332.\-7oo’îTé0M'?'6'r



VICTOR HUGO.

“ When the fragile little infant was first dress lie was placed within a chair, which would h; held a dozen like him. His brothers were tl called to see him. He was so ugly, and it was mother who said so, and looked so little lik< human being, that Eugène, who was a big boy i could hardly speak, called him a little brat !

“ And this puny, contemptible body contai the germ of the greatest and noblest poetical ger since Shakespeare. The greatest miracle I can c ceive is this : that a little piece of pink, squall humanity can contain the potential powers c Raphael, a Mozart, a Beethoven, a Shakespeare a Victor Hugo !

“ All other miracles become commonplace w compared with this one.”

Joseph Fokster,

Some French and Spanish Men o) Gen

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

('Obtainable throughout Australia.)

--

ESCRIBING AND TREATMENT N THE DISEASES OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN.

’d Edition. Price, Six Shillings and Sixpence.

5.1 every-day handbook for Medical Prac-. ners and Students.

li

e RE HEALTH AND DIET OF CHILDREN IN AUSTRALIA.

r>nd Edition. Price, Two Shillings and 3    Sixpence.

' is work is intended to afford complete guidance t hose who are entrusted with the care of the >; g generation of young Australians. Its main , ose is to impress upon parents the fact that ’■ is a great deal of method called for in the .gement of their offspring; and more especially 1 it aspire to inoculate them with a belief in the es of nourishing and suitable food, and of arity in its administration.

1

i AUSTRALIAN APPEAL:

The Evil, The Cause, The Remedy.

Price, One Shilling.

is is a complete plan brought forward by the r to lessen the appalling mortality now carry-ft the infantile and young population in the Australian cities.

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

('Continued from 'preceding page.)

--

THE ART of LIVING in AU8TRALL*

Published Price, 3/6. Post free, 4/-

-3« —

SOME ENGLISH AND AMERICAN REVIEW*

The Atlantic .llouthly.—“ Writes sensibly and forcibly. The lirilisli Medical •Journal.—“ A very interestin and readable Dook.”

The Colonies and India.—“ This is a really good bock The Daily Chronicle (London).—“ The common sem his book will bring its lessons home.”

The Cilasgow Herald (Leading Article).—“ If Dr. Mus succeeds in awakening British and Australian capi. ists to their importance (deep-sea fisheries and win growing) his “Art of Liviog” will not have beer written in vain.”

The I.aucet.—“The author setting forth his views wit fumess, clearness and pungency.”

The Literary World.—“ Much of the advice it gives , excellent.”

Public Opinion.—“ So practical in his suggestions, and s logical in his deductions.”

The Saturday Review.—“ A useful and interesting work. The Speaker.—“A capital book, packed with shrewd hints and sound advice.”

SOME AUSTRALIAN REVIEWS

The Age (Melbourne).—“ A mass of useful information." The Argus (Melbourne).—“ Of great practical utility.”

The Australian Star (Sydney “ Will be found valuable. The Rrisbanc i'ourier.—“ Will command attention.” The ienllet.il>.—“ ¡Sensible book on Australian diet."

The Daily Telegraph (Sidney).—“A valuable and instructive volume.”    j

The Evening Mews (Sydney).—“ To be welcomed by all." The Review ol' Reviews (Australasian Edition).—“ / shrewd observer and a facile writer.”

The South Australian Register (Adelaide). “ Supplied a long-felt want.”

The Sydney Mitrniiig Herald.—“Fine discursive reading and full of sound information.”

THE

TEDINO AND MANAGEMENT

OF

AUSTRALIAN

INFANTS

BY

PHILIP E. MUSKETT

jate. Surgeon to the Sydney Hospital; formerly Surgeon Superintendent to the New South Wales Government (S. I. Service); Medical Superintendent, Quarantine Station, Sydney; and Senior Resident Medical Officer, Sydney Hospital.

FOURTH EDITION

REVISED, ENLARGED AND REARRANGED

“ If those are preventable diseases, why are they not prevented?”—Tiif, Prince ok Wares (International Hygiene Congress). *

EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, |lcr $flnjcstg’s printers,

LONDON, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, MELBOURNE, SYDNEY AND NEW YORK.

[All Rights Reserved.}

The postage of this work to any part of Australia is 2d., should purchasers wish to send copies to friends at a distance ; or if ordered by letter, it will be forwarded, by any Bookseller, on the receipt of 2j.in Stamps.

FRED J. EMPSON

Wiener al Manager in Australasia Jor

Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode]

through 'whose perspicacity

THE ART OF LIVING IN AUSTRALIA

xcas accepted for publication

mis Volume is Inscribed

with sincere admiration and regard By

The Author.

In the four Australian metropolitan centres of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane, during the last nine, years, from 1887 to 1895 inclusive, more than 60,000 Infants, under the age of two years, have died. Of these deaths probably 30,000 could hare been prevented.

THE “SIMPLICITY”

MILK STERILIZER

MADE AND SOLD BY

MESSRS. F. LASSETTER & CO.

George Street, Sydney.

Used in Preparing Milk for Infant Nourishment.

For full particulars—See Milk, Sterilized, pages 135 to 138, in the Recipes.

We are told that France can no longer afford to lose any of her population. With how much greater force this applies to Australia !

This leafage, by the loss of our little compatriots, is a menace to the State. It is as if the life-blood itself were, drop by drop, oozing an ay Jrom our national existence.

PREFACE.

It is a noticeable fact thatvthe demand for Australian publications, relating to diet and health, is continuously increasing. This is an inevitable outcome of the close attention which is now being paid by os in Australia to our climate and environment. In former days, works on food and regimen, purposed for use in the old country, were, unaccountably enough, considered to be equally serviceable for this part of the world. And yet it must be perfectly obvious that what is suitable for one zone will be altogether unsuitable for another ; and that the mode of living, in fact, must be wholly regulated by the surrounding conditions.

But naturally it may be asked, then are there ailments also, peculiar to the various regions of the earth’s surface, and can disease itself be actually altered by geographical locality ? To these two questions the answers must distinctly be in the affirmative. For years and years there was a malady in Australia known as Colonial fever. It was regarded as a disorder met with only in this part of the world. But subsequent experience unquestionably proved that it was typhoid fever, and nothing else. Its true nature

xi.

was not recognised at first, because the symptoms were not exactly similar to those of typhoid fever as it generally occurred in Europe. Here was an instance of disease in Australia thought to be one thing, and yet turning out to be another.

On the other hand another malady— rickets—long escaped identification. Indeed, it was not believed to exist, simply because it did not correspond to the disease in its most evident form. In the old country it is marked in severe cases by bending of the bones, giving rise to deformities of the limbs, ike. The Australian type of the disorder, however, is milder altogether, and is of a different character. The Australian child is straight-limbed almost without exceptionyet the Australian type of rickety disease, as I pointed out in 1891, is quite a definite affection. Similar examples might be enumerated, but these two will be sufficient for the purpose. And, without attempting to forecast, I venture to anticipate that characteristics and peculiarities will be sooner or later found in diseases of the stomach, in diseases of the liver, and in diseases of the kidneys—as they occur in Australia.

If further justification, hoAvever, were needed for the appearance of the present

volume, it will be found in the tables which follow. When, in the course of my investigations some few years ago, I realized the full significance of the appalling loss of infantile life in our large Australian cities, I felt that it was a matter demanding the most earnest attention. Apart from all humanitarianism, this dreadful leakage in our young population—when viewed from a national standpoint—must give rise to serious apprehension.

It is disquieting to know that these are little Australians who are being consigned to their early graves, especially when Australia has so much need of them all. We are told that France can no longer afford to lose any of her population. Surely, then, the lives of our little compatriots are more precious to us, relatively speaking, than in the case of France. And what becomes of all our boasted civilisation while this life-loss is permitted to go on, day after day, week after week, and year after year, without any effort being made to prevent it. To what, in fact, shall all this come?

Nothing is so appealing, so convincing, and so impressive as concisely tabulated statistics ; and I shall therefore give two sets of figures. These were courteously

supplied to me by Mr. W. Ridley, of Sydney ; Mr. J. J. Fenton, of MelbourneMr. G. H. Ayliffe, of Adelaide ; and Mr Thornhill Weedon, of Brisbane. They are therefore authoritatively correct ; and I trust I may be permitted to acknowledge my indebtedness to these gentlemen for all the trouble they have taken in the matter.

The first table shows the deaths of infants under one year, the deaths of infants of one year and under two, and the total deaths at all ages for the four metropolitan centres of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Brisbane for the nine years from 1887 to 1895 inclusive.

Table giving the Deaths under One Year of Age ; the Deaths of One Year and under Two ; and the Total number of Deaths at All Ages in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane, for nine years, from 1887 to 1895 inclusive.

Capital.

Deaths under One Year of Age.

Deaths of One Year and under Two.

Total Deaths at

All Ages.

Sydney ...

17,492

4,142

dO, / / 9

Melbourne ...

21,729

4,772

75,45S

Adelaide ...

5,773

1,007

18,599

Brisbane ...

4,551

Not

Accessible.

12,747

49,545

9,921

160,583

The term of infancy is usually taken to include the first two years of existence. So that the total number of infantile deaths in these four capitals, during These nine years (the second column of Brisbane figures being absent), was 59,466. "W ith the missing Brisbane figures they would quite exceed 60,000.

The second table supplies the total number of deaths under the age of five years, and the total deaths at all ages for the same cities during the same period.

Table showing the Total number of Deaths under Five Years; and the Total number of Deaths at All Ages in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane, for nine years, from 1887 to 1895 inclusive.

Capital.

Total Deaths under Five Years.

Total Deaths at

All Ages.

Sydney .........

24,486

53,779

Melbourne ... ...

29,742

75,458

Adelaide ... ..

6,648

18,599

Brisbane ... ...

6,433

12,747

67,309

160,583

This table shows the mortality during the earlier years of childhood. It will be observed that after the age of infancy is passed

O

the death-rate is not so formidable. ¡Still it is far in excess of what it should be, and constitutes a direct reproach to the salubrity of our Australian capital cities. During the last ten years the mean annual death-rates for infants under one year of age per 1000 births for Sydney, Melbourne and London were these :—Sydney, 153-77 ; Melbourne, 170-75 ; and London, 15L60. London with its millions of inhabitants—and with its large proportion of poverty and wretchedness —thus actually shows a better infantile death-rate than do Sydney and Melbourne with their smaller populations—and then-better all-round conditions of prosperity. This is not a satisfactory state of affairs, and the sooner steps are taken to rectify matters the better it will be for the reputation of Australia from a humanitarian, as well as from a hygienic point of view.

The total number of deaths of infants, under two years of age, for the four Australian capitals—Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Brisbane—during the nine years from 18^7 to 1895 inclusive, amounts to over 60,000. When I say that at least 30,000 of these might have been saved, I believe that I am strictly within the mark. Thirty thousand of these little Australians who have passed into their early graves should

lie alive to-day, with every prospect of reaching mature age.

As far as this excessive life-loss of our infantile population is concerned, it may be stated that there are a multiplicity of causes at work in its production. What these are I have fully commented upon in a small work entitled An Australian Appeal. So, too, in its alleviation no sing-le method will be sufficient. But it will rather be by the help and assistance of several plans, co-operating with and mutually aiding one another.

Of these the following may be recommended :—

(a)    A wider diffusion of the principles and

methods of infant feeding by lectures, printed instructions, Arc. Our Australian mothers are not wilfully ignorant of these subjects. But no matter how much they may wish to learn how to feed, and how to care for a baby, there is no way by which they can acquire the knowledge. We know of the success which has so markedly attended the Ambulance lectures. Do not the foregoing call far more urgently for classes of instruction ?

(b)    The sale of sterilized and guaranteed

absolutely pure milk at different

depots in the crowded quarters. This has been adopted with gratifying-results in all the larger European and American cities.

(c)    A greater prominence given by the

Press to the Infantile Mortality in the monthly returns of our Vital Statistics.

(d)    The formation of a Charitable Federa

tion on the lines of the ultra-successful New York organisation—known as St. John’s Guild. Its plan of campaign is fully described in An Australian Appeal.

(e)    The extension of the work carried out

by our Sydney Fresh Air League for sending sick infants to the cool mountain air. It is to be hoped that before very long this excellent Charity will make an effort to carry out its manifest destiny—a mountain sanatorium or high-land hospital, a resident medical officer, and a small nursing staff.

(/) The establishment of a Foundling-Hospital.

It will be observed that in this volume reference is repeatedly made to the hot months and the cooler weather. As a matter of fact, throughout the whole of

Australia there are practically only two seasons. The old world division into Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter cannot be strictl}’’ applied to our local conditions. We have the hot Summer months and we have the cool weather; between the two, the gradation is neither distinctive enough nor sufficiently prolonged to admit of its being classed as Spring in the one instance, or Autumn in the other. And does it not seem strange, also, to speak of our cool months as Winter, when the word A\ inter is so usually associated with intense coldness, together with ice and snow ?

If there is one portion of this work, however, which is likely to be read with particular interest in Australia, it is the new chapter on Mountain Air as a Remedy in the Treatment of Infantile and other Diseases. Special consideration has been paid by the author to the subject-matter therein contained, and no trouble has been spared to supply all the information possible. Mountain air has characteristic and valuable qualities which give to it great therapeutic properties. It is more rarefied than ordinary air; it is perfectly pure, and free from atmospheric dust; and, by reason of its diathermancy, the ultra-violet rays of sunlight—which chemi-

cally and powerfully affect the blood—exert their fullest influence.

When inhaling mountain air the appetite improves, and nutrition is greatly increased ; tissue change is promoted, and the whole system is correspondingly benefited ; sleep is much more profound and refreshing, 6 hours’ rest in mountain air being equivalent to 8 hours at sea-level. There is likewise a sense of well-being—the French bien-être— combined with the exhilaration and general stimulus felt on all high-lands.

It is a fortunate circumstance, therefore, that each of the four colonies—New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Queensland—has these mountain health resorts within its own territory, and within easy access of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Brisbane respectively. As I have pointed out, if these elevated regions did not exist, all Australia would be one vast plain. The whole character of the climate, consequently, would be entirely changed ; and it is very questionable whether the white races would be able to inhabit this land.

A distinctively new feature in the present edition is the section entitled Useful Information for Australian Mothers. The many diseases therein treated upon have been arranged alphabetically, so that they can be

referred to the more readily. This part of the work is by no means the least important. It will afford mothers the opportunity of knowing what is wrong with their infants, should matters not be progressing satisfactorily.

Although several Recipes were given in the previous issues of this work, yet they were not made a special feature, nor did they take up anything like the number of pages they now occupy. In this edition, however, they have been altogether re-written, and detailed at fuller length in almost every instance. A large number of entirely new Recipes have also been introduced for the ffrst time ; all of them being particularly serviceable in the various infantile diseases. In fact, in their present form, the Recipes possess a value they never had before. They have been placed in alphabetical order for convenience of reference ; and mothers w ill find them of daily use and assistance.

The Photo-Zincograph of the new milk sterilizer in the front of the book is inserted for the first time. It is reproduced from a drawing by Mr. Julian Ashton, to whom I take this opportunity of expressing my many thanks. A portion of the side is suppositively removed to show the ship’s

screw-like formation of the stirrer inside.

Those who are familiar with the former editions will see that this—the fourth—is completely altered in shape and size. It will now be far more convenient in every way. A carefully prepared and minutely detailed Index, which was wanting before, is now added also, so that any subject may be readily found. Altogether the work has been brought thoroughly up-to-date; and, moreover, it has been written for Australian use, from an Australian standpoint, founded * on Australian experience.

113 Elizabeth Street,

Hyde Park,

Sydney,

Mai/, 1896.

CONTENTS

THE MANAGEMENT OF INFANTS.

PAGE.

3reast Feeding    ...    ...    ...    ...    ..    1

Sand Feeding    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    7

Bathing    ..    ...    ...    ..    ...    ...    32

Clothing ...    ...    ...    .    ...    ...    38

Exercise    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    41

Sleep    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    44

DIETARY.

Breast Fed Children ,.    ...    ...    ...    49

Mixed Diet, or Breast and Hand Feeding Combined    ...    ..    ...    ...    ...    ..    50

Hand Feeding—

Before the Age of Six Months ...    ..    55

At the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Months 59 At the Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Months    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    t»0

From Twelve to Eighteen Months ...    61

From Eighteen Months to Two Years ...    62

Useful Information for Australian

Mothers ...............64

Mountain air as a Remedy in the Treatment of Infantile and other Diseases 95 Recipes and Accessory Information .. 112

Index .......... ..    ..161

BREAST FEEDING.

For the first six weeks the infant should take the breast every two hours from 6 in the morning till 11 at night. At the latter hour the child should have his last meal, and he should then be put to rest so that the mother if possible may secure seven hours uninterrupted repose. This will benefit her own health, improve the quality of her milk, and break the baby into regular habits. If some determination is made to carry out this plan it will be found easier than may be supposed, as the infant soon becomes reconciled to the arrangement. If he should wake up it is best to quiet him with a little milk and water at first, but after a few nights the habit of sleeping is acquired. At the same time though regularity in feeding is most important, it will be found that infants vary somewhat and that some will require food more frequently, while others will not want so much.

The infant should not be kept longer than 20 minutes at the breast at each nursing. If the mother’s milk is very copious one breast at one feeding, and the other at the next, may suffice; otherwise both breasts should be given each time. Care must he taken to thoroughly cleanse and dry the nipple or nipples—as the case may be—after each nursing.

Babies often fall asleep at the breast after taking two or three mouthfuls. This is a bad habit, and should be corrected by gently awaking the child, and getting him to continue his meal. Nor should an infant be permitted to go to sleep with the nipple in his mouth, even though he may have finished with the breast.

It is a very common though great mistake to give the child the breast every time he cries for the sake of pacifying him. It does not follow that every time a baby cries it is from hunger alone, and the mother should learn to recognise the cry for food from that of pain, which may be either the result of colic or indigestion. The cry of hunger is not peevish, the baby seems pleased at the siuht of the breast and stretches out his arms

O

and legs. When colic is the cause of the suffering the cry comes on in severe gusts every now and then ; the belly is swollen and quite hard, the hands, and especially the feet, are stony cold, and the legs are drawn up tightly on the abdomen. In indigestion, on the other hand, the cry is peevish, the breath sour in smell, and the skin hot and dry. When the breast is given to a child suffering from colic or indigestion, although immediate relief seems afforded, it only aggravates the malady, and the child is worse than before, till the proper treatment is adopted.

After two months an attempt should be made to increase the interval between the meals from two to three hours, and the child may be kept at the breast longer each time, as the stomach is becoming capable of containing a larger amount. From this period till that of weaning, if the child is flourishing and there is an abundant supply of milk, no other feeding is required, but if the baby begins to lose flesh or the mother’s strength fails, additional nourishment will be necessary. In these cases, when the milk becomes poor or deficient in quantity, the breast may be given

TWICE A DAY,

and to supply sufficient nourishment to the infant the feeding at other times must be conducted as in the rearing of hand fed children, for which directions are given in the dietary.

One of the most important things to know is when the child should be weaned. If all is going well, it is unwise to stop the breast too early; but, on the other hand, prolonged suckling is bad both for mother and infant. The two great points to be borne in mind, in deciding when to wean the baby, are the health of the mother and the condition of the child. If the former does not feel any ill effects from nursing, and the infant continues to thrive, weaning may be postponed till the end of the first year. It sometimes happens, however, that the mother’s health fails before this period, or her milk becomes poor, thin, and watery, so that the baby does not receive sufficient or proper nourishment. In either case, if the mother can give her infant any breast milk at all—be it ever so little—it will be advisable to try the method of partial suckling already mentioned. Rearing in this way is generally much easier than when the child is brought up entirely by hand.

A vast amount of trouble may be saved by remembering one particularly important fact. If it can be avoided, no baby should be weaned during the hot weather. There is a serious risk in making any great change in the infant’s dietary during our Australian summer months. And for this reason that the stomach and bowels will, in all likelihood, become affected with a disorder which will, most probably, resist all treatment—•

except, perhaps, mountain air. It is far better for the mother to try and keep on her suckling, so as not to wean the baby till the cooler months arrive. This, of course, may be impossible in many cases ; but, as I have already said, it is dangerous to wean an infant—or, indeed, make any striking change in the food—during the hot weather.

When weaning has become necessary, it is usually better to begin gradually, day by day decreasing the number of times the breast is given to the child. There may be a little firmness required to break the infant into his loss, but he will ultimately acquiesce in the new order of things. Those instances in which the mother persists in suckling the baby till perhaps he is eighteen months old, or even more, are most disastrous indeed for the infant. The milk loses all its nutritive power, and becomes utterly unsuitable for the purposes of nourishment. The child, too, has by this time reached such a stage of his existence that his rapidly-increasing bony frame absolutely requires more solid food.

During nursing the mother should feed well so as to bring on an abundant supply of milk. Meat may be taken in moderate amount; but certainly not more than twice a day. Fresh vegetables will help to cleanse her own blood, and improve the quality of her milk. My own experience tells me that a moderate allowance of red Australian wine —-not too full-bodied, but of medium strength —when employed judiciously, is of considerable value in promoting a How of milk. By its influence upon the latter it helps to put a little colour into white, anaemic babies. The nursing mother should be out daily in the open air, if the weather be at all favourable. Not only will her own health be thus benefited, but that of her child as well. If she systematically attends to all these different matters, the infant should be supplied with an ample amount of his natural sustenance ; and have every prospect of becoming healthy, hardy, ruddy, and strong.

There are special articles of diet that have the credit of increasing the quality and quantity of the mother’s milk. These are oysters, fish, tripe, and especially nutritious vegetable soups. Among the different forms of nourishment which aré likewise useful when the milk thins, or threatens to give out, are cocoa, chocolate, and cod liver oil; the latter being taken either in its natural state or combined with extract of malt.

