, sen. stained by sin, al. Jewish purifications. breathe a calm, al. John xiv. 27. bowed, sen.humble. balm, (vide p. 90).

Lesson I. Peace cannot be obtained from any earthly source. II. Laying aside pride, and hating nothing but siu, we must strive to see the hand of God in all things, and seek happiness by submitting to the Divine Redeemer.

never contradicts the first, but completes the work ; and tells you so much which the first cannot, that you will by this read that in a clearer light.’

The book of nature is illuminated to the student of revelation. What charms are thrown on every page of creation by the volume of revelation ! I had never seen half the splendour I now behold in the sun, if I had notread of Him who is the ‘Sun of Righteousness, that rises in the soul with healing on his wings.’

The clouds assume new forms of grandeur and new tints of beauty: the winds roar music, and the lightnings flash with glory, since I have read of him that maketh the clouds his chariot, and walketh on the wings of the wind.

I love to stand by the foaming surge of ocean, ‘ because it remindeth me of Him that holdeth its waters in the hollow of his hand, and says to my soul, ‘ Fear ye not.’

Where will they who bid us forsake the Bible, that we may study nature, find such students of nature as among Christians ? These are the men that rise from nature up to nature’s God. All that creation can teach, they are glad to learn; all that she cannot teach, they are still more glad to learn elsewhere. And now, when you ask us to forsake the Bible, and follow you, we ask who you are ?—‘ Jesus we know, and Paul we know, but who are you?’ ”—Bennett.

Subject. The icorks of God, as seen in nature, can only he understood and suitably appreciated by the Christian.

Analysis. Deist, rt. my booh, sen. the Christian also reads proofs of the wisdom, power, and goodness of God in creation ; the written Word explains the volume of nature. nature, i. e. the material world, odd volume, sen. a part only of a series of revelations of the Divine mind. Author, al. God, who gave first the volume of nature, and then his written Word, as a second volume, to teach us bis end and object in creating all things. clearer, sen. see both God’s object in making all things, and the use we are to make of them, illuminated, rt.

Lesson I. All earthly knowledge defective, without the Bible to explain it. II. If we wish to be wise on earth, or happy in heaven, we must prize the Bible above every other gift of God.


Text for the day.—Prov. xviii. 10.—“ The name of the Lord is a strong tower: the righteous runneth into it, and is safe.”

Saturday Afternoon.

“ I love to look on a scene like this,

Of wild and careless play,

And persuade myself that I am not old,

And my locks are not yet grey ;

For it stirs the blood in an old man’s heart, And it makes his pulses fly,

To catch the thrill of a happy voice,

And the light of a pleasant eye.”



Depend upon it, there is nothing like making the best of the little trifling annoyances which, at the most, only inflict a temporary inconvenience.

One day in the autumn, I was in the country, when it rained very fast. I had a few miles to walk to the house of a kind and hospitable friend, and set off with a thin pair of shoes on my feet. It rained very fast, to be sure, but I hoped and trusted it would soon get finer. It was wet enough over head, and still wetter under feet; but on I trudged along the dirty lanes, holding up my umbrella. My thin shoes were a poor defence against the mud and rain. ‘Well, well,’ said I, they will not all be dirty lanes; I shall soon come to the fields.’

Subject. The light-hearted playfulness of boyhood aivakes pleasing recollections in the aged.

Analysis. Persuade, sen. glow of youth is felt again. pulses, i. e. increases the quickness of the heart’s beatings, which is the pulse. In a child of six years it beats 80 to 90 times in a minute,—in a man of sixty years, about 60 times.

Lesson. Sympathy for the joys and sorrows of others keeps the affections fresh, and the mind cheerful.

To the fields I came, but they were no improvement on the road, for the long grass made me miserably wet.  Well, well,’ said I, ‘ the fields will not all be grass/ I soon came to a piece of clover, and the round bossy clover blossoms, saturated with rain, kept bobbing against my legs, and made me wetter than before.  Well, well,’ said I, the fields will not all be clover/

The next was a potato-field, and if the grass was bad, and the clover worse, the potato-field was worst of all: for the strag-g-ling stems and broad leaves of the potatoes were so many reservoirs of water, which emptied themselves upon me every time my toe caught the stem of a potato.

‘Well, well,’ said I, ‘ they will not all be potato-fields;’ so on I went, till I came into a snug lane, where the brambles, hanging in festoons from the hedges, were covered with blackberries, a fruit of which I am uncommonly fond.

The storm abated, the road got drier, the sun shone in the skies, and old Humphrey banqueted on the blackberries.

Now, when you meet with any common-place vexation, even if it be a little more trying than usual, nay, though it require double patience to endure it, be not discouraged about the matter; think of Old Humphrey and his blackberries, and by and by you will not only forget your trouble, but find yourself, with a grateful heart,' singing of mercy.’”—Old Humphrey.

Subject. Old Humphrey’s adventures in a wet country walk.

Analysis. Annoyances, rt. temporary, bt. hospitable, rt. umbrella, rt. clover, exp. blossoms, exp. saturated, rt. abated, rt. common-place, sen. of daily occurrence—not extraordinary.

Lesson. Life is made up of little things. Cheerfulness and good temper are especially necessary to prevent us from being rendered unhappy by the petty trials to which we are daily exposed.

Text for the day.— Prov. xviii. 12.—“ Before destruction the heart of man is haughty, and before honour is humility.”

A Comparison.

“ The lapse of time and rivers is the same,

Both speed their journey with a restless stream ; The silent pace with which they steal away,

No wealth can bribe, no prayers persuade to stay ; Alike irrecoverable both when past,

And a wide ocean swallows both at last.

Though each resemble each in every part,

A difference strikes at length the musing heart; Streams never flow in vain ; where streams abound, How laughs the land with various plenty crown’d ! But time, that should enrich the nobler mind, Neglected lea\es a dreary waste behind.”



“ The industry of a country depends very greatly upon the goodness of its laws, and the faithful execution of them.

If laws permitted a violation of property, all men would soon become thieves, instead of labourers ; and as thieving produces nothing, there would soon be nothing left to steal, and all would starve.

But governments themselves sometimes violate the right of property. This is the case when, by the mere

Subject. Time and rivers have many resemblances; in the use of them there is sometimes a difference.

Analysis. Lapse, sen. flow, restless, sen. unceasing motion, silent pace, pig. stealthy walk, irrecoverable, rt. ocean, al. eternity, musing, i. e. deep thinking, laughs, pig. pers. Ps. xevi. 12. various, i. e. blessings of many kinds. enrich, i. e. by reading, observation, study, and good deeds. waste, i. e. uncultivated, barren, profitless, al. Heb. vi. 7,8.

Lesson I. Time passing so swiftly, every portion of it should be devoted to our improvement. II. Every moment lost, is lest for ever

will of the Government, the property of the individual is taken for any purpose whatsoever. In many despotic Governments, where this occurs, the people become at once dispirited and indolent.

Who would labour on the soil through a whole summer, if he knew that he was liable to have his harvest seized in the autumn by a tyrant, as soon as it was fit to be gathered ?

Hence we see the importance of a good constitution of Government. By a constitution, we mean that agreement among men which fixes the power of the governors, and tells exactly what they may and what they may not do.

But suppose that every man be allowed to gain all that he can, he must also be allowed to use it as he will. This is evident, because no man will be industrious to gain property, unless he be allowed to use it for the promotion of his own happiness, in such a way as he likes best.

For instance, the labourer should be allowed to work at any trade, or as many trades as he pleases; to work in any place he chooses, and to change his occupation whenever he supposes he can do so with advantage; and that he be not obliged to change it, unless he believe such change will be for his benefit.

Hence we see, that every industrious man is bound to see that good laws are made and put in force, and that none but thieves and robbers could gain any thing by the destruction of laws.”—Wayland.

Subject. All are interested, in maintaining good laws.

Analysis. Laws,—making the laws is the business of the Houses of Parliament, execution, i. e. applying them, the business of the Magistrates and other officers, violation, sen. taking by force, produces, ht. sen. does not create value. Governments, sen. despotic power, il. Eastern tyrants. Constitution, il. English constitution, king, lords, and commons (vide p. 90) allowed to work, exp. castes of India, il. trades’ unions—evil effects of violence.

Lesson. Observance of law essential to the happiness of the ’ poor as well as the rich.—Order and quietness promote alike the interests of all classes of the community.

Text for the day —Prov. xviii. 14.—“ The spirit of a man mill sustain, his infirmity; but a mounded spirit mho can bear ?”

The Deep.

“ There’s beauty in the deep :—

The wave is bluer than the sky ;

And, though the sun shine bright on high,

More softly do the sea-gems glow That sparkle in the depths below ;

The rainbow’s tints are only made When on the waters they are laid,

And sun and moon most sweetly shine Upon the ocean’s level brine.

There’s beauty in the deep.

There’s quiet in the deep:—

Above, let times and tempests rave,

And earth-born whirlwinds wake the wave ; Above let care and fear contend With sin and sorrow to the end :

Here, far beneath the tainted foam,

That frets above our peaceful home,

We dream in joy, and wake in love,

Nor know the rage that yells above.

There’s quiet in the deep."


brave bobbycontinued.

At the Cape of Good Hope the passengers were to be landed. The officer got into the boat, with his wife

Subject. The praises of the ocean—beautiful—quiet.

Analysis. Bluer, exp. different colour in soundings, sea-gems, al. sparkling of sunbeams on the waves, rainbow, exp. caused by refraction of sun’s rays on falling water {vide p. 90). brine, al. saltness of sea. above let tides, Sgc., imagined residence below the wave—vide Milton’s Comus.

Lesson I. Rage, sin, sorrow, care, &c. all occasioned by man’s evil passions and propensities. II. The creation of God is fair, tranquil, and blessed.

and child; but he told the sailors to hold the Newfoundland dog tight by the collar, till the boat was some distance from the ship. ‘ You will then see/ said he, what a strong swimmer he is/ Brave Bobby pulled and tugged to get loose, but all in vain, for they held him till the boat was near the shore. No sooner did the officer hold up his handkerchief as a signal, than the dog was set at liberty. Away he went full dash into the sea, and buffeted the waves most courageously.

Suddenly the poor animal set up a shrill howl, and threw himself out of the water. At first it was thought that he had the cramp, but it was worse than that—a shark was after him. A shark! a shark!’ sounded from the boat to the ship. Bobby swam right and left, and dived and doubled, every now and then giving a short fierce howl, and showing his teeth, never allowing the shark time to turn on his back,—and without doing this, the monster could not bite him.

The boat was hastily rowed back, to save the poor creature, but the shark was swift and fierce. Poor Bobby swam, and dodged, and was almost exhausted. Just as the boat got near, the shark turned on his back, and opened his horrid mouth; Bobby was all but gone, when his master levelled his gun at the shark, and fired. The water was tinged with blood, the horrid jaws of the shark were shattered. The officer pulled the dog into the boat, the child threw his little arms around him; and the men in the boats and the sailors in the ship cried out with joy, * Hurra ! Hurra! Joy ! Joy! Bobby is safe,—the shark is killed! Hurra! Hurra/”

Subject. Pursuit of a dog by a shark.

Analysis. Cape of Good Hope, exp. cramp, i. e. a contraction or tightening of the sinews, shark, exp.

Lesson I. A little want of caution often endangers life. II. A dumb animal, by acts of kindness, can excite strong sympathy, whilst unkind acts produce hatred.

Text for the hay.—Prov. xix. 3.—“ The foolishness of man perverteth his way: and his heart fretteth against the Lord.”

The Traveller’s Return.

“ ’Tis he ; and blithely the gay bells sound,

As his steed skims over the frozen ground.

Hark ! he has pass’d the gloomy wood ;

He crosses now the ice-bound flood,

And sees the light from the open door To hail his toilsome journey o’er.

Our hut is small, and rude our cheer ;

Rut Love has spread his banquet here ;

And childhood springs to be caress’d By our beloved and welcome guest.

With smiling brow his tale he tells,—

They, laughing, ring the merry bells ”

Mrs. Moodie.


( Condition of early Missionaries.)

The return of winter called for all their resources : there was then little enjoyment out of doors, and there was still less within.

The doors and windows were carefully closed; but winter crept, like a serpent, into every nook and corner of the dwelling. The cup full of heated water, when laid on the table, was frozen in a few moments.

Subject. The affectionate reception of a beloved guest.

Analysis. Bells, i. e. on his horse’s head, al. custom in Canada, &c. (vide p. 90). love's banquet, sen. the affections being cultivated produce cheerful and fond hearts, al. proverb— A cheerful heart hath a continual feast.

Lesson I. Hospitality and interchange of kindness call into exercise some of our happiest feelings. II. Duty of hospitality, al. 1 Peter, iv. 9, &c.

The ice and hoar-frost would sometimes spread in the night-time from the chimneys to the stove’s mouth without being thawed by the warmth of the fire. The linen was often frozen in the drawers, and the soft eiderdown bed and pillows were stiffened even while the sleepers rested on them.

One of the most singular effects of the cold was the frost-smoke, which rose from the sea in thin volumes, as if from a furnace. This is more injurious to the human frame than the keenest atmosphere; for it was no sooner wafted by the wind over the land, than it created such a cutting and exquisite cold, that no one could go out of the house without having his hands and feet bitten.

The rising of these wreaths of smoke from the moveless surface of the sea was a strange sight: the feeble moon struggling through them. No one stirred abroad at this hour; and every casement and avenue, by which light or air could enter, was shrouded.

In the dim twilight of the day that followed, the daring hunter would sometimes venture forth in his sledge to seek the rein-deer.

It was miserably cheerless to rise from sleep. No visitor came to cheer the lagging moments; no friend dropped in to tell of passing events, or share their solitary meal. There were no events to tell of: the land was sealed and covered.”—Weekly Visitor.

Subject. The distressing effects ¦produced, by cold in Greenland. cih. the smoke-like wreaths of the frozen ocean.

Analysis. Crept, fig. pers. eider-down, al. down of eider duck gathered in breeding season, when the bird strips its breast to make its nest, atmosphere, nr. frost-smoke, i. e. a very cold wind—colder than the surrounding atmosphere, which in its progress freezes even those small portions of water which remained in the air unfrozen. Condensed vapour always assumes the appearance here described, and which is similar to that issuing from the spout of a kettle, bitten, i. e. all the heat instantly withdrawn, avenue, rt. sledge, i. e. carriage without wheels. rein-deer, exp. solitary, kt.

Lesson I. Let us appreciate our own comforts. II. We should admire and cherish the missionary spirit.


Balm (see p. 80). Balsam or Balm of Gilead is a resinous exudation from a small tree which arrows in several parts of Abyssinia and Syria. This tree has spreading crooked branches, small bright green leaves, and small white flowers. The Balsam, from the authority of the Scriptures, was anciently in great esteem. The Ish-maelitish merchants, who bought Joseph, were travelling with “spicery, balm, and myrrh.” Balm was and still is considered there one of the most valuable of medicines.

Constitution (seep. 84). The legislature of Britain is entrusted to three distinct powers, entirely independent of each other: first, the king or queen ; secondly, the lords spiritual and temporal; and thirdly, the house of commons, chosen by the people. This aggregate body, actuated by different springs, and attentive to different interests, composes the British parliament, and has the supreme disposal of every thing. Here is lodged the sovereignty of the British Constitution, and lodged as beneficially as is possible for society.

Rainbow (see p. 86). This phenomenon never takes place but when a cloud opposed to the shining sun dissolves in rain, from which it follows that to observe this spectacle the back of the spectator must be turned towards the sun. Frequently there are two bows or arches ; an inner one in which the colours are more vivid, and an outer one in which they are paler. Each exhibits the same series of colours as the image produced by the prism. Both the bows depend, though with some difference, upon the refraction of light combined with its reflection. The marine bow appears at sea in the water which the wind carries off the tops of the waves. Many of those are seen together. They have their curved parts turned towards the sea, and their ends upwards.

Bells (see p 88). In the towns and provinces of Canada, the approach of w'inter is hailed with delight instead of dread. The chief mode of travelling is called sleighing. The more snow, the better the sleighing-season is considered. All vehicles are then supplied with wooden runners, shod with iron after the manner of skates. The horses are all adorned with strings of little brass bells about their necks or middles. The merry jingle of these bells is far from disagreeable, producing a light lively sound.

Backwoods of Canada.


Nature and Revelation.

Nature, eig. pers. God—Visible Creation. Revelation—Bible—written will of God.

1.    Nature forerunner of Revelation. Teaching God’s power—wisdom—majesty (Rom. i. 20); dimly shadowing—mercy and love, il. fields—harvest, &c. ; terrors, ix. earthquake—tempest—drought, &c.

2.    Revelation light from heaven,—expounding nature— illustrating Divine characterGod revealed to Adam —Cain—Noah, &c.—at last in Christ. After resurrection—at Pentecost—in connection with Holy Spirit— through Scriptures to the whole world—as “just and yet justifying the ungodly”—holy, yet merciful and true—a Judge and a Saviour—the Object of supreme honour—of holy fear—of deepest love.

Lessons.—1. Folly and sin of rejecting revelation on the ground that nature is sufficient—frequent cause of this—shrinking from the moral character of God—his justice—holiness—hatred of moral evil.

2. Duty of regarding nature as a manifestation of Deity —should be studied—enjoyed—sanctified ; its harmony with revelation—traced.


Greenland,—East of America — stretching towards North Pole—show map. Mountainous—inland rocks covered with perpetual snow—low lands verdant in summer.

1.    Inhabitants—short—brawny—inclined to corpulence ; faces broad—nose flat—lips thick; dispositions—indolent—apprehensive—orderly— good-natured—hospitable ; food—seals—sea-fowl—rein-deer, &c.—obtained by fishing and hunting; dwellings—in winter, huts of turf—summer, tents covered with skins.

2.    Winter in Greenland,—doors and windows closed—

constant fires—warm furs. Long night—two months ; sounds in air—meeting of masses of ice—splitting of rocks—cry of seals. Severity of frost—linen in drawers—water on table—pillows and bed—lamp never extinguished.    _

Lesson.—Happiness not dependent on outward circumstances. A large share of enjoyment experienced by Greenlanders.



witness shall not he unpunished,: eth lies shall not escape.”



aîi i&that speak-

The Sabbath

u The Sabbath bell! the Sabh&l^ . What soul-awakening sounds Its blessed invitations tell ’    ,‘T

Of welcome to the house of bij

Hence, fancy wild! hence¡tearthMiorn care!

With awe let hallowed cwjrts be trod ;

Wake all the soul to lo’ite and grayer,

And reverence the present GotL”

Abbott’« Reader,


u The next day, July 2, was our first Sunday on our own grounds.

The whole party were accordingly assembled after breakfast, under a venerable acacia tree, on the margin of the little stream which murmured around our camp.

The river appeared shaded here and there by the graceful willow of Babylon, which grows abundantly along many of the African streams, and which, with the other peculiar features of the scenery, vividly reminded us of the pathetic lament of the Hebrew exiles:—By the rivers of Babylon there we sat down : yea, we wept when we remembered Zion.

Subject. Feelings awakened at the sound of the Sabbath bell.

Analysis. Soul-awakening, i. e. by association, invitation, al. each sound of the bell, wild, sen. leading from serious thoughts, earth-born, dis. thoughts having their source and end in heaven.

Lesson. God requires to be worshipped with all our heart and soul and mind.

It was, indeed, an affecting sight to look round on our little barjd of Scottish emigrants, thus congregated for the first l&me to worship God in the wild glen allotted for they future home, and the heritage of their offspring. ' * ;

There sat, with his silvery locks, the patriarch of the party with his Bible on his knee, a picture of the high-principled,, grave Scottish husbandman; his respectable family seated round him. There was the widow with her meek, kind, and quiet look. There were her three stalwart sons, and there her young maiden daughter placed beside her on the grass.

While vve were Mriging our last psalm in the afternoon, an antelope, which appeared to have wandered down the valley without .observing us, stood for a little while on the opposite side of the rivulet, as if yet unacquainted with man—the great destroyer. On this day of peace it was, of course, permitted to depart unmolested.

On this and other occasions, the scenery and productions of the country reminded us in the most forcible manner of the image of the Hebrew Scriptures. The parched and thorny desert, the rugged and stony mountains, the dry beds of torrents, the green pastures by the quiet waters; the lions’ dens; the mountains of leopards ; the roes and the young harts (antelopes) that feed among the lilies; the coney of the rock; the ostrich of the wilderness; the shadow of a great rock in a weary land ; these and a thousand other objects, with the striking and appropriate descriptions which accompany them, recurred to us continually with a sense of their beauty and aptitude, which we had never fully felt before.”—Pringle.

Subject. A sketch of the feelings of a pious family neiol arrived in a wild part of Africa.

Analysis. Exiles, rt. emigrant, rt. congregated, rt. Scriptures, kt. descriptions, rt. recurred, rt. Africa, Babylon, acacia, willow, lilies, antelope, lion, leopard, coney, ostrich, exp.

Lesson L Religion is an ever-present blessing, which neither time nor place can deprive us of. II. God’s omnipresence.

Text for the day.—Prov. xix. 8.—“ He that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul: he that keepeth understanding shall find good.'’

Birds of Passage.

“ Birds, joyous birds of the wandering wing!

Whence is it ye come with the flowers of spring? We come from the shore of the green old Nile, From the land where the roses of Sharon smile, From the palms that wave through the Indian sky, From the myrrh trees of glowing Araby.

We have swept o’er the cities in song renown’d, Silent they lie, with the deserts around!

We have cross’d proud rivers, whose tide hath roll’d All dark with the warriors’ blood of old ;

And each worn wing hath regain’d its home,

Under peasants’ roof tree, or monarch’s dome.

Birds, through the wastes of the trackless air Ye have a guide, and shall we despair?

Ye over desert and deep have pass’d,

So shall we reach our bright home at last.”

Felicia Hemans.


The usual distinction betwixt earthenware and porcelain or china is, that the former is opaque, and the latter semi-transparent. Porcelain is also considerably heavier than common earthenware.

Subject. Inquiry of birds of passage—their course recounted ; encouragement drawn from their history.

Analysis. Birds of passage, il. quails, swallows, wild ducks, plovers, woodcocks, &c. with, i. e. at the time. Nile, exp. il. quails, swallows, &c. (vide p. 102). Sharon, exp. (vide p. 102). Araby or Arabia, exp. (vide p. 102, myrrh.) worn, sen. tired, guide, sen. instinct is a second cause; but God is the first cause, despair, sen. lack confidence in God’s providential care of us.

Lesson I. If God provides for the wants of the birds of the air, will he not care for us whom he has placed over his creation ? II. We must exercise faith in God—if the bird’s confidence fails, it falls into the desert or the sea, and perishes for ever.