If from any reason the mother is unable to suckle her child, either from the milk drying up or ill health, the infant must be brought up by hand—when the services of a wet-nurse cannot be availed of. A good, healthy wet-nurse is undoubtedly the very best substitute for a mother; although it is not everybody who is in a position to stand the expense. There has always been considerable diversity of opinion as to whether it is possible to rear up a healthy and robust child by means of artificial feeding ; however, if it be carefully and thoroughly carried out, there is no doubt but that the best of results can be obtained. Very many infants brought up by hand are finer children and enjoy better health than some who have been reared on the breast. If all mothers were in robust health, and were able during the period of lactation to furnish the baby with an ample supply of healthy milk, there would be no need to resort to artificial feeding at all. But as many become thin and pale whilst suckling, and secrete a watery milk which is poor in

its nourishing powers, it is no wonder the offspring fail to thrive. After all, the simple fact remains that good cows’ milk is far better for the purposes of nourishment than poor breast milk. There is every prospect of success, then, in bringing up a child upon the bottle, provided that sufficient care and trouble are bestowed upon the effort; and if the mother has been able to suckle the child, even if only for a few weeks, the task becomes easier still.

In bringing up a child by hand there are two points which must always be borne in mind. In the first place we must obtain the most peifect substitute possible for the breast milk, and secondly we must never forget the delicate condition of the digestive organs of an infant, which are likely to be deranged by comparatively trivial causes. The feeding must therefore be carefully watched, and if there be any symptoms of the food disagreeing, the diet must be modified accordingly.

Healthy breast milk, the most perfect type of infant’s food, has a specific gravity of 1032-67 as compared with water, that is to say any measure of milk will be heavier than the same measure of water in the proportion of 1032-67 to 1000. It is alkaline in its reaction, or the opposite to cows’ milk,

which is usually acid, and following :—

is composed of the

Water ... ...

... 889-08

Solids .. ...

... 110-92

The solids consisting of—

Sugar ...

... 13-64

Casein =..

... 39-24

Butter ...

... 26-66

Salts... ...

... 1-38

Cows’ milk on the other hand has a specific gravity of 1033-38, is generally acid in its reaction (that is to say, a strip of blue litmus paper, dipped into it, will be turned ve<1), and

is composed as follows :—

Water ... ...

... 864-06

Solids ......

... 135-94

The solids consisting of—

Sugar ...

... 38-03

Casein ...

... 55-15

Butter ...

... 36-12

Salts ... ...

... 6-64

On comparing the two tables we shall find considerable differences between cows’ milk and woman’s milk. The specific gravity of the former (1033-38) is a little higher than that of the latter (1032-67), and it contains 135-94 of solid matter, while human milk shows only 110-92. This increase in the solids of cows’ milk consists in a larger amount of casein and butter; on the other hand there is more sugar in breast milk. These differences, therefore, must be borne in mind when we propose to adopt cows’ milk as a food for the infant. The addition of a little water will dilute the cows’ milk to make it correspond to human milk in its proportion of solids, and a little sugar must be added as well.

The solids, namely, the sugar, casein, butter, and salts, represent the four great classes of food, the carbo-hydrates, albuminates, fats, and salts respectively, which are required for the nourishment of infants. The sugar (carbo-hydrate) acts mostly as a heat producer and maintains the body at its normal temperature. The casein (albuminate) supplies the waste of nitrogenous tissue in the muscles, &c. The butter (fat) aids in the formation of different structures ; while the salts take part in the building up of tissues, as the bones, &c.

The great trouble in getting many children to digest cows’ milk consists in the fact that it coagulates in a different manner to human milk. When a piece of rennet is added to the former it forms large compact lumps, while with breast milk the addition of the same substance results in light loose clots. Precisely the same thing happens in an infant’s stomach, the gastric juice having the same effect as the rennet, and unless something is done to prevent the cows’ milk from clotting in this manner, it will be impossible for the child to digest this substitute for its natural food. There are two ways of preventing this lumpy clotting Gf the cows’ milk ; one is by adding an alkali such as lime water to it; the other consists in the addition of some thickening material like barley watei’, which by its mechanical action splits the curd and prevents it from forming one compact mass.

Lime water is the alkali generally selected for the first of these methods. It acts by modifying the action of the gastric juice so that the clotting of the curd is prevented, and the cows’ milk is carried past the stomach into the bowels, where it is fully digested by the alkaline secretions. Lime water contains a very small amount of lime in solution, only half a grain in two tablespoonfuls, and the amount usually added, one or two teaspoonfuls to each bottle of milk, has hardly any appreciable effect

It may be prepared at home in the following manner :—Take a piece of unslaked lime about the size of a walnut, and place it in an earthenware jar containing two quarts of filtered water. When required stir it round thoroughly from the bottom, allow the sediment to settle, and use only from the top. Replace the water when half of it is finished, and make a fresh lot each week.

For the first six weeks, if the infant be brought up entirely by hand, the diet should consist of

Sterilized or Boiled Cows' Milk,

Lime Water—Equal Parts,

of each about four tablespoonfuls. The bottle containing it should be stood in some hot water so that it may be warmed and this quantity, sweetened with a, teaspoonful of sugar of milk or powdered loaf sugar, is to be given every two hours. (For the preparation of Sterilized or Boiled Cows’ Milk, see Milk, Boiled and Milk, Sterilized amongst the Recipes at the end of the book.)

During the second six weeks the lime water may be reduced so that only one-third is used to each bottle. After the third month the quantity can be reduced to one-fourth.

It will be appropriate at this stage to direct attention to a matter having an important bearing on this problem of rearing children by hand. Many mothers are under the impression that the infant in health should have at least from four to six motions daily, at any rate during the earlier months. After the first fortnight, however, healthy infants at the breast often do not pass more than two evacuations from the bowels in the twenty-four hours. So in the same way with those brought up on the bottle, if the stools be much in excess of the latter number it may be taken for granted that a good deal of undigested material is passing through the bowels, and hence that nutrition is interfered with.

But a much more reliable indication of the progress of the infant than that gained from the mere number of dejections will be afforded by their appearance, consistency, and odour. The healthy motions of an infant are usually of a bright yellow colour; of soft consistency ; and are not noticeably offensive. If the stools, however, do not accord with these characters, but contain masses of white curdy material; or are unduly hard or lumpy • or are disagreeable in odour, it shows that the food is unsuitable, and that a change in the dietary is called for without delay.

It behoves the mother, therefore, to keep a watchful eye on her charge and carefully observe whether he is progressing as satisfactorily as he ought to.

The three beacons serving as a guide to the welfare of the baby are the following : the temper of the infant; the increase of the body weight; and the number, appearance, consistency, and odour of the motions already referred to. It may be taken for granted, then, that if an infant, in addition to thriving, is what is known as “ good,” and if likewise the motions are healthy, there is but little cause for alarm. But should the child begin to lose weight and grow peevish, and the stools differ from those which have been described as natural, then steps must be taken at once to rectify matters.

If, then, it be found that the foregoingmode of alkanizing the cows’ milk by lime water prove unsuitable, as evidenced by the infant not thriving, or by his suffering from acidity, flatulence, or vomiting, or by the stools being at fault, a trial must be made of the next plan of the addition of barley water to the milk.

This second plan of making cows’ milk digestible for the infant, is that of adding-some thickening substance to it as was stated before. Whatever material is used acts by getting in between the particles of curd, so that they cannot run together into one compact lump but must coagulate separately. It imitates precisely the way in which human milk clots in the stomach. Any thickening body will have the same effect in keeping the particles of curd distinct, yet it is a matter of great importance to choose the right material. The salivary glands of the infant (those glands in the mouth which have the peculiar property of changing starch into sugar) are not properly developed till the end of the third month. If any starchy or farinaceous diet be given before that age, it does not undergo the same changes which it does afterwards, and consequently disagrees with the child. It is a common source of error in feeding children, this use of corn Hour and starchy foods in the early months before they are able to digest them. Of all the different forms of starchy material, however, there is one, namely barley water, which may be used even at the very beginning with safety and without the fear of creating disorder in the bowels. In thin barley water the starch is very small in quantity, and when mixed with milk in the following proportions

Sterilized or Boiled Cows’ Milk,

Barley Water—Equal Parts,

it ensures a very fine division of the curd. It is to be warmed by standing it in hot water as directed for the preparation of lime water, and about six or eight tablespoonfuls of the mixture are to be given every two hours. [For the preparation of Sterilized or Boiled Cows’ Milk, see Milk, Boiled and Milk,

Sterilized amongst the Recipes]. This is the strength of milk and barley water to be used during the earlier weeks; but, as the infant grows, the amount of barley water contained in the mixture must be gradually diminished, as in the case of lime water (see pages 12 and 13). To prepare the barley water, put two full teaspoonfuls of well-washed pearl barley, with one pint of cold water, into a saucepan, and let it simmer gently till only two-thirds are left; strain carefully. Much more valuable information concerning barley water and its various uses will be found amongst the Recipes at the end of the book. Careful reference to the same should not be omitted, as the remarks made there are well worthy of notice.

Instead of barley water we can use gelatine, which may come in handy as a change in the diet. To prepare it, put a piece of gelatine an inch square into half a tumblerful of cold water, and let it stand for three hours. Turn the gelatine and water into a teacup, and place the latter in a saucepan containing water just enough to let the cup stand in it; boil until the gelatine is dissolved. When cold it forms a jelly. From one to two teaspoonfuls may be added to each bottle of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk.

Starchy foods are injurious to young infants, as has been mentioned, on account of their salivary glands, which change starch into sugar, not being fully developed till the end of the third month. But it is possible to prepare starchy material in such a way that this change is already accomplished before it is used as food at all, and it is found that malt added in certain proportions can effect this alteration. The different forms of malted food for infants are specially prepared in this way, and nearly all the starch they contain is changed into dextrine and grape sugar, so that the most of the work of digestion is already performed. When mixed with equal parts of sterilized or boiled milk and lime or barley water, in the proportion of one teaspoonful to a teacupful, they are easily digested even by the youngest infants.

Condensed milk is frequently used as a substitute for cows’ milk, and this too from a belief that it is more readily digested by young infants. Moreover, it is a fact that many children, even immediately after birth, do well for a time upon condensed milk. It contains a large quantity of sugar, forms fat quickly, and thus makes large babies. But it is found that when children are kept too long upon condensed milk alone, they become pale and flabby ; they have but little stamina, easily fall a prey to disease, and cut their teeth late.

Now, there is often considerable difficulty in obtaining cows’ milk which can be absolutely relied upon, and the use of condensed milk, therefore, has largely increased since its introduction into the market. It will be interesting on that account to bring together a few facts bearing upon the preparation of the latter, and the way, or rather the strength, in which it should be employed.

In the first place, as it is well known by experience, milk will not keep for any time unless something is done to prevent changes going on. In the process of making condensed milk the watery part of the milk is removed, and sugar is added to preserve it.

Condensed milk may therefore be regarded as a sort of syrup of milk ; indeed the sugar employed in the process is easily detected when it is used in making a cup of tea, for it gives to the latter a peculiar flavour, quite different to that imparted to tea by cows’ milk. It is this large quantity of sugar the condensed milk contains which renders it inadvisable to continue it as a food for infants for any prolonged period. But when, in the eaxdy months of infancy, there is any difficulty in procuring reliable cows’ milk, or when the latter disagrees, as it sometimes does, then it becomes necessary to make use of condensed lira for a time.

The strength of the condensed milk to be used is an important point, and it is considered advisable to give explicit directions in the matter in order that there may be no room for mistake. As will be seen farther on there is reference made to the shape of the feeding bottle which is recommended for use. Now it is recommended that the strength of condensed milk used in the early weeks of infant life should be one teaspoonful of condensed milk to twelve tablespoonfuls of (warmed) water. It is also customary to advise that six to eight tablespoonfuls of food, whether it be sterilized or boiled cows’ milk and lime water, sterilized or boiled cows’ milk and barley water, or this condensed milk and water, be given to the infant every two hours during the first few weeks. The amount of condensed milk required for each meal, therefore, will be one-half or two-thirds of a teaspoonful to the six or eight tablespoonfuls, respectively, of (warmed) water, and the amount of food given at each meal can be increased as the body grows.

Instead of using plain water we may make use of barley water with the condensed milk ;

and this mixture, used in the same proportions as the milk and plain water, will be found very valuable and very nutritious.

It has been already stated that in condensed milk there is usually the addition of sugar for preserving purposes. But a new preparation has lately appeared in the market which is known as Loeflund’s Kinder-Milch (Infants’ Milk). In this it is claimed that the milk is preserved by an unfermented extract of wheat, and that the food is absolutely free from starchy matter or cane sugar. It is in this freedom from sugar that the value of this food lies, and by it the chief stigma against preserved milk is removed. The only drawback is that its price (Is. 6d. per tin) is somewhat high in comparison with the more moderate price of the brands of condensed milk in ordinary use. Still, if an infant’s welfare depends upon the receipt of suitable food, it is worth the little extra money.

After two months the condensed milk should be combined with one of the forms of malted food, and replaced as early as possible by sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, diluted with either barley water or lime water.

All the foods, however, may be found to disagree and give rise to indigestion, causing feverishness, vomiting, and diarrhoea. The irritation of the bowels by the presence of undigested material sets up a catarrhal condition and acid fermentation of the food ensues. The sour smell from the child’s breath shows that fermentation is going on, and indicates that something should be done at once to rectify matters. It may be requisite to stop the milk altogether, and put the child on a mixture of

Whey, Plain,

Barley Water—Equal Parts.

The whey should be carefully prepared according to the directions, which will be found under the heading of Whey, Plain amongst the Recipes. Of this mixture of half plain whey and half barley water, about six or eight tablespoonfuls may be given every two hours to the youngest infant. It often happens that the stomach is very irritable, and that there is almost incessant vomiting. In such cases one teaspoonful of this plain whey and barley mixture every ten minutes will often be retained—especially if it be given cold.

There is another combination which rightly deserves to be mentioned, because it will often be found to be particularly valuable. It consists of one tablespoonful of cream, two tablespoonfuls of plain whey, and two tablespoonfuls of barley water mixed together. This amount of five tablespoonfuls may be given to young babies every two hours. Older infants will require about eight tablespoonfuls every two or three hours, in which case the foregoing ingredients must be proportionately increased. With many children this combination agrees wonderfully, as it possesses very nourishing-properties. In a number of instances I have seen babies, with whom no other food agreed, thrive splendidly upon it.

If the plain whey be found unsuitable the following combination of

Veal Broth,

Barley Water —Equal Parts, may be tried, and in some instances it is simply of incalculable value. Full and explicit directions for the preparation of the veal broth will be found amongst the Recipes at the end of the book ; and the precautions to be observed with regard to barley water, to which special reference will be found amongst the Recipes, under the heading of barley water, must be strictly adhered to. In many cases of persistent vomiting, when nothing else will keep down, it will be found that a teaspoonful at a time, every ten minutes, of this mixture of half veal and half barley water, given cold, will act like a charm and be retained by the w; ,iacli. At times, however, a teaspoonful Of raw beef juice every two hours will be kept down when everything else is rejected.

The bottle used in Aeding should be a plain one of clean glass so that any dirt or foulness can be detected at once. The teat should be fixed directly upon the top of the bottle, without any intervening and unnecessary lengths of india-rubber tubing. Of all the varied shapes of feeders there is not one which is better for ordinary use than that known as the “ tropical ” infant’s feeding-bottle. For simplicity in construction and for general effectiveness it takes the palm, though of course it is to be kept absolutely sweet to the sense of smell, since carelessness in that respect is unpardonable; and to ensure perfect cleanliness it is always better to have two going, so that one is lying in tepid water, to which a little Condy’s fluid has been added, while the other is in use. There is a teat fastened directly on the end which goes into the infant’s mouth, and at the other extremity of the bottle is a circular opening which is closed by a screw-stopper. This latter opening is for convenience in cleansing the bottle by placing it under the tap and flushing the water right through it. Of this “ tropical ” feeder there are usually three sizes kept in stock by all Chemists, but the medium size is that which is recommend It holds about twelve tablespoonfuls (i.e., held with the teat end upwards), and it will readily be seen where the six or eight tablespoonfuls of food, the usual amount for young infants, reach to in the bottle. Another precaution to be borne in mind, in addition to the foregoing, is to prepare each meal just as it is wanted. It is utterly wrong to prepare a whole day’s food early in the morning, since changes take place and render it unfit for use.

It will be convenient here to make a few remarks with regard to some of the more generally known forms of infants’ food, and to indicate somewhat briefly the properties pertaining to each variety. Now such a proceeding is requisite, as it is desirable that mothers should have a fair knowledge of the means at their disposal for making the necessary changes should one particular form of food be found unsuitable. The probability is that no universal form of infants’ food will ever be prepared, because the digestive functions of infants differ, not only in their powers being strong or weak, as the case may be, but in their peculiarities as well. That is to say, through some special reason peculiar to an infant, it will be found that a particular form of food, though agreeing

vvitli other children, yet is found unsuitable. ■?o it is with adults, as we know that many oersons are unable to digest mutton, while ■they can eat beef or pork without the slightest discomfort.

Let me here take the opportunity of making some remarks—and they apply to condensed milk quite as forcibly — upon these patent foods. Let me say, as emphatically as I can, that no baby should be fed exclusively upon them a moment longer than is necessary. If a person meets with an accident to his leg and has to get about on crutches, it is not to be denied that the crutches are of very great service. But I take it that no one would keep on with the crutches after he could do without them.

In the same way these different infants’ foods often help us through a critical time. And when nothing else can be digested, or even retained on the stomach, we have often to be truly thankful for their assistance. Nevertheless, it is a serious mistake to continue them after the necessity for their use has passed away.

All the various patent foods, including condensed milk, fail in one very important respect. They are wanting in freshness ; they are not fresh. They cannot be, seeing that they have to be kept in tins or bottles.

A mother’s breast milk is made on the spot, so to speak. It is given to the baby almost as soon as it is secreted. Even cows’ milk when it is used for infant feeding, should not be more than a few hours old.

It has been proved over and over again that all these patent foods—and the same is equally true of condensed milk—have a tendency to bring on antenna, rickets, and scurfy rickets. And even if these diseases have not actually developed, it is well known that babies reared on tinned foods have no resisting power if attacked by any illness ; and that they succumb to maladies which a healthier infant would survive.

The first of these foods to consider is Carnrick’s soluble food for infants. Now, it may happen, as it sometimes does, that although the child has apparently nothing wrong with his stomach and bowels, yet there comes on an inability to digest cows’ milk in any shape or form (whether sterilized, boiled, fresh or condensed). In these cases, milk in the shape of milk, no matter how it is given, appears to act as a direct irritant, and so upsets the stomach and bowels, that it will, if persisted in, only aggravate all the trouble. In such a state of affairs it will be well to try this Carnrick’s food. It possesses the great advantage that it can be prepared without the addition of any milk whatsoever. A little of it is merely added to some water; and the mixture thus made is raised to boiling point, and then cooled down to blood heat. It thus constitutes a most valuable form of nourishment for the cases just referred to.

The next on the list, namely, Benger’s food, has to be made with milk. Consequently it will not do for those babies—who cannot digest milk at all—of whom we have just been speaking. Still, it is one which has received support from many high authorities, and indeed it is one that will be found of service in many instances, particularly when the digestive powers of the infant seem weak and unable to perform their functions. This is a pancreatised, not a malted, food, and it is from this fact also self-digestive. The pancreatine which it contains prevents the firm indigestible curd of milk from forming in the stomach, and it may therefore be employed with cows’ milk and water, without the addition of barley water. During our hot summer months, when the digestive powers are feeble, this preparation will be found of the greatest value. In weakly infants, too, where there is an inability to assimilate other forms of food, it will often be absorbed and nourish the child effectually. Lastly, it will iii many cases tide infants with delicate stomachs over a critical period till the digestive organs recover their tone and vigour.

We now come to the malted foods, and it may be said of them that they are well, nigh indispensable, at times, in rearing hand, fed infants. As will be seen a little farther on, The Lancet itself sanctions their careful use. There are three principal varieties (namely, Allen and Hanbury’s, Mellin’s, and Savory and Moore’s), and I shall consider them in their alphabetical order. Allen and Hanbury’s malted farinaceous food is prepared with carefully cooked wheaten flour, in which the malt present is added in a soluble form. It is claimed for this particular food that the balance between thepart already digested, and that to be digested by the infant, is carefully regulated. Mellin’s food for infants is likewise a malted food in which starch is said to be entirely absent, all of the latter being changed into dextrine and grape sugar. It is one of the forms of infants’ food that will be found to give great satisfaction in many cases. Savory and Moore’s is another form of infants’ malted food in which there is no pre-digestion of the casein as in either Carnrick’s or Benger’s pancreatised food, but in which sufficient work is placed ipon the digestive organs to encourage their levelopment. Having thus considered these liree forms of malted foods, it is as well to lote that when given with cows’ milk alone, >r with cows’ milk and water, they do lothing to hinder the firm clotting of the ;urd, and therefore it is always necessary hat barley water should be added, in accord-mce with the principles already laid down o prevent the formation of curdy masses.

The Lancet, editorially, not very long back, n commenting on the artificial feeding of nfants, recommended the addition of a little Halted food to each bottle, if simpler expedients, such as the use of barley water with cows’ milk, failed. When malted food is used in this way there most frequently results a complete alteration in the character of the stools, which from containing masses of white curdy material assume a natural appearance. It was likewise pointed out that there is a great difference between a diet of ordinary starchy foods such as arrowroot or cornflour (which are given to the youngest infants far too frequently), and the employment of malted food as an addition to the bottle of milk. The use of the malt, as has already been mentioned, is to aid the digestion of the casein of the cows’ milk, which is otherwise prone to form undigested

masses which irritate the bowels and are expelled unchanged. It is during the first six months especially that extra care and watchfulness are required, and it is at this period particularly that the aid of the different malted and pancreatised foods may have to be called into requisition; while if the baby be unable to digest cows’ milk in any shape or form, Carnrick’s soluble food will have to be temporarily made use of.

The last two forms of food to refer to are Nestle’.s milk food and Neave’s food for infants, and neither contain any malt nor are pre-digested, so that they may be regarded as solely farinaceous foods. Nestle’s milk-food is one which is widely used on the Continent, but has nevertheless many believers in its good qualities among Englishspeaking people. Its source is said to be choice milk from Swiss cows, with the addition of a little sugar and prepared baked wheat flour. Neave’s food for infants has also met with a considerable amount of favour, and both will be found suitable particularly after the first few months.

After the age of six months the purely starchy foods may be somewhat freely used, and, indeed, make a pleasing variety in the diet. When the child is eight months old, chicken, mutton, or veal broth may be added

o the diet, care being taken to see that it is lot greasy. After the age of twelve months, ight puddings, potatoes well mashed with Kravy, and lightly boiled eggs may be dlowed. At the age of eighteen months, .veil minced meat, poultry, fish free from 3ones, and raw oysters are ser\ iceable.

But though these different articles of food nay be gradually added to the list, it must be done cautiously, feeling the way as it .vere, in accordance with the plan laid down n the dietary farther on. Now although neat may be allowed every other day after the age of eighteen months, yet its daily use had better not be sanctioned till the child is two years old. Notwithstanding the fact that changes in the dietary must be had recourse to for the sake of varying the monotony, at the same time the great value of milk as an aliment to those of tender years must never be forgotten, indeed a healthy infant of eighteen months old will usually take with advantage a pint and a half to two pints of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk daily.

BATHING.

The skin is an organ of extreme importance in children requiring to be kept in a state of the greatest cleanliness, so that it may perform its functions perfectly. It not only serves as a covering over the body, but acts as an excretory apparatus as well. If not properly looked after, it performs its work badly and soon tells upon the health of the child. During the earlier years the infant should be bathed twice daily, in the morning and the last thing at night before being put to rest. At the bath the whole body should be well washed with soap and warm water. The purest soap to use is the white, not the mottled, Castile. One of the best brands, which I know of, is Colgate’s White Castile Soap. It leaves nothing to be desired, will be likely to give complete satisfaction, and agrees well with the generality of babies’ skins.

Soap is made up of fat or oil; an alkali (such as soda or potash); and a certain quantity of water. Soaps usually belong to one of three varieties—alkaline, neutral, or over-fatty. The first are too irritating

32 iltogether for ordinary skins. The neutral ;oaps, in which the fat or oil and alkali are licely balanced, form most of the better class toilet soaps. The over-fatty soaps have only somewhat recently been introduced by Dr. P. G. XJnna, the famous skin specialist of Hamburg.

An over-fatty soap differs from the other two varieties in being neither alkaline nor neutral; but in containing an over-proportion of fat or oil. It does not interfere with the natural lubricant of the body, although it completely cleanses the skin—making it cool, soft, and pliant. An over-fatty soap does not leave behind it a dry, harsh, smarting or tingling feeling, as inferior soaps so frequently do.

Unna’s over-fatty basic soap (Ueberfette Basisseife) is thus well suited for nursery use. For infants who have delicate or sensitive skins, it is particularly appropriate, as it is one of the most unirritating soaps it is possible to imagine. There is only one point to be remembered that it is best fresh, and therefore only a little should be purchased at a time. Ordinary soaps, on the other hand, improve by keeping, because the alkali they contain “sweats ” out in time, and may often be seen as a white bloom on the surface.

There is another pure over-fatty soap, which, however, may be kept for any time without deteriorating. It is made by Messrs. Duncan, Flockhart and Company, of Edinburgh, and is called “ Baumol skin soap.”

The water used should be of a temperature to feel comfortably warm to the hand. After being taken out of the bath, where the infant should remain for two or three minutes, the body and limbs should be thoroughly dried with a soft towel, and a glow in the skin promoted by a little gentle friction with a slightly rougher towel. Some children have a natural dread of the water, and in these cases a blanket may be spread over the tub, and the child placed upon it, is slowly lowered into the bath. As the child begins to grow older the warm bath can gradually be dispensed with and cooler baths substituted by degrees, till cold water is finally used. A good deal depends upon the physique of the child, and if the cold bath is not followed by a general glow of the body, it is better to have the chill taken off the water.

Cold baths act first of all by producing a shock to the system, this, if the bath is beneficial, is followed by reaction, and the body feels warm all over. They are only to lie used when there is no feeling of chilliness, and no blueness of the nails afterwards. In our liot summer months, if a flat pan be used and the child quickly sponged over, there is not very much shock:, out in the cooler weather, even with older children, it is better to have the water warm. In the case of weakly children the shock may be lessened by rubbing the body vigorously with the hand or towel before the bath is taken. Sometimes benefit is derived by making the child stand in hot water while he is quickly sponged over with cold.

In all forms of chronic wasting disease it is wise to promote a healthy action of the skin, and for this purpose the hot or cold bath is of great value. Rubbing the whole surface of the body over with the hand is a valuable aid, the circulation is roused and the vigour of the body promoted. In these wasting disorders there is nearly always a coldness of the hands and feet, showing that the circulation is feeble.

In all similar wasting maladies, rubbing the whole surface of the body over, also, with cod liver oil or olive oil—or what is perhaps better still, Neats-foot oil—is a valuable and effective way of nourishing the body. To get the best results from the application of oil to the body, either give the child a hot bath, or sponge the body over with very warm water, the last thing before bedtime. The oil, which acts better if warmed, is then well rubbed over the body with the hand so as to get it well into the skin, and the child, after being wrapped in a flannel bed-gown, is put to bed. These oily inunctions give rest to the digestive organs ; while at the same time they increase nutrition.

In addition to acting as a means of nourishment, oily applications to the body prove valuable in three different ways. The first is that shortly after their application the action of the skin is promoted and a perspiration breaks out over the whole body. Next, the child is soothed or quieted so that he falls into a gentle sleep. Thirdly, and what is very important, all the different secretions are increased in quantity, there is a more copious flow of urine, and the motions assume a more healthy appearance.

The hot bath is frequently employed for different purposes—and is valuable in promoting a free perspiration of the skin, in soothing the infant, and in inducing sleep, The child should not be allowed to stay in for more than three or four minutes, and on being taken out he should be dried as quickly as possible, and wrapped up in a blanket. The addition of about one tablespoonful of mustard to the amount of hot water generally used will make the bath more stimulating,

and at bedtime is valuable in many cases of feverish catarrh of the chest, care being taken to protect the child from taking a chill.

It must be remembered that the infant is incapable of taking exercise for himself, being quite passive in the matter. The surface of the body is so easily chilled that care must be taken to protect it from sudden changes of temperature, at the same time, though warmth is required, the child need not be overburdened with clothes. The breathing should not be hampered in any way, and the limbs must have an opportunity of moving freely, the kicking of them about, to a great extent taking the place of exercise in older children. In the open air the head must be protected during the cooler weather from the cold, and in the hot summer months should have an efficient covering from the sun; though in the house nothing is required, the hair will be all the stronger and there will be less probability of the infant continually taking cold.

At night, all through the year, the bed-gown should be made of flannel, a fine material in

the hot months and a thicker one in the cooler

33

weather. Both the cool and warm bedgowns should be changed regularly to keep them clean and sweet. When the circulation is feeble or the child is weak and puny, the body and limbs should be enveloped in cotton wool. A flannel bandage should be worn over the belly till the child is twelve months old at least, and in weakly children it may be continued longer with advantage. In many cases the bandage is sewn over the abdomen and is thought to be securely fastened in position, but it is apt to slip up, leaving the belly uncovered so that care must be taken to see that it keeps well in its place. It should therefore be sufficiently wide to cover the whole stomach, and ought to reach from the hips up to the waist, and be of such a length also as to go twice round the body. Nothing but safety pins should be used in applying it, and to prevent the tendency to slip upwards, it should be fastened somewhat tightly round the hips. If it is cut on the cross, that is not exactly in the length, nor in the breadth of the flannel roll, but diagonally, it will be more efficient, and will act like a piece of elastic material. This flannel bandage should be looked upon as an important part of the dress in infants and young children. It is a protection against cold, and being a non-

conductor of heat guards against sudden changes of temperature.

With regard to the covering of the feet and legs, in infants these should always be encased in woollen stockings reaching well up to the knees. In young infants in long clothes, the practice of simply covering the feet up by tucking the bed-gown round them is not nearly so effective as the use of woollen stockings. Again and again, if one takes the trouble to loosen the safety pin which keeps the end of the bed-gown round the legs, it will be found that the feet especially, without the woollen stockings, are as cold as charity. It ought to be well known that cold feet have an exceedingly bad effect upon the stomach and bowels, and will often set up severe pains in both. In the case of any infant or young child suffering from pain in the abdomen, the feet should always be looked to, when, if cold, the pain usually subsides on warming them.

EXERCISE.

Fresh air and sunshine are essential to an infant’s well-being and fulfil a most important part in the development of a healthy frame. One would think that in this fine climate of ours there would be little difficulty in inducing mothers to give their infants the benefit of as much open air life as possible,yet it is nevertheless a sad fact that many do not stir outside the door with their offspring from one week’s end to the other. The number of excuses they find to justify this dereliction of duty is certainly ingenious, and all that can be said is that they are simply evasions with very little to justify them. As a matter of fact there are very few mothers who could not find time to take the baby out for an airing, were it even only for half an hour, if they but chose to. In the case of parents who have means to keep one domestic or even more, there can be no reason whatever why the infant should not have the benefit of the open air at least once, if not twice a day. It is safe enough in fine weather to send the baby out with the nurse

14 days after birth, care being taken to have the head well protected from the rays of the sun.

But as something more than general directions may be looked for in an important matter like exercise which so greatly influences the health of the infant, it will be advisable to make "a few remarks on the subject. The baby, therefore, should be carried in the arms for the first four months since support is given to him in a proper manner; he receives in this way, also, a certain amount of warmth from the nurse or mother; and there are in addition the gentle movements of the arms of the carrier which benefit the infant to some extent. During the hot summer months the face should be protected by a veil; in the cooler wreather or during the prevalence of chilly winds a thicker veil will be required.

After the fourth month, however, the baby may be allowed in a suitable perambulator, care being taken to see the child is well propped up with cushions, and that plenty of support is given to the back and spine. When wheeled about in this conveyance it must not be forgotten that there is not the same warmth as when he is carried in the arms, and therefore the clothing must be sufficiently warm in the cooler months;

.vhen bleak winds are blowing ; and even in he summer itself.

Before they are able to stand, infants use heir limbs freely and kick about with great >lee. This brings the muscles into action ind strengthens them, and is to infants what )lay and running about are to older children.

In the words of Sir William Jenner, a diild in health delights in movements of ivery kind. It joys to exercise every muscle. Strip a child of a few months old, and see how it throws its limbs in every direction; it will raise its head from the place in which it lies, coil itself round, and grasping a foot with both hands, thrust it into its mouth as far as possible, as though the great object of its existence at that moment was to turn itself inside out.’'

About the age of nine months the baby will begin to creep and crawl; he should begin to stand up by holding on to something, before twelve months, and walk shortly afterwards.

SLEEP.

Sleep, which constitutes such a large proportion of the lifetime of each person, is alike necessary to health and is essential for the regular performance of the different functions of the body, It may be looked upon both as a preventive against disease, and as a salutary process. Although a grown-up person for a time may do without his proper allowance of sleep, yet it must be made up for in due course, or he will feel the consequences sooner or later. In the infant want of sleep from any cause such as teething, colic, worms, and the like, gives no chance for the repair of the wear and tear of the system. Sleeplessness in the infant thus acts directly both by retarding the growth of the body, and by interfering with nutrition it sows the seeds of future ill-health, and of a short life.

Infants require sleep during the day as well as in the night; in fact, the youngest infants do very little else but sleep and take their nourishment. Thus a perfectly healthy baby sleeps about twenty hours out of the twenty-four ; and very often restlessness and 44

in inability to sleep are an indication of the beginning of an illness. In the first two y^ears of an infant’s life the brain doubles tself in weight, during which time it is inperfect and pulpy, requiring more rest than at a later period when it becomes more leveloped and firmer. After the age of two years, an hour’s sleep may be taken in the morning a little before mid-day, or else in the afternoon, according to the child's requirements, but the night’s rest should always begin as soon after 7 p.m. as possible and last till the morning.

From time to time the question of “ overlaying ” comes prominently forward in the shape of a coroner’s inquest. That is to say, some unfortunate baby has been suffocated by being “ overlain,” and the catastrophe is naturally made the subject of a public inquiry. The Lancet, in treating of this very matter of “overlaying,” recently, took occasion to denounce the common practice which allows mother and infant to occupy the same bed. There are, perhaps, some exceptional instances in which an infant has so little vitality that it may possibly be excused ; but in most cases there is no reason why the baby should not sleep in a separate cot. It does away altogether with such a distressing occurrence as “overlaying;” and,

besides, in our semi-tropical Australian climate it is unquestionably healthier for the child.

Though a continuous supply of fresh air in the sleeping apartment is an important matter in connection with the health of older children and adults, yet it is of infinitely equal, if not greater consequence, when considered in relation to the welfare of infants. In them, as previously referred I to, the vital processes proceed with great rapidity, and it is essential on that account j that all the surroundings should be adapted | to promote their well-being as much as j possible. In the companion volume to this j book, entitled The Health and Diet of Childrenin Australia, the questions of air and ventilation in the house, and of the well-ventilated and orderly bedroom, are dwelt upon at some length ; indeed, it is most necessary that i matters of this kind should receive every consideration from those who have the vigorous health of their progeny at heart.

At all times a fireplace in the sleeping apartment is advantageous, on account of the aid it renders in the ventilation of the room ; and in certain cases of illness, especially in acute diseases of the chest during the cooler months, a fire becomes an absolute

ecessity, when the aid of the steaming ettle has to be called in..

Lastty, while on the question of the bedouin, it should never be forgotten that uring the summer months some protection torn the mosquitoes must be afforded to hfants by the use of proper nettings, for it B nothing less than cruelty to have them »itten by these pests when it can be avoided t so little expense.

DIETARY.

For the sake of accuracy, graduated glass measures must always he employed, both for medicine and food. Tea-spoons, dessertspoons, and table-spoons vary to a surprising extent. A small measure for medicine, and a larger one for food are recommended.

Very much depends upon the proper feeding of the infant, and, as his health is mainly contingent upon the nourishment he receives and the regularity of his meals, it has been thought necessary to add the following table of diets. In order that the exact food required in the different months may be readily ascertained, the instructions have been given as clearly and minutely as possible. If the feeding of the child is to be carried out with any pretensions to correctness, a determination must be made to conform as closely as can be to the lines laid down, and the instructions given must be adopted in their entirety. At the same time, it must ever be borne in mind that the exact amount of

food required cannot be stated absolutely so as to apply to every infant. Some require nore nourishment than others, and due illowance must be made for such differences.

Breast Fed Children.

tV hen the child is brought up on the preast, if the supply of milk is abundant and ftlie infant thrives, nothing else is required. Vn attempt should be made to induce •egular habits ; the baby, therefore, should lave the breast every two hours for the first six weeks, and the recommendations already nade at page 1, under breast feeding, thould be diligently attended to. After six Yeeks the interval between each meal should oe increased to three hours. At the very beginning the child should, if possible, be broken into the plan of not having the breast rom 11 at night till 6 in the morning.

Till the child is six months old nothing resides the breast is required, unless the milk ’ails or the infant begins to fall away. Even ifter that time if there is a plentiful supply }f milk and the baby flourishes, the breast will suffice till weaning is accomplished.

VV hen the latter is completed the infant may begin to take potatoes thoroughly mashed, with gravy; the different meat

broths ; light milk puddings ; eggs lightly boiled; and a bone to suck occasionally.

At the age of eighteen months or so, a small quantity of meat or poultry may be allowed every other day. Mutton is the best to begin on, and it must be minced as finely as possible.

Mixed Diet, or Breast and Hand Feeding- Combined.

In many cases the milk takes some time before it is fully secreted by the breast, and the small amount of it which forms is not enough for the requirements of the infant. Here the breast may be supplemented by some other form of noui isliment till the milk becomes more plentiful. Till the full supply of breast milk is forthcoming, then, we may make use of any of the following—sterilized or boiled cows’ milk and lime water (half and half); a mixture of equal parts of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk and barley water; condensed milk of the strength of half a teaspoonful of condensed milk to six tablespoonfuls of water, or two-thirds of a teaspoonful of the former to eight tablespoonfuls of the latter; or, finally, instead of using plain water with the condensed milk, as in the last, we may use barley water in the same proper-

tion. This mixture of condensed milk and barley water constitutes a most serviceable and nutritious mixture; though condensed milk must never be continued for too lone: a time, as has been already explained.

In other instances there is never, all through suckling, a sufficient quantity of milk secreted; here the breast may be given TWICE A DAY,

md to complete the nourishment the infant must be given during the first six weeks—

Sterilized or Boiled Cows’ Milk,

Lime Water—Equal Parts.

According to the infant’s appetite six or bight tablespoonfuls by measure of this mixture are to be given every two hours. The food is to be warmed by standing the )ottle in hot water, a teaspoonful of sugar of nilk or powdered loaf sugar should be added, md every meal must be prepared for itself done just before it is required.

From six weeks till the third month the ime water in the foregoing can be reduced ill it forms one third part (between two and hree tablespoonfuls) of the mixture. After he third month only one-fourth (two table-poonfuls) of lime water need be used.

Should the addition of lime water to the ows’ milk, as contained in the preceding, be

found to disagree, a trial must be made of a mixture of barley water and milk—

Sterilized or Boiled Cows’ Milk,

Barley Water—Equal Parts,

gradually decreasing the amount of barley water, in a similar manner to the lime water. As has been mentioned previously the employment of barley water in this way is endorsed by high medical authority, and should always have a fair trial before adopting the other measures referred to in the chapter devoted to hand feeding at page 7, and in the section succeeding this.

With some infants the food is more easily digested if milk, barley water and lime water be used—

Sterilized or Boiled Cows’ Milk,

Barley Water,

Lime Water—Equal Parts,

that is nearly three tablespoonfuls of each to form the bottle every two hours, adding one teaspoonful of sugar of milk or loaf sugar.

Though all the facts in connection with condensed milk have been fully dwelt upon in the chapter devoted to hand feeding, yet it is desirable to summarise briefly in this section the principal points relating to it. In the first place as was mentioned therein, when there are doubts as to the quality of the cows’ milk or when it disagrees, it

becomes necessary to have recourse to condensed milk lor a time. The chief objection to condensed milk lies in the fact hat it contains an excess of sugar, but in he new preparation, Loeflund’s Ivinder-Vfilch, this drawback is removed, for it is laimed that this food is preserved by a new rrocess without the aid of sugar. Full lirections for its preparation will be found iccompanying each tin of this new condensed ailk, and the proportion recommended is

Kinder-Milch—One Teaspoonful,

Water—Twelve Teaspoonfuls,

hr newly-born infants, gradually increasing :i strength, up to

Kinder-Milch — One Teaspoonful,

Water—Six Teaspooufuls,

¡t the age of six months.

In the ordinary brands of condensed milk le strength to be used is an important natter and explicit directions have therefore een given in order to ensure uniformity, for is useless to attempt to observe how it jgrees with the baby if this be not attended

o. The proportion of condensed milk to be <mployed should be as follows—•

Condensed Milk—Half a Teaspoonful,

Water or Barley Water—Six Tablespoonfuls.

'his represents the meal for the youngest ifants and is to be given every two hours.

but as babies vary as to the amount of food they require it may be necessary to give as much as the following for each meal—

Condensed Milk—Two-Thirds of a Teaspoonful,

Water or Barley Water-Eight Tablespoonfuls.

There are two precautions, howeY.er, to be borne in mind when using condensed milk, the first is that each tin is to be finished before beginning another as it soon spoils after being opened, and the second is that it must be kept in a cool place, especially during the hot summer months.

Till the child is six months old, the milk should be warmed by standing the bottle containing it in some hot water ; after that time it may be heated by placing it over the fire. To make some variety in the food the changes should be rung on the different diets given under the plan of hand feeding a little farther on, as it sometimes happens that the stomach requires to be humoured.

When the breast milk fails altogether the system of hand feeding must be adopted and followed up systematically : and, it is to be added, with great patience.

HAND FEEDING.

Before attempting to follow out the recommendations contained in this section of the dietary, the chapter on hand feeding at page 7 should he carefully studied, so as to give the mother a thorough knowledge of the properties of the various forms of infant's food at her command. From the same source she will also learn hoiv to ascertain if the child is progressing satisfactorily or not, and what are the indications which point to the necessity for an immediate change in the feeding. The section on mixed diet, or breast and hand feeding combined, immediately preceding this, should also be consulted, as it contains a summary of instructions on the same topic.

BEFORE THE AGE OF SIX MONTHS.

During the first six weeks equal parts of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk and lime water may be used as described under the mixed system of feeding, and as the child progresses the quantity of lime water should be gradually reduced, till at the age of six months it forms only one-fourth part of each bottle prepared.

If the infant fail to make sufficient progress with the milk and lime water, or if it be found unsuitable, a trial must be made of a mixture of equal parts of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk and barley water, lessening the amount of the latter as in the case of the lime water.

Digestion is often assisted by the use of equal parts of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, barley water, and lime water as was stated before. But it sometimes happens that these different forms of diet disagree, and recourse must be had to other modifications. The use of gelatine with milk and water, described in a former page, will come in handy.

But as previously referred to, if the cows’ milk cannot be relied upon, or should it disagree, resort must be had to condensed milk. Loeflund’s Kinder-Milch is to he preferred for reasons which have been already given. The strength of the ordinary condensed milk used is half a teaspoonful to the six tablespoonfuls either of plain water or barley water; but if the infant’s appetite requires it, two-thirds of a teaspoonful to the eight tablespoonfuls of either plain or barley water should be employed; one or the other of these quantities is to be allowed every two hours, and all the

directions already given in tlieir preparation must be strictly attended to.