In the manufacture of porcelain the clay is sometimes used alone, and sometimes intermixed with other earths, or with felspar.

The following account of the process is given by Mrs. B run ton :—

Flints are first calcined, then mixed in certain proportions with grey Cornish granite, and ground to a powder. Water is poured upon this powder, and it is twice strained through silk sieves.

The mixture is then boiled till it is as thick as cream, and evaporated till it becomes a tough paste. Pieces of it are then placed upon a turning-wheel; and moulded solely by hand, with wonderful precision and rapidity.

Every piece is then placed in a separate clay case. The furnace is filled with these, built closely up, and subjected to a red heat for sixty hours. It is then allowed to cool; the porcelain is withdrawn, and in this state is called the biscuit. It is greatly diminished in size by this process.

It is now ready to receive the blue colour, which is cobalt, and looks of a dirty grey, till exposed to the action of the glazing. The glazing consists of lead and glass ground to an impalpable powder, mixed with certain secret ingredients in water. The biscuit is merely dipped into the glazing, and is then baked again for- forty hours.

It is now ready to receive all other colours which the pattern may require, and the gilding. It is then baked a third time for ten hours or more, according to the colours employed. Lastly, the gilding is burnished with bloodstone or agate, and the china is ready for the wareroom.”

Subject. Process of making porcelain.

Analysis. Semi-transparent, rt. felspar, exp. calcined, rt. granite, exp. evaporate, rt. subjected, tit. cobalt,i. e. a mineral producing arsenic, burnished, i. e. polished.

Note.—If specimens can be obtained, the processes (seventeen) of making a piece of china might be explained.

Text for the day.—Prov. xix. 15.—“ Slothfulness casteth into a deep sleep: and an idle soul shall suffer hunger.”


“ There’s not a leaf within the bower,

There’s not a bird upon the tree,

There’s not a dew-drop on the flower,

But bears the impress, Lord, of thee !

Yes; dew-drops, leaves, and buds, and all,

The smallest, like the greatest things,

The sea’s vast space, the earth’s wide ball,

Alike proclaim the King of kings.”

Mrs. Opik.


Some labourers are paid higher than others. A carpenter earns more than a ploughman, and a watchmaker or a surgeon more than either; and yet this is not from the one working harder than the other. You see from this that the rate of wages does not depend on the hardness of the labour, but on the value of the work done.

But on what does the value of the work depend ? The value of each kind of work is like the value of any thing else ; it is greater or less according to the limitation of its supply,—that is, the difficulty of procuring it. If there were no more expence, time, and trouble in obtaining a pound of gold than a pound of copper, then gold would be of no more value than copper.

Subject. 'Every part of creation bears witness to God’s glory.

Analysis. Impress, sen. mark of the hand of God. proclaim, sen. gi\e proof of.

Lesson. He who observes aright, sees God in every thing.

But why should the supply of watch-makers and surgeons be more limited than that of carpenters and ploughmen ? Why is it more difficult to make a man a watch-maker than a ploughman ?

The chief reason is, that the education required costs a great deal more. A long time must be spent in learning the business of a watch-maker or a surgeon, before a man can acquire enough skill to practise; so that, unless you have enough to support you all this time, and also to pay your master for teaching you the art, you cannot become a watch-maker or a surgeon. And no father would go to the expence of breeding up his son a surgeon or watch-maker, even though he could well afford it, if he did not expect him to earn more than a carpenter, whose education costs much less.

But sometimes a father is disappointed in his expectation. If the son should turn out stupid or idle, he would not acquire skill enough to maintain himself by his business, and then the expence of his education would be lost. For it is not merely the expensive education of a surgeon that causes him to be paid more for setting a man’s leg, than a carpenter is for mending the leg of a table ; but the expensive education causes fewer people to become surgeons. It causes the supply of surgeons to be more limited, that is, confined to a few; and it is this limitation that is the cause of their being better paid. So that you see the value of each kind of labour is higher or lower, like that of all other things, according as the supply is limited.”—Money Matters.

Subject. The demand for a thing, and the comparative expence of obtaining it, make it valuable.

Analysis. Bate, i. e. usual or regular price, education, kt.

Lesson, The important consideration is not what trade or profession we earn our living by, but whether we labour in aright spirit, and do all to the glory of God.

Text fob the day.—Prov. xix. 17.—“ He that hath pity upon the poor, lendeth unto the Lord; and that which he hath given will he pay him, again.”

Happiness of Man.

“-’Tis to have

Attentive and believing faculties ;

To go abroad rejoicing in the joy Of beautiful and well-created things ;

To love the voice of waters, and the sheen Of silver fountains leaping to the sea ;

To thrill with the rich melody of birds,

Living their life of music ; to be glad In the gay sunshine, reverent in the storm ;

To see a beauty in the stirring leaf,

And find calm thoughts beneath the whispering tree ; To see, and hear, and breathe the evidence Of God’s deep wisdom in the natural world !

It is to love all virtue for itself,

All nature for its breathing evidence ;

And when the eye hath seen, and when the ear Hath drunk the beautiful harmony of the world,

It is to humble the imperfect mind.

And lean the broken spirit upon God l”

N. P. Willis.

Subject. To enjoy much—our taste must be simple and natural—we must be sympathising and susceptible of fine impressions—but especially possess a humble spirit.

Analysis. Believing faculties, dis. cavilling, captious, or obstinate, sheen, i. e. brightness, Saxon name of Richmond Hill. harmony, sen. agreement of all things—working design, imperfect, sen. unable to comprehend, broken, sen. subdued, dis. proud or conceited.

Lesson I. Happiness must be based on humility. II. Strive to see God in every thing, and regard all things as kindly given by him for our enjoyment.


If we look to what the waters produce, shoals of the fry of fish frequent the margins of rivers, of lakes, and of the sea itself. They are so happy that they know not what to do with themselves.

Their attitudes, their vivacity, their leaps out of the water, their frolics in it, (which I have noticed a thousand times with equal attention and amusement), all conduce to show their excess of spirits, and are simply the effects of that excess.

Walking by the sea-side in a calm evening, upon a sandy shore, and with an ebbing tide, I have frequently remarked the appearance of a black cloud, or rather very thick mist, hanging over the edge of the water, to the height, perhaps, of half a yard, and of the breadth of two or three yards, stretching along the coast as far as the eye could reach, and always retiring with the water. When this cloud came to be examined, it proved to be nothing else than so much space filled with young shrimps, in the act of bounding into the air from the shallow margin of the water, or from the wet sand.

If any motion of a mute animal could express delight, it was this ; if they had meant to make signs of their happiness, they could not have done it more intelligibly.

Suppose, then, what I have no doubt of, each individual of this number to be in a state of positive enjoyment, what a sum collectively of gratification and pleasure have we here before our view!”—'Paley.

Subject. Delights of fishes shown in various ways.

Analysis. Shoals, i. e. multitudes—very many thousands. positive, i. e. not merely existence free from pain, but possessing enjoyments in addition to their negative advantages, collectively, nr.

Lesson. Not to judge others happy or unhappy simply by what our feelings would be in the same situation. Eel in the mud—the almost buried oyster in its shell—the solitary owl in the desert, have their enjoyments.

Text for the day.—Prov. xix. 21.—“ There are many devices in a man's heart: nevertheless the counsel of the Lord that shall stand'’

The Worm.

Turn, turn thy hasty foot aside, »

Nor crush that helpless worm ;

The frame thy wayward looks deride None but a God could form.

The common Lord of all that move,

From whom thy being flow’d,

A portion of his boundless love On that poor worm bestow’d.

Let them enjoy their little day,

Their lowly bliss receive;

Oh ! do not lightly take away The life thou canst not give.”



Many of the different employments of mankind are full of interest. The Arab wandering in the sultry desert, the mariner sailing the heaving ocean, the miner toiling in the bowels of the earth, and the chamois hunter mounting the mighty Alps,—all excite our curiosity.

The hunting of the chamois has been described by many travellers, but perhaps by none more interestingly then by Saussure, who performed the difficult ascent of Mont Blanc.

Subject. A worm should not be wantonly hilled—helpless— formed and provided for by God—we cannot give it life.

Analysis. Boundless love, sen. his love shown by giving it life.

Lesson. We ought not wantonly to kill or pain any thing which God has made.

According to ms account,me cnamois hunter sets out upon his expedition of fatigue and danger generally in the night. His object is to find himself at the break of day in the most elevated pastures, where the chamois comes to feed before the flocks shall have arrived there. The chamois feeds only at morning and evening.

When the hunter has nearly reached the spot where he expects to find his prey, he reconnoitres with a telescope. If he finds not the chamois, he mounts still higher; but if he discovers him, he endeavours to climb above him, and to get nearer, by passing round some ravine, or gliding behind some eminence or rock.

When he js near enough to distinguish the horns of the animal, which are small, round, pointed, and bent backward like a hook, he rests his rifle upon a rock, and takes his aim with great coolness. He rarely misses. This rifle is often double-barrelled.

If thé chamois falls, he runs to his prey, makes sure of him by cutting the hamstrings, and applies himself to consider by what way he may best regain his village. If the route is very difficult, he contents himself with skinning the chamois ; but if the way is at all practicable with a load, he throws the animal over his shoulder, and bears it home to his family, undaunted by the distance he has to go, and the precipices he has to cross.”—Menageries.

Subject. Description of the mode of catching the chamois.

Analysis. Chamois, i. e. a mountain goat—skin made into soft leather called shammy, Deut. xiv. 5, (vide p. 102). Mont Blanc, Alps, exp. reconnoitres, i. e. examines cautiously, rifle,

i. e. a gun with squared shot exactly fitting the barrel, precipices, RT.

Lesson. Animals are given us for food.—It is therefore lawful to kill them for that purpose.


Nile (see p. 94). The Nile is a large and celebrated river of Africa, to which the country of Egypt owes its fertility; without this river the country would soon become uninhabitable, as rain seldom tails. It flows with a gentle stream through the flat country, and its waters are muddy. This river, swelled by the rains which fall in Abyssinia, begins to rise in Egypt about the month of May ; but the increase is inconsiderable till June, when it is proclaimed through the streets of Cairo. When it has risen to its full height, the people cry out that God has given them abundance. To convey the water over the country, canals are cut in every direction.

Rose oe Sharon (see p. 94). Sharon is a name common to three cantons of Palestine. The first lay between Mount Tabor and the sea of Tiberias ; the second between the city of Caesarea, of Palestine, and Joppa; and the third lay beyond Jordan. To give an idea of perfect beauty, Isaiah said, the glory of Lebanon and the beauty of Carmel must be joined to the abundance of Sharon. (Isa. xxxiii. 9; xxxi. 2.) The plains of Sharon are of vast extent.

Myrrh trees (seep. 94). Myrrh is a gum resin, the exudation from a tree which grows in Abyssinia, Arabia, and other countries of the East. It is supposed to be a species of Mimosa. This drug is generally imported in grains of an irregular form. Its smell is aromatic ; and its taste is pungent and bitter. Two kinds of myrrh are found in the shops ; Turkey myrrh, which is the best; and an inferior kind, called Indian myrrh.

Chamois (see p. 100). The Chamois is a kind of antelope, abont the size of a goat, with short, erect, round, and smooth horns, which are hooked backward at the tips. These animals inhabit many of the mountainous parts of Europe, particularly the Alps and Pyrenees. They associate in flocks from four or five to nearly a hundred in number. The chief objects of pursuit in hunting them are the flesh and the skin—the former is nutritious and wholesome, and the latter, when dressed with oil, forms a soft, warm, and pliable leather called Shammy.



Porcelain—fine earthenware. First brought to Europe from Japan and China—distinguished for whiteness— transparency—elegance.

1.    Where now chiefly made.—In all states of Europe—-in France, Sevres—in England, Worcester—potteries —Derby, &c. &c. Now superior in beauty and whiteness to oriental.

2.    Process of manufacture.—Flints calcined—mixed— made into thick paste ; placed on turning-wheel—for cups, &c. moulded by hand—dishes in moulds : each piece placed in case ; in furnace—red heat for 60 hours—this is, biscuit. Next receives blue colour— then dipped in glazing liquid, composed of lead, glass, &c.—again baked 40 hours—now ready for painting —painted—again baked—gilding burnished with an agate—is ready for sale.

Observe 1. Colours are changed by baking—rose colour is dull purple till baked—gilding is black as ink.

2. A gilded tea-cup goes through seventeen processes.


Wages—reward for service performed ; varies according to circumstances ; depends not on amount of toil, but on value of work done ; this is regulated by,

1.    Amount of skill required—hence carpenter paid more than ploughman—watchmaker than bricklayer—good workman than bad.

2.    Expence of attaining the shill—apprenticeships— premiums—education ; hence watchmaker paid for time, and for all it has cost him to acquire his art— apothecary not for drugs only, or time and drugs, but for years spent in education—cost of books, instruments, &c.

3.    Demand for the kind of labour—constancy of demand, &c.

Lesson 1. Folly of thinking it unjust that one man should receive more than another for his labour.

2.    Impossibility of regulating wages by law—has been attempted—always failed—why (see above).

3.    Way in which labourer can improve his lot;—increased skill—knowledge of best markets for labour, —habits of forethought, temperance—economy.

Text for the day.—Prov. xix. 9.—“ A false witness shall not he unpunished, and he that speah-eth lies shall perish


“The self-applauding bird, the peacock, see— Mark what a sumptuous Pharisee is he !

Meridian sunbeams tempt him to unfold His radiant glories, azure, green, and gold ;

He treads as if some solemn music near His measured step were govern’d by his ear:

And seems to say—Ye meaner fowl, give place,

I am all splendour, dignity, and grace.

Not so the pheasant on his charms presumes, Though he too has a glory in his plumes.

He, Christian-like, retreats with modest mien To the close copse, or far sequester’d green,

And shines without desiring to be seen.”



It requires years and much experience to know ourselves ; hence it is, that self-conceit is the fault of youth and ignorance.

If, owing to accidental circumstances, it should in any instance be the case that we are thought of more

Subject. Contrast between the vanity of the peacock and the modesty of the pheasant.

Analysis. Peacock, exp. sumptuous, rt. sen. splendidly dressed. Pharisee, i. e. thinking highly of himself, and despising others, al. Luke xviii. 9—14. meridian, i. e. line from North Pole to South Pole, sen. noon, tempt, moment for most display. radiant, rt. azure, i. e. faint blue, pheasant, exp. presumes, rt. plumes, i. e. feathers, retreats, sen. retires from observation, mien, i. e. look and manner, sequestered, i. e. withdrawn from notice.

Lesson I. Vanity is great folly, and often leads to much sin, al. Herod. Acts xii. 21—23. II. Real worth is always modest.

than we deserve, let it ever be remembered that nothing can be done on our parts to redress the grievance.

In most cases, indeed, the more we can help ourselves, the better; and he that would have his business done, must do it himself: but here it is just the reverse. If we set but one step towards our own exaltation, we shall assuredly have to take two or three downwards for our pains. To deserve esteem is in our power; but if we claim it, we cease to deserve, and shall certainly forfeit it.

Young people, at the period when they are acquiring knowledge, are very liable to self-conceit; and thus, by their own folly, defeat the great purpose of instruction, which is, not to make them vain, but wise. They are apt to forget that knowledge is not for show, but for use; and that the desire to exhibit what they know, is invariably a proof that their acquirements are superficial.

Besides, like most other faults, self-conceit is no solitary failing, but ever brings many more in its train. They who are very desirous to shine themselves, are always envious of the attainments of others; and will be ingenious in discovering defects in these who are more accomplished than themselves.”

Jane Taylor.

Subject. Self-knowledge difficult—self-conceit a result of ignorance; we may deserve esteem, but must not claim it—envy accompanies a desire to shine.

Analysis. Conceit, ms. pride in real attainments, another form of evil. dis. self-confidence which may be good. il. Jer. xvii. 9. claim, sen. by that show we are judging ourselves by others—not humble, therefore not worthy of esteem, acquiring, JtT. liable, Alt. feeling after having wrought a difficult sum, See. vain, il. 1 Cor. viii. 1. exhibits, kt. superficial, sen. not thought deeply, or looked beyond the mere study to its uses. solitary, rt. accomplished, kt.

Lesson I. Let us shun vanity, if we desire to be esteemed by the wise, or would avoid falling into the sin of envy. II. Knowledge is worse than useless if it makes us proud.


Text for the day.Prov. xvii. 4.—“ A wicked doer giveth heed to false lips; and a liar giveth ear to a naughty tongue

Sultry Noon.

-“ The fields are still;

The husbandman has gone to his repast,

And, that partaken, on the coolest side Of his abode, reclines, in sweet repose.

Deep in the shaded stream the cattle stand,

The flocks beside the fence, with heads all prone, And panting quick. The fields for harvest ripe,

No breezes bend in smooth and graceful waves, While with their motion, dim and bright by turns, The sunshine seems to move ; nor e’en a breath Brushes along the surface with a shade Fleeting and thin, like that of flying smoke.”

Carlos Wilcox.


July is the hottest month in the year. The direct influence of the sun, indeed, is diminishing ; but the earth and air have been so thoroughly heated, that the warmth which they retain more than compensates for the gradual diminution of the sun’s rays.

The effects of this weather upon the face of nature soon become manifest. AH the flowers of the former month lose their beauty, and the whole plant hastens to decay.

Subject. Appearances on a sultry day at noon.

Analysis. Noon, (vide Meridian, p. 114). husbandman, sen. one who labours in agriculture, repast, rt. daily meal, al. recovery of lost strength by food, coolest, sun never comes to the north in England, reclines, rt. flocks, al. sheep—gregarious. sweet, effect of labour, al. Eccles. v. 12. ripe, al, August, bend, i. e. fields of wheat, seems, al. changes of light and shade. flying smoke, al. appearance of cloud shadows passing over the fields.

Lesson I. The sun in two ways produces this weakness in our bodies;—first, by directly heating them: secondly, by so rarefying or thinning the air, that at each inspiration a less quantity is taken into the lungs. II. The change of the seasons indispensable to our health, and to the growth of food.

Many plants, however, do not begin to flower till July. The lily is one of the principal ornaments of gardens in this month; and, with its delicate white flowers, gives an agreeable sensation of coolness to the eye.

While the animal creation seem oppressed with languor during this hot season, and either seek the recesses of woods or resort to pools and streams, to cool their bodies and quench their thirst, the insect tribe are peculiarly active and vigorous. These minute creatures are, for the most part, annual, being hatched in the spring, and dying at the approach of winter.

The farmer’s chief employment in July is getting home the various products of the earth. It is the principal hay-month in some parts of the country; and the work-people suffer much fatigue from the excessive heat to which they are exposed.

Flax and hemp are pulled in this month. These plants are cultivated in various parts of Europe. The stalks of both are full of tough fibres or strings, which, separated and prepared in a particular manner, become fit for spinning into thread. Of flax linen is made, from the finest cambric to the coarsest canvas. Hemp is chiefly used for coarse cloth, such as strong sheeting and sacking, but it is sometimes wrought to considerable fineness; it is also twisted into ropes and cables.

The corn harvest begins in July in some parts of Ireland; but August and September are the principal harvest months.”—Sunday Scholar’s Magazine.

Subject. State of the country in the month of July—most flowers die—insects very numerous—farmers busy—flax and hemp.

Analysis. July, so called in honour of Julius Caesar (vide p. 114). diminishing, i. e. from the 21st of June, the longest day, and the day on which the sun approaches nearest to the North Pole, retain, in. compensates, rt. animal, dis. vegetable and mineral, recesses, RT. insect, RT. also animals, if so small as to require a microscope, they are called animalcula. annual, rt. pools, &c. water being a good conductor of heat, and cooler, the heat of the body rapidly passes to the water. cultivate, rt. spinning, exp. Ireland, exp.

Lesson. God gives food for all, but requires that all creatures should labour for it.

F 2

Text for the day.—Prov. xvii. 5.—“ Whoso mocketh the poor, reproacheth his Maker : and he that is glad at calamities shall not he unpunished.”


“O Liberty ! the prisoner’s pleasing dream,

The poet’s muse, his passion, and his theme ; Genius is thine, and thou art Fancy’s nurse ;

Lost without thee th’ ennobling powers of verse ; Heroic song from thy free touch acquires Its clearest note, the rapture it inspires ;

Place me where winter breathes his keenest air,

And I will sing, if Liberty be there :

And I will sing at Liberty’s dear feet,

In Afric’s torrid clime, or India’s fiercest heat.”



If men spun by hand and wove by hand, supposing this possible, one man could produce but very little thread, and very little cloth : his labour would be in the utmost degree unproductive.

But if he invent a spinning-wheel and a loom, his labour becomes at once vastly more valuable, and he can produce ten or twenty times as much as he could before, and he is able to provide himself with a much greater portion of the necessaries and comforts of life.

Subject. Liberty man’s dearest earthly possession.

Analysis. Liberty, via. pees. dis. licentiousness—without laws neither liberty nor protection, dream, i. e. the thoughts of a person sleeping, muse, i. e. constant thought, passion, i. e. exciting his strongest desires, theme, i. e. subject of his song. genius, i. e. great mental powers improved by study, sen. freedom encourages the development of these powers, nurse, sen. presenting noble thoughts which excite imagination. Africa, central, exp. India, southern, exp.

Lesson. The possession of civil rights and of religious liberty fosters genius, poetry, and heroism, and is far more precious than any advantages of climate.

If now we furnish him with a spinning-jenny and a power-loom, his labour will be still more productive; and, as he creates with a given amount of labour a greater amount of the means of happiness, a larger portion will fall to his own share,—that is, he will be both richer and happier.

Facts show that such has always been the result; the labour of the North American Indian, or the Eastern Hindoo, is without machinery and without division, and it is of course very unproductive. A human being without tools can produce a very small amount of value or means of human happiness; hence he is very poor; and as thus, by the whole number of human beings there is but very little produced, the whole community is very poor.

The whole wealth of the Indian is a blanket, and a bow and arrows; that of a Hindoo, a pot of rice and a cotton cloth. How different is the condition of the labourer in this country! here he has furniture, food, and clothing, and is able to obtain for his children the elements of a sound and valuable education.

Thus it is always found, that the greater the productiveness of industry, the greater are the wages of the labourer, and the better it is for all classes of men.”— Wayland.

Subject. Machinery enriches both individuals and com-munities—shown by reasoning and by comparison.