Another serviceable help will be found in the combination of one of the malted foods, namely Allen and Hanbury’s, Mellin’s, or Savory and Moore’s with milk and barley water in the following proportions—•

One of the malted foods (Allen and Hanbury’s, Mellin’s, or Savory and Moore’s)—one teaspoonful,

Barley Water, Sterilized or Boiled Cows’ Milk— of each four tablespoonfuls.

The barley water is added here to split the milk-curd in the manner previously described.

All the foregoing are very valuable forms of nourishment. One or other of them will be found to succeed in many instances. But in other cases it will frequently be found that the digestive powers of a baby have become enfeebled during the hot summer months. Or there may be quite an inability on the part of an infant to assimilate any of the preceding combinations. Or, again, there are other babies, with delicate stomachs, who require helping over a critical period. When any of these difficulties exist, a trial should be made of one of the pancreatised foods, namely, Carnrick’s soluble food for infants or Benger’s food.

With either of these no barley water will be required, for the pancreatine contained in them, as we have already seen, prevents the firm, indigestible milk-curd from forming. Directions for the preparation of these two pancreatised foods are to be found accompanying the tin, in which they are sold. Attention has been previously drawn to the one great difference between Carnrick’s soluble food for infants and Benger’s food. Carnrick’s is made with water only; no milk at all being required. In Benger’s, on the other hand, milk must be employed in preparing it.

The directions given with each of these different preparations must be carried out minutely and carefully so as to ensure the best possible results. It cannot be too well understood that there is no universal form of food which will agree with every child, and it may require some little trouble to find out the most suitable one. The capability of the stomach in different infants to assimilate food varies almost as much as do the features of one child from another.

It is very useful to know that the addition of a teaspoonful of some aromatic, such as cinnamon or carraway water, to the foregoing, or to milk and lime water, often renders the food more digestible.

HAND FEEDING

AT THE SEVENTH, EIGHTH AND NINTH MONTHS.

A Breakfast-cupful is equal to Sixteen Tablespoonfuls, by Measuring1 Glass ; a Tea-cupful to Twelve.

First meal—7 (morning).

One teaspoonful of baked flour with a tea-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’milk and water, as explained in the Keoipes.

Instead of the baked flour any of the different forms of infant’s food may be substituted, using barley water with the tea-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk if the malted foods be employed. But when the Benger’s food is used only plain water will be required to dilute the sterilized or boiled cows’ milk employed in its preparation.

One teaspoonful of fine oatmeal may be given in place of the baked flour, if there is constipation.

Second meal—10.30 (morning).

Third meal—2 (afternoon).

At each of these meals a breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk is to be given. If there is any distress after either meal, one-fourth part of lime water may be used with it, or in place of lime water, barley water may be employed in the same proportion.

Fourth meal—5.30 (evening).

Similar to the seven o’clock morning meal.

Fifth meal—11 (night).

A breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows' milk, as in the 10.30 (morning) and 2 (after noon) meals.

HAND FEEDING

AT THE TENTH, ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH MONTHS.

A Breakfast-cupful is equal to Sixteen Tablespoonfuls, by Measuring Glass ; a Tea-cupful to Twelve-

First meal—7 (morning).

A teaspoonful of baked flour, two teaspoonfuls of one of the various forms of infant’s food recommended, a breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk ; or

Half a teaspoonful of cocoatina boiled in a cupful of milk for one minute. In cocoatina there is less fatty matter than in ordinary cocoa, rendering it easier of digestion.

Second meal—10.30 (morning).

Two teaspoonfuls of pearl barley jelly, as detailed in the Recipes, dissolved in a breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk and sweetened with a little sugar ; or

A breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, with lime water or barley water added if necessary.

Third meal—2 (afternoon).

The yolk of an egg beaten up with a tea-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, and sweetened with a little white sugar ; or

A tea-cupful of beef tea (made as directed in the Recipes) and a rusk.

Fourth meal—5.30 (evening)

The pearl barley jelly and sterilized or boiled cows’ milk as in the 10.30 (morning) meal.

Fifth meal—-11 (night).

Either the baked flour, infant’s food, and sterilized or boiled cows’ milk as in the 7 (morning) ; or

A breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, with the addition of lime water or barley water if necessary.

HAND FEEDING

FROM TWELVE TO EIGHTEEN MONTHS,

OR

AT THE SAME PERIOD AFTER WEANING.

A Breakfast-cupful is equal to Sixteen Tablespoonfuls, by Measuring Glass ; a Tea-cupful to Twelve.

First meal—7.30 (morning).

A rusk, or slice of stale bread, well soaked in a breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk ; or

The yolk of a lightly boiled egg, a slice of thin bread and butter, a breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk.

Second meal— 11 (morning).

A drink of sterilized or boiled cows' milk, with either a plain biscuit or a piece of bread and butter.

Third meal—1.30 (afternoon).

A rusk with either a tea-cupful of strong beef tea, or of good meat gravy, a large tablespoonful of light pudding ; or

A mealy potato, well mashed, with about two tablespoonfuls of good meat gravy, a breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk.

Fourth meal—5.30 (evening).

A rusk or slice of stale bread well soaked in a breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk.

Fifth meal—11 (night).

A drink of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk.

If the last meal can be dispensed with so much the better, but the child will probably want a drink of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk or a piece of bread and butter directly he wakes in the morning.

HAND FEEDING

FROM EIGHTEEN MONTHS TO TWO YEARS, OR

AT THE SAME PERIOD AFTER WEANING.

A Breakfast-cupful is equal to Sixteen Tablespoonfuls, by Measuring Glass ; a Tea-cupful to Twelve.

First meal—7.30 (morning).

A breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, and a rusk or some thin bread and butter; or

A breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, a lightly boiled egg, some bread and butter.

Second meal—11 (morning).

A cup of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk.

Third meal—1.30 (afternoon).

Some roast or boiled mutton minced as finely as possible, a well mashed potato, with a couple of tablespoonfuls of gravy, a little water for drink; or

A breakfast-cupfvl of good beef tea, a little cauliflower, or sweet corn (tinned) boiled in milk with a little butter, a little custard pudding.

Fourth meal—6.30 (evening).

A breakfast-cupful of sterilized or boiled cows milk, some thin br<_ad and butter.

A healthy child of eighteen months should deep from 7 (evening) to six in the morning yithout waking.

On reference to the preceding it will be Noticed that sterilized or boiled cows’ milk occupies a most important position in the dietary kf infants. Speaking in general terms it may |>e said that a healthy child a little under he age of twelve months will need a pint md a half of such milk in the four and wenty hours. From the age of twelve nonths and onwards he will require nearly wo pints as his daily allowance.

USEFUL INFORMATION

FOR

AUSTRALIAN MOTHERS.

Anaemia.

1.    Anaemia or bloodlessness is sometimes termed also “poverty of blood.” It is a condition of the system in which the blood has become impaired in its quality; and perhaps diminished in its quantity at the same time. So that an anaemic infant is unnaturally pale—and wanting in the hue of health.

2.    Anaemia is frequently to be observed in the hand fed babies of our large Australian cities. They look as if they were made of wax, so destitute of colour are they.

3.    This is particularly the case with those infants who have been reared on arrowroot, biscuits, cornflour, or other starchy diet; or what is just as bad—on condensed milk or on one of the patent foods.

4.    If a baby is deprived of his natural nourishment—fresh milk; or if the milk supplied is not pure ; or has been diluted, or

64

otherwise tampered with, then that infant’s chance of becoming healthy—if lie survives at all—is very doubtful.

Breast, The.

5. One of the most effective lotions for cracked or sore nipples is made of the following :—One teaspoonful of sulphurous (not sulphuric) acid, one teaspoonful of glycerine of tannic acid, and two teaspoonfuls of water. The nipple should be carefully dried, and then the lotion applied several times daily. No trouble should be spared over a cracked lor sore nipple, as either may lead on to an ¡abscess of the breast.

G. If an abscess threatens to form the first thing is to stop the infant from suckling the affected breast. The milk may be got away by gentle pressure or by a breast-glass. )ne of the most soothing applications is a ^mentation of poppy heads and camomile lowers, used frequently. The breast should pe supported by a handkerchief slung over he opposite shoulder. But under any cir-•umstancesmedical advice should be obtained, is a gathered breast is not to be trifled with.

Bronchitis and Inflammation of the Lungs.

7. In bronchitis and inflammation of the ungs one teaspoonful of castor oil to a baby

at the beginning of the attack often modifies the course of either disease.

8.    It must be remembered that an infant or young child has not the sense to spit up the phlegm in these diseases, but swallows it. It passes through the bowels in consequence, and can be found in the motions. Thus it is that a little aperient given occasionally is of much benefit by carrying away the phlegm.

9.    A weak poultice of mustard and flour —one part of mustard, mixed with five or six times as much flour — which can be kept on the chest for some five or six hours, is better than a strong poultice applied for a shorter time. The mustard and flour should be mixed in the dry state, and then made into a poultice, with hot—not boiling— water.

10.    The poultice must first be applied all over the front of the chest for five or six hours till the skin is reddened. When the poultice is removed the part should be covered with a layer of cotton wool. The whole of the back of the chest must next be treated in a similar manner. The relief afforded by this method is usually unmistakable.

11.    An infant or young child with bronchitis or inflammation of the lungs should never be kept or nursed continuously on his

back—as the phlegm settles in the bases of the lungs. It is better to lay him on his right and left side alternately, so as not to allow him to remain too long in the one position.

12.    Both bronchitis and inflammation of the lungs in infants and young children are most serious diseases. They constitute two of the very fatal maladies met with in early life. Medical attendance should, therefore, be obtained as soon as practicable.

Chafing- or Inflammation of The Buttocks.

13.    When the baby’s buttocks become chafed or inflamed, washing with soap and water is to be absolutely stopped. The parts should be gently cleansed with thin, weak gruel, or white of egg and tepid water, or rice flour boiled in milk, or carron oil. Any of these may be conveniently applied by means of a little absorbent cotton wool.

14.    After careful drying with a soft cloth, one of the very best remedies to dust over the chafed or inflamed surface is a powder consisting of half a grain of thymol to one ounce of compound oleate of zinc powder. Only a small quantity should be purchased at a time, as it is better to have it as fresh as possible.

15.    This latter compound oleate of zinc powder lias also a striking effect in either profuse or offensive sweating, occurring in any special region of the body—arm-pits, feet, etc. In fact it has been termed the remedy for these distressing disorders. The affected parts should, of course, be carefully dried before applying it. When perfumed with a drop or two of oil of rose or oil of verbena it forms a remarkably useful toilet powder, especially for ladies, who may be trouble d with greasy, oily-looking complexions.

Colic.

16.    Colic, though not unfrequently due to cold feet, most usually arises from improper, indigestible, or unsuitable food. The “screaming-fits ” of badly-fed infants are well known.

17.    In colic the baby draws up his legs upon his belly, and cries out loudly as each attack of pain comes on. The cry is usually of a piercing character, and is generally accompanied by uneasy movements of the body. In many instances the infant appears to get relief from gentle pressure of the hand upon the belly. When one spasm of suffering is over he is fairly quiet till another

comes on.

18.    In ordinary attacks a very simple remedy consists of 10 drops of sweet spirits of nitre in a teaspoonful—by measuring glass —of water. After this is given, wind is usually expelled from the bowels, as well as a fair quantity of water from the bladder ; and the child’s distress is at an end. In addition to this, the food will, of course, have to be changed to prevent a repetition of the same thing ; and the baby placed upon a diet which agrees with him.

19.    In very severe colic the infant often goes into a state of complete collapse. When this occurs he should be placed in a hot bath, and an enema of warm water given. After coming out of the bath, a hot bran or linseed meal poultice should be placed upon the belly. Medical assistance should be abtained if possible, as the condition is one of considerable danger.

Constipation.

20.    Constipation is at times one of the most troublesome complaints met with in infancy and childhood. It is often extremely difficult to get the bowels to act with any regularity. Some infants appear to be so obstinately constipated that remedies which act well in ordinary cases fail altogether with them. In such instances much

patience is required to find out what diet or what treatment will give relief.

21.    Sometimes constipation arises because the motions are unnaturally dry and hard. This is often so in our Australian hot months, when the baby is perspiring freely. If such be the case, he may have a little water—which has been boiled—to drink several times daily. It should be remembered that an infant may suffer acutely from thirst, just as an older person does.

22.    In habitual and stubborn constipation there are several simple remedies which have deservedly acquired a considerable reputation. The first of these—cascara sagrada— is one which possesses much value in many cases, although at times, strangely enough, it utterly fails. The liquid extract or elixir of cascara sagrada may be given to infants in doses of from 5 to 10 drops in a little water once, twice or even thrice daily.

23.    Another remedy which is held in high esteem is half a grain of sulphur, mixed with a few grains of white sugar, and coloured red with cochineal. This should be given every night, and sometimes acts wonderfully well. A third plan consists in adding as much phosphate of soda, as will lie on a threepenny piece, to the bottle, two or three times in the twenty-four hours. In infants on the breast

the phosphate ot ¡soda, which is quite tasteless, may be given as frequently in a little boiled water.

24.    If the preceding do not prove effective, a trial should be made of injecting one small teaspoonful of glycerine into the bowel. There is a special and convenient syringe made for infants, which holds just the proper quantity of glycerine. The nozzle should be smeared over with olive or sweet oil, and massed into the bowel with a more or less •otatory motion.

25.    The employment of an embrocation ¡onsisting of one part of tincture of aloes^ md two parts of soap liniment, to the nfant’s belly is often extremely useful. It hould be rubbed in every morning, beginning ust above the right hip, going straight upwards on the right side to the lower ribs, hen across, between the pit of the stomach md the navel, to the corresponding left side ; nd finishing down the left side to the top. of he left hip—beginning again from the right ip as before.

26.    Care should be taken to see that the 3et and legs are properly covered and efficiently warm. The flannel bandage over he belly should, of course, be worn till the afant is 12 months old; and in weakly

children it may be continued for a longer period with advantage.

Convulsions.

27.    The first thing to do is to place the infant in a hot bath ; secondly, to apply cloths dipped in cold water to the head; and thirdly, to thoroughly empty the bowels with a full enema of soap and warm water—one pint for an infant of six months old, and two pints for a child of two years.

28.    The baby should not be kept in the bath longer than ten minutes. But if he be already run down or exhausted by previous vomiting or purging, two or three minutes will suffice—in which case, also, the enema just referred to had better be omitted.

29. During the bath, care should be taken not to have the infant too near the hie. Sometimes the baby has his head placed within a few inches of a blazing fire all the time. On the contrary, the head should he kept cool.

30. After being removed from the bath, it the convulsions do not cease, or if they show a tendency to return, the whole bodyexcepting the head, should be wrapped b towels wrung out of mustard water. Ihi; should be made by adding one small table


poonful of mustard to one quart of tepid /ater.

31. As soon as the bath is over, the baby hould be kept lying on his side. Sometimes he convulsions continue as long as an infant b kept on his back, but stop directly he is urned on his side. Medical advice should, if course, always be obtained, even if the attack of convulsions comes to an end.

Croup.

32.    Under this heading I shall refer only p false croup, avoiding membranous croup, ¡vhicli is generally of a diphtheritic nature, Aid being far more serious, requires proper nedical treatment. The term false croup is mfortunate, because the use of the word :roup is misleading. Catarrhal spasm of the hroat is perhaps better.

33.    Catarrhal spasm of the throat is not .mcommon in early life, especially during the second year. The attack generally begins juite suddenly in the night, and very fre-juently between the hours of ten and twelve. The child has a loud barking cough, with considerable hoarseness ; and when he draws a breath he makes a peculiar noise. The voice is never entirely lost, however, and the child can cry out if he will only make the attempt. After a time the disease abates

somewhat, until perhaps a second spasmod *

seizure occurs before morninsr.

©

34.    This malady must not be confuse I ’ with true or membranous croup. Men * branous croup does not as a rule begin 11 1 suddenly in the night, but on the contrar ' the symptoms have been getting graduall worse for two or three days beforeham The cough also has a muffled sound, which : very characteristic ; the voice is quite lost and lastly, the membrane or exudation i frequently to lie seen on looking down tli throat.

35.    In catarrhal spasm of the throat a: emetic should be given at once. The tea spoonful of ipecacuanha wine so common! employed is most uncertain ; very offer teaspoonful after teaspoonful is administer» without any result. Five grains of th powdered ipecacuanha itself, in a little weal mustard and warm water is better. It gen erally acts immediately ; but, if necessary may be given every 10 minutes to an infan of from one to two years old, till the desirei effect is produced.

36.    The feet, also, should lie placed ii mustard and hot water ; in very severe case: a general hot bath is desirable. A fairh large sponge which has been wrung out o hot water should be applied to the throat—

lannels similarly employed will do almost as 1 ell. An aperient is generally required, and

ii it can be swallowed castor oil is perhaps tie best. It may be necessary, if the disease prsists, for the child to breathe an atmos-jiere of steam by means of a long-spouted i little. Under any circumstances, however, redical attendance should be obtained, as tie child will want some special attention.

Danger Signals.

37. The symptoms to be described are fiually seen after any acute disease, in which t ere has been a rapid drain upon the system, s ch as severe vomiting or purging; and particularly when vomiting and purging have ocurred at the same time.

38. In such cases an infant or young child, Jith the accompanying symptoms, must I q regarded as being in a. more or less cmgerous state :—When he does not take | iptice of anything. When he has a pulse hat feels very weak; and rapid, shallow 1 eathing. When the opening on the top of tie head is sunken in below the level of the jirt surrounding it. And when the eyes are billow, the lips apart; the face small and strunken, and of a livid hue, particularly found the mouth.

39.    If the child, instead of improvin. takes a turn for the worse the followir changes occur :—He becomes more deep unconscious. The pulse is flickering an unsteady, and the breathing fluctuates muc —at times stopping almost altogether, T1 opening on the top of the head is much ino: sunken in. The eyes are hollowed out, ar remain half-closed, only the whites beii visible. And the face is pinched and shar and perhaps quite dusky in hue.

40.    There is another sign of bad ome which is often met with in wasting diseas and which indicates that the kidneys ha' become affected. The skin upon the bel loses all its suppleness, so that when gent puckered up with the fingers it remains creases, instead of settling itself down aga directly as healthy skin always does.

41.    The preceding conditions point unni takably to the necessity for supporting trei ment. Nothing lowering or which depress the child can possibly be thought of. mustard bath and 10 or 20 drops of brant in one or two teaspoonfuls of water eve hour will almost certainly be required. B medical attendance, in addition, is indispe sable, and should always be obtained.

Diarrhoea, Non-inflammatory.

42.    There are many different forms of c arrhoea described. But for all practical pur-pses the disease may be regarded as consisting c four varieties. These are non-inflammatory ■arrhoea; inflammatory diarrhoea ; choleraic

0    arrhoea ; and chronic diarrhoea.

43.    Non-inflammatory diarrhoea is some-hues spoken of as simple diarrhoea. But no soli word as “simple” should ever be employed in connection with diarrhoea. Vhenever diarrhoea exists, particularly in tie hot weather, it should be attended to.

1    is true that non-inflammatory diarrhoea ujually yields more or less readily to treatment. But that treatment should be carried 3t without loss of time, and not unduly Hayed.

44.    Many of these cases, of non-inflam-ntory diarrhoea arise from improper or ^suitable food. The undigested material i cumulates in the bowels, and the diarrhoea ) iginates in consequence of nature’s efforts a expel the irritating mass. In such utances a dose of castor oil will frequently veep it away, and often cure the diarrhoea.

Inflammatory Diarrhoea.

45.    Inflammatory diarrhoea is also known > the name of entero-colitis, Inflammatory

diarrhoea or entero-colitis is the term used t signify inflammation of both the small an large bowel together.

46.    It is a very serious malady met wit in infants between the ages of six montl and eighteen months. In the majority < cases it arises from improper, indigestible ( unsuitable food ; and for this reason babi( who are reared by hand are more subje< to it.

47.    It is always more or less common i i our thickly-populated Australian cities, wit ¡ their associated insanitary conditions. Th j is particularly the case during the hot sumnu months—when, in fact, all forms of diarrhce. disease are prevalent.

48.    The attack generally commences wii i some looseness of the bowels, which speedi increases in severity. Vomiting is near always present, and the tongue is ofh) covered with a whitish coating. The purgii I may vary from six to even twenty or mo motions in the 24 hours, but under <r 3 circumstances they are horribly offensive.

49.    There is a variety of inflammato ¡ diarrhoea in which the large bowel is tl part chiefly affected. When such is the ca there is a good deal of mucus, more or le mixed with blood, passed with the motior Straining is often very marked, as well as

onstant desire to go to stool. Hence, from he foregoing association of symptoms, this orm is sometimes known as “ dysenteric liarrhœa.”

50.    In unfavourable cases of inflammatory liarrhœa the purging continues to increase, tnd the vomiting becomes more frequent. The little sufferer rapidly grows exhausted ; îe becomes shrunken in appearance ; the eyes Lre hollowed out ; and his sufferings come to ,n end.

51.    As the condition is one of the greatest ¡langer, medical advice should be sought as poon as the symptoms give sufficient indica-ion of the serious nature of the illness. In lie meantime recourse may be had to the vhite wine whey, to the barley water and veal broth, or to the barley water and plain .vhey. The child, also, should have a fomen-:ation applied over the belly, in accordance with the directions given under Fomentations, in the Recipes.

Diarrhoea, Choleraic.

52. Choleraic diarrhoea, or infantile cholera, is one of the most appalling diseases known amongst those of tender years. Once it begins it is usually fatal—recovery occurring only in extremely rare instances.

53.    It is not at all uncommon in our lan Australian cities, and generally attacl infants of from six months to twelve montl old, though it may take place at any peric up to the age of two years.

54.    Infantile cholera most frequently occui during the hot months, and seems to be i some way connected with irritating an decomposing food products, such as tainte , milk, etc. Any accompanying insanitar conditions—the crowding together of house: foul air, etc.—predispose to it.

55.    Infants at the breast do not run nearl the same risk of contracting the disease as d those who are brought up on the bottle. sudden change of food, such as weaning th infant during the hot summer months, i always attended with a great deal of danger Hence, if possible, weaning in Australi; should not be attempted from the beginning of December to the end of February oi March.

56.    In the worst cases the disease begin: as a sudden and violent attack of vomiting and purging. In a few hours the infant i: reduced to a state of collapse, with hollov eyes, pinched features, and the opening or the top of his head completely sunken in.

57.    There is also an extraordinary shrink ing in size of the whole body, in consequence

pf the drain upon the system by the loss of fluids. Although the surface of the body md extremities are icy cold, the internal bemperature, as indicated by the thermometer, -hows a high range of fever.

58.    The main characters of this formidable disease are so very peculiar that they cannot loe well mistaken. They are the ceaseless vomiting and purging, which continue almost without intermission; the raging thirst, which nothing seems to quench ; the profuse watery stools, consisting of nearly colourless fluid ; and lastly, there is the rapid shrinking of the whole body, and the tendency to a state of collapse.

59.    This disease is so very alarming that, as soon as it has declared itself, medical (assistance should be requisitioned. No time, however, should be lost in attending to the little patient. The white wine whey, or the half barley water and half plain whey, may, perhaps, be retained by the stomach, if not more than a teaspoonful be given about every 10 minutes.

60.    A thin sheet, also, should be wrung out of hot water, and the infant be wrapped in it up to his neck. The child thus packed, should then be enveloped in a hot blanket. This is to be repeated whenever he shows signs of sinking.

Diarrhoea, Chronic.

61.    Chronic diarrhoea often follows an attack of either non-inflammatory or inflammatory diarrhoea; but in many instances it begins as an insidious disorder, which obstinately continues.

62.    The bowels are not always very loose at the commencement; sometimes only three or four motions in the olay. They may be pale or putty-like at first, becoming more curdy, and perhaps blood-stained later on. The child is noticed to look out of sorts, and his muscles feel soft and flabby.

63.    After a time the stools become more frequent, and more liquid. They may vary greatly in appearance from day to day. It is always a bad sign in chronic diarrhoea when the motions keep changing in appearance—at one time being watery, at another slimy, next perhaps curdy, and then green. It is generally easier to stop a diarrhoea in which the stools keep much about the same in character.

64.    The diarrhoea will likely be better one day, and worse the next. Apparently it is influenced, at least to some extent, by the weather. The little patient next begins to lose flesh, although not very rapidly. The face becomes of a peculiar earthy tint; the

;kin feels harsh and dry; the eyes are lollowed out; and the opening on the top of lie head is quite sunken.

65.    If no improvement takes place all the ^receding symptoms become aggravated. Hie wasting now goes on apace, aud the Dones begin to show almost through the skin. The motions increase in frequency, numbering oerhaps fifteen, twenty, or even thirty daily. And so everything proceeds from bad to worse, till the end comes.

66.    In the treatment of this disease great attention to the diet is necessary. The white wine whey, or the combination of half barley water and half veal broth may effect ipome slight improvement. But nothing 'should be attempted without medical advice, [and this should be obtained without delay.

Infantile Measurements, Weight and Growth.

67.    The average weight of a baby at birth is seven pounds (71bs.), and the average length twenty-one inches (21 inches). This is convenient to remember as three times the weight of the infant gives the length in inches.

68.    A healthy baby should weigh twice as much as at birth at the end of four and a

half months ; and three times as much as a birth at the end of the first year.

Napkins.

69.    The diaper or napkin should consist o some soft and absorbent material; and a least a dozen will be required during tin twenty-four hours. New napkins should b( washed two or three times before use, so as to make them soft and pliant.

70.    The diaper, when soiled or wet, shoulo be at once removed from the infant, other wise the buttocks will become acutely inflamed—the so-called “napkin bottom.”—Set also Chafing or Inflammation of The ButtocksI

71.    Soda must be avoided in washing the napkins, and only a non-irritating pure soap employed for the purpose. The diapers, too, should never be hung up to dry in the bedroom itself.

Rickets.

72.    Rickets is a constitutional disorder of infancy, in which the nutrition of the whole body is affected—muscles, bones, and nerves. It is a disease of mal-nutrition, and is associated with an unhealthy state of the constitution.

73.    It is generally brought on by improper, indigestible or unsuitable nourishment

¿specially farinaceous or starchy diet. For nstance, babies who have been almost wholly •eared on arrowroot, biscuits, cornflour, &c., /ery often suffer from it. It is quite 'requently observed, also, in infants who jiave been fed on condensed milk or on some Ipatent food.

7 4. At the same time all conditions which ower the standard of health—such as overcrowding, foul air, dirty surroundings, want ■ >f cleanliness, and so on—have a tendency o produce it. Thus it is more commonly net with in our Australian cities than in the country.

75.    It generally begins about the sixth month ; it may be a little before or a little piter. There is a profuse sweating about the head and neck, which is most noticeable when the child is asleep—whether it be day or night. What makes this the more strange is that the lower part of the body may be perfectly dry. Another striking symptom is that he is very restless and kicks off the bedclothes, even when the weather is cool.

76.    The child also becomes very backward in his teething. A baby with rickets will often not have a single tooth by the time he is a year old ; perhaps he may have three or four. It is useful to remember that an infant should properly have 12 teeth—either

fully cut or showing—when he is 12 month, old. It is easy to recollect this by the fac of the two twelves coining together.

77.    A small, roundish bony lump maj frequently be felt on each right and left rib On the upper ribs this is to be found neai the middle vertical line of the chest. Or each successive lower rib these knobs diverge towards the two respective sides of the body. They thus form what is known as the “ row of beads ” or the “ rickety rosary.”

78.    The little wrists are often so swollen as to attract notice. In fact, if a baby of ten months old has large wrists ; if he has no sign of a tooth ; if his legs double up under him when he is held upon his feet; if his ribs are “beaded”; and if there is sweating about the head and neck during sleep, there can be but little doubt that he has rickets.

79.    If the baby has been brought up on arrowroot, biscuits, cornflour, condensed milk, or any of the patent foods, it must be stopped at once. The raw meat juice or white wine whey, as described in the Recipes, should be substituted. But medical advice should be soon obtained also, as rickets is not a disease to be let alone.

Teething’.

80.    At the age of 12 months an infant aould properly have 12 teeth—either fully cat or showing. The two twelves placed ygether in this way form an easy method of jidging as to the progress made in any child’s eething.

81.    One peculiarity of an infant who is liverish from teething is that as a rule the emperature is as high—or even higher—in tie morning than in the evening. In most <f the other ailments of early life, attended dth feverishness, the temperature is highest ■t bedtime.

82.    In teething infants, when there are Everish symptoms and the gums are swollen |nd painful, a teaspoonful of castor oil often cts wonderfully well. It usually reduces be feverishness and eases the gums. One of he best applications to swollen and tender urns during teething consists of ten drops f paregoric to a teaspoonful—by measuring ;lass—of water. This should be applied dth the finger and gently rubbed over the ;ums several times daily.

Thrush.

83.    Thrush shows itself in the form of ittle white spots about the size of a pin’s

head, scattered over the tongue and else where inside the mouth. These must not bt mistaken for the small dots of milk-cun which are frequently to be seen immediately a child has had the bottle. These lattei curd spots can be readily wiped off withou leaving any redness behind them.

84.    The prevention of thrush is bettei than its cure. The baby’s mouth should b( washed out directly after each feeding b) means of a little absorbent cotton wool, moistened with warm water, and wounc round the tìnger. This “swab” should b( burnt directly afterwards, and a fresh ont used each time.

85.    Once thrush has developed the moutli should be similarly swabbed out with absorbent cotton wool every hour. After each cleansing a lotion should be employed in the same manner. A useful combination is one consisting of half a drachm of borax, half a drachm of tincture of myrrh, one drachm oi glycerine, and one ounce of rose water. Another serviceable application is the ordinary glycerine of borax ; but in severe cases a lotion containing one drachm of sulphite oi soda to one ounce of water is generally necessary.

Vomiting’.

86.    Vomiting may occur as an acute affection, or it may be chronic in character. It may be the only disorder present, or it nay exist in conjunction with, or as part of »me other malady. When vomiting and urging take place together, the condition, s a rule, is extremely serious. Vomiting, iowever, even by itself must never be allowed b continue without obtaining medical assist-nce.

87.    Breast fed infants are often too greedy dth the mother’s milk, and swallow more han their little stomach can hold. The »reast milk in consequence simply wells up ,nd escapes from the mouth. When this Lappens the baby is said to “ posset ” the nilk. To prevent it the child must not be Bowed to remain at the breast for so Ion"

o

.t each nursing.

88.    Sometimes the mother’s milk is per-ectly healthy, and yet the infant is unable to ligest it. There may be nothing whatever vrong with the baby’s stomach, and the ault appears to lie in the fact that the jreast milk is too rich for the child. If his be so, a little barley water should be i-iven to the infant just before he has the breast milk—so that the two mix together in the stomach.

89.    In hand fed infants, attacks of vomiting are particularly common. There is generally an acute catarrh of the stomach in these cases—brought on by something disagreeing with the child. The baby is usually very feverish, and has a coated tongue. Milk, even when considerably diluted, is curdled by the acid mucus in the stomach, and masses of curd are vomited up as a result.

90.    In such conditions milk must be stopped altogether. Milk, in any shape or form, simply aggravates matters. The infant should be kept to plain barley water, or half barley water and half veal broth. Only very little should be given at a time— perhaps only a teaspoonful every 10 minutes. A fairly strong mustard and flour poultice should be applied to the pit of the stomach, till the skin is quite reddened, in fact. And a mixture of half lime water and half cinnamon water should be administered to the child in doses of half a teaspoonful every hour, or even every half-hour if necessary.

91.    In the chronic form of vomiting, the infant at first throws up curdled milk, and, as the disease persists, this changes to a soui offensive fluid. The child becomes paler, thinner, and very peevish. The skin feels

tarsh and dry, and loses its suppleness. The printing goes on more or less constantly, aid the wasting and emaciation steadily con-1 nues.

92. In these cases, peptonised milk may le tried first. If this is not successful the hite wine whey may be substituted ; ’erhaps no more than a teaspoonful every 10 •r 15 minutes can be kept down. At times he combination of half barley water and alf veal broth will be retained—even when verytliing else is vomited up. A mustard nd flour poultice, also, should be placed iver the pit of the stomach ; and the mixture if lime water and cinnamon water, just [eferred to, should be tried as well.

Wasting.

93. Many disorders of infancy run on to wasting of the whole system. Thus the k-™" wasting is used to indicate a condition,


has begun in one way with one child, and in a different manner with another. Speaking generally, however, wasting conies on because the digestive organs—the stomach and bowels particularly—are unable to perform their work properly.

91. As it has just been stated, wasting begins in several ways. It attacks only hand fed infants as a rule, although there are


exceptions. The mother’s milk gives out, or perhaps the baby has to be brought up by hand from birth.    Flatulence, colic, vomitina

'    7    o|

or diarrhoea start in consequence of the food disagreeing, and    wasting    thus    makes    its

beginning.

95.    It will be convenient to describe

wasting as consisting of    three    stages.    In

the first the symptoms are mainly those indicating disordered stomach or bowels—-or stomach and bowels together. In the second stage the continued wasting begins to attract more notice. In the third exhaustion sets in, with perhaps sympathetic disturbance of the brain.

96.    In the first stage there is generally some diarrhoea. The motions are curdy or liquid, perhaps green in colour, and may contain mucus. The tongue is dirty, thrush may exist, and the belly is swollen and distended. Vomiting is often present, and the milk may come up curdled. The child is fretful and restless, and the muscles feel soft and flabby.

97.    In the second stage all these differentsymptoms become aggravated. The motions alter in character, and are more frequent; at times they have an abominable odour. Nothing appears to agree with the child, and the stomach is very irritable. The face

bcomes of an earthy colour, and little ulcers firm in the mouth. The skin is harsh and cy, and there is a peculiar smell from the bdy. The wasting becomes more and more roticeable, and the bones seem to have no fesh left upon them.

98.    In the third and last stage the infant ikes no notice of anything, and passes into ;n apathetic condition. This gradually ncreases till he. becomes almost wholly nconscious.- He loses the power of wallowing; any nourishment when given imply runs out of his mouth again. The mscles of the body may be observed to witch or jerk ; and the eyes are sometimes mticed to squint. The child becomes more leeply unconscious, and death—often preceded by convulsions—soon follows.

99.    This wasting disease is most common Linder the age of six months. Infants affected by it are usually bottle fed ; nevertheless it does sometimes occur in those who are on the breast. When the digestive organs first become affected there is some prospect of arresting the disease. But once the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels is in a state of atrophy, there is but little chance of recovery.

100.    Wasting is such a serious disease that medical advice should be speedly obtained.

Some of the different forms of nourishmen recommended amongst the Recipes may b tried. Of these, perhaps the most valuabL are the peptonised milk, the raw beef juice and the white wine whey. If vomiting oi diarrhoea constitute the principal symptoms they must receive special attention.

MOUNTAIN AIR

AS A REMEDY

IN THE TREATMENT

OF

INFANTILE AND OTHER DISEASES.

People, as a general rule, do not realize efficiently that in many diseases mountain dr is a remedy which cannot be surpassed. They do not appear to understand that it is •ften superior to all other treatment put ogether. They evidently do not know that t can do good when everything else has »roved unsuccessful. Nor do they properl v [rasp the fact that a patient inhaling uountain air is being treated by an active estorative—every second of the 2d hours ontinuously, night and day without inter-tiission—not like a medicine which is given mly at more or less frequent intervals.

Take, for instance, the case of a young •hild in one of our large Australian cities, luring the hot months, who is suffering from - serious affection of the stomach and bowels, vith wasting of the whole body. The little »atient may have all the care which only a nother can give; he may have the most

95

skilful medical attendance obtainable ; lie may have whatever is ordered in the way of nourishment ; he may have the best of stimulants procurable ; and he may have the most valuable drugs which pharmacy can supply, and yet in spite of everything he is going from bad to worse. He is gradually sinking because he is breathing—and living in—an atmosphere which injuriously affects him and does him harm.

But let that infant be removed to some mountainous locality, and the change will be speedily manifested. Instead of inhaling the city or suburban air —laden with impurities, and otherwise contaminated in sc many ways—he breathes the pure mountain air. He is actually taken up into another and cooler climate, which is entirely different from the one he has left so many hundreds of feet below him. It is as if he were removed right away from the sweltering heat of summer into the delicious healthiness of our Australian cool months.

As I shall point out farther on, moun tain air has particular and special chemical and vital qualities which make it conspicuously valuable in the ti’eatment of many diseases. Briefly summed up, these properties may be stated to consist of tin following :—Air lessens in density as we

i^cend, the pressure of the atmosphere ïbove keeps diminishing with the altitude ibtained Hence mountain air is said to be iiore rarefied than ordinary air. It is per-(ictly pure also, and free from all atmos-]heric dust and micro-organisms. The dolet rays of mountain sunlight act chemi-ully on the blood, and improve its quality ly increasing its red corpuscles. There is Ikewise the general stimulus of the body hit in all elevated regions, producing a sense <f well-being (the French bien être), and romoting nutrition throughout the whole jystem.

If there is one thing for which we Australians should be truly thankful it is bat four of the principal colonies, namely, few South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Queensland, have within easy each of their metropolitan centres—-Sydney, lelbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane—a salu-■rious mountain air climate, which is entirely ifferent to that met with in these cities which lie almost at sea level), during the hot nonths. What a difference there would be f, instead of the surrounding high-lands, the vdiole of Australia was one vast plain. If uch were the case the whole climate would ie entirely changed, and it is questionable Whether the white races could inhabit the

land. But, fortunately, we have they elevated regions so close to our capital cities that practically our health resorts are at ou very doors.

In India, too, the delightful stories o Rudyard Kipling have made us conversan with Anglo-Indian life at Simla—this bein one of the few places in which existence i endurable during the hot Indian season Moreover, what has taken place at Simla i so pertinent to our future Australian con duct that I feel constrained to give sour details.    Indeed, they have a very clos

connection with the matter under considera tion.

Simla—the sanatorium of India and als< its Summer Capital—lies in the north western part of the country in the Lieuten ant-Governorship of the Punjab. It i situated amongst the hills of the lowe Himalaya mountains, at an elevation o 7,081 feet above the sea. Throughout al these hills forests of deodar (the Indiai cedar) abound, while rhododendrons bestrev the slopes—even up to the limit of tin eternal snow. Not only has it the advantage: which its height alone confers upon it, but i has natural beauties of itself: its surrounding: are charming and varied : and its salubriou: climate renders it particularly well adaptec

j or Europeans, to recruit their health after < welling in the plains.

It was made the Summer Capital in 1861 :ly Lord Lawrence, who was Viceroy and .' overnor-General of India from 1864 to . B69. Ever since his administration it has , Jeen the abiding place, during the hot months, of the successive Viceroys, with heir secretaries and headquarters establishments. But although it may now seem a natter of surprise that the propriety of ¿opting such a course should have called hr any hesitation, yet it will be interesting t|) recall the chain of events which led up to his commendable step.

Lord Lawrence, with his Executive Council,

1 .

(¡inducted the affairs of state at Government house in Calcutta. Finding that he was niable to work there all the year round—

, nd especially during the hot and unhealthy lliason—he requisitioned for permission to jiss the summer months in the Himalayas, -his was accorded him, although the instructions with regard to his council were i >t quite so clear ; however, in the end he | as allowed to take his colleagues with him. accordingly, the Governor-General, the .Executive Council, a part of the Legislative 'Council, and the principal secretaries repaired t> Simla during the hot months, and it

thus became the Summer Capital. Sin has, in fact, attained a position of grt importance. In 1881 handsome Governme : buildings were erected, and in 1886 a fi i town hall—as well as the new vice-re^ I residence—was built. Besides these tin i are several European schools, and varic; public institutions.

This is somewhat of a digression from t1 main point at issue, namely, the mounts i sanatoria of Australia, yet I have somewl:; unduly enlarged upon the circumstances > show that the benefit of elevated regions— t[ warm climates—is at any rate ofiicia 1 recognised in India. It does not requi ,j moreover, a great stretch of imagination >[ conceive of our legislative bodies in A 4 tralia adopting the same sensible pi; | during the heat of the summer months. Ai ¿S whenever the Federal City of United A -tralia is chosen, the idea should not be 1< t sight of, and the suitability of Cooma in t; Monaro district will render its claims entitl 1 to consideration. Besides, it is centra situated with regard to the four capitals, r though it will pass the new alternative 1: ?j of railway to V ictoria, and thus will ? linked together—more indissolubly than e’ i —the four great Australian metropolit i

1    intres : Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and | Irisbane.

: It will help us considerably in this matter ■t i we look upon the high-lands of Australia , si forming one entire system. Beginning in 3 Queensland they extend down the east and

2    Jong the south of Australia—somewhat i the form of a boomerang—till they terminate near the South Australian

j territory. In New South Wales they con-

2    dtute the famous Blue Mountains ; and in i Victoria, the Australian Alps and the Great » dividing Range. The whole chain varies in

3    bjiight in different parts, from 1,000 to 7,000 ; |et. Blackheath in the Blue Mountains is ; 1494 feet; Mount Macedon (i.e., the town-13 ip itself) in the Great Dividing Range of

Victoria is nearly 2,000 feet; while Mount losciusko in the Australian Alps reaches to i 11 elevation of 7,175 feet. These high-i Bids vary in their distance from the coast, i tom twenty miles to one hundred and fifty i ' so ; and between the mountains and the i -ja is the coastal or littoral region—which f i eludes the most important and settled part I c Australia.

Now, mountain air is always distinguished I Ban air in ordinary by certain characteristics, i \ is more rarefied—the atmospheric pressure | ¡| less. On ascending to any great height

we pass upward through the atmosphere, leaving beneath us a certain amount of air: accordingly the barometer falls. Moreover, it is a well-known fact that the height oi mountains can be estimated by means of the latter instrument.

Another distinguishing feature of mountain air is its absolute purity. There is a perfect freedom from the organic impurities and foul emanations common to crowded cities. This attribute is hardly less im portant than that of rarefaction—which is, ol course, the special characteristic of mountain air. Everyone is familiar with the well-known hazy appearance to be observed resting ovei every large city. This is due to the gaseous and organic impurities with which such ait is loaded. Mountain air is free from an) contamination whatever, and in this pur it} lies one of our most potent weapons in th< treatment of disease. In addition to this mountain air contains a relatively larg< amount of ozone. Ozone itself being one o the most powerful disinfectants known, i follows that it is a great purifier of the air-and further, ozonised air is healthy am stimulating.

There is, in addition, a curious propert; possessed by mountain air. It is near! always dry, for the power of air to retail

jioisture depends on the temperature—and •iminishes as the atmosphere becomes colder -so that mountain air, being cold, is dry as . rule. This dryness of the mountain air ;llo\vs the sun’s rays to pass through without bsorbing them, and consequently a person :hay receive the full glow of the sun, although lie air surrounding him may be absolutely old. This peculiar penetration of the sun’s hys through mountain air is known as nathermancy, and it is a very characteristic mature of the atmosphere in elevated regions, is a result of this, patients at the mountain 'ealtli resorts in Europe may be seen with a anshade to protect them, from the rays of he sun ; and yet they require to be wrapped i the warmest clothing, and the very breath lay be seen to freeze upon their beards. A imilar phenomenon is familiar to those who ave visited our own mountains. It is htensely hot in the sun during the day— nd yet the temperature at the same time in he shade is downright cold. The same imilar circumstance, also, occurs in Green-and and other icy regions where the pitch ipon ships may be melted by the sun’s rays, I the very time that the thermometer in he shade registers rmany degrees of frost. -t must be remembered, however, that for his to happen the air must be quite still—

for any wind currents at such an existing temperature would necessarily produce a chilly feeling.