Analysis. Unproductive, rt. spinning wheel, exp. loom, weaver’s frame, spinning jenny, exp. Power-loom, i. e. worked by steam, &c. creates, i. e. makes from nothing—God only can, sen. produces that which would not else exist, division, i. e. of labour, al. each workman making the whole article, education, RT. training the mind to think aright; reading, writing, &c. being but helps or elements to this result.

Lesson I. He who invents machinery confers blessings on all, by making things cheap for all. II. The poorest of the poor in England are not so destitute of clothing, the means of getting food, and the comforts of life, as the mass of the Indian and Hindoo population.

Text for the day.Prov. xvii.9.—“He that covereth a transgression seeketh love; but he thatrepeateth a matter separateth very friends

The Elephant.

“ Trampling his path through wood and brake,

And canes, which crackling fall before his way,

And tassel-grass, whose silvery feathers play, O’ertopping the young trees,

On conies the elephant, to slake

His thirst at noon in yon pellucid springs.

Lo ! from his trunk upturn’d, aloft he flings The grateful shower ; and now Plucking the broad-leaved bough Of yonder plume, with waving motion slow Panning the languid air,

He waves it to and fro.”



This stately animal lives in herds or troops, in remote and secluded districts, especially where large streams or rivers, flowing through a wide and level tract, are bordered by a luxuriant vegetation.

“ A herd of elephants,” says Mr. Pringle, browsing in majestic tranquillity, amidst the wild magnificence of an African landscape, is a very noble sight, and one of which I shall never forget the impression.

Subject. The elephant—his course to the springs—modes of cooling himself.

Analysis. Elephant, exp. hrake, i. e. fern or brambles. fall, al. great weight, about 5000 lbs. pellucid, rt. flings, i. e. by blowing through his trunk, grateful, al. cooling him by falling on him. fanning, i. e. with the bough, languid, al. feelings produced by it.

Lesson I. In man’s power over the elephant we have a striking instance of the power of mind over brute force.

The young elephant is very playful, delighting to ¦gambol and frolic, and displaying the exuberance of its buoyant feelings by a thousand antics. It does not arrive at maturity till between eighteen and twenty-four.

The following instance of the sagacity of elephants occurred at Enon, a missionary station in South Africa. A troop of those animals came down one dark and rainy evening close to the outskirts of the village, and made a tremendous noise all night.

Next morning, on examining the spot where they had heard the elephants, the inhabitants discovered the cause of all this nocturnal uproar. There was a ditch or trench, about four or five feet in width, and nearly fourteen in depth : into this unfinished trench, which at present contained no water, one of the elephants had fallen. How he had got in, was easy to conjecture ; but how, being once in, he had ever contrived to get out again, was the marvel.

On examining the spot, the edges of the trench were found deeply indented with numerous vestiges of foot-marks. The other elephants, it seems, had stationed themselves on either side of the hole, some of them kneeling, and others on their feet, and thus, by united efforts, and probably many failures, had hoisted their unlucky brother out of the pit.”


Subject. Habits of the elephant—in herds—secluded— tranquil; when young, very playful; instance of sagacity.

Analysis. Herds, i. e. gregarious, secluded, rt. browsing,

i. e. on twigs and shrubs—not carnivorous, magnificence, rt. impression, rt. buoyant, i. e. rising above troubles, like cork above water, sagacity, al. largest quantity of brain next to man. occurred, rt. examining, rt. al. swarm of bees searching out every unguarded spot, inhabitants, rt. nocturnal, rt. conjecture, rt. indented, rt.

Lesson I. Tranquil enjoyment of God’s gifts, in firm confidence that he careth for us. II. Nothing nobler, even in man, than risking life for the safety of another.

Text for the day.—Prov. xvii. 25.—“ A foolish son is a grief to his father, and bitterness to her that bare him.”

The Dead Traveller.

The fragrant birch above him hung Her tassels in the sky ;

And many a vernal blossom sprung,

And nodded careless by.

And long they look’d, and fear’d, and wept, Within his distant home ;

And dream’d, and started, as they slept,

For joy that he was come.

So long they look’d ; but never spied His welcome step again,

Nor knew the fearful death he died,

Far down that narrow glen.”


the poisonous valley.

“This valley is distant only three miles from Batur, in Java; and on the 4th of July, 1831, Mr. Loudon, with a party of friends, set out to visit it. When a few yards from the valley, a strong nauseous and suffocating smell was experienced; but on approaching the margin, this inconvenience was no longer fo^nd.

The scene that now presented itself is described as of the most appalling nature. The valley is about half a mile in circumference, of an oval shape, and about thirty or thirty-five feet in depth. The bottom of it appeared to be flat, without any vegetation, and a few large stones scattered here and there.

The attention of the party was immediately attracted

Subject.    Traveller—dead—unburied—anxiety of distant


Analysis. Birch, exi\ careless, al. course of nature undisturbed by man’s death.

Lesson I. Consideration of the motives which induce men to leave their families—search for wealth—knowledge—restlessness, desire to do good, &c. II. Most important to have ever a good motive for each act. III. To part in love. IV, Death often seizes suddenly.

to the number of skeletons of human beings, tigefS) boars, deer, and all sorts of birds and wild animals, which lay about in profusion. The ground on which they lay at the bottom of the valley appeared to be a hard, sandy substance ; and no vapour was perceived issuing from it, nor any opening through which it might escape, and the sides were covered with vegetation.

It was now proposed to enter it; and each of the party having lit a cigar, managed to get within twenty feet of the bottom, when a sickening nauseous smell was experienced, without any difficulty of breathing.

A dog was now fastened at the end of a bamboo, and thrust to the bottom of the valley, while some of the party, with their watches in their hands, observed the effects. At the expiration of fourteen seconds, the dog fell off his legs, without moving or looking round, and continued alive only eighteen minutes. A fowl was now thrown in, which died in a minute and a half; and another, which was thrown in after it, died in the space of a minute and a half.

On the opposite side of the valley to that which was visited, lay a human skeleton, the head resting on the right arm. The effects of the weather had bleached the bones as white as ivory. The human skeletons are supposed to be those of rebels, who had been pursued from the main road, and had taken refuge in the valley, without their knowledge of the danger to which they were thus exposing themselves.”—Weekly Visitor.

Subject. Visit to a poisonous valley in Java—sterile— skeletons—death of dog—fowls—rebels.

A nalysis. Batur, in Java, exp nauseous, rt. al. feeling of sea-sickness. suffocating, rt. described, rt. appalling, making the face pale with fear, circumference, RT. oval, rt. sen. nearly circular, attracted, rt. skeletons,—about 240 bones in a human skeleton, profusion, rt. bamboo, i. e. an Indian plant—ranked by Linnaeus as a grass—40 to 70 feet high (vide p. 114). expiration, rt. rebels, rt.

Lesson I. The exactness with which God has mixed the gases which compose the air we breathe,—if they were changed only a very little, all living beings on the earth would instantly die. II. Rebellion against lawful authority is a change from protection and security, to danger, and perhaps destruction.


Meridian (see p. 106) from meridies, mid-day, or noon. As the earth revolves round its axis, every part of its surface is turned directly towards the sun once in the course of a revolution. The sun will then appear at its greatest height, and it will be noon, or mid-day {meridies). If a line be drawn from the north to the south pole, all places under it will have noon at the same time. These imaginary lines which are drawn on globes are therefore called meridians.

Longitude is the distance of any place east or west from the first meridian reckoned on the equator. Geographers of different nations measure the degrees of longitude from meridians drawn through places in their own country. We reckon from Greenwich.

In travelling due east or west, we remain in the same latitude, but we change our longitude. In going eastward, for instance, from Paris to Vienna, we should change our longitude fifteen degrees, and therefore should have noon an hour earlier; because in proceeding eastward we meet the sun sooner, in the proportion of an hour for every fifteen degrees. Hence, when it is noon at Paris, it will be about six o’clock in the evening in the East Indies, and nearly the same hour in the morning in America.

July (see p. 107). This month is so called after Julius Ctesar. According to ancient reckoning it was the fifth month of the year, and called Quintilis, until Mark Anthony denominated it July, in compliment to Caius Caesar, the Roman dictator, whose surname was Julius, who improved the calendar, and who was born in this month. July was called by the Saxons henmonath, which probably expressed the meaning of the German word ham, signifying wood or trees; ana hence henmonath might mean foliage month. They likewise call it hay-month, because therein they usually mowed and made their hay-harvest.”

Bamboo (see p. 113). There is scarcely any plant so common in hot climates as this, and few more extensively useful. The inhabitants of many parts of India build their houses almost w'holly of bamboo cane, and make nearly every description of furniture with it. Many of the walking-canes which we see in England are formed of the young shoots of this plant.”—Bingeey.



Conceit—exaggera ted opinion of attainments, dis. selfconfidence which, regulated — good — leading to promptitude—decision—presence of mind in danger— founded on experience of power after repeated trial.

1.    Opposed to improvement,—conceited boy—inattentive —superficial—fancies he understands a thing before he has seen its difficulties—inaccurate ; result—vain confidence—failure.

2.    Offensive to the wise and good. Leads to pertness— forwardness—flippant behaviour;—occasions failure in trust from inefficiency—want of exactness—due attention to instructions.—Prevents due appreciation of services—if we claim praise, we cease to deserve it. Fosters pride—self-sufficiency and love of display; — leads to envy and detraction.

Lesson. The more we know, the more we shall feel our own ignorance.


Elephant—height, eight to ten feet; body, massive i toes, hoofed ; shin, thick ; food, vegetable; does not ruminate; distinctive features—proboscis — tusks, sometimes nine feet long,—and weight 150 pounds ; —sw ims broad rivers with ease ;—hearing delicate ;—-eyes small—full of expression.

1.    Where found. Africa and India—two distinct species; African,—head rounder—tusks larger—ears enormous —found in secluded districts—in herds—near rivers— forests of Ceylon and Ava. Fish River in Africa (showr map).

2.    Use. Anciently in war—castles on back ; trained to battle ;—now in East for burden—processions—convey :ng baggage—artillery, &c.—amazing strength in draught. Tusks—ivory, 1 Kings x. 18—22. Ezek. xxvii. 15.

3.    Peculiarities. Fond of sweetmeats, spirits, &c.— keenly sensitive to kindness—wonderful instinct—will watch an infant, or crush a criminal at command— delivering companions (see p. 110.) revengeful if offended or injured—but generally very kind and gentle.

Lesson.—Advantage of reason over brute power, even though accompanied by great sagacity. God has made all creatures to submit to man (Gen. ix 2). Learn from elephant to use power with gentleness and forbearance.

Text for the day.—Prov. xix. 23.—“ The fear oj the Lord tendeth to life : and he that hath it shall abide satisfied; he shall not be visited with evil.”


“ Ere the morning’s busy ray Call you to your work away,

Ere the silent evening close Your wearied eyes in sweet repose,

To lift your heart and voice in prayer Be your first and latest care.

And oh ! where’er your days be past,

And oh ! howe’er your lot be cast,

Still think on Him whose eye surveys, Whose hand is over all your ways.”


Do you know what temptation is ? I will tell you. Suppose you go to school some morning, determining to do your duty there faithfully, and a companion, sitting in the next seat, should watch a moment when the teacher was engaged with his back towards you, and reach out his hand to give you some nuts, which he had brought with him to school.

So far as you are concerned, it would really be a kind offer; but, so far as his duties to the school are concerned, it would be wrong. You would in such a case be strongly tempted to receive them, though the receiving of them would be plainly wrong.

Subject. Prayer the first and last duty of the day—constantly realize the presence of God.

Analysis. Busy ray, al. early morning, as calling to the activity of the day. silent evening, al, day’s activity over. repose, rt. heart, seat of the affections, sen. sincere expression of desires, &c. where’er, il. Prov. xv. ,3. howe’er, i. e. in servitude or in power, in trouble and privation, or in ease and plenty.

Lesson I. At all times, and in any circumstances, we may have access to God in prayer. II. Prayer a duty—a privilege.

You thus see that the strength of temptation to do wrong depends a great deal upon circumstances. You may be generally desirous of doing your duty, and yet peculiar circumstances may occur which will make it very difficult for you to do it; in fact, they may be so varied, and so peculiar, as very much to increase the temptation.

For instance; in a case like that already mentioned, suppose that just as the boy reaches out his hand, you should perceive that the master is turning round, and he will see him unless you take the nuts quickly. Here a new circumstance occurs, which makes the temptation much greater than it was before. He holds out the nuts, and is very impatient for you to take them; and you see by a glance that, unless you do take them quickly, he will be discovered, and perhaps punished,—punished, too, for his kindness to you.

That would be a very strong temptation ; but still the boy who was determined to do right would resist it, and firmly do his duty. Now if a boy should really take that course, his influence and example would be very powerful in leading the other boys to do what was right. If he was a boy of noble and generous spirit in other things, he would be the more respected for his firmness in such matters as these; and in the end it would be pleasanter and better for all that he did his duty.

Thus it is in all cases of temptation to sin ; it is difficult to resist it at the time, but far better, far nobler to do what is right, however painful it may be; in the end it will be better for all concerned.”— Abbott.

Subject. Temptation illustrated—offer of nuts, Ifc.

Analysis. Temptation, scrip, hep. James i. 14. determining, iL. we must daily in prayer resolve anew with God’s help to abstain this day from sin. watch, il. tempters generally choose time when restraint is withdrawn—remember all-seeing eye. circumstances, ht. increase, kt. greater, il. degrees of temptation, 1. love of nuts, 2. regard for the giver, 3. fear of his suffering on account of his kindness, impatient, rt. resist, rt.

Lesson I. We must do what is right, and ieave the result. II. To flinch, in trying circumstances, from right principle, is characteristic of a weak and unstable mind. III. It is noble, not mean, to be afraid to do wrong.

Text for the day.—Prov. xix. 26.—“ He that

wasteth his father, and chaseth away his mother, is a son that causeth shame, and bringeth reproach.

Treasures of the Deep.

What hid’st thou in thy treasure-caves and cells ? Thou hollow-sounding and mysterious main !

Pale glistening pearls, and rainbow-colour’d shells, Bright things which gleam unreck’d of, and in vain. Keep, keep thy riches, melancholy sea !

W e ask not such from thee.

To thee the love of woman hath gone down ;

Dark flow thy tides o’er manhood’s noble head,

O’er youth’s bright locks, and beauty’s flowery crown : Yet must thou hear a voice—Restore the dead !

And earth shall claim her precious things from thee,— Restore the dead, thou sea !”

Felicia Hemans.

treatment of the drowned.

A young person who is anxious to be useful in cases of accident, may, by inquiry, soon learn the best methods.

In cases of drowning, try to be collected. Lose no time. Avoid all rough means. Never hold the body up by the feet. Do not roll the body on casks. Do not rub it with salt or spirits, nor inject tobacco

Subject. Address to the sea—its riches—pearls—shells.— Youth,—beauty,—manhood, sunk in it.

Analysis. Hid’st, i. e. dost thou hide, treasure-caves, no. places where valuable things of any kind are stored, cave, rt mysterious, sen. not understood, as cause of saltness—changes— depth, &c. main, i. e. ocean, being the greatest mass of water. pearls, shells, &c. exp. unrecked, sen. not thought of or cared for. melancholy, al. mournful thoughts of those who have had friends drowned, restore, al. Rev. xx. 13.

Lesson I. We are as much in the hand of God in the uttermost parts of the sea as on the dry land. II. The sea, equally with the land, must give up all at the day of judgment.

smoke, or infusion of' tobacco, but first send for a doctor, and till he comes, go on in the following manner:—

1.    Convey the body carefully, with the head and shoulders in a raised position, to the nearest house.

2.    Strip the body, and rub it dry; wrap it in hot blankets, and place it in a warm bed in a warm chamber.

3.    Wipe and cleanse the mouth and nostrils.

In order to restore the natural warmth of the body,

1.    Move a heated covered warming-pan over the back and spine.

2.    Put bladders or bottles of hot water to the pit of the stomach, the arm-pits, between the thighs, and to the soles of the feet.

3.    Foment the body with hot flannels; but, if possible,

4.    Immerse the body in a warm bath, as hot as the hand can bear without pain.

5.    Rub the body briskly with the hand.

In order to restore breathing, introduce the pipe of a common bellows into one nostril, carefully closing the other and the mouth, at the same time drawing downwards, and pushing gently backwards, the upper part of the windpipe, to allow a more free admission of air. Blow the bellows gently, in order to inflate the lungs, till the breast be a little raised; the mouth and nostrils should then be set free, and a moderate pressure made with the hand upon the chest. Repeat this process till life appears. Apply sal volatile or hartshorn to the nostrils.”—Directions of the Humane Society.

Subject. Restorative means in cases of drowning.

Analysis. Accident, bt. i. e. something unforeseen by U9, (vide p. 126). collected, ht. sen. the thoughts free from agitation. calm, XL. presence of mind, inject, RT. infusion, RT. doctor, rt. sex. medical man. Physician who prescribes. Surgeon performs operations. Chemist prepares medicines, convey, rt. position, rt. spine, i. e. back-bone, introduce, inflate, process, rt. sal, i. e. salt, volatile, rt. hartshorn, i. e. a refreshing spirit, first obtained from stags’ horns.

Lesson I. Duty of acquiring information which may preserve or restore life. It. Accidents are foreseen of God, who permits them for wise ends—there is no such thing as chauce.

Text for the day.—Prov. xx. 1.—“ Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging: and whosoever is

deceived thereby is not wise."

The Woodman.

“ Forth goes the woodman, leaving unconcern’d The cheerful haunts of man, to wield the axe,

And drive the wedge, in yonder forest drear,

From morn to eve his solitary task.

Shaggy, and lean, and shrewd, with pointed ears, And tail cropp’d short, half lurcher and half cur,

His dog attends him. Close behind his heel Now creeps he slow; and now, with many a frisk Wide scampering, snatches up the drifted snow With ivory teeth, or ploughs it with his snout; Then shakes his powder’d coat, and barks for joy.”



“ Doctor Franklin, in his * Way to Wealth,’ abounds in excellent remarks. Young people may read, and practise them with profit, if they bear in mind, that the wish to get rich is idle and vain, unless it be attended with the desire to make a good use of riches. Most of the following remarks are from the pen of Franklin.

“ By and by young people must help to pay the taxes. Let them remember, then, that those collected by the tax-gatherer are light, compared with others which people bring on themselves. We are taxed twice

Subject. The woodman going to his day’s labour—his dog— snowy morning. .

Analysis. Unconcerned, sen. liking them, but freely yielding up his enjoyments at duty’s call, wedge, sen. driven into an opening to split the tree, solitary, rt. shrewd, sen. readily understanding his master, lurcher, a dog with narrow body,, stout legs, straight tail, long rough hair, hunts both by sight and smell.

Lesson I. Cheerful performance of our duty, without repining. II. Affection shown, even to dumb animals, begets affection.

as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly, as we pay to the tax-gatherer.

Dost thou love life ? do not squander time, for that is the stuff that life is made of. How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep, forgetting that the sleeping fox catches no poultry ! If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be the greatest extravagance. Lost time is never found again, and what we call time enough, always proves to be little enough.

Let us, then, be up and doing, and doing to the purpose ; so by diligence shall we do more, with less perplexity. Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy, as poor Richard says; and he that riseth late must toil all day, and scarcely overtake his business at night. Laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him. Drive thy business, let not that drive thee.

Early to bed, and early to rise,

Is the way to be healthy, and wealthy, and wise.

If we are industrious, we shall never starve, as poor Richard says; for, At the working man’s house hunger looks in, but dares not enter.’

Fly pleasures, and they will follow you : the diligent spinner has a large sheet; and now I have a sheep and a cow, every body bids me good morrow.”—Dr. Franklin.

Subject. Hints for conduct respecting—riches—taxes—early rising—laziness—pleasure.

Analysis. Franklin (vide p. 78). collected, rt. idleness, IL. If in an hour I can earn threepence, and I am idle two hours, I pay sixpence, pride, il. if a useful, neat, and suitable article of dress cost five shillings, and we buy another not more useful, only more beautiful, for twenty-five shilling's, we pay a tax of twenty shillings to pride, folly, il. if I lay out money for things I do not want, I tax myself for folly, necessary, extravagant, perplexity, rt. laziness, poverty, hunger, pig. pers.

Lesson I. Importance of attending to the advice of experienced persons. II. Prosperity in this world generally follows prudence—economy—and industry.

Text for the day.—Prov. xx. 3.—“ It is an honour for a man to cease from strife : but every fool mill be meddling

The Stormy Petrel.

A thousand miles from land are we,

Tossing about on the roaring sea ;

From billow to bounding billow cast,

Like fleecy snow on the stormy blast,

Up and down ! up and down!

From the base of the wave to the billow’s crown, And amidst the flashing and feathery foam,

The stormy petrel finds a home,—

A home, if such a place may be,

For her who lives on the wide, wide sea."

Barry Cornwall.


“ The lobster is an animal of so extraordinary a form, that those who first see it are apt to mistake the head for the tail; but it is soon discovered that the animal moves with the claws foremost, and that the part which plays within itself by joints, like a coat of armour, is the tail.

When the young lobsters leave the parent, they immediately seek for refuge in the smallest clefts of rocks, and in such like crevices at the bottom of the sea, where the entrance is but small, and the opening

Subject. The sea the home of the stormy petrel.

Analysis. Tossing, hounding up and down, Sj-c. sen. restlessness of the sea. billow, i. e. swelling wave, fleecy, al. resemblance of masses of snow to sheep’s fleece, base, cir. when the storm rages above, the water in the depths of the ocean is perfectly calm, flashing, al. rapid reflections of light, feathery, al. water dashed about lightly like feathers in the wind. fla. fea. foam, alliteration, home, AL. obtains food—kills—eats— rests on the water, wide, repeated, sen. very wide.

Lesson. All our blessings are of God, who can make even the surface of the bleak, restless, stormy ocean a home of much enjoyment.

can be easily defended. There, without seeming to take any food, they grow larger in a few weeks’ time, from the mere accidental substances which the water washes to their retreats.

By this time, also, they acquire a hard firm shell, which furnishes them with both offensive and defensive armour. They then begin to issue from their fortresses, and boldly creep along the bottom, in hopes of meeting with more diminutive plunder.

The body of the lobster still continuing to increase, while its shell remains unalterably the same, the animal becomes too large for its habitation; and being imprisoned within the crust that has naturally gathered round it, there comes on a necessity of getting free.

Just before casting its shell, it throws itself upon its back, strikes its claws against each other, and every limb seems to tremble; its feelers are agitated, and the whole body is in violent motion; it then swells itself in an unusual manner, and at last the shell is seen beginning to divide at its junctures; particularly it opens at the junctures of the belly, where it was before but seemingly united. It also seems turned inside out, and the stomach comes away with its shell. After this, by the same operation, it disengages itself of its claws, which burst at the joints; the animal, with a tremulous motion, casting them off, as a man would kick off a boot that was too big for him.”—Wonderful Fishes. 4 5

Text foe the day.—Prov. xix. 27.—“ Cease, my son, to hear the instruction that causeth to err from the words of knowledge.”