Reference has been already made to the chemical action which mountain sunlight has upon the blood. All sunlight has the same effect upon this vital fluid—it reddens it— a fact which has for ages been dwelt upon by the poets. But for a scientific explanation of this power of sunlight to redden the blood, we must turn to the spectrum analysis. The visible solar spectrum as shown through a prism by the ordinary sunbeam is made up of the seven different colours, namely : red» orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Instead of consisting simply of white light as a whole, it is now universally accepted that in this spectrum different properties belong to different parts. Light or luminous power to one portion ; heat or calorific power to another; and chemical power or actinism to a third.

The visible solar or Newtonian luminous spectrum, resulting from the decomposition of white light by a prism, is only the middle part of the whole solar spectrum. Beyond the red end there are rays possessing still greater heating effect; and beyond the violet extremity there are rays endowed with far more powerful chemical action. In

mountain sunlight, more particularly, it is the violet, and especially these ultra-violet rays which redden the life stream by increasing the luemoglobin—that crystallizable body which forms so large a portion of the poloured corpuscles of the blood.

It has been previously stated, also, that mountain air induces a feeling of well-being ¡md exhilaration, in addition to altogether pracing up the whole body. With most people mountain air acts as a general tonic, md promotes the appetite. In nearly all ;ases the improvement in this latter respect pegins right away.

Not only does a person inhaling mountain dr eat well, but he usually sleeps well too. ndeed it generally acts—especially on iterary, professional, and business men—as i soporific. The rest, too, is very much more refreshing than that obtained at lower levels j—G hours sleep in elevated regions being is good as 8 hours elsewhere.

Mountain air has, further, the remarkable property of promoting metabolism—that is to pay, it hastens the various changes which ire continually taking place throughout the system. In this way it replaces the worn-out issues with new material. In addition to ill these various effects, it ensures a greater regularity in all the functions of the body;

it makes the muscles firmer; it creates a desire to take active exercise ; it strengthens the nerves ; it increases the mental powers; and what is most noticeable it brings back the glow of health to the colourless face.

In referring to the treatment of the infantile diarrhceal diseases, prevailing in cities, amongst infants during the hot months, Professor J. Lewis Smith, of New York, remarks :—“ It is difficult to obtain an atmosphere that is entirely pure in a la rye citij with its many sources of insalubrity ; and cdl physicians of experience agree in the propriety of sending infants affected with the summer diarrhoea to localities in the country which are free from malaria and sparsely inhabited, in order that they may obtain the benefits of purer air. Many are the instances each summer in New York city of infants removed to the country with intestinal inflammation, with features haggard and shrunken, with limbs shrivelled and the skin lying in folds, too weak to raise (or at least holdJ their heads from the pillow, vomiting nearly all the nutriment taken, with stools frequent and thin, resulting in great part from molecular disintegration of the tissues— presenting, indeed, an appearance seldom observed in any other disease except in the last stages of phthisis—and returning in late autumn with the cheerfulness, vigour, and rotundity of

ealth. The localities usually preferred by the diysicians of this city are the elevated portions f New Jersey and Northern Pennsylvania, the fiqhlands of the Hudson, the central and lorthern parts of New York State, and Northern New Enyland. Taken to a salubrious bcality and properly fed, the inf'ant soon begins b improve if the disease be still recent, unless it e exceptionally severe. If the disease have yontinued several weeks at the time of the Removal, little benefit may be observed from the ountry residence until two or more weeks have lapsed.”

An infant weakened and wasted by the ummer diarrhoea, removed to a cool locality n the country, should be warmly dressed and kept indoor when the heavy night dew is ailing. Patients sometimes become worse xom injudicious exposure of this kind, the ntestinal catarrh from which they are milering being aggravated by taking cold and perhaps rendered dysenteric.”

“ Sometimes pai’ents, not noticing the immediate improvement which they have been led to expect, return to the city without giving the country fair trial, and the life of the infant is then, as a rule, sacrificed. Returned to the foul air of the city while the weather is still warm, it sinks rapidly from an aggravation of the malady.

Occasionally the change from one rural locality to another, like the change from one wet-nurse to another, has a salutary effect. The infant, although it has recovered, should not be brought back while the weather is still warm. One attack of the disease does not diminish, but increases, the liability to a second seizure.”

All these preceding observations on the properties and valuable therapeutic qualities possessed by mountain air, have an immediate bearing on the alarming mortality amongst the young life of our Australian metropolitan centres. What has been already adduced should be quite sufficient to show that the removal of a sickly infant, who is affected with some debilitating or exhausting disease, from the impure and unwholesome atmosphere of the large Australian cities, during the summer months—is a life-saving proceeding. Unfortunately, the parents of those who require this most are very often not able to bear the expense. Once the necessity of its existence is properly made known the establishment of a small sanatorium on the mountains should follow. If Government aid cannot be obtained in such a cause, I quite believe we have many philanthropic people in our midst who would give their willing aid in this matter.

All of the four capitals—Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane—are fortunately circumstanced in having high-lands within their own territories. There should be no difficulty, therefore, in establishing for each city a mountain sanatorium for the treatment of these severe forms of disease in early life. But there must be medical ¡supervision and proper nursing; the cases which have to be sent away from town are usually so serious that both these are imperative. These sanatoria need not necessarily be of elaborate construction, nor expensive in their working, at all events at their initiation. What is certainly required, however, is a sanatorium of some kind, combined with skilled medical treatment and thoroughly efficient nursing. The Fresh Air League is doing good work in this direction, as far as Sydney is concerned. Already it has brought rosy cheeks and health, if not life itself, to quite a number. And may it not be permitted to hope that before very long this excellent Charity will make an effort to carry out its manifest destiny—a mountain sanatorium, a resident medical officer, and a small nursing staff1?

In Sydney there should be no difficulty whatever in the adoption of such a plan, for we are within easy reach, by rail, of all the

mountains. Indeed, Lawson, Wentworth Falls, Katoomba, Blackheath, and Mount \ ictoria, in the Blue Mountains, on the Great Western Railway, are close at hand; and, owing to the exertions of the Railway Commissioners, the journey occupies a shorter and shorter time, year by year. 1STot so long ago it took 4| hours to reach Blackheath, only 7 3 miles from Sydney, whereas at the present time the run is accomplished in less than 3 hours. On the Great Southern Line, also, there are the same facilities of access, and Picton Lakes, Mittagong, Bowral, Moss Vale, and Bundanoon have their wants attended to in accordance with the increasing favour, which is shown to these localities as health resorts during the hot summer months. And we may feel assured, moreover, that the present rate of travelling will continue to improve.

At Melbourne, likewise, equal opportunities exist for a rapid escape from the sweltering heat of the metropolis to the cool air of the adjacent high-lands. And Heales-ville and Mount Macedon, which are only 38 and 43j miles distance by rail, respectively —although lying in different directions— may be considered to be almost within driving distance of the southern capital.

In Adelaide, also, Mount Lofty and the surrounding hills are in such immediate /icinity, that Adelaide may be said to be ‘ar more favourably circumstanced than either Sydney or Melbourne.

At Brisbane, on the other hand, far-jiamed Toowoomba is too many miles away :o come within the scope of any charitable scheme, but, if I mistake not, there are >ther high-lands much nearer the northern netropolis than the Darling Downs sanatorium.

RECIPES

AND

ACCESSORY INFORMATION.

For the sake of accuracy, graduated measzires must alivays be employed. Teaspoons, dessert-spoons, and table-spoons vary to a surprising extent.

Almond Drink.

A very useful and agreeable drink, which will be found soothing in colds on the chest, bronchitis, and inflammation of the lungs, may be quickly made by rubbing up one ounce of “ compound powder of almonds ” with half a pint of warm water. This compound almond powder can easily be obtained from any Chemist.

Baked Flour.

Entire wheaten flour, such as Chapman’s or other well-known brands, is in many respects superior for nursery use to ordinary flour. This entire flour contains in addition the pollard, or outer part of the grain of wheat, in a finely ground condition. It is

112

articularly rich, therefore, in phosphates, ,nd especially in “ cerealin ”—a peculiar tody, which changes starchy matter into ugar, or rather dextrine. The ordinary finely-Iressed white or baker’s Hour, on the other land, has less nitrogen and more starch in ts composition. Entire wheaten flour is, consequently, far more nutritive for infants han ordinary flour.

Baked flour is prepared according to the following directions :—A covered earthen-.vare jar, filled with Chapman’s or other entire wheaten flour, is put into a slow wen. From time to time it is removed, and the contents stirred up from the bottom and ndes, so as to prevent the formation of hard lumps. When thoroughly baked the flour forms a soft greyish-coloured powder.

A child of six months old will digest two meals a day of this flour, but seldom more, and in many cases a single meal of it will be found sufficient. For each meal one teaspoonful of the prepared flour is rubbed up with a tablespoonful of cold milk—which has been previously sterilized or boiled— into a smooth paste. A second spoonful of the same milk is then added, and the rubbing is repeated until the mixture has the appearance of a perfectly smooth cream. A quarter of a pint of hot (sterilized or

boiled) milk, or similar milk and water, is then poured upon the mixture, stirring briskly all the time, and the food is ready for use. It may be sweetened with extract of malt instead of sugar.

Barley Jelly.

Put two tablepoonfuls of well washed pearl barley into a saucepan, with a pint and a half of water, and boil slowly down to a pint. Strain away the barley and allow the liquid to set into a jelly. A tablespoonful of this is dissolved in a breakfast-cupful —sixteen tablespoonfuls by measuring glass -—of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, and sweetened with a little sugar. This may be given as a meal, once or twice a day, to a hand fed infant of ten months old and upwards ; and forms a pleasing variety in the dietary.

Barley Water.

Put two full teaspoonfuls of thoroughly well washed pearl barley with one pint of cold water into a saucepan, and let it simmer gently till only two-thirds remain ; strain carefully. The fire should not be too fierce, as it must not be allowed to boil violently.

After the barley water is made in this way, there are one or two precautions to be borne in mind. In the first place, it will

not keep fresh beyond a few hours, and therefore the supply must be prepared twice a day. Secondly, even when the barley water is made as frequently as this, it requires to be kept in a cool place during the hot summer months, or it will soon turn sour. Lastly, let it ever be remembered that once barley water is made, it must never be heated to th e boiling point again, for by doing so rapid fermentation is induced, and the barley water becomes totally unsuitable for use.

Barley water fills a most useful place in the infantile dietary, and forms a convenient starting point for several different combinations. Thus it may be given with an equal quantity of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk to babies in the early weeks. A combination sometimes efficacious, if the preceding prove unsuitable, is one consisting of one-third sterilized or boiled cows’ milk, one-third barley water, and one-third lime water. As the child grows the amount of milk should be gradually increased, A mixture of two parts of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk with one part of barley water—-twice as much milk as barley water—represents one of the nearest approaches to breast milk. The infant, therefore, should be placed upon this proportion as soon as he can digest it,

When milk in any shape or form disagrees, barley water again comes to the rescue. Thus it may be combined with equal parts of veal broth, or with equal parts of plain whey—not the white Avine Avhey. The mixture of half barley Avater and half veal broth is especially serviceable in many cases of wasting. It is also of striking value in vomiting or diarrhoea, Avhen it may require to be given in small quantities at a time, and more or less frequently—perhaps only one teaspoonful every ten minutes. The combination of half barley water and half plain Avhey is equally suitable in the same ailments, and forms an admirable variation.

Beef Tea in Haste.

If wanted quickly in a case of emergency, beef tea can be prepared in a feAv minutes by the folloAving method :—Scrape and chop up a piece of lean beef (carefully freed from all fat, skin or gristle) on a board till it becomes a mass of pulp. Put it into a saucepan, not too large, and add enough water to just cover the meat. If the saucepan is a small one three or four tablespoonfuls of Avater will be sufficient. Place it near the fire so that it gets moderately heated and mash the juice out of the meat with a strong spoon, for about ten minutes, Remore the

meat and squeeze out whatever juice is left in it into the saucepan, and allow the beef tea to reach nearly to the boiling point for a second or two, when it will be ready for use.

Beef Tea, Nutritious.

Take one pound of good rump steak or gravy beef and carefully remove from it every particle of skin, fat, and gristle. If this is not done a greasy taste will be given to the beef tea, which nothing will remove ¡afterwards. Mince it into the smallest possible pieces, place it in an earthenware jar, and pour over it one pint of cold water. Stir it thoroughly, cover the top of the jar with a piece of muslin, cork it well so that it is air-tight, and let it stand for one hour. Then place the jar in a saucepan of water, and let the latter boil gently for one hour; on no account must it be allowed to boil violently. Strain through a piece of muslin, and let it cool. Skim off any fat from the top, and warm up as much as may be required, adding a pinch of salt.

Brandy and Egg Mixture.

Four tablespoonfuls—by measuring glass —of the very best brandy, the same quantity of cinnamon water, the yolk of one egg, and a quarter of an ounce of loaf-sugar.

Beat the yolk of the egg and sugar together, and add the cinnamon water and brandy. The properly prepared cinnamon water can readily be obtained from any Chemist.

From half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful may be given to infants, and proportionately increased quantities to children every hour, in extreme weakness. This brandy and egg mixture is one of the most powerful and palatable restoratives known, and often proves of incalculable benefit.—See also Egg, with Brandy.

Carraway Water.

It is extremely useful to know that the addition of an aromatic, such as a teaspoonful of carraway water, to the bottle of infant’s food, of.en has a beneficial effect upon the stomach and bowels. Carraway water is what is known as a carminative, that is, it helps to relieve flatulence and griping.

It is highly serviceable for babies who are troubled with wind on the stomach, and flatulent colicky pains after each meal. When a teaspoonful is given in the feeding bottle it often makes the food—which previously disagreed—quite digestible. In this way it frequently proves of great service, and deserves to be well remembered.

It is readily obtainable from any Chemist, ■Lit it is advisable not to purchase too much <: a time, as it is always better for being l esh. An aromatic water, such as carraway, ©ntains volatile substances which are apt b fly off, so that the cork of the bottle must le tightly fixed in.

• hicken Broth.

Take a small chicken, free it from the ¿in, and from all the fat between the nuscles, split it into two halves, and remove ne lungs, liver, &c., from the inside. Cut aid chop it up, bones and all, into as many snail fragments as possible. Put these into <■ pan with a little salt, and pour over them , quart of boiling water. Cover the pan, ,nd simmer over a slow fire for two hours, jastly, stand the pan near the fire for half n hour, and strain carefully.

Jinnamon Water.

Cinnamon itself is what is known as a iv^arm aromatic, and is also an agreeable car-uinative. A teaspoonful in the bottle of nfant’s food has a special effect on the tomacli and bowels if they be disordered. In he same manner, it also affords great relief o babies who suffer from irritability of the ligestive organs or any discomfort after

meals. When a teaspoonful is added to the feeding bottle it frequently acts in a highly satisfactory way, and often renders the nourishment—which was not agreeing— readily digestible.

Not only does cinnamon water thus help to assist digestion, but it is otherwise valuable in many respects. As it has been already mentioned, it enters into the composition of Brandy and Egg. And further, when mixed with equal quantities of lime water—half cinnamon water and half lime water—it is one of the best possible remedies for uncomplicated vomiting. This combination of cinnamon water and lime water should be given in doses of half a teaspoonful every hour, or even every half-hour if necessary.

Cinnamon water is easily procurable from any Chemist. It is desirable to recollect, however, that unless it be tightly corked, it will soon lose most of its virtues. Under any circumstances only a little should be purchased at a time, as the fresher it is the better.

Cream.

Cream is in reality the fat of milk. Milk itself is an example of a perfect emulsion— that is to say, the fat globules it contains

ire invisible to tlie naked eye. If any fatty naterial and water be vigorously shaken up together in a glass phial, they assume a nilky appearance, but on being allowed to stand the fatty material quickly separates, n milk, which has been well termed “ the nodel of emulsions,” there is no such separation ; the milk remains the same.

Milk may be described as consisting of kne-seventh part solid material—the re-nainder being fluid. This solid portion is ■omposed of cream, or “milk-fat”; “casein,” vhich helps to form cheese; “ lactose,” or nilk-sugar; together with a little mineral natter and salts. The cream, or “milk-fat,” •s very necessary to the rapidly growing ystem of a young child. It helps to form lot only the marrow of all the bones, but Iso the brain and nerves themselves—as veil as being stored up all over the body, t is very desirable to remember that a baby equires a far greater proportion of fat in his pod for his quickly developing frame than !oes even a full-grown man.

Hence milk which is wanting in cream is itterly unsuitable for infant nourishment, babies who are reared on such milk run very risk of drifting into wasting disease, diey almost invariably suffer from anaemia >r bloodlessness—looking as if they were

made of wax. Rickets also is extremely likely to set in when an infant is brought uj on a diet consisting of arrowroot, biscuits cornflour, or condensed milk, from whicl the “ milk-fat ” is entirely absent. From al this it will be readily apparent that cream a vitally important part of milk, and that il has much to do with the building up of f young child’s health.

Cream itself, moreover, is of specia service in many disorders. Thus in chronic diarrhoea, a dessertspoonful of fresh crean in a tea-cupful of plain whey is unmistakable useful. After long-continued vomiting, whei matters have begun to mend, a dessertspoon ful, or even a tablespoonful, of fresh crean may be shaken up with a feeding bottle o white wine whey, and given. Administerec together in this manner, cream and whit wine whey are extremely nutritious. The; act as a valuable restorative for infants wh have been prostrated by any exhaustin; illness. When improvement is beginning after an attack of diarrhoea or vomiting, the; prove particularly strengthening, and cor stitute a form of nourishment which cannc be well surpassed.

There is a splendid combination, too, cor sisting of one tablespoonful of fresh cream, tw tablespoonfuls of plain whey, and two tabic

spoonfuls of barley water. This quantity may be given every two or three hours. In many cases of infantile wasting, where the child’s stomach is very delicate, this same blend is often of the greatest value. Frequently I have found that babies do better on it than on anything else which has been tried. In these instances the result has often been very striking. Infants who had become wasted to an excessive degree began to thrive and pick up wonderfully upon it. In chronic vomiting, likewise, this mixture of fresh cream, plain whey, and barley water is sometimes very 1 beneficial.

Seeing that fresh cream is of such infinite 1 necessity in so many infantile ailments, one ban only regret that there is always so much 1 lifficulty in obtaining it. At least this is the 1 base in Sydney, and presumably so in Mel' bourne, Adelaide and Brisbane. There is 1 ^reat need of improvement in this respect, md better provision for a readily accessible ' supply of fresh cream is urgently required. In all European and American cities this recognised want has long been attended to in a satisfactory way.

«•


Egg, with Brandy.

pi


In addition to the well-known brandy and igg mixture already described, there is

another method of administering them together which forms a useful variety, and is exceedingly valuable. It is made by beating up the unboiled yolk of one egg with fifteen drops of brandy. A tablespoonful of cinnamon water (which is readily procurable from any Chemist) is then added, and also a little white sugar. This combination of egg and brandy is of particular service in chronic diarrhoea, and may be given two, three, or four times daily. It forms a most nutritious mixture, and is wonderfully strengthening as I well.

Egg, with Veal Broth and Barley Water.

This is another effective blend of very' nutritive material, and will be found tc possess a great value in many cases. It i> prepared by beating up the yolk of one eg<. (unboiled) with a teacupful—equal to twelvi tablespoonfuls by measuring glass:—of hall veal broth and half barley water. It i; easily digested by most infants, and makes t pleasing variation in the dietary. It will b< found particularly beneficial also in chront diarrhoea, especially when the infant require; i a little change in his nourishment.

Enemata.

An enema is an injection into the lowe end of the bowel, administered by means o

¡an enema syringe, and is given for one of three purposes. In the first place, when the bowels are obstinately constipated, a “purgative enema ” is employed to get them open 'again. On the other hand, in the opposite condition, when the bowels are too much Relaxed, a “ sedative enema ” is used to arrest Itheir action. And lastly, when nothing can be retained on the stomach, or when there is pucli exhaustion that the patient cannot ¡swallow, there is the valuable method of introducing nourishment into the system by means of the “nutrient enema.”

For purgative enemata the form of syringe to be recommended is that made of a piece A india rubber tubing about two feet long, while midway between the two ends it swells into a ball or bulb, which fits comfortably into the palm of the hand when used. All this rubber part of the tubing and bulb is made of one continuous piece without any seams. The end of the tubing which is placed in the liquid to be injected is of petal, containing a valve in its interior. The pther extremity which is inserted into the bowel consists of a bone stem nearly two inches long, having a flange or projecting rim where it is fastened to the tubing, to prevent it passing too far. In buying one, it is always better to pay a shilling or two more for

what is called “ Ingram’s First Quality Patent Syphon Enema, ’ and if properltaken care of, it will last for years. As ; matter of fact, no household should be with out one, because when it is wanted the cas> is usually urgent, and there is little time t buy or borrow one. It is better not to kee it coiled up in the box, as it is when purchaser since it is apt to kink or crack. Tie a smal loop of tape or twine round the metal enc and slip it over a nail so that the bone pip hangs downwards. In using the syringe th end mounted with metal is to be placed i the fluid to be injected, and the ball pumpe with the hand a few times, so that the air driven out and the fluid flows through. The smear a little oil over the bone stem, an after passing it gently into the bowel, inje< the fluid slowly. After removing it, pum a little clean water through the syring and when thoroughly wiped and dried may be hung up as recommended.