The Life-Boat.

The life-boat! the life-boat! the whirlwind and rain, And white-crested breakers, oppose her in vain ;

Her crew are resolved, and her timbers are staunch, She’s the vessel of mercy—God speed to her launch ! The life-boat! the life-boat! how fearless and free She wins her bold course o’er the wide rolling sea ! She bounds o’er the surges with gallant disdain,

She has stemm’d them before, and she’ll stem them again.”

Agnes Strickland.


“ Sophia had just gone to bed, aud I had just thrown off half my clothes, when a cry of 5 Fire! Fire ! ’ roused us from our calm content, and in five minutes the whole ship was in flames. I ran to examine whence the flames originally issued, and found that the fire had its origin immediately under our cabin.

Down with the boats.’ Where is Sophia ? ’ ‘ Here.’ ‘ The children ? ’    ‘ Here.’ ‘ A rope to

the side.’ Lower Lady Raffles.’ ‘ Give her to me,’ says one. I’ll take her,’ says the captain. Throw the gunpowder overboard.’ It cannot be got at; it is in the magazine, close to the fire ! ’     Stand clear

of the powder! Scuttle the water-casks! Water! water ! ’    * Push off, push off.’ ‘ Stand clear of the

after-part of the ship.’

Subject. The life-boat—vessel of mercy—swift—biavely manned—object of much interest.

Analysis. Whirlwind, i. e. the violence caused by the meeting of two winds, prodncing an irregular circular motion. of mercy, sen. not of trade—her only business being to save life (vide p. 126). she, applied to vessels, moon, See., as being receivers or containers, gallant disdain, il. as huntsmen over hedges, &c. stemmed, sen. passed onward in defiance of them. again, al. more confidence in attacking that which we have once beaten.

Lesson. True heroism shown in risking life to save life, rather than to destroy it.

All this passed quicker than I can write it. We pushed off, and as we did so the flames burst out of our cabin-window, and the whole of the after-part of the ship was in flames.

The masts and sails now taking fire, we moved to a distance sufficient to avoid the immediate explosion. We now perceived that the people on board were getting into another boat on the opposite side. She pushed off—we hailed her. ‘ Have you all on board ? ’ ‘ Yes, all, save one.’ Who is he?’ 1 Johnson— sick in his cot.’ ‘ Can we save him?’ ‘ No!— impossible.’

At this moment, the poor fellow, scorched, I imagine, by the flames, roared out most violently, having ran upon the deck. ‘ I will go for him,’ says the captain. The two boats then came together, and we took out some of the persons from the captain’s boat, which was overladen.

He then pulled under the bowsprit of the ship, and picked the poor fellow up. Are you all safe?’  Yes, we have got the man ; all lives safe.’ Thank God ! Pull off from the ship.’ Keep your eye on a star, Sir Stamford ; there’s one—scarcely visible.’

You may judge of our situation, without further particulars. The alarm was given at about twenty minutes past eight, and in less than ten minutes she was in flames. There was not a soul on board at half-past eight, and in less than ten minutes afterwards she was one grand mass of fire.”—Sir S. Raffles.

Subject. Fire on board of ship at sea—escape of the passengers—destruction of the vessel.

Analysis. Originally, rt. water, sen. to save them from perishing with thirst whilst in the boats, explosion. Thanh God! Every one felt at that moment gratitude to God, who had taken their property, but saved their lives, and exclaimed unfeignedly, Thank God!

Lesson I. Painful to know that, to make us thankful, (as for other good reasons), it is necessary sometimes that God should take nearly all we possess. II. In prosperity men often disregard God ; in adversity they feel the value of the little they possess, and the impossibility of possessing that little without his good providence.


Boats (see p. 124). A life-boat is a small vessel, built expressly for the purpose of saving life, in ease of wreck, when the sea is high. The long-boat is the largest boat that accompanies a ship, and is generally furnished with a mast and sails. The barge is longer, slighter, and narrower, and is employed to carry the principal sea-officers. The pinnace resembles the barge, but is somewhat smaller. The cutter is broader, deeper, and shorter, and is commonly employed in carrying stores, passengers, &c. to and from the ship. The yawl, is less than the cutter, but nearly of the same form. The gig is a long narrow boat, very swift. The jolly-boat is the smallest boat used at sea.

Accidents (see p. 119).    1. Noxious vapours. If

apparently dead from noxious vapours, &c.    1. Remove

the body into a cool fresh air. 2. Dash cold water on the neck, face, and breast, frequently. 3. If the body be cold, apply warmth, as recommended for the drowned.

2.    Intoxication. If apparently dead from intoxication, lay the body on a bed, with the head raised ; remove the neckcloth, and loosen the clothes. Apply cloths soaked in cold water to the head, and bottles oi hot water, or hot bricks, to the calves of the legs and to the feet.

3.    Apoplexy. If apparently dead from apoplexy, the patient should be placed in a cool air, and the clothes loosened. Cloths soaked in cold water, spirits, or vinegar and water, should be kept applied to the head, which should be instantly shaved. All stimulants should be avoided. In cases of strokes of the sun, the same means to be used as in apoplexy.

4.    Frost or intense cold. If apparently dead from intense cold, rub the body with snow, ice, or cold water. Restore warmth by slow degrees.

5.    Hanging. If apparently dead from hanging, use the means recommended for the drowned.

But remember in all cases to send for the doctor.



Temptation—to evil,—its nature—seductive—deceptious —presents evil as good—promises happiness ;— strength dependent on circumstances—chance of impunity—character of the tempter—opinion of others; —object of it—to try—strengthen character.

1.    Various temptations, il. truant—fine day—father out — pleasant companion—only for once—called coward for objecting—il. lie—conceal a fault—avoid punishment—help a companion—injure no one—never discovered—only once.

2.    Way to avoid temptation.—Love duty—perform it as duty; remember presence of God—listen to conscience ; think of joy of light heart—pain of conscious guilt; flee tempters—avoid their company; pray to God—daily—hourly—-at moment of temptation—for strength—wisdom—decision.

Lesson 1. Learn to avoid the first beginnings of evil.— Keep thine heart with all diligence.”

2. Though it be painful to resist our inclinations, selfdenial, when called for by duty, brings with it a sure reward.


Lobster—crustaceous ; distinctive features—long and jointed tail—shell smooth ; colour black when alive— red when boiled ; found—among marine rocks—all parts of Europe.

1.    Parts of lobster—for provision and defence—claws— two—notched—take firm hold ; eight legs ; mouth— opens long way of body—two teeth—three in stomach; instrument of motion—tail.

2.    Growth of lobster.—When young—in clefts of rocks— grow from substances washed by water—shell forms in few weeks—sally forth—-feed on—spawn of fish— worms, &c.

3.    Change of shell.— Cast—beginning of summer ; some days before—fasts—is torpid—motionless ; just before —throws on back—trembles—swells—shell breaks— turns inside out—stomach comes away—motionless for hours—exposed to other fish—devoured by hundreds. In two days—new shell—appetite returns—eats its own stomach and old shell,—now fights with others— often loses claws—grow again in three weeks.

Text for the day.—Prov. xx. 4.—“ The sluggard mill not plough, by reason of the cold; therefore shall he beg in harvest, and have nothing.”

Cruelty to Animals.

“ I would not enter on my list of friends,

(Though graced with polish’d manners and fine sense, Yet wanting sensibility,) the man Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.

An inadvertent step may crush the snail That crawls at evening in the public path ;

But he that has humanity, forewarn’d,

Will tread aside, and let the reptile live.”



Rashness is very common in the season of boyhood ; and if it be not corrected, it is likely enough to lead to consequences which may be lamented even in old age. Some boys have disfigured their faces, injured their sight, and disabled their limbs, by acts of rashness and folly.

When duty calls a boy into danger, when he springs forward to prevent calamity, or to rescue another from distress, the noble daring of his heart is praiseworthy; but where is the merit of his endangering his limbs and

Subject. He is wanting in the essentials of a friend who could he cruel to a worm.

Analysis. Friends, sen. those we highly esteem, and with whom we rejoice in prosperity, and seek consolation in adversity. graced, sen. adorned, polished, sen. of good education and of good society, sense, i. e. of great natural talent, sensibility, sen. quickness of feeling, or sympathy, inadvertent, rt. evening. al. unseen, in dusk. humanity, sen. humane or kind feelings, forewarned, sen. seeing it before him. reptile, sen. creeping thing.

Lesson I. No accomplishments can compensate for defects of the heart. II. Cruelty to dumb animals can scarcely exist with that sympathy which is essential in a friend.

Ms life, merely to gain a moment’s applause from his thoughtless companions ?

One day, when at Kenilworth, I observed two or three persons clambering up different parts of the building; a foolish desire to outdo them led me to mount a dangerous part. After clambering a great height, I found myself near a wall, close by one of the towers: making a spring, I caught hold of the edge of the stones with my finger-ends, and scrambled up to the top of the wall. It led from one tower to another; and I walked along it, to the terror and amazement of those below me.

Already had I nearly approached the opposite tower, when a broken and impassable part of the wall stopped me in my course. It became necessary to turn and retrace my path. At every step the earth had crumbled beneath my feet; and in turning round I displaced a stone, which fell with a dull heavy sound on the green 9od below. My eye followed the stone in its descent; and the great depth of the ground below me so affected my brain, that, to keep myself from falling, I crouched down on my hands and knees. In this humiliating attitude, with difficulty I contrived to crawl back to the place where I mounted the wall: mortified as my pride was, it was a luxury to find my feet once more on the firm ground in the court-yard of the castle. This youthful enterprise was only one among many instances of the foolish and reckless daring which marked my early days.”— Paul Preston’s Adventures.

Subject. Rashness of youth,—foolish to incur danger, except when duty requires it,—instance of it at Kenilworth

Analysis. Rashness, i. e. foolishly rushing into danger. corrected, consequence, prevent, rt. Kenilworth, Warwickshire, exp. building, i. e. the castle. humiliating, mortified, luxury, RT.

Lesson I. To shun danger when duty requires us to meet it, is to be a coward ; to rush into danger without cause, is to fan guilty of folly.


Text for the day.—Prov. xx. 7.—“ The just man rvalheth in his integrity; his children are blessed after him." Yer. 9. “ Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from sin ?”

Broken Friendship.

“ Alas ! they had been friends in youth,

But whispering tongues can poison truth ;

And constancy lives in realms above,

And life is thorny, and youth is vain,

And to be wroth with one we love Doth work like madness in the brain. *****

They parted—ne’er to meet again !

But never either found another

To free the hollow heart from paining,—•

They stood aloof, the scars remaining,

Like cliffs which had been rent asunder;

A dreary sea now flows between,

But neither heat, nor frost, nor thunder,

Shall wholly do away, I ween,

The marks of that which once hath been.”



“ They determined to rest for the night at Carron, that they might have leisure to examine the greatest iron-foundry in Europe.

Subject. Friendship liable to be broken by—whisperers— fickleness—trouble, &c.—the loss can never be supplied again.

Analysis. Whispering, il. Prov. xvi. 28. poison, sen. insinuate suspicion, truth, sen. faithfulness, constancy, lives, {¡•c. sen. every thing changeable on earth, thorny, pig. meta. subject to irritating circumstances, vain, se n. seeking those who would flatter, rather than those who would faithfully advise. work, S;c. sen. al, re-action of the strong current of feeling. hollow, al. feeling of want, or craving for something before possessed, aloof, sen. voluntary distance, scars, al. friendship, union of minds, sen. torn from each other, cliffs, i. e. steep rocks, rent, i. e. by internal violence, earthquake, II. Dover Straits, or Vincent Rocks, Bristol, that, sen. union.

Lesson I. We are formed to love each other. Violent separation of the affections causes lasting pain, and often occasions wounds too deep for cure. II. Most important that the earliest friendships should be formed with suitable minds.

Their guide conducted them first into an immense court, surrounded with high walls and vast sheds, which presented them with a scene entirely new. Cannons, bombs, mortars, balls, and other terrible instruments of destruction, lay scattered on the ground; whilst on all sides were erected machines for removing enormous weights, such as gigantic cranes, capstans, levers, and pulleys.

Four furnaces, forty-four feet high, for melting the ore, consume, both night and day, enormous masses of coal and metal, and disgorge every six hours whole floods of liquid iron, which the men drive about in iron wheel-barrows. The heat is maintained in these huge furnaces by vast bellows, through which the air rushes, and causes a vibration that resembles an earthquake.

Having viewed the reverberating furnaces, where the crude iron (that is, as it is taken out of the earth,) is refined, before it is cast into cannon, &c., and also the preparation of the moulds for forming them, they were led to a fabric for articles of a different kind, and far more pleasing to a humane mind.

Instead of those dreadful engines, bv means of

.    O    '    •

which men destroy each other, they were now entertained with the sight of implements of agriculture; useful machines, both for the arts and domestic purposes of life; coppers for refining sugar, stoves, hearths, kitchen-ranges, boilers, tea-kettles, saucepans, spades, hoes, ploughs, and innumerable conveniences, which distinguish those nations who have acquired the use of metals, and discovered the means of bending such stubborn substances to their purpose.”

Subject. A visit to the iron-foundry—power of man over iron—uses made of iron.

Analysis. Carron, Stirlingshire, exp. foundry, kt. cannons, bombs, mortars, exp. cranes, capstans, levers, pulleys, exp. consume, disgorge, vibration, reverberating, refined, domestic, RT.

Lesson I. Consideration of the various uses to which iron i» applied. II. The superiority of an ingenious mind to mere physical power. One clever man, who only thinks, may find way for thousands to obtain their living, and benefits a whole nation.

Text for the day.—Proy. xx. 10.—“ Divers

weights and divers measures, both of them are alike abomination to the Lord.

The Defaced Alcove.

-“ Not all its pride secures

The grand retreat from injuries impress’d By rural carvers, who with knives deface The panels, leaving an obscure, rude name,

In characters uncouth, and spelt amiss.

So strong the zeal t’ immortalize himself Beats in the breast of man, that e’en a few,

Few transient years, won from the abyss abhorr’d Of blank oblivion, seems a glorious prize,

And even to a clown.”



The master of a school was accidentally looking out of the window one day, and saw one of the boys throwing stones at a hat, which was put upon the fence for that purpose.

When the hour set apart for attending to the general business of the school had arrived, and all were still, he said, I saw one of the boys throwing stones at a hat to-day ; did he do right or wrong ?’

There were one or two faint murmurs, which sounded like * wrongbut the boys generally made no answer.

Subject. Man’s desire to immortalize himself shown in the silly practice of inscribing his name on buildings.

Analysis. Defaced, kt. pride, sen. expensive ornaments. rural, RT. obscure, sen. unknown to fame, rude, sen. common or vulgar, characters, sen. letters, transient, rt. abyss, via. meta. unfathomable depth, abhorred, 11. horror of annihilation. blank oblivion, at. clotvn, sen. ignorant, ill-bred man.

Lesson. Posthumous fame is a fair object of desire ; but it should be obtained by doing some good deed, not by the foolish and injurious practice of writing our names on other persons’ property.

x Perhaps it depends a little upon the question whose hat it was. Do you think it does depend upon that?’

* Yes, sir.’

‘ Well, then, suppose it was not his own hat, and he was throwing stones at it without the owner’s consent, would it be plain, in that case, whether he was doing right or wrong ? ’

‘ Yes, sir ; wrong,’ was the universal reply.

‘ Suppose it was his own hat, would he have been right ? Has a boy a right to do what he pleases with his own hat ? ’

‘Yes, sir,’ ‘Yes, sir; ‘No, sir,’ ‘No, sir,’ answered the boys, confusedly.

‘ Well,’ said the master, ‘ there are two senses in which a hat may be said to belong to any person. It may belong to him because he bought it and paid for it; or it may belong to him because it tits him and he wears it. In other words, a person may have a hat his property, or he may have it only as a part of his dress. Now you see that, according to the first of these senses, all the hats in this school belong to your fathers. There is not, in fact, a single boy in this school who has a hat of his own.

‘ Your fathers bought your hats. They worked for them, and paid for them. You are only the wearers, and consequently every generous boy will be careful of the property which is intrusted to him; but which, strictly speaking, is not his own.’ ”

Abbott’s Reader.

Subject. The injustice of a hoy destroying his own clothes.

Analysis. Yes and No, cm. confusion arising from attempting to decide before they had considered all the circumstances. intrusted, exp. nature of trust, il. life—health—education— property held in trust from God—not to be wasted.

Lesson I. Young persons’ clothes are a trust committed to their care. II. Great wrong often done for the want of a little reflection.

Text for the day.—Prov. xx. 11.—“ Even a child is known by his doings, whether his work be pureand whether it be right.”

The White Stork.

“The flames are on the city wall,

Temple, and tower, and palace fall;

Danger and death are hovering near,

And shrieks of terror wound the ear.

That faithful bird heeds not your cry,

She will not spread her wings and fly.

Think not maternal love can tire ;

That nest will be her funeral pyre.

More closely still she spreads her wings Above those feeble trembling things ;

And since their lives she cannot save,

She shares with them one common grave .”

Minstrelsy of the Woods.


“This bird, though seldom visiting the British isles, and never breeding with us, is one of the migratory tribe too remarkable to be passed over. Holland is its favourite summer residence, but some parts of France, Germany, and Sweden are also favoured with its presence.

The stork belongs to a group distinguished by their peculiar adaptation for the marshes and swamps they inhabit, having the bill, neck, and legs elongated,

Subject. The affection of the stork for her young nestlings in the flames—she is burnt rather than quit them.

Analysis. Danger and death, fis. pers. terror, regards the future—fear, dis. agony—present suffering, wound, sen. pain the mind through the ear. your cry, i. e. to drive her away. maternal, rt . pyre, kt. things, i. e. her young ones, common, i. e. including them all.

Lesson I. Whilst mere worldly friendships weaken as dangers and distresses thicken, real affection “ more closely” clings to the sufferer. IJ. Children, if they would not be base and ungrateful, must regard their parents with warm affection.

Bo as to enable them to wade in pursuit of their food, which consists of fishes and aquatic reptiles, the whole structure of the body being modified accordingly.

The gentle and social disposition of this bird, conjoined with its utility, has caused it to be regarded in all ages and countries with peculiar complacency. In ancient Egypt it held the next place to the sacred Ibis; and in many parts of Africa and the East is still regarded with reverence.

In the month of March, or beginning of Api’il, the stork arrives in small bands or flocks in Holland, where it universally meets with a kind and hospitable reception, returning year after year to the same town and the same chimney-top: it re-occupies its deserted nest; and the gladness these birds manifest in again taking possession of their dwellings, and the attachment which they testify towards their benevolent hosts, are familiar in the mouths of everyone.’

The affection which the stork manifests for her young has been proverbial from antiquity. She feeds them for a long period, nor quits them till they can defend and provide for themselves.

She bears them on her wings, and protects them from danger, and has been known to perish rather than abandon them ; an instance of which was exhibited in the town of Delft, in 1836, when a fire broke out in a house that had a stork’s nest on it, containing young unable to fly. The old stork made several attempts to save them ; but, finding all in vain, she at last spread her wings over them, and in that endearing attitude expired with them in the flames.”—Notes to Barfs Gleanings.

Subject. Natural history of the white stork.

Analysis. Migratory, rt. Holland, France, Germany, Sweden, exp. elongated, aquatic, modified, social, conjoined, rt. Egypt, Africa, Ibis, exp. (vide p. 138). testify,provide, perish, exhibited, RT.

Lesson. Each instance of affection, like that of this poor bird, proclaims the immense love of Him who is the Great Source of love.

Text for the day.— Proy. xx. 13.—“ Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty: open thine eyes, and thou shalt be satisfied with bread.”

Song of Pitcairn’s Island.

Come, take our boy, and we will go Before our cabin door ;

The winds shall bring us, as they blow,.

The murmurs of the shore ;

And we will kiss his young blue eyes,

And I will sing him as be lies Songs that were made of yore:—

I’ll sing, in his delighted ear,

The Island lays thou lov’st to hear.

Come, for the soft, low sunlight calls—

We love the pleasant hours ;

’Tis lovelier than these cottage walls—

That seat among the flowers.

And I will learn of thee a prayer To Him who gave a home so fair,

A lot so blest as ours.

The God who made for thee and me This sweet lone isle amid the sea.”

William Cullen Bryant.

Pitcairn’s island.

Pitcairn’s Island is in the South Pacific ocean. When first discovered it was uninhabited, but was colonised in 1789, by some of the mutineers of the English ship Bounty, then under the command of Lieutenant Bligh.

Subject. Invitation to affectionate social enjoyment. Analysis. Cabin, sen. a small cottage, murmur, one of the few words common to several languages—being an imitation of the sound itself, yore, sen. long ago. lays, sen. songs, low, al. sunset, pleasant, sen. where a clear conscience and no improper desires, seat, flowery bank—these enjoyments open to all who cultivate right feelings.    -

Lesson I. In every well-directed mind the sense of benefits is intimately connected with gratitude to God as their source. II. There is no real enjoyment without gratitude.

In the year 1808 an American captain, having touched at Pitcairn’s Island, was surprised to find it inhabited. After landing he received an account of the colony from an old English sailor, who called himself John Adams ; but who is supposed to be Alexander Smith, the only surviving individual of the crew of the Bounty.

In 1814 the island was visited by two British frigates, and the inhabitants were thus described by the visitors:—

“This interesting new colony now consisted of about forty-six persons, mostly grown-up young people, besides a number of infants. The young men all born in the island, were athletic, and of the finest forms, their countenances open and pleasing, indicating much benevolence and goodness of heart; and the young women were objects of particular admiration ; tall, robust, and beautifully formed, their faces beaming with smiles and unruffled good-humour, but wearing a degree of modesty and bashfulness that would do honour to the most virtuous nation upon earth.

Their habitations are extremely neat; and the village of Pitcairn forms a pretty square. For all this they appear, under God, to have been indebted to John Adams, who, having become truly penitent, exerted himself in promoting, to the utmost of his ability and means, religion and morality in this infant colony, of which he was the father and patriarch.”

He died in 1830. Recent accounts state that the island has been abandoned- on account of the scarcity of water, and that the colony has settled at Otaheite.

Subject. Account of Pitcairn’s Island—colonised by an English sailor—a mutineer—departure of his descendants.

Analysis. South Pacific Ocean, exp. colonised, itT. frigate, i. e. a vessel of war of from 20 to 50 guns, infants, athletic, robust, benevolence, habitations, religion, patriarch, kt. Otaheite, exp.

Lesson. Kepentance for past sin is best proved by constant endeavours to do good.


Ibis {see p. 13-3). This bird was formerly held in great veneration in Egypt, on account of its utility in freeing the country from serpents. It is a species of water-fowl, of the genus Tantalus; the bill is long and somewhat crooked; the face naked; the tongue short; and the feet have four toes, palmated on the under part. Mr. Bruce found a bird in Abyssinia, which, after comparing it with the description of ancient writers, and the embalmed Ibis of Egypt, he concludes is the same with the Egyptian Ibis. It is frequently called “ Father John,” from appearing annually on St. John’s day.

Bounty (see p. 136). The ship Bounty sailed to the South Seas in 1787, under the command of Lieutenant Bligh, who afterwards became Admiral Bligb, chiefly for the purpose of transferring the bread-fruit tree from Otaheite to the West Indies. The mutiny prevented the accomplishment of this design. The commander of the vessel having, however, returned in safety to his country, a second expedition, under the same person, and for the same purpose, was fitted out in 1791. Captain Bligh arrived in safety at Otaheite, and, after an absence from England of about eighteen months, landed in Jamaica with 352 bread-fruit trees in a living state. From Jamaica these trees were transferred to other islands; but the negroes having a general and long-established predilection for the plantain, the bread-fruit is not much relished by them.

Bread-fruit (see above). A large globular berry of a pale green colour, about the size of a child’s head; containing a white and somewhat fibrous pulp, which when ripe becomes juicy and yellow. The tree that produces it is about forty feet high, has large and spreading branches, and large bright green leaves. The eatable part of this fruit lies between the skin and the core ; it is white as snow, and somewhat of the consistency of new bread. Its taste is insipid, with a slight sweetness, and somewhat resembles that of the crumb of wheaten bread mixed with Jerusalem artichoke. The South Sea Islanders prepare it as food by dividing the fruit into three or four parts, and roasting it in hot embers.—Bingley.


Cruelty to Animals.

Animals—various kinds—created by God—provided for by him—intended for use of man—put under him (Gen.

i. 28).

1.    Capable of enjoymeut, il. Happiness of insects— sporting—basking—chasing each other ; fishes—leaping—swimming ; birds and beasts—manifested in various ways.

2.    Capable of suffering, IL. by cries and groans—tears —others struggling—writhing—though noiseless.

3.    Cruel acts, il. Horse and draught animals—overtasked—beat; dogs—terrified by things tied to tail— beat — kicked — starved ; insects — wings and legs pulled ; worm on hook—eels skinned, &c. &c.

4.    Effects of cruelty. On heart—hardens—then transferred to human beings—ungovernable passions, il. murderers often cruel boys.

Lesson.—Love all that God loves—pity the helpless— —speak for those who cannot speak for themselves.

Injuring Property.

Property—to be respected—however slight apparent value ; especially when lent to us—or permitted in any way to see—hear—or enjoy it. Often disregarded.

1.    In gardens, il. cutting names on seats—trees— injuring bark ; grass —walking on it—not keeping path ; flowers—plucking them ; fruit—taking it.

2.    Infields, il. breaking hedges—treading down corn— trespass — leaving gates open—cattle enter — injury done.

3.    At public exhibitions, il. monuments—writing on them ; pictures—touching them; sculpture—handling ; writing on walls—on windows with a diamond-careless conduct.

4.    At home and at school, il. throwing stones ; breaking windows—slates ; cutting desks ; tearing books ; destroying clothes—general habits — rudeness — negligence.

Lessons.—1. To abuse favours granted us is—ungrateful -—mean—unjust.

2.    To destroy or injure the property of another under any circumstance is—dishonest.

3.    To deface works of art is—rude—uncivilized—barbarous—every one attending a public exhibition is bound to prevent all injury.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxi. 3.—“To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice.”

Way to be Happy.

‘ ‘ Rouse to some work of high and holy love,

And thou an angel’s happiness shalt know,—

Shalt bless the earth while in the world above ;

The good begun by thee shall onward flow In many a branching stream, and wider grovv ;

The seed that, in these few and fleeting hours,

Thy hands unsparing and unwearied sow,

Shall deck thv grave with amaranthine flowers,

And yield thee fruits divine in heaven’s immortal bowers,’*

Carlos Wiloox.


Every child must, observe how much more happy and beloved some children appear to be than others. There are some who seem to have no friends.

No person can be happy without friends. The heart is formed for love, and cannot be happy without the opportunity of giving and receiving affection.

But you cannot receive affection unless you will also give it. You cannot find others to love you, unless you will also love them. Love is only to be obtained by giving love in return ; hence the importance of cultivating a cheerful and obliging disposition. You cannot be happy without it.

Subject. Call to acts of self-devotion.

Analysis. Rouse, sen- call the faculties into vigorous exercise, some, il. missionary, or ptfee^self-denying act. Howard to reform of prisons. Clarkson and.. Wilbeijurcc to abolition of slavery, high, Sfc. sen. above selfish'motkf. angels, sen. live in close communion with God, whilst ajjdr^pin the spirit of love. bliss, IL. Luther, Columbus, Faust <®fcrinting, Watt by the steam-engine, hours, sen. life-time, An.Sife—vapour—weaver’s shuttle, unsparing, il. Eccles. ix.    pig. meta. sen.

seeds—good acts, deck, al. custonipP Turkey, France, See, amaranthine, rt. yield, il. Gal. vi. 9. immortal, ht.

Lesson I. The more we resemble Christ, who whilst on earth went about doing good, the nearer we shall approach the happiness of the angelic state. II. Each must aim to do some act which shall make the world better for his existence.

If your companions do not love you, it is your own fault; they cannot help loving you, if you will be kind and friendly. If you are not loved, it is good evidence that you do not deserve to be loved.

It is true, that a sense of duty may at times render it necessary for you to do that which is displeasing to your companions; but if it is seen that you have a kind spirit, that you are above selfishness, that you are willing to make sacrifices of your own personal convenience to promote the happiness of your associates, you will never be in want of friends.

You are little aware how much the happiness of your whole life depends upon the cultivation of an affectionate and obliging disposition. If you adopt the resolution to confer favours whenever you have an opportunity, you will surround yourself with friends.

You go to school on a cold winter morning; a bright fire is blazing upon the hearth, surrounded with boys struggling to get near it to warm themselves. After you get slightly warmed, another schoolmate comes in, suffering with the cold.

Here, James,’ you call out to him, I am almost warm,—you may have my place.’

As you slip aside to allow him to take your place at the fire, will he not feel that you are kind ? A boy with the worst disposition in the world cannot help admiring your generosity ; and even though he do not return tbe favour at the time, you may depend upon it that, as far as he is capable of friendship, he will be your friend. If you habitually act upon this principle, you will never want for friends.”—Abbott.

Subject. To be loved, we must give love—cultivate a cheerful disposition—make some sacrifices.

Analysis. AVtxce selfishness, sen. influenced by regard to the wishes of others, -sacrifices, bt. il, others, as playthings, money, time, -&c: 'associates, rt.

Lesson. The most.-direct way to be happy is to strive to make others so. • -*¦

Text for the day.—Prov. xxi. 21.—“ He that

follomctli after righteousness and mercy, findeth life, righteousness, and honour


Some high or humble enterprise of good Contemplate, till it shall possess thy mind,

Become thy study, pastime, rest, and food,

And kindle in thy heart a flame refined.

Pray Heaven for firmness thy whole soul to bind To this thy purpose,—to begin, pursue,

With thoughts all fix’d, and feelings purely kind ; Strength to complete, and with delight review,

And grace to give the praise where all is ever due.”

Carlos Wilcox.


This leaf was first imported into Europe by the Dutch East India Company, in the early part of the seventeenth century; but it was not until the year 1666, that a small quantity was brought over from Holland to this country, by the Lords Arlington and Ossory.

The tea-plant is a native of China, or Japan, and probably of both. It has been used among the natives of the former country from time immemorial. It is only in a

Subject. Exhortation to resolve on some worthy act of selfdevotion.

Analysis. Study, sen. constant thought, how to accomplish it. 'pastime, sen. delighting by anticipations of success. rest, sen. reposing on that as the one object in life—seeking no other, food, in. John iv. 34. refined, sen. pure as the object is patriotic and holy, pray, sen. all our efforts useless without seeking God’s blessing on them, soul, sen. all the feelings. grace, i. e. the grace of humility—not claiming it for self, due, sen. God source of every good thought, word, or deed.

Lesson. Let us keep constantly in view some object worthy of our energies, that our time may not pass unimproved, nor our life be passed without leaving a record of our existence.

particular tract of the Chinese empire that the plant is cultivated; and this tract, which is situated on the eastern side, between the 30th and 33rd degrees of north latitude, is distinguished by the natives as ‘ the tea country.’ The more northern part of China wood be too cold; and further south the heat would be too great. There are, however, a few small plantations to be seen near to Canton.

The leaves, as soon as gathered, are put into wide shallow baskets, and placed in the air, or wind, or sunshine, during some hours. They are then put on a flat cast-iron pan, over a stove heated with charcoal, from a half to three-quarters of a pound of leaves being operated on at one time. These leaves are stirred quickly about with a kind of brush, and are then as quickly swept off the pan into baskets.

The next process is that of rolling, which is effected by carefully rubbing them between men’s hands; after which they are again put in larger quantities on the pan, and subjected anew to heat; but at this time to a lower degree than at first, and just sufficient to dry them effectually without risk of scorching.

The tea is then placed on a table and carefully picked over, every unsightly or imperfectly dried leaf that is detected being removed, in order that the sample may present a better appearance when offered for sale.”—¦ Vegetable Substances.

Subject. Introduction of tea into Englandmode of preparing the leaf in China.

Analysis. Leaf (vide p. 150). imported, bt. China, Japan, exp. natives, rt. immemorial, rt. 30° to 33° N. lat. exp. subjected, rt. sale, thirty-six millions of pounds weight are sold yearly to England.

Lesson. The most trifling article, when extensively consumed, becomes important, and advances commerce.

Text eor the day. — Prov. xx. 20. Whoso

curseth his father or his mother, his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness.”

The Humming-bird.

“ Minutest of the feather’d kind,

Possessing every charm combined,

Nature, in forming thee, design’d That thou should’st be A proof within how little space She can comprise such perfect grace,

Rendering thy lovely fairy race Beauty’s epitome.

Long, lovely bee-bird ! may’st thou rove Through spicy vale and citron grove,

And woo, and win thy fluttering love,

With plume so bright ;

Then rapid fly, more heard than seen,

’Mid orange-boughs of polish’d green,

With glowing fruit, and flowers between Of purest white.”


the humming-bird.

*' The Humming bird is extremely fond of tubular flowers. When arrived before a thicket of these that are full of bloom, he poises or suspends himself on wing for the space of two or three seconds, so steadily that his wings become invisible, or only like amist; and

Subject. Congratulatory address to the humming-bird.

Analysis. Minutest, i. e. the smallest of birds. Nature, st. always means God, who made all things, and gave laws to all the material world. Nature and Providence often used improperly for God himself, she, tig. pers. applied to nature. comprise, rt. epitome, sen. of every kind a specimen in itself. bee-bird, sen. bee in size and humming,—though bird in form. spicy, citron, orange, al. South America and neighbouring islands, plume, rt.

Lesson. God has scattered beauty over all his creation, for the improvement and enjoyment of man, il. flowers, shells, and these beautiful little birds.

you can plainly distinguish the pupil of his eye looking round with great quickness and circumspection.

When he alights, which is frequently, he always prefers the small dead twigs of a tree or bush, where he dresses and arranges his plumage with great dexterity.

His only note is a single chirp, not louder than that of a small cricket or grasshopper, generally uttered while passing from flower to flower, or while engaged in fights with his fellows,—for when two males meet at the same bush or flower a battle instantly takes place, and the combatants ascend in the air, chirping, darting, and circling round each other, till the eye is no longer able to follow' them.

The prairies, the field, the orchard, and the gardens, nay, the deepest shades of the forest, are all visited in their turn, and every where the little birds meet with pleasure and with food. Its gorgeous throat, in beauty and brilliancy, baffles all competition. Now it glows with a fiery hue, and again it is changed into a velvety black.

The upper parts of its delicate body are of resplendent changing green, and it throws itself through the air with a swiftness and vivacity hardly conceivable.

In this manner it searches the extreme northern portions of our country, following with great precaution the advances of the season, and retreating with equal care at the approach of autumn.”—Audubon.

Subject. History of the humming-bird.

Analysis. Humming-bird (vide p. 150), tubular, rt. invisible, bt. mist, sen. result of very quick motion, il. spokes of coach-wheels when very rapid, pupil, i. e. round black spot in centre of the eye, through which the light passes, circumspection, dexterity, rt. cricket, grasshopper, exp. combatants, competition, resplendent, rt. our, i. e. America. precaution, rt.

Lesson. Throughout the animal kingdom there is a tendency to dsaigreement and strife, evidently destructive of much enjoyment, Those to whom God has given reason should live in harmony and love.

Text for the day.—Proy. xx. 21.—“An inheritance may he gotten hastily at the beginning, hut the end thereof shall not he blessed.”

Youthful Aspirations.

Deeper, deeper let us toil In the mines of knowledge ;

Nature’s wealth and learning’s spoil Win from school and college ;

Delve we there for richer gems Than the stars of diadems.

Onward, onward may we press Through the path of duty,

Virtue is true happiness,

Excellence true beauty ;

Minds are of celestial birth,

Make we then a heaven of earth.”



“ Do not talk to me about a boy being clever ; for if he have nothing but cleverness to recommend him, I think but little better of him than if you had told me he could dance the sailor’s hornpipe.

The broad sails of a gay-rigged ship are pleasant to gaze on, but if the vessel have no ballast, those broad sails may be the means of her destruction. In like

Subject. Exhortation to study—to duty—to excellence.

Analysis. Mines, fig. meta. al. labour of acquiring knowledge and separating the valuable from the worthless, il. metallic ores, delve, sen. dig. richer gems, il, Job xxviii. virtue, sen. moral goodness, dis. vice, true, sen. enduring, dis. that derived from pleasure, riches, &c. excellence, rt. true beauty, sen. mind, dis. external, heaven, al. happy intercourse of minds.

Lesson I. Onward” is a necessity in all earthly existence, whether it shall be to good or to evil must depend on ourselves. II. If we are not living for good purposes, we are promoting that which is evil.

manner, the cleverness of a boy may attract attention; but if he have no principle to direct his talents, his cleverness may lead him into sin and sorrow.

Clever men have not always been the most useful, nor are clever boys of necessity the most promising. A little principle is worth a great deal of cleverness any day of the year.

When a clever boy is brought to me, I ask these questions about him:—Does he fear God, honour his parents, obey his teachers, love his Bible, speak truth, act honestly, and behave kindly to those around him ? If he does these things, I hear of his talents with pleasure; but if he does them not, his cleverness is to me as nothing.

Give me a boy of common understanding and good principles, who is teachable, patient, industrious, and persevering, and I will match him, in the long run, against the cleverest lad you can find, deficient in these qualities.

Now mind, it is not cleverness that I undervalue, but unprofitable cleverness. I would have every boy clever if I could; I would have him say to himself, ‘ Be my station high or low, with God’s help I will do my duty therein with ability.’

But then, let cleverness and usefulness go hand in hand together.”—Old Barnaby.

Subject. Cleverness alone of no value—may lead into sin— cleverness must be joined with goodness.

Analysis. Sails, sen. compared with natural talents, ballast, sen. good principles.

Lesson. First seek to be good—all other things will then find their proper places.

Text for the day.Prov. xx. 22.—“ Say not thou, I mill recompense evil; but wait on the Lord, and he shall save thee.”

Change of Seasons.

.“Who loves not spring’s voluptuous hours,

The carnival of birds and flowers ?

Yet who would choose, however dear,

That spring should revel all the year ?

Who loves not summer’s splendid reign,

The bridal of the earth and main ?

Yet who would choose, however bright,

A dog-day noon without a night?

Who loves not autumn’s joyous round,

When corn, and wine, and oil abound ?

Yet who would choose, however gay,

A year of unrenew’d decay ?

Who loves not winter’s awful form,

The sphere-born music of the storm ?

Yet who would choose, how grand soever,

The shortest day to last for ever ?”



The convent of St. Bernard, founded in the year 968, is situated 8074 feet above the level of the sea, and is, undoubtedly, the most elevated habitation in Europe. In the height of summer, the least breeze makes it quite unpleasant.

The ecclesiastics who live in the convent are from ten to twelve in number. Their active humanity saves

Subject. Each season brings its delights—the succession of the seasons is an additional source of pleasure.

Analysis. Voluptuous, rt. carnival, rt. sen. a feast kept in Italy, before Lent, splendid, RT. dog-days, al. from July 15th to August 20th, Sirius (dog-star) then rising and setting with the sun. sphere-born music, sen. the winds, confined to no country, but encircling the globe itself.

Lesson. God does all things well—this conviction ought to save us from much useless and wicked complaining about weather, seasons, or misfortunes.

many lives every year; and the hospitality with which all strangers are received, reflects the highest honour on the order to which they belong.

From November to May, a trusty servant, accompanied by an ecclesiastic, goes every day half-way down the mountain in search of travellers. They have with them one or two large dogs, trained for the purpose, which will scent a man at a great distance, and find out the road, in the thickest fogs, storms, and heaviest falls of snow. Suspended from their necks are little baskets, with meat and drink to refresh the wearied traveller.

The fathers themselves also perform this work of humanity. Often are they seen anxiously looking out from the highest summits of the rocks for the storm-beaten traveller. They show him the way, lead him along, holding him up when unable to stand alone; sometimes they even carry him on their shoulders to the convent.

Often are they obliged to use violence to the traveller, w'hen, benumbed with cold and exhausted with fatigue, he earnestly begs that they will allow him to rest, or to sleep for a few minutes only on the snow. It is necessary to shake him well, and to drag him by force from insidious sleep, the fatal forerunner of death.

When the snow has covered any one to a great depth, the fathers take long poles, and sounding in different places, discover by the resistance which the end of the pole meets with, whether it be a rock only, or a human body. In the latter case, they soon disengage it from the snow, and have often the glowing, heartfelt satisfaction of restoring to ‘ light and life’ one of their lost fellow-creatures.

Subject. Account of the humane conduct of the monks of St. Bernard.

Analysis. Concent, rt. St. Bernard (see p. 150). elevated, habitation, p.t. unpleasant, al. coldness in high regions. summits, exhausted, rt. sounding, al. practice of sailors to ascertain depth, resistance, rt.

Lesson. We should zealously seize opportunities of doing good to all men, of whatever country or religion, il. good Samaritan.


Tea-Tree {sec p. 142). The tea-tree, or rather shrub, flourishes luxuriantly betwixt the thirtieth and thirty-third degrees of north latitude. It is chiefly cultivated near Pekin, and around Canton, How long the use of tea has been known to the Chinese we are entirely ignorant; an infusion of the dried leaves of the tea shrub is now their common drink. They pour boiling water over them, and leave them to infuse, as we do in Europe ; but they drink the tea thus made without either milk or sugar. The inhabitants of Japan reduce the leaves to a fine powder, which they dilute with water until it acquires nearly the consistence of soup. The tea equipage is placed before the company, together with a box in which the powdered tea is contained : the cups are filled with warm water, and then as much of the powder is thrown into each cup as is necessary, and it is stirred about until the liquor begins to form, in which state it is presented to the company.”— Bingley.

Hemming Bird (see p. 144). “1 Of all animated beings,’ says Buffon, ‘this is the most elegant in form, and most splendid in colouring. It dwells in the air, and flitting from flower to flower, it seems to be itself a flower in freshness and splendour; it feeds on their nectar, and resides in climates where they blow in perpetual succession ; for the few which migrate out of the tropics during the summer, make but a transitory stay in the temperate zones.’ The American Indians have given it a name signifying a sunbeam, expressive of its brilliancy and rapidity of motion. Mr. Waterton calls it the bird of Paradise. ‘See it,’ he says, ‘darting through the air almost as quickly as thought! Now it is within a yard of your face !—in an instant gone !—now it flutters from flower to flower, to sip the silver dew,—it is now a ruby —now a topaz—now an emerald—now all burnished gold!’ ”—Bait’s Gleanings.

Bernard the Great (St.) [seep. 148). One of the Alps—a mountain in Savoy and Switzerland, between Valais and the valley of Aoust. The top is always covered with snow. By the pass over the Graian Alp, Hannibal, and subsequently Napoleon, effected a passage into Italy. On this mountain the convent of St. Bernard is situated ; the monks who inhabit it are of the order of St. Augustine. St. Bernard, the first abbot of Clairvaux, was bom in the year 1091. He is said to have founded 160 monasteries. He died in 1153.



Happiness — well-being—desire of it implanted by God—for wise ends—excites to industry—vigorous effort, &c.

1.    How sought by many.—Gratification of present desires, il. truant; indulgence of self-will—il. disobedience to parents, &c.; care for self only—selfish enjoyment — il. playfellows—taking advantages— strong over weak—-disobliging temper—disregard of wishes and comfort of others. Not attained in any of these—do not promote well-being.

2.    How to be found.—In performance of duty—esteem of wise and good—approval of conscience—favour of God—il. feelings after resisting inducements to evil; in attention to happiness of others—love excites love ; in pursuit of worthy objects—bearing on good of mankind—labouring for futurity.

Lesson.—Happiness is in the mind—not in outward

circumstances, il. contented poor man—miserable rich—if indolent and useless ; not end of existence— flies when pursued as object of life, il. many days of pleasure ; falls into our lap when doing our duty, il, feelings at school—or seeking good of others, il. feelings after performing an act of kindness, though it may cost us trouble.


Tea .—Leaf of a shrub—evergreen—height 5 or 6 feet— many branches—leaf narrow—tapering—dark green ; —two kinds—black—green—show it.

1.    Where grown.—China {vide map)—Pekin—Canton ¦—Nankin ; in valleys—slope of hills—banks of rivers —southern aspects; black and green same shrub— gathered different seasons.

2.    How prepared.—Leaves picked —put on iron pan— heated—rolled in hand—cooled—sorted.

3.    Names—Bohea—from country ; Congo—care or trouble ; souchong—small good thing ; hyson—from name of merchant.

4.    History.—Pirst imported by Dutch—1610; when introduced to England—uncertain ; first by East India Company—1669 ; now 33 millions of pounds brought to England—in return chiefly woollen goods.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxi. 4.—“ An high look, and a proud heart, and the ploughing of the wicked, is sin.”