To open the bowels when obstinately coi fined, or in cases of convulsions, &c., the inje tion used should be rather large. In a youi baby, nearly half a pint of tepid water un be employed, and with a little soap dissolv* in it, it forms an efficient enema. For f infant of six months old as much as oi pint will be required, and for a child of tv

years quite two pints will be necessary. The addition of a teaspoonful or two of castor oil, thoroughly stirred in, will make it act in a more effective manner. In using it, pump some of the fluid through the syringe as directed, place the little patient on his left side, oil the stem and pass it gently into the bowel. The injection should be pumped in slowly, and after the nozzle of the syringe is quietly withdrawn, the fluid should be shut ip inside by pressing the buttocks together >vith a towel.

Still keeping the buttocks pressed together, the child is next placed upon his back, and hen rolled over till he lies upon his right nde. In this way the fluid injected is made o flow along the whole length of the large powel—up to the valve at the small bowel, liter a few minutes the straining generally pecomes so strong that the towel lias to be ■emoved to allow the enema to come away, f it seems too long in acting, the little inger, well oiled, may be passed slowly into he bowel, when the injection will begin to operate almost immediately.

In giving either a “sedative” or “nutrient” ‘nema, another kind of syringe, which is Afferent in its action, had better be employed. This is known as a “ pear-shaped ” or “ ball " enema, and is made wholly of

india rubber, with the exception of the bon nozzle. In using it, the “ pear-shaped ” c “ ball ” part is squeezed flat by the lianc The nozzle is meanwhile dipped into th fluid to be injected, and the pressure of tt hand then released. In this way the flui is drawn up into the syringe by atmospher suction, and it is now ready. The bor nozzle, after being thoroughly oiled, passed sufficiently far into the bowel i before, and the contents of the syringe a: injected by simply squeezing the india rubb part.

The most convenient size of this “pea shaped” or “ball” syringe is that whi< I holds either two or three ounces—that four or six tablespoonfuls. When a “sedativi enema is used for the purpose of arrestii severe diarrhoea, starch and laudanum a usually combined together. One tablespoo ful, or at most two, of very thin starch sufficient, as a larger quantity would only expelled by the bowel. In inflammato diarrhoea occurring in an infant of s months old, one, two, or even three drops laudanum mixed with the thin starch often injected, with medical permissii twice or thrice a day.

The “ pear-shaped ” or “ ball ” syrir i used for “sedative” purposes may also 1

employed, as it has already been stated, in giving a “ nutrient ” enema. In such a case it is utilized for the purpose of introducing nourishment into the system. It is well known that fluids injected into the bowel are absorbed and quickly taken up into the circulation, just as they are when received nto the stomach itself in the usual way. fn many cases where there is an inability to I ¡wallow food, as in cases of prostration, or vhen there is incessant vomiting, nourish-nent may be introduced into the system by he bowel, and life preserved even for weeks . together. In order to carry out this method ; uccessfully there are some important rules , o be carefully attended to, or the attempt aay prove a failure.

4

us

•IRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING NUTRITIOUS

1

ENEMATA.

should be first well enema of half a pint


ji 1. The lower bowel '■ /ashed out by a simple 1 f soap and tepid water.

s

a

ifl


)t


2. The enema of beef tea and brandy, or hatever is used, must not be too larse.

J    o

four tablespoonfuls are quite enough for an if ant, and it should be used three times aily and once the last thing at night.

3.    The bone stem should be passed as far as the flange, so as to get the enema well into the bowel.

4.    The fluid used must not be too hot, and it should be injected as slowly as possible.

5.    If there is any straining or bearing-down, and tendency to expel it, the buttocks should be closed together with a towel.

6.    At times when enemata are not well retained at first, but constantly come away, they will often keep in the bowel after a few trials.

7.    The same kind of injection must not be used too long, but changed about, thus, an egg beaten up with four tablespoonfuls of milk may be used alternately with four tablespoonfuls of beef tea and half a teaspoonful of brandy. Chicken broth and mutton broth may also be useful as a change, about four tablespoonfuls of either being o-iven at a time, with or without the above quantity of brandy.

Fomentations.

A fomentation is an application to the body by means of flannel wrung out of hot water. It is used chiefly to subdue inflammation; to ease pain; and to relieve spasm or colic. When employed, a piece of macin-

posli or waterproof sheeting, boiling water, a wash-hand basin, a large towel, and some flannel (the coarser the better) are required. It is prepared in the following way :—Lay he towel spread out over the empty wash-iand basin, and on it place the flannel, !olded to the size required. Pour the boiling water over the latter, and let the towel with he flannel on it be lifted up by two persons, )ne holding each end of the towel. One then twists the end of the towel one way, and the 'Other twists it in the opposite direction ; by his means every drop of hot water is squeezed ¡but of the flannel, and only the heat is left n it. Keep the flannel in the towel till it s ready to be applied, but just before doing ■o it must be shaken quietly, so as to let a ittle air in between the folds The object bf shaking the flannel is that the air which ,rets in acts as a non-conductor, and keeps in he heat for a longer time. This fact is very mportant to remember, and is not known as well as it should be. After applying the oment it should be covered with a piece of macintosh, which must be so large that it completely overlaps the edges of the flannel by at least one inch all round. If this latter lirection is attended to properly, the fomentation will keep hot for more than an hour. When changing it, care should be taken to

wipe the skin dry before applying the next one.

Fomentation of Poppy Heads and Camomile Flowers.

Take the seeds out of two poppy heads, and slice the latter into small pieces. Put them with quite a handful of camomile flowers into one pint of boiling water, and boil for fifteen minutes. The liquid is then to be strained off, and kept hot over the fire. The fomentation is prepared by pouring this hot decoction over the flannel, and wringing it out as has been just described. The liquid which is squeezed out by the wringing can be put back and boiled, and used over and over again.

Gelatine and Milk.

One quarter of an ounce of gelatine is to be dissolved in one quarter of a pint of hot barley water ; then add half an ounce of powered loaf-sugar, and half a pint of sterilized or boiled cows’ milk. It is useful in cases of vomiting and diarrhcea, and should be given cold in the former and warm in the latter.

Honey and Milk.

One teaspoonful of honey well stirred into a teacupful of hot milk is very nourishing,

and most soothing in cases of cold on the chest or irritation of the bowels.

Lime Water.

Lime water may be prepared at home in the following manner:—Take a piece of unslaked lime about the size of a walnut, and place it in an earthenware jar containing (two quarts of filtered water. When required stir it round thoroughly from the bottom, allow the sediment to settle, and use only from the top. Replace the water when half }f it is finished, and make a fresh lot each week.

Linseed Tea.

Take of the following :—Whole linseed not linseed meal), half an ounce ; powdered vliite sugar, half an ounce ; liquorice root, a quarter of an ounce ; and lemon juice, a little. Ail these should be placed together in a jug, find have one pint of boiling water poured n. Let it stand near the fire for four hours, land strain off the liquid carefully. It will be found soothing in cases of severe cough or 3old on the chest, etc., and acts better when :aken warm.

Milk, Boiled.

Practical and everyday experience most unquestionably shows that milk, when boiled ^

is not only more easily digested, but that it lias a nutritive value quite equal—if not superior—-to ordinary milk. Some experiments undertaken by Dr. Chamouin are instructive in this respect. A number of kittens were fed on boiled, and an equal number on unboiled milk, derived from the same source. It was found, after repeated and long-continued trials, that those who had been given cooked milk were twice again as fat and healthy as the kittens supplied with their nourishment uncooked. These results led Dr. Chamouin to make a series of comparisons between infants reared on boiled, and those fed upon raw milk. These investigations were sufficiently prolonged to completely demonstrate the fact that the boiling of milk is the means of saving innumerable lives from the dreaded diarrhoeal and wasting diseases. There are one or two points to be attended to in the boiling of milk by those in charge of infants. In the first place, all of the utensils employed in the boiling and after-keeping must be constantly and scrupulously .clean ; anything else is unpardonable. Secondly, the milk should never be boiled in an open pan ; a vessel with a close-fitting cover is absolutely necessary. And thirdly, there is no occasion to keep the milk at the boiling point for longer than 20 minutes ; by that

time all micro-organisms will be destroyed, and further boiling is not required.

Milk, Sterilized.

At the moment t of its appearance healthy cow’s milk is perfectly aseptic—i.e., free from morbid germs or other infective agencies. No sooner has it left the udder than it begins to swarm with bacteria; a condition of ptiFairs, minimised or intensified, according to the state of cleanliness in which the different vessels and utensils employed for its storage are kept, the length of time which elapses before it is used, and other varying circumstances. This particular fact must necessarily be prominently before all who are engaged in the rearing of infants. For it will be widely recognised that if cows’ milk can be so prepared that all these agencies are completely abolished, while at the same time its digestiboility and nutritive properties are in no sense lessened, a very great deal will have been achieved.

In sterilizing milk we do so by heating it to a certain temperature, with the aid of a snecial contrivance. By this means we

any micro-organisms it may contain,


without interfering with its food value.


Sterilization is a more perfect method of preparing milk for nursery use than is

boiling—for though boiled milk is good, sterilized milk is better. When milk is sterilized, not only does it keep all its alimentary properties, but any germs which are in it are killed Some of these germs have the effect of turning the milk sour; while others are the cause of the bowel complaints and wasting disorders from which infants so frequently suffer—and which give rise to so much heavy mortality.

For some considerable time past I have been on the qui vice for a cheap and simple machine for this purpose. Those which had been already devised were too costly and too complicated for ordinary use—or for ordinary purses. The British Medical Journal, however, quite recently gave a full account of the very milk sterilizer I was in quest of. Its great advantage is that it sterilizes the milk, required for infant nourishment, in an easy and expeditious manner. After submitting the matter to Messrs. F. Lassetter and Co., the well-known ironmongers of George-street, Sydney, they undertook to make it and supply it to the public at a most moderate figure. They have turned out this milk sterilizer in a way which has literally exceeded my expectations ; and at a price which will bring it within easy reach of every home.

The accompanying description of the apparatus—of which an illustration is given elsewhere—is a little modified from that which appeared in the paper just referred to. It is a tin can, which fits easily inside any fairly-sized pot used in the kitchen. Three studs on the under part serve to raise it up somewhat, and permit water to pass freely beneath. It is provided with a tap near the bottom, and has two stout wire handles for lifting it in and out of the pot. There is a funnel-shaped opening in the centre of the lid, through which projects the handle of the stirrer. This stirrer itself is made of a piece of tin, bent into the form of a ship’s screw.

The sterilizer is used in the following way :—The milk to be sterilized is placed in the can, and the lid, with the end of the stirrer projecting through the funnel-part, is placed in position. The sterilizer is then stood in the pot, which should be about a quarter full of water—just on the boil. While the pot is still on the fire, the sterilizer is kept in it for 20 minutes, the stirrer being turned, round and round, every now and then.

After this the can is lifted out of the pot, and some clean absorbent cotton wool is immediately packed into the funnel-shaped part of the lid, all around the stirring rod.

The sterilizer is next to be put into a cool place. When any milk is required, the stirrer should be twisted round several times, and whatever amount is necessary drawn oil' from the tap into the feeding bottle. By standing the latter in hot water the milk is warmed sufficiently for the infant.

The “ simplicity ” milk sterilizer, as I have called it, possesses three desirable features. It is cheap ; it is effective ; and it is so simple that a child could manage it. Iis chief superiority consists in this, that it can be kept scrupulously clean for sterilizing an infant’s milk; not like ordinary vessels used for preparing “ boiled ” milk, which may have to be employed for half a dozen other kitchen operations. Its next great value lies in the fact that the nourishment for the whole day, or that for half a day, can be sterilized at once. Another distinct advantage is this, that just as much milk as is required —and as often as may be necessary—can be drawn off by the tap. Then again, the milk is kept in a continuous state of sterilization, since no air can enter without being filtered through the absorbent cotton wool placed in the funnel part. Milk sterilized by this “ simplicity ” apparatus is absolutely free from all germs whatever. The sterilizer itself must, of course, be kept perfectly sweet to

the sense of smell, and spotlessly clean—by being scalded out with boiling water, on each occasion, before milk is placed within it for sterilization.

Mutton Broth.

Cut up half a pound of lean mutton, carefully freed from all skin, fat and gristle, into mince. Add to it one pint of cold water, and let it simmer for three hours, taking off the scum as it rises from time to time. Stir a pinch of salt well into it, and, after straining off the fluid through muslin, let it I stand till it is cool enough for use, when any fat, if present, floating on the surface, should he removed.

Peptonised Milk.

When we peptonise milk we partly digest it, and the portion thus digested is the curd. So that peptonised milk is milk which has been artificially digested to a greater or lesser extent, before it enters the stomach. Peptonised milk is exceedingly valuable in the treatment of many infantile digestive disorders. It is of particular advantage in these cases, because the baby has no difficulty in dealing with the curd. That has been already got rid of for him, and consequently cannot cause any further trouble.

Peptonised milk contains equally as much nourishment as sterilized or boiled milk. But as the curd has been disposed of, it is far more digestible for infants who have delicate stomachs. It is of great benefit, therefore, in the vomiting and other digestive affections, so frequently occurring in babies. Although it is not quite perhaps so serviceable for every form of diarrlioeal disorder, yet at times it will be found extremely useful.

There is one very important fact to he remembered, and it is that an infant should never be kept too long on peptonised milk. The stomach becomes weakened by being helped in its work. Instead of having to wholly digest the milk, it has only to finish what the peptonisation has begun. It is the same thing as that to which I have previously referred. Crutches help a man with a broken leg to get about, but only prove a hindrance directly the limb is strong enough for him to do without them.

Some of the instructions given for peptonising milk are too elaborate, and it is difficult to carry them out. Many of them fail because certain exact temperatures are required, and thus the method partakes too much of the nature of a scientific proceeding. What one really wants for nursery use is a

plan which is perfectly simple, and which lever fails to pre-digest the milk in the way •equired. Of all the different preparations n the market, the most uniformly successful —and the easiest to carry out—are the iymine Peptonising Powders (Fairchild).

No matter by which method peptonised inilk is made there is one necessary precaution ;o be borne in mind, indeed the same applies [o all peptonised foods. Neither peptonised nilk nor peptonised food keeps well—at any ate during hot weather. This is a fact ivhicli applies to Australia far more than it jloes to the old country. So that it should be either prepared twice a day, and never be more than twelve hours old; or if the Whole quantity for the twenty-four hours is nade, the portion which is left after twelve lours should be re-boiled before use.

To make peptonised milk for an infant lender the age of six months, the following ire the directions given :—Into a clean mrsing bottle pour a quarter pint of milk, i quarter pint of warm water, and a quarter of i Fairchild Zymine Peptonising Powder. Place the bottle for twenty minutes in water is hot as the hand can bear, add a little HJUgar, or sugar of milk, to sweeten, and then coil quickly. If this be not done a slightly hitter taste is developed.

For an infant over six months old the method to be pursued is as follows :—Into a clean nursing bottle pour a quarter pint of milk, half as much warm water, and a quarter of a Fairchild Zymine Peptonising Powder. Put aside in a warm place for fifteen minutes; sweeten with white or milk sugar.

Peptonised Beef Tea.

Peptonised beef tea should be prepared in the following manner :—Take half a pound of finely minced beef (carefully freed from all fat, skin and gristle), add to it a pint of cold water, and cook over a gentle fire till it boils. Decant off the resulting beef tea into a covered jug ; this must be kept close to the fire so as to maintain it as near to boiling point as possible. The undissolved beef remaining is then to be mashed up quickly with a strong spoon into a paste, and slipped into the jug. Into the same vessel another pint of water is poured, to reduce the temperature to about 140 degrees (indicated by the fact that it will be cool enough to be tolerated in the mouth). The next thing is to add 60 grains of Zymine (Fairchild)—that is, Extractum Pancreatis—and 20 grains of Bicarbonate of Soda, which are readily obtainable from any Chemist. The covered jug is then stood in a warm place for three

1 lours, shaking it occasionally. The contents ire finally to be boiled quickly for two or liree minutes, and strained.

This is a weak beef tea, but instead > if half a pound of beef as directed, one or nvo pounds may be employed. When made >f the latter strength—two pounds of beef n the foregoing—it is rich in peptone. Its I mtritive value, as far as nitrogenous naterials are concerned, is very nearly equal o milk itself. One great advantage it »ossesses, also, is that its taste is not nterfered with to any extent; indeed ic is carcely to be distinguished from beef tea uade in the orthodox fashion.

Jeptonised Milk Gruel.

Sir William Roberts, of London, who is 'lie of the greatest authorities amongst all | English-speaking people on the preparation 4 digestive foods, writes that he has had < nost expei ience with peptonised milk gruel n the treatment of the sick, and that witlT t he has obtained the most satisfactory

Iesults. Peptonised milk gruel may be egarded as an artificially digested bread-and-nilk, and as forming by itself a complete and lighly nutritious food for weak digestions, t is very readily made, and the directions tan be easily followed. First, half a pint of

thick gruel is made from any of the folio win farinaceousarticles: arrowroot, oatmeal, pear barley, pea or lentil flour, sago, or wheate: flour. This gruel, while still boiling hot, i added to half a pint of cold milk. The mixtur will then have a temperature of about 12 degrees. The contents of one Fairchil Zymine Peptonising Powder tube are to b j then well stirred into it. It is next to be kep ■ warm in a covered jug under a “ cosey ” fo about two hours, and then boiled fo a few minutes, and strained.

If this plan should not prove successfu the following modification in its preparatio may be substituted:—As soon as the ho gruel and cold milk have been thorough! mixed together, they should be straine* through into a small jar or jug. The cor tents of the above peptonising tube are the to be well stirred in. The vessel used mus next be stood in a warm place for 20 minute* and the milk gruel then poured into a cleai bottle and put into a cool place.

Whatever farinaceous food is employed i should be thoroughly boiled with the wate when making the gruel, so that the stare] granules are completely broken up and disir tegrated. If the bitter flavour is too pro nounced, less of the peptonising powder mus be used on the next occasion.

3oultices.

Two remarks of the famous Dr. Abepiethy’s a giving instructions for making a poultice, Llways deserve to be well remembered. £< In lie first place,’ says he, “ scald out your lasin, for you can never make a good poultice i mless you have perfectly boiling water,” and ! iext he adds, “ do not let any lumps remain n the basin, but stir the poultice well, and jio not be sparing of your trouble.” To nake a poultice, a basin, a spatula (that is a lat sort of knife similar to a painter’s putty knife), some linseed meal, boiling water, and i piece of linen a little larger than the size of the poultice wanted, will be required. Scald out the basin, and at the same time take the opportunity of dipping the spatula, or whatever you use to make and spread the poultice with, into the boiling water. Then pour into the basin as much boiling water as is required; quickly sprinkle in the linseed meal, and stir the whole with the spatula vigorously as Abernethy directs. If tlie§e directions are carried out properly the poultice will be quite smooth and free from lumps. Spread it quickly and evenly on the piece of rag, mould up the borders of the meal, and then the edges of the linen should be just turned over half an inch or so on the meal, to keep it in place. Lastly, a little

sweet oil smeared over the face of the poulti( will render it less irritating to the skin, an I when removed it will come clean awa without leaving anything behind.

Poultice, Bread.

It will be found that linseed poultice often irritate a tender skin, and frequent! bring out a crop of red spots, which ma; form into small boils. The stale brea< poultice is lighter than a linseed poultic because it is more spongy, and is ver soothing and comforting. In fact the brea< poultice drives the blood from the place t( which it is applied, and does not encouragt the formation of matter; while a linseei poultice makes the part look red and swollen and tends to form matter. A stale breac poultice, therefore, is especially valuable in threatened whitlow. To make such a poultice scald out the basin and j)our in some hot water Next small squares of stale bread should bt put in, and the basin covered with a plate Stand it by the fire for about five minutes, pour off the water, and press it out with a fork as well; then apply the poultice on a piece of linen.

Poultice, Mustard and Flour.

The action of a mustard poultice is somewhat different from that of all others, and it

is used to stimulate the skin and operate as ¡a counter irritant. Strong mustard poultices are often highly valuable in deep seated inflammation of the chest or abdomen, or in cases where the heart is failing and threatens to cease beating. But mustard alone is too severe for infants and young children, and 'flour is employed to dilute its effect. As it has been mentioned at page 66, a weak poultice of mustard and flour—one part of mustard, mixed with five or six times as much flour—which can be kept on the chest for some five or six hours, is better for a baby than a strong poultice applied for a shorter time.

The mustard and flour should be mixed in the dry state, and then made into a poultice, with hot—not boiling—water. The poultice must first be applied all over the front of the chest for five or six hours, till the skin is reddened. When the poultice is removed the part should be covered with a layer of cotton wool. The whole of the back of the chest must next be treated in'»-a similar manner. The relief afforded by this method is usually unmistakable.

Poultice, Starch.

A starch poultice is often applied to inflamed eruptions of the skin. It is very

soothing, and sends down any redness or swelling very quickly. To some powdered starch add a little cold water, and make it into a smooth even paste Now add enough boiling water to make the poultice soft and jelly like. It should be spread on linen as usual, but must not be applied nearly so hot as the ordinary linseed poultice.

Raw Meat Juice.

Dr. W. B. Cheadle, of London, gives the following directions for the preparation of raw meat juice :—Raw meat juice should be prepared by mincing finely the best rump steak, carefully freed from all fat, skin, and gristle, then adding cold water in the proportion of one part of water to four of meat (one ounce water to four ounces meat— that is, two tablespoonfuls of water, by measuring glass, to quarter pound meat). This should be well stirred together, and allowed to soak for one hour, cold. The juice should then be forcibly expressed through muslin, or a clean handkerchief, by twisting it. Of all the different methods this gives meat juice of the highest nutritive value, and is but slightly inferior to that obtained by simple pressure without water— a most tedious and unsatisfactory process.