“ The calm retreat, the silent shade,

With prayer and praise agree,

And seem by Thy sweet bounty made For those who follow thee.

There, if thy Spirit touch the soul,

And grace her mean abode,

O, with what peace, and joy, and love,

She communes with her God !

There, like the nightingale she pours Her solitary lays,

Nor asks a witness for her song,

Nor thirsts for human praise.”



Remember the Sabbath-day to keep it holy. It is a matter of deep regret and lively sorrow, to see how much that holy day is profaned, both by old and young.

Religion can never prosper with those who devote the Sabbath to idleness or amusement. If you are in the habit of violating its sanctity, you deliberately break one of the Divine commandments.

Subject. The retirement of the country •peculiarly favourable to devout feeling.

Analysis. Retirement, rt. agree, sen. induce reflection and lead the mind heavenward, follow thee, sen. Christians. grace, sen. dwell, al. 1 Cor. vi. 19. mean, abode, sen. the body as abode of the soul, il. tabernacle, RT. nightingale, exp. solitary, RT.

Lesson. It is most important that our minds be filled with good thoughts, so that when alone they may be to us useful and profitable companions.

And, while the breach of one of the commandments naturally leads to a disregard of the rest, as temptation may occur, the neglect of the fourth commandment is particularly to be deprecated and lamented ; because the Sabbath is the wise and gracious appointment of God for providing us with a season of instruction and meditation, that we may be fitted for the duties of the succeeding week, that we may be fortified against the temptations of the world, and that we may attend to all our spiritual interests.

Accordingly, wherever there is a degeneracy in the observance of the Sabbath, there is sure to be a corresponding declension of religious principle and moral conduct.

Almost all those who have advanced in the path of iniquity till it became their ruin, who have suffered from the hand of justice for their crimes, and have died, whether in penitence or despair, almost all of them have confessed that Sabbath-breaking was the commencement of their guilty career ; and that this vice, so prevalent and so little heeded, contributed more than any other cause to hasten them on to the consummation of their fate.

O my dear children ! let me entreat you to sanctify the Sabbath. It was sanctified by God, who on that day rested from all his works- It is sanctified by Christ, whose resurrection from the dead it commemorates. It is sanctified by all our spiritual necessities here, and by all our hopes of happiness hereafter. Do not then profane it.”—Rev. Db. Thomson.

Subject. The importance of keeping the Sabbath-day holy.

Analysis. Sabbath, i. e. rest, profound, rt. violating its sanctity, sen. employing any part of it in other than necessary, charitable, or sacred purposes, religion, rt. deliberately, rt. al. act of a free man. occur, deprecated, providing, instruction, succeeding, fortified, declension, consummation, rt.

Lesson I. We must watch carefully against every temptation to break the saeredness of the Sabbath-day. II. Disregard of the Sabbath leads to the commission of many sins, and often to final ruin.


Text for the day.— Prov. xxviii. 24.—Whoso

robbeth his father or his mother, and saith, It is no transgression; the same is the companion of a destroyer'’


Look not upon the wine, when it Is red within the cup !

Stay not for pleasure when she fills Her tempting beaker up !

Though clear its depths, and rich its glow,

A spell of madness lurks below.

Then dash the brimming cup aside,

And spill its purple wine :

Take not its madness to thy lip—

Let not its curse be thine.

’Tis red and rich—but grief and woe Are hid those rosy depths below.”

N. P. Willis.


If I enter the premises of a working man, and find his garden deformed with weeds, his once latticed porch broken and unseemly, his walls discoloured, his hearth dirty, I know that there is little self-respect in the master of that hovel, and that he flies from his comfortless home to the nightly gratification which the ale-house supplies.

Subject. Wine is inviting to the eye of the drinker, hut too frequently produces grief and woe.”    .

Analysis. Red, appearance, al. to its fascinations, beaker, cup, so called from a Saxon drinking-cup with spout like a bird’s beak, spell, al. fabled power exercised by wizards and witches, from which the victims could not escape, dash, sen. act with prompt decision, madness, sen. violent action of the brain without judgment to control it, il. Oh that men should put an enemy in their mouth to steal away their brains.” curse, sen. contempt, poverty, madness.

Lesson I. Difficult to abstain from the intemperate use of wine after having indulged in it. II. Where not necessary, it is folly to rush into danger.

But show me the trim crocus in the spring, or the gorgeous dahlia in the autumn, flourishing in the neat enclosure; let me see the vine or the monthly rose covering his cottage walls in regulated luxuriance; let me find within the neatly sanded floor, the well-polished furniture, a few books, and a print or two over his chimney, and I am satisfied that the occupiers of the cottage have a principle at work within that will do much to keep them from misery and degradation.

They have found out unexpensive employments for their leisure; they have the key to the same class of enjoyments which constitute a large portion of the happiness of the best informed$ they have secured a share of the common inheritance of intellectual gratification.

While these effects may result from industry, sobriety, and intelligence, how much more powerful the influence of virtue and godliness !

In addition to the cleanliness and comfort of the house, the self-respect, and the public approbation, which invariably attend such domestic scenes, there are the testimony of an approving conscience, the smiles of the Divine favour, and the cheering hopes of a better and an everlasting home. ‘ Say ye to the righteous, it shall be well with them ; for- they shall eat of the fruit of their doings.’ ”—Wcehly Visitor.

Subject. The home of a family oftentimes an index of the state of mind of the inmates.

Analysis. Self-respect, sen. that will not descend to live in filth, however poor, occupiers, principle, degradation, ht. share, sen. from books in which the most intelligent find much of their enjoyment, crocus, dahlia, vine, monthly rose, exp.

Lesson I. Our comforts depend much more on our manners than on our means. II. Man avoids much misery and degradation by abstaining from vice, but to have real enjoyment he must possess godliness.

Text for the dat.—Prov. xxviii. 26.—“ He that trusteth in his own heart is a fool: but whoso walheth wisely, he shall he delivered.”


Ah ! what avail the largest gifts of Heaven,

When drooping health and spirits go amiss ?

How tasteless then whatever can be given !

Health is the vital principle of bliss,

And exercise of health : in proof of this,

Behold the wretch who flings his life away,

Soon swallow’d in disease’s sad abyss ;

While he whom toil has braced, or manly play,

Has light as air each limb, each thought as clear as day.”



Those whom choice or necessity may lead to follow some of the very useful occupations which are generally carried on in populous places, and which often bring many individuals together into large manufactories, would find a very great advantage in having recourse to some of those bodily exercises which are engaged in for the purpose of recreation and amusement.

If judiciously managed, as to their kind, and the time and energy to be devoted to them, they might be made the most powerful means of counteracting the injurious effects arising from the disuse of particular muscles, and from the distorting and cramping

Subject. To enjoy life ice must have health—to possess health we must take exercise.

Analysis. Gifts, il. friends, fame, power, wealth, taste-less, il. one objected to the boasted broth of the hardy Spartan as nauseous;—You lack the seasoning, said he,—exercise, vital, kt. flings, sen. to pleasure or indolence, not using it. light aair, sen. not felt;—test of health not to perceive the operation of any part of our frame, nor even the weight of our eaten food, s

Lesson I. Life is given to be employed in active exertion; and, if not so used, the frame becomes weak and feeble. II. Labour is not destructive of strength, but is necessary to its preservation.

positions to which the operatives in some kinds ot business are unavoidably subjected.

These exercises, besides benefiting the body, would serve as a diversion from many corrupting and baneful modes of passing away the time not devoted to business, which too often lead the operative classes into practices which bring ruin on their families, and are more injurious to their health, and destructive of life, than the most unhealthful manufacturing occupations.

In recommending athletic exercises, I must not omit to notice the very important exception which must be made with respect to those which are likely to stir up angry and ferocious dispositions, and can scarcely fail to have a hardening and brutalising tendency. Such were boxing and wrestling among the Greeks, and in a still greater degree the murderous sword-fights of the gladiators in the Roman amphitheatres; and such are the barbarous prize-fights which disgrace this country.

Their demoralising effect is by no means confined to the parties actually engaged in these combats; in fact, some of these may give proof of admirable courage, agility, and perseverance, which we must regret to see prostituted to so base a purpose. Perhaps, in many instances, the greatest evil is the effect produced upon the spectators.

They have been supposed to encourage a martial spirit, and on this account they cannot be too much discouraged by those who feel that war is pernicious and impolitic, and who know that its practices, and the passions which it excites, are essentially sinful and anti-christian.”

Dr. Hodgkin.

Subject. Athletic exercises recommended—benefits th« health—often saves from injurious habits.

Analysis. Gymnastic (vide p. 162). necessity, manufactories,judiciously, ht. muscles, (vide p. 162). distorting, diversion, corrupting, exception, rt. gladiators, i. e. men hired or prisoners made to fight for the amusement of the citizens of Rome. amphitheatre, rt. martial, pernicious, impolitic, rt.

Lesson. Athletic exercises, regularly and judiciously attended to, are necessary to a full development of the bodily powers.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxi. 27.—“ The sacrifice of the wicked is abomination: how much more when he bringeth it with a wicked mind ?”

To a Sky-Lark.

Up with me ! up with me into the cloud?!

For thy song, Lark, is strong;

Up with me, up with me into the clouds!

Singing, singing,    _

With all the heavens about thee ringing,

Lift me, guide me till I find That spot which seems so to thy mind !

Up with me, up with me, high and high,

To thy banqueting place in the sky !

Joyous as morning,

Thou art laughing and scorning;

Thou hast a nest, for thy love and thy rest;

And, though little troubled with sloth,

Drunken lark, thou wouldst be loth To be such a traveller as I.”



Have you ever considered how it is that birds can fly, while you can only walk and run ? Perhaps you will say, because they have wings, and we have not. But this is not the only reason. Though you have no wings, you have arms and hands to supply their places, but with these you cannot fly.

Subject. Address to the sky-lark — aspirations after her enjoyments.

Analysis. Lark, exp. joyous, al. supposed happiness of the bird, scorning al. to poet not being able to fly. drunken, sen. intoxicated with joy.

Lesson. Though man is excelled by many animals in some particular capability, yet God has given him power over them all; the music of the bird, the strength and fleetness of the horse, the scent of the dog, See. Sec. are all placed at his disposal.

If it were possible for you to run as swiftly as the birds can fly, in a few minutes you would become almost breathless, and quite exhausted with the exertion. In order that they may be able to sustain the great efforts they make in flight, and the wonderful speed with which they move, they are formed in such a manner as to have a store of breath provided for their great necessities.

To secure this advantage, there are air-vessels, or little cavities for the reception of air, almost all over their bodies, even in their bones, where air often supplies the place of marrow, as you may observe in the bones of a chicken, which have a much smaller proportion of marrow in them than the bones of quadrupeds.

This singular provision of nature, besides enabling them to breathe more freely, increases their bulk without adding to their weight, and by that means gives a larger space for the muscles to act on, and so promotes the facility of their flight in another way.

This extension of the air-vessels also effects, more speedily, the changes in the blood, and thus fits it for a more rapid circulation, by this means greatly increasing the heat of their little bodies, and enabling them to meet without injury all the changes of temperature to which they are subject in their passage through the air.”—Minstrelsy of the Woods.

Subject. Peculiarities enabling birds to fly—wings—increased receptacles for air—size as compared with weight—more rapid circulation of the blood.

Analysis. You have arms, SfC.; though in some particulars the various animals may excel man, yet their powers are as nothing to his. sustain, cavities, rt. increases bulk, il. things float in air or water, &c. when their bulk weighs less than a quantity of air or water of the same dimensions—balloon, fish, &e.

Lesson. Proofs of design in the works of creation ; every animal has powers suited to its nature and means of living; no power is ever given without a use for it.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxii. 1.—“ A good name is rather to he chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than silver and gold."


“ Night is the time for rest,

How sweet when labours close,

To gather round an aching breast The curtain of repose ;

Stretch the tired limbs, and lay the head Upon our own delightful bed.

Night is the time for death,

When all around is peace,

Calmly to yield the weary breath,

From sin and suffering cease ;

Think of heaven’s bliss, and give the sign To parting friends;—such death be mine !”



The suffocating air of these tombs is so great as to cause fainting. A vast quantity of dust rises, so fine that it enters into the throat and nostrils, and chokes the nose and mouth to such a degree, that it requires great power of lungs to resist it, and the strong effluvia of the mummies.

This is not all; the entry or passage where the

Subject. Night the time to rest—to die.

Analysis. Time for death, sen. its solemn quiet seems to accord with the feelings of the death-bed. give the sign, sen. after the power of speech is lost, and life ju9t quitting the body, to show by signs that nothing is felt but peace and joy, is the Christian’s privilege, tl. Ps. xxxvii. 37.

Lesson I. Every night’s sleep is a type of death. II. As night after night we retire to recover our exhausted energies, we should reflect that the night of death comes in which they will be no longer committed to our keeping.

bodies are, is roughly cut in the rocks, and in some places there is not more than a vacancy of a foot left, which you must contrive to pass through in a creeping posture like a snail, on pointed and keen stones that cut like glass.

After getting through these passages, some of them two or three hundred yards long, you generally find a more commodious place, perhaps high enough to sit But what a place of rest! surrounded by heaps of mummies in all directions.

The blackness of the wall, the faint light given by the candles or torches for want of air, the different objects that surround you, seeming to converse with each other, and the Arab guides with the candles or torches in their hands, naked and covered with dust, themselves resembling living mummies, absolutely form a scene that cannot be described.

After the exertion of entering into such a place, nearly overcome, you seek a resting-place, find one, and contrive to sit; but when your weight bears on the body of an Egyptian, it crushes it like a bandbox.

You naturally have recourse to your hands to sustain your weight, but they find no better support; so that you sink altogether among the broken mummies, with a crash of bones, rags, and wooden cases, which raise such a dust as keeps you motionless for a quarter of an hour, waiting till it subside again.”—Belzoni.

Subject. Visit to an Egyptian mummy tomb.

Analysis. Tombs (vide p. 162). effluvia, ht. mummies, (vide p. 162). described, rt.

Lesson. False principles lead to foolish practices ; the ancient Egyptians believed that whilst the body remained uncorrupted, the spirit did not quit it; hence the expensive and absurd practice of thus embalming.


Gymnastic (see p. 156). The gymnastic art denotes the art of performing exercises of the body, whether for defence, health, or diversion. The word is adopted from the Greeks, who called the place set apart for these exercises the gymnasium, from yumnos, naked, because at that time they were so performed.

Muscles (see p. 157). The muscles are the organs of motion. The parts that are usually included under this name, consist of distinct portions of flesh susceptible of contraction and relaxation. These in a healthy state are subject to the will, and therefore called voluutarymxi§c\es. There are other parts of the body that owe their power of contraction to their muscular fibres : thus the heart is of a muscular texture, forming what is called a hollow muscle ; and the stomach and other parts are euabled to act upon their contents, merely because they are provided with muscular fibres. These are called involuntury muscles, because their motions are not dependent on the will.

Tombs (seep. 160). Tomb includes both the grave or sepulchre wherein a dead person is interred, and the monument erected to preserve his memory. The tombs of the Jews were generally hollow places hewn out of a rock. The Egyptians buried their dead in caves called catacombs. The pyramids, some think, were employed for the same purpose. Sometimes, also, after embalming their dead, they placed them in niches, in some magnificent apartment in their houses. The Greeks and Romans burned their dead, and deposited their ashes in a tomb. Various names have been given to burial places and monuments. Cemetery literally means a sleeping-place. A cenotaph is an empty tomb, erected in honour of the deceased. A mausoleum is a magnificent funeral monument, so called from Mauso-lus, king of Caria, to whom Artemisia, his widow, erected a monument, which was esteemed one of the wonders of the world.

Mummies (seep. 161). Bodies embalmed or dried in the manner used by the ancient Egyptians. There are two kinds of bodies denominated mummies. The first are only carcases dried by the heat of the sun ; these are found in the sands of Lybia, having probably been overwhelmed by hurricanes. The second kind are bodies taken out of the catacombs, near Cairo. Some of these may be seen in the British Museum.


The Sabbath.

Sabbath—day of rest—for man—beast; to be sanctified.

1. When instituted—Paradise (Gen. ii. 1—3.); seven days—Noah and dove (Gen. viii. 10—12); time into weeks (Gen. 1. 10. Job ii. 13)—no cause for this in phenomena of heavens;—republication Sinai (Ex. xx. 8). Manna (Ex. xvi. 22—26)—Jewish law.

2.    Change of day.—Resurrection of Christ (Isa. Ixv. 17, 18); apostolic example (John xx. 19—26)—Pentecost (Acts ii. 1). Paul preaching (Acts xx. 7). John (Rev. i. 10).

3.    How to be observed.—Rest from labour—from worldly cares—but not idle. Engage in—public worship— devout meditation—profitable conversation—works of mercy.

4.    Evil of its violation.—Man degraded—poor oppressed; il. unceasing toil—intemperance—folly—God forgotten.

Lesson 1. Goodness of God in setting apart a portion of time—for repose of the poor—and animals—and for the mental and spiritual improvement of all.

2. Sabbath-breaking leads tobad company—other sins —degradation of character, il. lives of criminals.

Cottage Comforts.

Comfort—compatible with straitened circumstances— much privation ; its possession supposes—self-respect —love of domestic enjoyment—tranquil mind.

1.    A comfortable home.—Floor clean — walls whitewashed—furniture bright—garden cultivated—books on shelf; — inmates good-tempered — peace love. Obtained by industry—economy—prudence—harmony of family—fear of God.

2.    An uncomfortable home. Dirt—slovenliness—discord —ill-temper—inmates no affection for each other— no home pleasures. Result—ale-house—intemperance —bad company—extravagance—ruin.

Lesson 1. Happiness not dependent on—wealth—station—outward show ;—a state of mind—cottage converted into palace by prudence—love.

2. Duty of giving up selfish enjoyment for comfort of a household—union is strength.

Text eor the day.—Prov. xxii. 4.—“ By humility and the fear of the Lord, are riches, honour, and life.”

Knowledge and Wisdom.

“ Knowledge and wisdom, far from being one,

Have oft-times no connexion. Knowledge dwells In heads replete with thoughts of other men ; Wisdom in minds attentive to their own. Knowledge, n rude unprofitable mass,

The mere materials with which wisdom builds,

Till smoothed and squared, and fitted to its place, Does but encumber whom it seems to enrich. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much ; Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.”



“ Of all the vicious habits to which children are liable, in common with those of more advanced years, that of profane swearing is, at once, one of the most impious and daring—the most low and degrading— the most senseless and inexcusable.

Yet, in walking our streets, how often, alas ! are our ears assailed with the most profane and disgusting language. How often do we hear that great and awful name, which the Jew and the Mahometan

Subject. Knowledge and wisdom contrasted.

Analysis. Knowledge, sen. opposed to ignorance, wisdom, sen. as seen in the right use of knowledge, mass, sbn. of facts. is proud, sen. tendency of knowledge to produce pride, il. 1 Cor. viii. 2.

Lesson I. We must strive daily to get knowledge; but still more must we pray for wisdom to use it rightly. II. Human knowledge tends to produce pride, if not based on the fear of the Lord.” never venture to pronounce without the most scrupulous veneration, appealed to in testimony of the truth of the most insignificant assertions !

Surely, a moment’s reflection ought to be sufficient to convince even the youngest, and most thoughtless and inconsiderate offender of this description, of the heavy guilt, as well as extreme folly, of such conduct. It is a vice obviously directed against the Majesty of heaven itself—against that High and Holy Being, who hath himself given us his most positive commandment, to * swear not at all, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither hy any other oath;’ and hath at the same time given us his most solemn warning, that he will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain,’ and that for every idle word which we shall speak he will call us into judgment.

And while the language in question is thus highly offensive to God, it is, at the same time, most disgusting to every well-regulated mind, and can give satisfaction to no human being whatever. Those even, who themselves are addicted to this most degrading vice, are not always the last to feel horror and disgust when they hear the same or similar language on the lips of an associate.

It is language, accordingly, which cannot now be tolerated in any polite society. It is the habitual language only of the profligate and abandoned—the language of those lawless bands who set God and man alike at defiance.”—From Wood's Sess. School Collection.

Subject. Profane swearing a most offensive and widely spread sin.

Analysis. Profane, dis. judicial, low, sen. as regards intellect or respectability, degrading, RT. sen. causes a person otherwise respected to be despised, senseless and inexcusable, because sinning without any temptation. Jew, (vide p. 174). Mahometan, (vide p. 174). pronounce, reflection, description, rt. swear not, James v. 12. name in vain, Ex. xx. 7. idle word, Matt. xii. 36. disgusting, tolerated, rt.

Lesson I. Profane swearing is an offence against God, and against every good feeling in man. II. We must instantly quit the company of a swearer, in. Prov. xxii. 24, 25.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxii. 24, 25.—“ Make no friendship with an angry man : and with afurious man thou shalt not go : lest thou learn his mays, and get a snare to thy soul.”

The Free Mind.

High walls and huge the body may confine,

And iron grate obstruct the prisoner’s gaze,

And massive bolts may baffle his design,

And vigilant keepers watch his devious ways : Yet scorns the immortal mind this base control!

No chains can bind it, and no cell enclose : Swifter than light it flies from pole to pole,

And in a flash from earth to heaven it goes !

It leaps from mount to mount! from vale to vale It wanders, plucking honey’d fruits and flowers ; It visits home, to hear the fire-side tale,

Or, in sweet converse, pass the joyous hours.

’Tis up before the sun, roaming afar,

And, in its watches, wearies every star !”

William Lloyd Garrison.


This distinguished man first became known to the public in the case of a poor and friendless negro, of the name of Somerset.

This person had been brought from the West Indies, and, falling into bad health, had been abandoned by his master, as a useless article of property.

In this destitute state, almost, it is said, on the point of expiring on the pavement of one of the public

Subject. The mind is ever free.

Analysis. Obstruct, vigilant, rt. devious ways, sen. attempts to escape observation, immortal, rt. flies, i. e. goes on wings, sen. passes swiftly, flash, sen. quick as light. leaps, sen. as an echo—“ from rock to rock leaps the live thunder.” wanders, sen. in imagination to spots once enjoyed. visits, sen. in dreams, watches, wearies, sen. ere sunset till they disappear at sunrise.

Lesson I. The freedom with which the mind ranges over creation shows that the body is but its temporary residence—its tabernacle. II. Our cares and anxieties are ill-directed if we make the body, rather than the mind, the subject of them.

streets of London, Mr. Sharpe chanced to see him. He instantly had the poor creature removed to St. Bartholomew’s hospital, and in a short time had the happiness to see liim restored to health; when he procured him comfortable employment.

Two years afterwards, Mr. Sharpe received a letter from Somerset, then confined in the Poultry compter, entreating his interference, to save him from a greater calamity even than the death from which he had before rescued him. Mr. Sharpe found the negro now sent to prison as a runaway slave.

The excellent patriot went immediately to the lord mayor, Nash, who caused the parties to be brought before him; when, after a long hearing, the upright magistrate decided, that the master had no property in the person of the negro in this country, and gave the negro his liberty.

The master instantly collared him, aud insisted on his right to keep him as his property. Mr. Sharpe now claimed the protection of the superior tribunals ; caused the master to be arrested; and exhibited articles of the peace against him for an assault and battery.

After various legal proceedings, supported by him with the most undaunted spirit, the twelve judges unanimously concurred in opinion, that the master had acted criminally. Thus did Mr. Sharpe emancipate for ever the race of blacks from slavery on British ground.


Subject. Early anti-slavery efforts.

Analysis. Negro, i. e. a black man—now applies only to Africans. West Indies, expiring, rt. chanced, sen. accidentally, no application made to Mr. Sharpe to interfere, yet he felt responsibility in the case and acted on it. creature, rt. to hospital, §-c. acted thus in the spirit of the good Samaritan. procured, interference, rt. to save him. patriot, magistrate, liberty, protection, rt. superior, i. e. from lord mayor to Court of King’s Bench, then twelve judges, tribunal, rt. articles of the peace, conditions under which peace is to be kept. sen. bound him not again to touch the slave, assault and battery, sen. violence to the person, legal, unanimously, concurred, emancipate, RT.

Lesson I. To protect, in every lawful way, the injured and oppressed is the paramount duty of every freeman. II. First examine the truth and justice of a principle, and having done so, fearlessly act on it.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxix. 25.—“ The fear

of man bringeth a snare: but whoso puttetk his trust in the Lord shall be safe.”

Home Comforts.

“ Closer, closer let us knit Hearts and hands together,

Where our fire-side comforts sit In the wildest weather :

Oh ! they wander wide, who roam For the joys of life from home.

Nearer, dearer bands of love,

Draw our souls in union,

To our Father’s home above,

To the saints’ communion :

Thither every hope ascend,

There may all our troubles end.”



It is, on every account, much to be wished, that the labouring classes of society should, in their early years, be rendered well acquainted with the nature and advantages of saving banks—those admirable institutions, by which the earnings of youth, and health, and vigour, are made to supply the wants of old age, of sickness, or of adversity.

The mode in which these institutions are conducted is extremely simple. A committee of directors meet every Monday morning, for the purpose of receiving

Subject. Home the centre of real enjoyment.

Analysis. Knit, sf.N. closely join, fire-side comforts, il. purifying influence of domestic happiness.

Lesson I. Union necessary to the higher kinds of enjoyment on earth as well as in heaven. II. Selfishness blights happiness, and is accursed of God.

the sums to be then lodged by contributors, and of paying out to them those which had been formerly deposited, with the interest allowed upon them by the rules of the bank.

No one is obliged to make any regular payments, unless he thinks proper, into the savings’ bank. Every contributor may, when be pleases, lodge his money, and not return again until it suits his own convenience. On the other hand, he may, at any time, draw out either the whole or any part of the sums which he had formerly deposited.

There is not a greater mistake than to think that it is not worth while ’ to lodge small sums in the savings’ bank. On the contrary, the old proverb on this subject is an extremely just one, If you take care of your pence, your pounds will take care of themselves.’

It is, in truth, just these small sums that are most apt (from their seeming insignificance) to be thrown away in a foolish or improper manner; and it is these, accordingly, which it was the principal object of the contrivers of this benevolent scheme to save from such ruinous waste, in order to render them of real service to their owners at a future period. And it is pleasing to know, that a considerable portion of the employment of the savings’ banks, particularly in towns, consists in preserving weekly sums of one shilling, two shillings, or the like, deposited by young apprenticed lads.”—Altered from Wood’s Sess. Collection.

Subject. The nature and advantages of savings’ banks.

Analysis. Classes, sen. divisions of men according to their property or employment, adversity, conducted, committee, contributors, deposited, rt. interest, i. e. the sum of one halfpenny for every fifteen shillings each month that it remains in the bank. proverb,benevolent, rt.

Lesson. He who does not in youth and manhood provide for sickness and old age, deserves to puffer privations in his affliction.

Text for the day.—Proy. xxiii. 4.—“ Labour not to he rich : cease from thine own wisdom.”

The Dog.

“ Forgot by all his own domestic crew,

The faithful dog alone his master knew ;

Unfed, unhoused, neglected on the clay,

Like an old servant now cashier’d he lay,

Touch’d with resentment to ungrateful man,

And longing to behold his ancient lord again.

Him, when he saw, he rose and crawl’d to meet, (’Twas all he could) and fawn’d and lick’d his feet, Seized with dumb joy—then, falling by his side, Own’d his returning lord, look’d up, and died !

Hence learn fidelity :—with grateful mind Repay the courteous, to your friends be kind: Whatever fortune on your life attend,

The best of treasures is a faithful friend.”



“ A few days before the fall of Robespierre, a revolutionary tribunal in one of the departments of the north of France condemned to death an ancient magistrate, and a most estimable man, as guilty of a conspiracy.

He had a water spaniel, ten or twelve years old, of the small breed, which had been brought up by him,

Subject. Kindness of a long absent master affectionately remembered by his dog.

Analysis. Domestic crew, sen. household servants, cashiered, rt. sen. discharged, him, al, Ulysses on his return from the siege of Troy.

Lesson. The brutes often rebuke man for his forgetfulness and ingratitude, il. Isa. i. 3.

and had never quitted him. Every day at the same hour the dog leit the house, and went to the door of the prison.

He was refused admittance, but he constantly passed an hour before it, and then returned. His fidelity at length won upon the porter, and he was one day allowed to enter. The dog saw his master, and clung to him. It was difficult to separate them, but the gaoler forced him away, and the dog returned to his retreat. He came back the next morning, and every day; once each day, he was admitted. He licked the hand of his friend, looked him in the face, again licked his hand, and went away of himself.

When the day of sentence arrived, notwithstanding the crowd, and the vigilance of the guard, the dog penetrated into the hall, and crouched himself between the legs of the unhappy man, whom he was about to lose for ever. The judges condemned him; he was re-conducted to the prison, and the dog from that time did not quit the door.

The fatal hour arrives; the prison opens, the unfortunate man passes out; it is his dog that receives him at the threshold. He clings upon his hand, that hand which so soon must cease to pat his caressing head. He follows him; the axe falls; the master dies; but the tenderness of the dog cannot cease. The body is carried away; the dog walks at his side; the earth receives it; he lays himself upon the grave; refuses nourishment; pines away and dies.”

Subject. Affection of a dog to his master in trouble.

Analysis. Revolutionary tribunal, kt. judges appointed by the rebels during the revolution in France, departments, i. e. divisions of France, of which there are eighty-six. conspiracyrt. spaniel, exp. penetrated, reconducted, rt.

Lesson I. Kindness to dumb animals. II. He who is cruel to dumb animals is generally harsh and tyrannical to his fellow-creatures—degraded in character—and in some respects more brutish than the beasts.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxiii. 5.—“ Wilt thou set thine eyes upon that which is not? for riches certainly make themselves wings; they fly away as an eagle toward heaven.”


I never cast a flower away,

The gift of one who cared for me,

A little flower, a faded flower,—

But it was done reluctantly.

I never look’d a last adieu To things familiar, but my heart Shrank with a feeling almost paiu,

Even from their lifelessness to part.

I never spoke the word Farewell,’

But with an utterance faint and broken,

A heart-sick yearning for the time When it shall never more be spoken.’’



Towards the middle of the day the boat becomes insufferably hot; both sides have received the fierce glare of a burning sun ; the heat is reflected from the water, which is now too dazzling for the eye to endure without pain : the morning breeze dies away, and it requires all the patience of a martyr to sustain the torments inflicted by a scorching atmosphere.

As the sun declines, the boat gradually cools down

Subject. Painful to a sensitive mind to bid adieu to any thing which has been pleasantly familiar to it.

Analysis. Faded, sen. not the value of the thing itself, but its associations, reluctantly, rt. never more, sen. in heaven.

Lesson. An affectionate heart finds its love reflected back again on itself even from inanimate objects.

to a more equable temperature; and when the welcome shadows of the woods descend upon deck, it is delightful to sit in the open air and watch the progress of the vessel as it nears the shore, to the spot appointed for its station for the night.

The moment that the budgerow is securely moored, a very active and animating scene commences : the domestics whose services are not required on board, and all the crew, immediately disembark; fires are kindled for the various messes: those who are anxious for quiet and seclusion, light up their faggots at a considerable distance from the boat.

The rich back-ground of dark trees, the blazing fires, the picturesque groups assembled round them, and the tranquil river below, its crystal surface crimson with the glow of an Indian sunset, or the fleeting tint fading away, and leaving only the bright broad river,—molten silver or polished steel, as the dark shadows of the night advance,—form an evening landscape always pleasing, and varying with the varying scenery of the ever-changing bank.

Night, always beautiful in India, assumes a still more lovely aspect when it spreads its soft veil over the voyagers on a river; the stars, which come forth shining along a deep blue sky, inlay the waters beneath with glittering ingots; the flowers give out their most delicious odours, and rock and tree, hut and temple, are invested with a double charm.”— Weekly Visitor.    •

Subject. The extreme heat experienced in an open boat on the Ganges by day succeeded by a delicious coolness at evening.

Analysis. Ganges, exp. (vide p. 174). both sides, i. e. river running nearly from north to south, and winding, heat reflected, bt. common to both light and heat, martyr, i. e. witness. inflicted, progress, station, bt. budgerow, Indian boat, disembark, seclusion, picturesque, bt. messes, i. e. cookings, sen. parties who eat together, aspect, bt. veil, al. to covering objects from view, odours, invert, bt. ingots, fig. al. a mass of gold or silver cast, hut not coined or wrought.

Lesson I. The most painful situations in life have their advantages. II. Endure patiently present evils, and look forward with hope to their removal.


Jews {seep. 164). The name is derived from the patriarch Judah. The land of Israel was also distinguished by the appellation of the land of Judah or of Judea, which last name the whole country retained during the existence of the second temple and under the dominion of the Romans. The Jews entertained a superstitious veneration for the Divine name, and never used it but on the most solemn occasions. Some of them would not tread on a piece of paper until they had first examined it, lest, said they, the name of God should be on it.

Mahometans {see p. 164). Those who believe in the doctrines of Mahomet. Mahometanism is professed by the Turks, Egyptians, Persians, several nations in Africa, and by multitudes in the East Indies. Mahomet was born in Arabia, about the end of the sixth century. He began to propagate his opinions, in the first instance, by argument only, stating that he had no authority to compel any one to adopt his religion. Subsequently, however, finding that he did not succeed in this w'ay, he took to the sword, and to force alone his religion owes its establishment. It is one of the strongest proofs of the Divine origin of Christianity, that it prevailed by the mere force of its own truth, and for three hundred years withstood all manner of persecution.

Ganges {see p. 172). One of the largest rivers of Asia, and the most sacred among the Indian rivers in the estimation of the natives. It enters the plains of Hindostán at Hurdwan, in the province of Delhi, in latitude 29° 67'N., longitude 78° 2' E. Between Hurdwan and its mouth it ree:uves, in a course of 1350 miles, eleven rivers, some of which are equal to the Rhine, and none smaller than the Thames, besides inferior streams. At 600 miles from the sea the depth is 30 feet when the river is lowest. The Hooghley, which forms the port of Calcutta, is formed by the re-union of the two westernmost branches of the Ganges.

By the latter end of July all the lower parts of Bengal are overflowed, and throughout the inundated tract, more than 100 miles in breadth, nothing is seen but inundated villages and trees. After the 15th of August the waters begin to run off. The quantity of water discharged into the ocean by the Ganges is computed to be greater than that of any other river in the world.



Profane Swearing—sinful appeal to God ; irreverent use of Divine name—by exclamation—asseveration— imprecation.

Occasions of Swearing. Forgetfulness of God—his holiness— majesty — omniscience ; thoughtlessness — exclaimingwonder, il. irreverent use of Divine name. Passion—oaths — curses—imprecation on — enemies—anything offensive—dumb creatures. Falsehood—asseveration, il. Peter.    Vanity—supposed

manliness—excite applause—bad company.

2.    Guilt of Swearing. Forbidden by God. (Ex. xx. 7.) “ Swear not at all”—“ idle words ; promotes evil passions — degrades — inflames ; blasphemous prayers—tremendous if granted ; altogether inexcusable—no temptation—gratuitous sin.

3.    Cure of Swearing. Habitual reference for God—remembrance of his presence—government ; control of temper—cultivation of meekness—forbearance—love.


Slavery—violation of personal liberty ; physically— taking labour—fixing its kind—extent—duration— without reward against will ; intellectually—denying instruction—debasing mind ; morally—subjecting law of God—conscience—duty to the master.

1.    Negro Slavery exists. America—Southern states ;— Spanish — Dutch — French colonies, &c.—markets from Africa—by slave-ships ; slavers foment native wars—buy captives—make incursions ; slaves smuggled out—trade piracy—explain middle passage— sufferings—death.

2.    Effects — on master — heart-hardening — leads to tyranny — pride—selfishness —cruelty—-murder ; on slave—debasing—occasions deceit—indolence—hypocrisy—dishonesty.

Lessons.—1. Duty of using every means to put an end to this foul—wicked—atrocious thing —opposed to every precept of gospel—to its entire spirit-—to every just—humane—brotherly feeling.

2. Gratitude to God that England is now free from the guilt, exp. emancipation—price paid—present condition of West Indies—rapid improvement of negro population.

Text fob the hay.—Prov, xxiii. 17.—“Let not thine heart envy sinners : hut he thou in the fear of the Lord all the day long.”

Battle of Blenheim.

With fire and sword the country round Was wasted far and wide,

And many a childing mother then,

And new-born infant, died :

But things like that, you know, must be At every glorious victory.

They say it was a shocking sight After the field was won ;

For many thousand bodies there Lay rottiDg in the sun :

But things like that, you know, must be After a famous victory.

‘And every body praised the duke,

Who such a fight did win ‘ But what good came of it at last Quoth little Peterkin :

‘ Why, that I cannot tell,’ said he,

‘ But ’twas a famous victory.’ ”



War is essentially opposed to the precepts of our Saviour. He tells us, that we should do to others

Subject. War very splendid but—destructive to property and life—abounding in horrible incidents and—too often unnecessary.

Analysis. Blenheim in Bavaria, exp. 1704. fire, al. destruction of property to prevent the enemy getting it, and by the enemy to injure the country, wasted, sen. destroyed or rendered barren, victory, rt. shocking, al. to feelings—disgusting. field, i. e. the battle, duke, i. e. of Marlborough. quoth, i. e. said.

Lesson. The existence of war is greatly to be deplored ¦ directly or indirectly it produces the most horrible sufferings;— loss of property—loss of relatives—famine—diseases—immense loss of life—and many most cruel incidents, il. Black Hole at Calcutta—slaves chained in sinking ships at Navarino—explosions of mines, destroying hundreds in an instant, &c.

as we would they should do to us—that we should love our enemies—and that we should not resist evil.

Its tendency is invariably adverse to the improvement of the human race. It occasions, more than any other cause, an immense amount of purely unproductive consumption.

But you hear it said, that war is good for trade, as it keeps money stirring, and makes many rich. Such an assertion is only founded on a partial and imperfect view of the subject.

The money which is raised for the purpose of carrying on a war must first have been produced by the talents and productive industry of man, and then withdrawn from some more or less useful and productive purpose, to which it was either applied or applicable.

You must not suppose that that portion alone is completely lost, which is fired away in powder and shot, exploded in mines, or sunk in the ocean. That which has been spent in feeding and clothing a large army is completely consumed, without leaving behind it a trace of existence ; whereas that which is spent in feeding the manufacturer or agriculturist re-appears in the articles which they are the means of producing.

It is true that human beings have been kept alive in both cases; but, in the one case, they have lived to some purpose, and created property ; in the other, they have done nothing or worse than nothing; and, instead of producing capital, have, perhaps, been the means of entailing on their posterity a lasting deduction from the proceeds of their industry.”—Dr. Hodgkin.

Subject. War opposed to Christian principle. Never productive—awfully destructive.

Analysis. Essentially, sen. opposed in its first principles —hatred instead of love—evil for evil—revenge instead of mercy, &c. adverse, consumption, B.T. productions, IL. houses burned, harvests destroyed, &c. partial, exploded, agriculturist, capital, posterity, kt. deduction, il. a national debt.

Lesson I. If we love our neighbour, we must hate war. II. War is an evil of the worst kind, ranking with plague, pestilence, and famine.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxiii. 21.—“ For the

drunkard and the glutton shall come to poverty: and drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags.”


Alas !—how light a cause may move Dissension between hearts that love !

Hearts that the world in vain has tried,

And sorrow but more closely tied ;

That stood the storm when waves were rough, Yet in a sunny hour fall off,

Like ships, that have gone down at sea,

When heaven was all tranquillity !

A something light as air—a look,

A word unkind or wrongly taken—

Oh ! love, that tempests never shook,

A breath, a touch, like this has shaken.”



The introduction of this wood into England took place about the end of the seventeenth century, in the following manner:—

A London physician, of the name of Gibbon, had a brother, the captain of a West India ship. On his return to England he had several logs of mahogany on board his vessel for the purpose of ballast, and,

Subject. Affection which unshaken has endured muchsometimes dies from the very slightest cause.

Analysis. World tried, sen. by loss of property, privations, &C. in vain, sen. not lessened their mutual love, storm, sen. feelings violent and painfully acted upon by outward circumstances. sunny, sen. abounding in enjoyments and happy prospects. all tranquillity, after having successfully endured the storms.

Lesson I. Affection is a tender plant, and should be very carefully guarded. II. Ever strive against a captious spirit it will separate the dearest friends.

as his brother was at the time employed in a building project, he made him a present of the wood, supposing it might be useful: his carpenter, however, cast it aside, observing that it was of too hard a nature to be worked.

Some time after Mrs. Gibbon being in want of a box to hold candles, the cabinet-maker was directed to make it of this same wood; he, in his turn, made the same objection as the carpenter, and declared that it destroyed his tools.

Being urged, however, to make another trial, he at length succeeded; and when the box was polished, the beautiful colour of its grain was so apparent and novel that it became an object of great curiosity, and attracted the notice, among others^ of the Duchess of Buckingham, for whom a bureau was made of the same material.

Before this time it had been used partially in the West Indies for ship-building; but this new discovery of its beauty soon brought it into general use in the making of furniture.

The chief supply, at the time we speak of, came from the Island of Jamaica, and the wood it exported was then considered of the finest description; but since the constant demand has nearly exhausted the island, it is now chiefly brought from the Spanish Main, and several of the largest West India islands.

There is a species of mahogany in the East Indies, which grows to a much larger size than the American tree : it is also much heavier, but the colour of the wood is of a dirty red.”—Saturday Magazine.

Subject. History of the introduction of mahogany into England.

Analysis. Mahogany, (vide p. 187). Seventeenth century, i. e. between the years 1700 and 1801. physician, project, cabinet, objection, rt. grain, i. e. the direction of the fibres of the wood, discovery, rt. Jamaica, exp. exported, rt. main, sen. main land of America, as distinguished irom the islands.

Lesson. Many useful and valuable things are probably around, and about us unused, because we lack either observation or perseverance, il. introduction of potatoes, coffee, tea, See.

i 2

Text for the day.—Prov. xxv. 21, 22.—“ If

thine enemy he hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he be thirsty, give him mater to drink : For thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head, and the Lord shall reward thee”


This island, spot of unreclaim’d rude earth,

The cradle that received thee at thy birth,

Was rock’d by many a rough Norwegian blast,

And Danish howlings scared thee as they pass’d ; For thou wast born amid the din of arms,

And suck’d a breast that panted with alarms.

While yet thou wast a grovelling puling chit,

Thy bones not fashion’d, and thy joints not knit, The Roman taught thy stubborn knee to bow, Though twice a Caesar could not bend thee now.”



In England, the supreme government, that is, the power of making and enforcing laws, is divided into two branches ; the one legislative, consisting of king, lords, and commons : the other executive, consisting of the king alone.

The executive or regal office is hereditary on certain conditions, but the right of inheritance may be changed or limited by act of parliament. The principal duty of the king is to govern the people according to the laws : but although the king,’ says Lord Bacon, is the fountain of j ustice, and is intrusted with the whole

Subject. The English nation compared, to an infant. Analysis. Unreclaimed, sen. not annexed to any civilized state, rude, sen. uncultivated, cradle, fig. meta. Norwegian, al. invasions of the Norwegians from the earliest time. Danish, al. Danish invasions from 787 to 1041. amid the din, al. almost incessant war in England till the Norman kings. Roman, al. Julius Caesar, 55 and 54 A.C. stubborn, al. never tamely submitted to wrong.    ,

Lesson. It is the part of wisdom to profit by afflictions, to grow strong by exertion, and to gain valuable experience from

executive power of the law, yet he hath no power to change or alter the laws which have been received and established in these kingdoms, and are the birthright of every subject; for it is by those very laws that he is to govern.’

The king owns no superior but God and the laws. It is a maxim in the constitution, that the king, in his political capacity, can do no wrong, because he acts only by officers responsible to the law. The king never dies, that is the executive authority never ceases to exist.

The legislative authority is vested in a parliament, consisting of the king, the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons.

The house of lords consists of the two archbishops and twenty-four bishops, and of all the peers of the realm, who are entitled to a seat, either by inheritance, creation, or election.

The house of commons consists of six hundred and fifty-eight persons, who are returned by the counties, cities, and boroughs possessing the right of election.

Though delegated by particular places, they are bound as members of parliament to act for the general good of the country. Their principal duties are to check and reform abuses of the administration, to redress public and private grievances, to watch over the public expenditure, to enforce by their power of inquiry and impeachment a pure administration of justice in all departments, to assist in framing wise laws, and finally, to preserve and promote, by every constitutional means, the freedom and prosperity of the body of the people.”

Subject. Outline of the British constitution.

Analysis. Legislative, regal, rt. maxim, sen. a fixed principle, officers, il. the highest being called premier or prime minister, spiritual, the two archbishops and bishops, temporal, election, delegated, administration, rt.

Lesson I. The duty of the king or queen and the parliament to govern wisely and temperately ; the duty of every subject to submit implicitly to the laws, and to support those who administer them. II. The best laws are useless if there be not virtue in the people to support them; therefore it has been said that no country has a worse government than it deserves.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxvi. 12.—“ Seest thou a man wise in his own conceit ? there is more hope of a fool than of him.”

The Robin.

“ Sweet robin ! I hail thy appearance once more,

Come, sing in my garden, or peck at my door ;

Though an ingrate for favours so often conferr’d,

I still view with pleasure my favourite bird.

When the last winter’s tempest rush’d down from the sky, Thou stood’st at my window wiih pitiful eye;

The bread from my table unsparing I cast,

And thought that one friend might be faithful at last.

The mild breath of spring, from their covert profound, Call’d the leaves into light, and bespangled the ground ; Ah ! then, ’mid the blaze of prosperity’s reign,

I sought for my robin, but sought him in vain !

Now that summer is past, and the forest is bare,

At my window thou stand’st a sad spectacle there!

Cold and shivering, assistance thou seem’st to implore, And to ask for the hand that once fed thee before.

Come banish thy grief, nor past folly bewail,

My love is a store-house that never shall fail;

At evening, at morning, at noon, and at night,

To feed my sweet bird shall still give me delight. ”



“ The robin is found all over Europe, and his sociability with man has procured for him several familiar epithets; in Sweden he is called Tomi Liden ;

Subject, Invitation to the robin.

Analysis. Robin, exp. ingrate, i. e. unthankful, favours conferred, i. e. every winter, spectacle, rt. past folly, sen. in not providing food against winter, assistance, rt.

Lesson. The robin finds sympathy with all persons except the very cruel, from its social habits and the confidence it reposes in our kindness.

in Germany, Thomas Girdet; in Norway, Peter Ronjmad; and with us, Robin Redbreast, or Ruddock, or Robinet.

Redbreasts sing all through the spring, summer, and autumn. The reason that they are called autumn songsters is, that in the first two seasons their voices are lost and drowned in the general chorus; in the latter, their song becomes distinguishable.

Sad truths might be told of the robin. It might be called jealous, selfish, quarrelsome. A. favourite by commiseration, it seeks an asylum with us; by supplication and importunity, it becomes a partaker of our bounty in a season of severity and want; and its seeming humbleness and necessities obtain our pity ; but it slights and forgets our kindnesses the moment it can provide for itself, and is away to its woods and its shades.

The universality of this bird in all places, and almost at all hours, is very remarkable ; and perhaps there are few spots so lonely in which it would not appear, did we commence digging up the ground.

I have often been surprised in the midst of woods, where no suspicion of its presence existed, when watching some other creature, to see the robin inquisitively perched upon some naked spray near me ; or when digging up a plant in some very retired place, to observe its immediate descent upon some poor worm that I had moved.

The robin loses nearly all the characteristic colour of its breast in the summer, when it moults, and only recovers it on the approach of autumn.”—Notes to Batt’s Gleanings.

Subject. Character and habits of the robin.

Analysis. Sweden, Germany. Norway, exp. chorus, rt, commiseration, rt. sen. from its helplessness and dependence. supplication, importunity, rt.

Lesson. We must never harden our hearts against appeals to our sympathies; the exercise of them keeps up a right tone of feeling, and furnishes us with some of the happiest recollections of our lives.

Text for the day.—Prov. xxix. 1.—“ He that, being often reproved, hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly he destroyed, and that without remedy.”

The Death of the Flowers.

“The melancholy days have come, the saddest of the year, Of wailing winds, and naked woods, and meadows brown and sere;

Heap’d in the hollows of the grove the wither’d leaves lie dead,

They rustle to the eddying gust, and to the rabbits’ tread. The robin and the wren are flown, and from the shrub the

j jay,

And from the wood-top calls the crow, through all the gloomy day.

Where are the flowers, the fair young flowers, that lately sprung and stood,

In brighter light and softer airs, a beauteous sisterhood? Alas ! they all are in their graves, the gentle race of flowers Are lying in their lowly beds, with the fair and good of ours. The rain is falling where they lie ; but the cold November rain

Calls not, from out the gloomy earth, the lovely ones again.”

- Bryant.


I am the son of old father Time, and the last of a numerous progeny, for he had upwards of five thousand of us; but it has ever been his fate to see one child expire before another was born.’

Thus the old year began his complaint. He then called for his account-book, and turned over the pages with a sorrowful eye. He has kept, it appears, an accurate account of the moments, minutes, hours, and

Subject. State of the country during the month of November.

Analysis. Melancholy, sen. November, wail, sen. resembling tones of persons in pain, naked, brown, sere, se n. the sap long ceased to rise, the leaves, &c. lack nourishment and die. hollows, sen. driven there by the winds, eddying, i. e. flowing backward and forward, robin, wren, jay, crow, exp. beds., ours, sen. graves.

Lesson. It is a blessed thing to know, that whilst, in common with all living creatures, we must die, the true Christian, redeemed by the Saviour, shall arise to a glorious immortality !

months which he has issued, and subjoined, in some places, memorandums of the uses to which they have been applied, and of the losses he has sustained.

These particulars it would be tedious to detail; but we must notice one circumstance: upon turning to a certain page in his accounts, the old man was much affected, and the tears streamed down his furrowed cheeks as he examined it. This was the register of the fifty-two Sundays he had issued; and which, of all the wealth he had to dispose of, has been, it appears, the most scandalously wasted. These,’ said he, ‘were my most precious gifts. Alas! how lightly have they been esteemed !

It is very likely that, at least after my decease, many may reflect upon themselves for their misconduct towards me. To such I would leave it as my dying injunction, not to waste time in unavailing regret; all their wishes and repentance will not recall me to life. I would rather earnestly recommend to their regard my youthful successor, whose appearance is shortly expected.

I cannot hope to survive long enough to introduce him, but I would fain hope that he will meet with a favourable reception, and that, in addition to the flattering honours which greeted my birth, and the fair promises which deceived my hopes, more diligent exertion and more persevering efforts may be expected. Let it be remembered, that one honest endeavour is worth ten fair promises.’”—Jane Taylor.

Subject. The old year reviewed in reference to its use or abuse.

Analysis. Dying year, fig. pers. progeny, rt. 5843 since Adam was created, accurate, rt. moments 31,556,937. minutes 525,948. hours 8765. months 12. memorandums, rt. furrowed, al. ploughed field, sen. channels indicative of old age. decease, i. e. the instant of twelve o’clock on the night of the 31st of December, injunction, rt. successor, rt. sen. the next year, introduce, rt.

Lesson. For the use of every moment of our time we are . responsible. All cannot be employed in work,—some is justifiably spent in rest, recreation, visiting friends, and innocent amusements ; some necessarily in sleep, in confinement to bed, or in attendance on others ; but enough remains to every one to reflect on the end and object of his existence, and to LAY HOLD ON ETERNAL LIFE.


Year (see p. 184). January.—This is the first and coldest month of the year. The Saxons called this month Wolfmonat, because the wolves, of our ancient forests, impelled by hunger at this season, were wont to prowl about.

February.—This month has its name from the Februa sacrifices offered at this season. The Saxons called it Sprout-Kale, meaning colewort, a pottage, which was the chief -winter sustenance of the husbandman.

March.—The Romans named it from Mars, the god of war. The Saxons called it Lenct-monat, because the days did then first begin in length to exceed the nights. Lenct, or lent, however, means spring; hence March was the spring month,

April,—Its Latin name is Aprilis, from aperiu, to open or set forth. The Saxons called it Oster or Easter-


May.—Some say this month derives its name from Mala, the brightest of the Pleiades. The Saxons called it Trimilki, because in that month they began to milk their kine three times a day.

June.—To June the Saxons gave the name of Weyd-monat, because then their beasts did weyd, or go to feed in the meadows. They called it also Midsumor-r’.onath. It was called June probably in honour of Juno.

July(see p. 106).

August.—The senate complimented the Emperor Augustus by naming it after him. The Saxons called it Arn-monat. Arn is the Saxon word for harvest.

September.—This is the ninth month of the year ; anciently it was the seventh, as its name imports, which is compounded of septem, seven, and imber, a shower of rain, from the rainy season usually commencing at this period.

October.—From our Saxon ancestors, October had the name of Wyn-monat, signifying wine-month ; they also called it Winter-fulleth.    It was anciently the eighth

month, and so called October, from octo, eight.

November, or ninth month, now the eleventh, the Saxons termed Wint-monat, or wind-month. It was the month for shipmen to shroud themselves at home till after March.

December, or tenth month, now the twelfth, was called by our ancestors Winter-monat, or winter-month.



War—greatest of social evils ;—march of hostile armies —destroys fruits of earth—demoralizes;—battles excite worst passions—occasion immense destruction of life-blood—pain—misery.

1. A warlike spirit—opposed to gospel—which is—* meek—forbearing—loving ;—war fosters — hatred — ambition — cruelty—selfishness — pride ; — inculcates false sentiments—heroism—bravery—conquest; conceals by pomp—glitter—circumstance—foul—loathsome—revolting features.

2.    A warlike people—curse to the world—murdering millions ;—sacking cities—bloodshed—fire—-cruelty ; paralyzing commerce — peaceful occupations ; — occasioning—famine—pestilence ; multiplying orphans ; —lessening happiness of whole human family.

Lessons.—1. Thankfulness for peace—habitually regard war as—greatest of evils—do nothing to encourage warlike spirit.

2. Cultivate spirit of gospel—regard mankind as one family—treat all men justly—assist all—love all.


Mahogany Tree—largeelegant;best growscrevices of rocks, — inferior—marshy spots; — seed— winged—as thistle;—branches—spreading ; leaves— spear-shaped ;—flowers—white — small—in clusters ; height—80 feet.

1.    Where found.—Best — St. Domingo—Bahamas — Cuba;—inferior—Honduras—Jamaica (show map); —cut by—gangs of negroes—10 to 50 ;—huntsman— to search—goes in August—cuts his way—climbs high trees—discovers mahogany tree; branches lopped —tree felled—dragged on trucks—by oxen—to river— floats down—to British settlement—squared—shipped.

2.    How introduced to England.—About A.D. 1700— brought as ballast—presented Dr. Gibbon—candle-box made—beautiful grain—-Duchess of Buckingham —(see p. 179);—rapidly brought into use—soon extended—now almost universal.

3.    Present use.—Furniture—all kinds—best wood cut into veneers; in Jamaica for beams—joists—planks; value of tree—great—sometimes £1000 ; for ornament—large—branches preferred,—grain closer—veins richer—more variegated.



A, on.

Be, near, about, make. Bn, em, in, make.

For, against.

Fore, before.

Mis, ill, defect.

Out, beyond.

Over, above, beyond. Un, not.

With, from, against.


A,    ab, abs, from, away.

Ad, to, sometimes written ac,

af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at.

Am, round about.

Ante, before.

Circum, about.

Cis, this side.

Con, with, or together; sometimes written co, cog, col, com, cor.

Contra, against.

Be, down.

Bis, away or asunder, sometimes written di, dif.

B,    ex, out of; sometimes ec, ef. Bxira, beyond.

In, in ; sometimes il, im, ir. In, (before an adjective) not;

sometimes ig, il, im, ir. Inter, between or among.

Intro, in or within.

Juxta, near to.

Ne, not.

Ob, opposed to ; sometimes oc, of, op, os.

Per, through ; sometimes pel. Post, after.

Pre, before.

Prefer, beyond.

Pro, for or forth.

Re, back or again.

Retro, backward.

Se, apart or from.

Sine, without.

Sub, under; sometimes sue, suf, sug, sup, sus.

Subter, beneath.

Super, above.

Trans, beyond or over.

Ultra, beyond.

Unus, one.


A, An, not or without.

A mphi, both or round.

Ana, back or through.

Anti, opposed to.

Apo, from or away from.

Cata, down or from side to side. Bia, through.

Be, out of.

Bn, em, in or on.

Epi, upon.

Eu, good or well.

Hyper, above or beyond. Hypo, under.

Meta, change.

Para, par, side by side.

Peri, round or about.

Syn, with or together ; sometimes sy, syl, sym.


Al, ad, the—almanac, alkoran, algebra, alkali, admiral.


Accomplished..compleo, I complete.

Accurate .......cura, care—procured.

Acquiring, meBt. .quæro, I get, or ask—question, inquest.

Adherents ......hœreo, I stick.

Administration . .minister, a servant.

Adoration ......oro, I speak, or pray.

Adversity ......verto, I turn—convert, diversion, inadvertent.

Agriculturist .... ager, a field.

Amaranthine ... .maraino, Gr. I fade.

Annoyances......noceo, I hurt.

Annual..........anmis, a year.

Apathy ........pathos,    Gr. feeling—antipathy—sympathize.

Aquatic ........aqua, water.

Assistance ......sisto, I stand—consisted, resist, existed.

Astronomy......astron, Gr. a star—nomos, a law.

Athletic ........athleta,    Gr. a wrestler.

Attracted ......traho, I draw—contract, distracted, protract.

Benevolence ... .bene, well, volo, I wish—benefactor.

Calcine ........calx, lime.

Capital ........caput, the head.

Cave ..........cavus, hollow.

Capacities ......capte, I take, or hold—emancipate, exception.

Carnival .......caro,    carnis, flesh—carnivorous.

Celestial ........ccelum, heaven.

Century........centum, a hundred.

Circumference....fero, I bear, or carry—suffered.

Civilized........civis, a citizen.

Coincide........cado, I fall—accident.

Colony..........colo, I cultivate—agriculture

Collected.......lego, I gather—neglect, election.

Combatants .... batuo, I beat.

Commiseration . .miser, wretched.

Compensate .... penso, I requite.

Competition ----peto, I seek—centripetal.

Comprise........prehendo, I take hold of.

Concur ........curro, I run—occurred.

Conjecture ......jacio—I throw or cast—project, subjected,

objection.    •

Construction .. • .struo, I build—structure, instruct.

Contributor......trïbuo,    I bestow.

Convey ........veho, I    carry—vehicle.

Corrected ......rego, I    rule—incorrigible.

Corruption......rumpo,    I break—interruption, irruption.

Decline ........clino,    I bend—recline, declension.

Defender........fendo, I strike—offensive.

Degradation ----gradus, a step—progress.

Delegated ......lego, I send.

Deprecated......precor, I pray.

Deprivation......privo, I take away.

Diminutive......minus, little.

Discovered......couvrir, Fr. to hide.

Disembark......barque, Fr. a boat or vessel.

Disgorge........gorge, Fr. the throat.

Disgusting......gusto, I taste.

Dissolved........solvo, I loose or melt.

Distorting ......torqueo, I twist.

Divine..........divus, a god.

Doctor..........doceo, I teach.

Domestic........domus, a house.

Education ......duco, lead or train—induction, conduct, intro

duce, produces, reconducted.

Elapsed ........lapsus, a sliding or slipping.

Elevate ........levo, I raise.

Elongate........longus, long—longitude.

Evaporated......vapor, steam.

Exaltation......altus, high.

Examining .....examen, a swarm of bees.

Exempt ........emo, I buy, or take out—redeem.

Exhausted......haurio, I draw out.

Exploded........plaudo, I make a noise.

Exported........porto, I carry—imported, transported, impor


Extraordinary----ordo, order or rank.

Extravagant ... -vagor, I wander.

Fortified........fortis, strong.

Foundry........fundo, I melt—profusion, suffused, refuse.

Gregarious......grex, a flock—congregate.

Habitual........babeo,have or hold—habit, exhibit, prohibited.

Hospitable......hospes, a guest.

Humiliation ____humus, the ground.

Hybernate......hiems, winter.

Illuminated......lumen, light—luminary.

Immerse........mergo, I dip.

Impalpable......palpo, I touch, or handle.

Impatient ......patior, I suffer.

Impeded........pes, a foot—quadruped.

Impolitic........polis, Gr. a city.

Impression......pressus, pressed.

Increase........cresco, I grow.

Incite ..........cito, I call up.

Infant..........fans, speaking.

Inflate.........-fio, I blow.

Influence........fluo, I flow—fluid.

Insatiable ......satis, enough.

Insect..........seco, I cut—dissect.

Interference ... .ferio, I strike.

Invaded ........vado, I go-

invested ........vestís, a garment.

Involve ........volvo, I roll—volume, revolving.

Judiciously......judico, I judge.

Legislative......lex, a law.

Liberty ........liber, free.

Luxury ........luxus, excess.

Magistrate......magister, a master.

Magnificence .... magmis, great.

Manufacturer----jnanus, the hand, facio, I make—emancipate.

Martial ........Mars, the god of war.

Maternal........mater, a mother.

Memorandum... .memor, mindful, immemorial.

Microscope......mikros, Gr. small.

Migration ......migro, I depart—emigrants

Mission ........mitto, I send—committee.

Modified........modus, a measure.

Mortify ........mors, death—immortal.

Natives ........naseor, natus, to be born—to spring—nature.

Navigation......navis, ship—nautical—nauseous.

Nocturnal ......nox, night.

Odorous ........odor, a scent.

Operation ......opus, a work.    .

Oppressed .....premo, I press.

Origin..........orior, I rise—orient.

Oval............ovum, an egg.

Patriarch........pater, Gr. a father, arche,    government.

Partial..........pars, a part.

Pellucid ........lux, light.

Penetrated......penetro, I pierce.

Perish..........eo, ivi, I go—transient.

Pernicious......nex, death or destruction,

Perplexity ......plexus, twisted.

Philosophers .... philos, Gr. lover, sophia, wisdom.

Physician ......phusis, Gr. nature.

Picturesque......pingo, I paint—Piets.

Plume..........pluma,    a feather.

Position........pono, I place—deposited—repose.

Posterity........posterns, coming after.

Precaution......caveo, I take care.

Predicted ......dico, I say.

Predecessor......decedo, I depart.

Prevent ........venio, I come—avenue.

Profane ........fanum, a temple.

Progeny........geno, I beget.

Promote........moveo, I move.

Protection......lego, I cover.

Proverb ........verbum, a word.

Pyre ..........pur, Gr. fire.

Radiant ........radius, a beam or ray.

Rebel ..........hello, I combat.

Recess..........cedo, I go or give up—accessible, necessary,

process, succeeded.

Refined, ment... .finis, the end, conclusion, or limit.

Reflection, tive . .fiecto, I bend.

Reflux.........-fiuo, I flow.

Refuge..........fugio, I flee.

Regal ..........rex, a king.

Repast..........pasco, I feed.

Retain..........teneo, I hold.

Reverberating.... verbero, I strike.

Religion........ligo, I bind.

Reluctant ......luctor, I struggle.

Resplendent .. ..splendeo, I shine.

Responsible......spondeo, I promise.

Rural ..........rus, the country.

Robust..........robur, an oak.

Sacrificed ......sacer, holy.

Sanctity....... .sanctus, holy—sanctuary.

Saturated ......satur, full.

Sagacity ........sagnx, quick-scented.

Scriptures ......scribo, I write.

Secluded........claudo, I close or shut.

Social..........socius,    a companion—association.

Solitary ........solus, alone—desolate.

Spectacle........specio, spectus, I see;—aspect, circumspection,


Spiritual........spiro,    I breathe—respiration, expiring.

Station..........sto, I stand—circumstance.

Subjugate ......jugum, a yoke.

Subsequent......scquor, I follow—consequence.

Suffocate........faux, the throat.

Summits........summum, the top.

Sumptuous......sumo, I take—consume.

Superficial......facies, the face—defaced.

Supplication .,. .plico, I fold.

Telescope........tele, Gr. distant, skopeo,    I see.

Temporal........tempus, time.

Testify..........testis, a witness.

Tolerated.......tolero, I endure or suffer.

Transparent......pareo, I appear.

Tribunal........tribus, a tribe.

Tubular ........tubus, a pipe.

Ultimate........ultimus, the farthest.

Umbrella........umbra, a shade or shadow.

Unanimously .. . .animus, the mind.

Vibration........vibro, I swing.

Victory ........vinco, I conquer.

Vigilant ........vigil, watchful.

Visible..........video, I see—vision, provide, providence.

Vital ..........vita, life.

Volatile ........volo, I fly.

Voluptuous......voluptas, pleasure.


James Bahxai.d, Government Printer, Van Diemin’i Land.




The editors are perfectly aware that the information given in the notes will be superfluous to many teachers ; but though not needed by such, it may occasionally be convenient even to them to have at hand the precise information required to illustrate a lesson. To junior assistants such aids are indispensable.


Subject. Child saved from drowning by a Newfoundland dog.

Analysis. American, exp. map. Chinh, exp. map. Newfoundland, exp. hand, al. name applied to seamen— thirty-nine men being called thirty-nine hands, taffrail, i. e. the carved work at the upper part of the ship’s stern, clearing, i. e. going over without touching it. stern, i. e. hinder part, larboard,


e. left side of a ship when looking from the stern, tiller, i. e. a piece of wood fixed in the rudder to steer with.

Lesson I. Kindness to dumb animals. II. Gratitude of animals to those who are kind to them.

Subject. Large portions of the human race yet idolaters.

Analysis. Greenland, exp. India, exp. applied to East Indies only. “ Indians” applied to savages both in America and in the East Indies, (vide p. 78). coral, al. coral abounding in Indian Seas, (vide p- 78). Africa, f.xp. sunny, al. sun’s rays falling direct, golden, al. streams, the sand of which contains numerous small particles of gold, chain, al. ignorance binding down the faculties, blindness, fig. sen. mental darkness; ignorance. bows, i. e. worships, wood and stone, al. graven images.

Lesson. The state of the heathen world should incite us to encourage missionary efforts.

Subject. The inability of a savage chief to comprehend how a person could convey a knowledge of his wishes by writing.

Analysis. Square, i. e. a carpenter’s tool formed of two flat pieces of wood joined at the ends, superintending, RT. contempt, i. e. for the chip, revolving, rt. result, rt. mysterious, i. e. that which cannot be understood, settlement, i. e. newly-formed village.

Lesson I. As men, we ought to impart to these savages the knowledge which our forefathers received when in a similar state of barbarism. II. As Christians, vie are bound to endeavour to save them from the misery and guilt of heathenism.


Subject. The history of the lobster—its refuge—food— casting its shell.

Analysis. Extraordinary, kt. plays within itself, al. machinery in which some parts act on each other, seemingly independently of the other parts, refuge, defended, accidental, offensive, diminutive, rt. casting, sen. casting off. feelers,


e. those long thin limbs called horns or antennse, with which they feel, operation, rt.

Lesson I. Things are wonderful only from our ignorance, or want of comprehension. XI. We must not deny the truth of any thing, however improbable, without due examination.