The juice obtained in this way is so rich n albumen that it coagulates in a solid mass on boiling. It is this material that the infant wants for structural purposes, and for active vital processes, not inferior extractives, such as form nearly the whole nitrogenous material of beef tea and broths.

Mixed with milk it does not coagulate it; the taste is hardly perceptible in the mixture. When diluted in this way, or with any watery solution, it coagulates on the addition of digestive fluid in small light flocculi. And ‘fthese delicate atoms are artificially digested Iby the pepsine ferment much more rapidly and easily than albumen coagulated by boiling, as in beef tea.

Raw meat juice, too, besides these two virtues of richness in proteid and easy digestibility, has a rich proportion of salts, and must contain the anti-scorbutic element in more active form than cooked beef tea. Experience shows that raw meat is far more anti-scorbutic than cooked meat, and cooked fresh meat than salted meat.    ^

Raw meat juice is, without doubt, the best material for supplying proteid to the food of children who cannot digest a sufficient amount of the milk proteid caseine.

As much as a dessert-spoonful may be given every three hours—or every two, if

necessary. Even a larger quantity may he given when little other food can be taken. And here let me interpose a caution. Especial care must be taken to have raw meat juice fresh. It does not keep well, and should be prepared afresh at least twice a day.

Raw Meat Pulp.

This may be used instead of the raw meat juice for children of ten or twelve months old. It is obtained by scraping the soft muscle elements from the fibre, and it must be borne in mind that it is to be scraped and not minced. The soft pulp obtained by scraping is more easily digested in this raw condition than when the albumen is coagulated by cooking. On the contrary, the tendinous parts which are taken in by mincing are undigestible in their raw state, but become more digestible by cooking. Of this raw meat pulp, two ounces may be given daily to a child twelve months old, or even more if it be the only nitrogenous food given.

Rice Water.

One ounce of well-washed rice; let it simmer for three hours in a quart of water, and then boil slowly for an hour. While this is going on stir it frequently, and skim from time to time. Strain off the rice, and put the

water aside to cool. If a little brandy is added it makes a useful drink in diarrhoea.

Temperature, Taking* the.

Of late years very special attention has been paid to the temperature or heat of the body in connection with disease. The temperature of the body in health is, as near as can be, always uniform. Whether it be in the hot months or whether it be in the cooler weather, the body-heat of a healthy person is practically the same. One may feel hot in summer, or one may feel chilly in the cooler months, yet the internal temperature never varies to any definite extent. The normal temperature of the body may be reckoned at 98.1 degrees. In acute disease, or in any disturbed condition of the system, on the other hand, there is generally some alteration -—usually a rise above this. Moreover, the temperature when recorded continuously night and morning soon affords us a valuable indication not only as to the nature of any malady, but as to its progress as well.

The temperature is taken by means of a most convenient and accurate instrument called a clinical thermometer. This, which may be termed a measurer of temperature, consists of a very fine, hermetically sealed, tube of glass, usually some four inches in

length. About three-fourths of it are marked with a graduated scale to indicate the degree of heat attained. The remaining fourth part is “ the bulb,” containing the mercury or quicksilver. On the graduated scale every degree is shown by a longish line, and the space between is divided into five equal parts by four shorter lines. Each of these five portions represents two “ points,” or tenths of a degree.

In using the clinical thermometer the exposed surface of the skin is not suitable, as it is affected by the external air. A cavity is necessary for the purpose, or else parts of the body which can be brought into contact with one another. In the adult the mouth or arm-pit is most frequently selected, and each possesses certain advantages of its own. For infants the rectum or lower end of the bowel is particularly accurate, but it is, perhaps, better for parents not to employ that region until such time as they have acquired some skill. If the bowel is employed, however, “ the bulb ” of the thermometer should be gently oiled, and the instrument carefully inserted with a slightly rotatory motion. In babies and young children, also, a very convenient locality is that of the groin, made bv bending the thigh upon the belly.

The skin, whether it be the groin or the arm-pit, should be wiped absolutely dry before applying the thermometer. Then, again, no clothes should be permitted to slip in between the instrument and the skin. And thirdly, in the case of infants and children the thermometer will have to be held in position for the length of time necessary. In what is called a “ minute ” thermometer, the temperature is taken in that period. But there will be less possibility of mistake if it be kept in place for at least three minutes. When purchasing a clinical thermometer see that “the bulb” is sufficiently small in size. The instruments with a large bulb are longer in taking the temperature, and besides, they are not so sensitive, nor so accurate, as those of smaller bulb.

If there be any feverishness the mercury or quicksilver ascends up the line tube in the glass, when the thermometer is applied in the manner directed. In an ordinary thermometer the mercury falls down again, directly it is removed from the source of heat. But in the clinical instrument it remains where it has risen to—and keeps there—for the reason that a small portion of the mercury is separated from the main column by a little bell of air.

The height to which the quicksilver has risen is then to be read off, and the result written down upon a piece of paper. The next thing is to “ lower the index,” and “set” the thermometer for the next time. This is done by taking it in the right hand, and holding it by the upper half so that the “ bulb” end is downwards. The whole arm is then to be swung sharply round, stopping with a sudden jerk. Another plan is to grasp it with the right hand in such a way so as to have it “bulb” downwards, but the latter protected by the ring and little fingers. The whole fist is then to be brought suddenly down, striking the palm of the left hand quite smartly.

By either of these methods the mercury will come down to a degree or two below the normal. Before the thermometer is put away it should be carefully washed and dried. It is better from a sense of cleanliness, also, to do the same again before using it. When it is placed in its case the “ bulb end should be made to enter first. If this is not pointed out people invariably turn it upside down, so that the “ scale ” end goes in first.

A clinical thermometer is of unmistakable service in every family—especially in the case of infants and children. The information

it gives is so accurate, and it affords such valuable knowledge of what is going on, that it is almost indispensable. For instance, in an earlier portion of this work reference was made to the fact that in the feverishness due to teething, the temperature was higher in the forenoon than in the evening. In most of the other feverish ailments of early life the temperature is higher towards the night. The clinical thermometer is always a great guide to the child’s condition, and it is well worth while learning how to use it.

Toast Water.

This valuable drink, like many oilier remedies, is often wrongly made, and has acquired consequently a bad reputation which it does not deserve. The pieces of charred bread or sodden morsels which too often float about in it, should never be seen. To remedy these defects the great point in preparing the drink is never to allow the toast to be burnt. Cut a piece of stale bread and keep it qn a toasting fork a few inches from the fire, turning it every now and then till the moisture is quite driven off“. Then hold it near the fire till it is toasted of a well marked biown colour, but not more, on both sides When perfectly cold break it into several small pieces, place it in a jug and pour in

two pints of boiling water. Cover the vessel, allow the water to become cold, and strain through muslin. This drink should never be used after standing more than twelve hours.

Veal Broth.

One pound of veal cleaned perfectly from all skin, fat, and gristle is to be placed in a saucepan with one quart of cold water. Let it simmer over a steady fire for two or three hours till there is only one pint left. Strain through muslin and let it stand till cool. When wanted for use, warm whatever quantity is required, and add a little salt.

Whey, Plain.

Plain whey is most easily made by means of “ Hansen’s Household Rennet Tablets,” which uniformly succeed in almost every instance. They are readily obtainable from any Chemist, and are extremely reasonable in cost, twenty-four of the tablets in a glass tube being sold at a low price. Full and explicit instructions go with them, and the method of preparing the whey is soon acquired.

It is well to remember, however, that these tablets are intended for the making of junket. This, by the way, is a splendid

table dish, and it is altogether a pity that it is not more generally known, and more frequently made use of, especially as it is so nutritious and wholesome for older children. When preparing the plain whey for infant requirements, therefore, theflavouring materials recommended must he omitted. Each tablet will make one quart of milk into junket. It will serve equally well for a pint, or half a tablet may be employed to prepare half a pint.

A little practice is sometimes required to get into the exact knack of making it “ set.” But if the directions be carefully attended to the result will be junket which looks very much like blanc-mange. It should then be beaten up with a fork, until it has become entirely liquid. This should next be strained through muslin or a clean handkerchief, and the plain whey will come through ready for use.

The same precautions must be observed in

preparing the plain whey as have already

been referred to in the case of barley water.

That is to say, it should be made twice a clay ;

it is to be kept in a cool place; and lastly, it

must never be heated to the actual boilino-

©

point again after once being made, since rapid fermentation is thereby rapidly induced, and the whey becomes totally unsuitable for use.

Plain whey is frequently of great service in infantile diseases, thus a teaspoonful of oneof the maltedfoods—Allen and Hanbury’s, Mellin’s, or Savory and Moore’s—in a bottle of plain whey is valuable in wasting disease. Again, in chronic vomiting, a teaspoonful of one of the preceding malted foods may be dissolved in eight tablespoonfuls — by measuring glass—of half plain whey and half barley water mixed together, with great advantage.

In chronic diarrhoea, likewise, a teaspoonful of one of the same malted foods may be dissolved in eight tablespoonfuls—by measuring glass—of either plain whey, or barley water, or else in a similar quantity of a mixture of both. And lastly, in diarrhoea, a dessertspoonful of fresh cream may be given in eight tablespoonfuls—by measuring glass —of plain whey ; and in chronic vomiting a mixture cf one tablespoonful of fresh cream may be made with two tablespoonfuls each of plain whey and barley water.

Whey, White Wine.

Half a pint of milk should he placed in a clean vessel to boil on the fire. When the latter occui’s three tablespoonfuls—by measuring glass—of the best sherry should be added. The mixture should then be

allowed to boil up for a minute or two, when it should be turned into a basin, and stood in a cool place. If the curd subsides to the bottom of the basin, the whey above should be carefully poured off. But if this does not occur the whey should be strained through muslin or a clean handkerchief, when it (the white wine whey) will come through ready for use.

This white wine whey is just one of the things we could not do without in the treatment of infantile disease. In wasting when the weakness and emaciation are extreme, a tablespoonful or even more may be given every half hour. When improvement begins, the white wine whey may be given in alternate meals with the peptonised milk, and the quantities given each time may be increased, and at longer intervals.

In inflammatory diarrhoea, also, a tablespoonful of white wine whey may be given to an infant every hour, or even e\ery half hour. In chronic vomiting, too, when the infant is greatly weakened, the white wine whey may constitute the sole nourishment. In this complaint it may require to be given cold, in small doses, a teaspoonful only at a time, every ten minutes.

As the stomach irritability passes off, the infant may be allowed to suck the white

wine whey from the feeding bottle, and if no vomiting have occurred for 24 hours, a dessertspoonful or even a tablespoonful of fresh cream may be shaken up with each bottle of the white wine whey. The addition of the cream makes a most nutritious combination, and is of unmistakable service in many debilitating or exhausting diseases.

A    PAGE

Abdominal flannel bandage ......... 39

Abscess of Breast, Threatened ...... 65

Action of cold baths ...    ...    ..... 34

Action of hot baths ..    ...    ...    .    35

Action of Mountain Air...    ...    ...    ...    105

Action of oily applications ...... ...    36

Addition of aromatic to diet......... 53

Advantages of high-lands in Australia ...    97

Air, fresh, a necessity ...    ...    ...    ...    41

Air, fresh, in bedrooms necessary    ...    ...    46

Air League, Fresh ............ 109

Air, Mountain, action of    ...    ...    ...    105

Air, Mountain, value of ......... 105

Allen and Hanbury’s food    ...    ...    ...    2S

Almond drink ...    ...    ...    ...    H2

Aniemia ...    ...    ...    ...    ..    ...    64

Ansemia, symptoms of...... ...    ...    64

Anaemia, treatment of ...    ...    ...    ..    64

Analysis of breast milk............^9

Analysis of cows’milk...... ..    ...    9

Applications, action of oily    ...    ...    ...    36

Aromatic in diet useful............ 58

Australia, advantages of high-lands in ...    97

Australia, defective cream supply in...... 123

Australia, great value of Mountain Air in ... 105

Australian cities, Rickets in......... 85

Australian climate, open air existence in ...    41

iei

Australian cooler weather, bedgown in ...    38

Australian cooler weather, head protection in    38

Australian cooler weather, healthiness of ...    96

Australian hot months, barley water during.. 115 Australian hot months, bed-gown in ..    ...    38

Australian hot months, Choleraic Diarrhoea in    80

Australian hot months, cold baths during ...    35

Australian hot months, condensed milk during    54

Australian hot months, Diarrhoea during 77, 78, 80 Australian hot months, feeble digestion during 27,57 Australian hot months, head must be protected

during ...    ...    ...    ... 3S

Australian hot months, Infantile Cholera in.. 80 Australian hot months, infant’s thirst in ...    70

Australian hot months, InflammatoryDiarrhcea

in ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    78

Australian hot months, mosquito nettings in 47 Australian hot months, no weaning during ... 4, 80 Australian hot months, thirst in infants during 70 Australian mothers, useful information for ...    64

Australian red wine for nursing mothers ...    6

B

Baked flour    ......... 112

Bandage, abdominal flannel    ...    ..    ...    39

Barley jelly    ...... 114

Barley jelly, to    prepare...... 114

Barley water ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    114

Barley water and condensed milk    ...    ...    19

Barley water and cows’ milk    ..    ...    ...    15

Barley water and veal broth    ...    ...    ...    22

Barley water and veal broth, with egg ...    124

Barley water in hot weather ...    ..    ... 115

Barley water, lime water, and milk ...    ...    52

Barley water, to prepare ...    ...    16, 114

INDEX.

1G3

PAGE

Bathing ... ... ... ... ...

... 32

Baths, cold ......... ...

... 34

Baths, hot... ... ... ... ...

... 36

Baths, temperature of ... ... ...

... 34

Beacon guides ... ...... ...

... 13

Bed-gowns... . ... ... ...

38, 39

Bedroom should have fireplace .. ...

... 46

Bedroom, ventilation of... ... ...

... 46

Beef tea ... ... ... ... ...

116, 117

Beef tea in haste .. ... ... ...

... 1 6

Beef tea, nutritious ... ... ...

.. 117

Beef tea, peptonised ... ... ...

... 142

Benger’s food ... ... ... ...

... 27

Blood, effect of Mountain Air on ...

... 104

Bloodlessness ... ... ... ...

... 64

Blood, poverty of ... ... ...

... 64

Boiled milk .. ... ... ...

133, 134

Bottle feeding ... ... ... ...

... 7, 55

Bottle feeding before the a«re of six months ... 55

Bottle feeding at the seventh, eighth,

and

ninth month ... ... ... ...

... 59

Bottle feeding at the tenth, eleventh,

and

twelfth month .........

... 60

Botttle feeding from twelfth to eighteenth

month... ... ... ... ...

... 61

Bottle feeding from eighteenth month to

two

years ...............

... ^ 62

Brandy and egg......... ...

.. 117

Brandy, with egg...........

... 123

Breast and hand feeding combined ...

... 50

Breastfed children .. ... ...

... 49

Breastfeeding ......... ...

. 1

Breast milk, analysis of... ... ...

... 9

Breast, the ............

.. 65

Breast, Threatened Abscess of.,, ...

• 6-5

Bronchitis and Inflammation of the Lungs 65, 66, 67 Broth after eighth month ...    ...    ...    30

Broth, chicken ...    ...    ...    ..    119

Broth, mutton    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    139

Broth, veal    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    156

Broth, when allowable to infant    ..    ...    30

Buttocks, The, Chafing or Inflammation of ...    67

c

Camomile flowers and poppy heads fomentation ...    -    ...    ...    ...    132

Carnrick’s food    ..    ...    ...    ...    •••    26

Carraway water ...    ...    ...    ...    US

Carraway water in feeding bottle useful ...    1 18

Carried for four months, infant    ...    ..    42

Cascara Sagrada in Constipation ...... 70

Catarrh —See Bronchitis and Inflammation of

the. Lungs    ...    ...    ...    •••    ••    65

Catarrhal Spasm of the Throat...    ...    ...    73

Catarrhal Spasm of the Throat, symptoms of 73, 74 Catarrhal Spasm of the Throat, treatment of 74, 75 Chafing or Inflammation of The Buttocks ...    67

Chicken broth    ...    ...    ...    •••    •••    H9

Choleraic Diarrhoea ...    ...    ....... 79

Cholera, Infantile ...    ......... 79

Chronic Diarrhoea ...    ...    •••    •••    82

Cinnamon water ...    ...    ...    ...    H9

Cinnamon water in feeding bottle useful 119, 120

Cities, Rickets in Australian......... S5

Clothing ...    ...    ............ 88

Cocoatina in dietary ...... ..... 60

Cocoatina, when allowable to infant...... 60

Cold baths, action of ............ 34

Cold feet, ill effects of    ..,    ...... 40

Pag a

Cold on the chest.—See Bronchitis and Inflammation of the Lungs ...    ...    ...    65

Colic ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    68

Colic, cry of ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2

Colic, symptoms of    ...    ...    ..    ...    68

Colic, treatment of    ...    ...    ..    ...    69

Combined breast and    hand    feeding    ...    ...    50

Condensed milk ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    17

Condensed milk and barley water    ...    ...    19

Condensed milk in hot months    ...    ...    51

Condensed milk, not to be too long continued    25

Condensed milk, strength of, advised ...    19

Constipation, Cascara Sagrada in ...... 70

Constipation, Embrocation for...    ...    ...    71

Constipation, Glycerine enema in    ...    ...    71

Constipation, Phosphate of Soda in ...    ...    70

Constipation, Sulphur in    ...    ..    ...    70

Constipation, Water in...... ...    ...    70

Convulsions ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    72

Convulsions, treatment of ...    ...    72, 73

Cooler weather, healthiness of Australian ...    96

Cows’ milk ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    9

Cows’ milk, analysis of ...    ...    ...    ...    9

Cows’milk and barley water    ...    ...    ...    15

Cows’milk and gelatine ...... 16,132

Cows’ milk and lime water    ...    ...    ...    11

Cows’ milk, barley water, and lime water ... '*• 52 Cows’ milk, boiled    ...    ...    ...    133, 134

Cows’ milk, lime water, and barley water ...    52

Cows’ milk, sterilized......... 135 to 138

Cracked Nipples, lotion for    ...    ...    ...    65

Cream ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ..    120

Cream and plain whey ...    ...    ...    ...    122

Cream and white wine whey..... ...    122

Cream as a remedy    ...    ...    ...    ... 122

Cream, barley water, and plain whey

PAGE

122, 123

Cream, plain whey, and barley water

122, 123

Cream supply in Australia defective ...

... 123

Cream, value of ... ... ... ...

... 121

Croup ... ............

... 73

Croup, symptoms of ... ... ...

... 73

Croup, treatment of ... ... ...

74, 75

Cry of colic ... ... ... ...

... 2

Cry of hunger ... ... ... ...

... 2

Cry of indigestion .........

... 2

D

Danger Signals .. ... ... ...

75, 76

Defective cream supply in Australia .

... 123

Diarrhoea, Choleraic ... .. ...

79, 80, SI

Diarrhoea, Choleraic, causes of ...

... SO

Diarrhoea, Choleraic, symptoms of ...

SO, 81

Diarrhoea, Choleraic, treatment of ...

... 81

Diarrhoea, Chronic ... .. ...

82, S3

Diarrhoea, Chronic, causes of . ...

... S2

Diarrhoea, Chronic, symptoms of ...

82, 83

Diarrhoea, Chronic, treatment of ...

... 83

Diarrhoea, Dysenteric ... ... ...

78,79

Diarrhoea, Dysenteric, symptoms of ...

78, 79

Diarrhoea, Inflammatory ... ;..

77, 78,79

Diarrhoea, Inflammatory, causes of ...

... 78

Diarrhoea, Inflammatory, symptoms of

78, 79

Diarrhoea, Inflammatory, treatment of

... 79

Diarrhoea, Non inflammatory ... ...

... 77

Diarrhoea, Non-inflammatory, causes of

... 77

Diarrhoea, Non-inflammatory, treatment of ... 77

Diarrhoea, value of Mountain Air in ...

... 106

Diet, addition of aromatic useful in ...

... 58

Dietary ... ... ... ... ...

... 48

Dietary for breast and hand feeding combined 50

PAGE

Dietary for breast fed infants ...    ...    ...    49

Dietary in hand feeding... ...    ...    ...    55

Diet at    eight months    ...    ...    ...    ...    31

Diet at    twelve months    ...    ...    ...    ...    31

Diet at    eighteen months    ..    ..    ...    ...    31

Diet of    nursing mother    ...    ...    ...    ...    5,6

Diet, mixed ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    50

Difficulty of obtaining cream in Australia ...    123

Directions for nutritious enemata    ...    ...    129

Disease, Mountain Air in Diarrhoeal ...    ...    106

Dusting powder ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    67

Dysenteric Diarrhoea ...    ...    ...    ...    79

E

Effect of Mountain Air    on    Appetite    ...    ...    105

Effect of Mountain Air    on    Blood    ...    ...    104

Effect of Mountain Air    on    Health    ...    ..    105

Effect of Mountain Air    on    Nervous System ..    106

Effect of Mountain Air on Sleep    ...    ...    105

Egg and brandy ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    117

Egg, when allowable to infant...    ..    ...    31

Egg, with brandy    ..    ...    ...    ...    123

Egg, with veal broth and barley water ...    124

Eighteen months, feeding at ...    ...    61,62

Eighth month, broths after ...    ...    ...    30

Eighth month, feeding at ...    ...    ...    59

Eleventh month, feeding at ...    ...    ...    60

Embrocation for Constipation ...    ...    ...    71

Enema, nutrient ...    ...    ...    125, 127, 129

Enema, purgative    ...    ...    ..    ...    125

Enema, sedative ...    ...    ...    ...    127, 128

Enema, starch and laudanum ...    ...    ...    128

Enema, syringes......... 126, 127, 128

Enemata ...    ...    ..    ......... 124

Evils of sleeplessness    . .    ...    ...    ...    44

Exercise ...    ...    ...... ...    ...    41

F

Feeding bottle ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    23

Feeding, breast ...    ...    ..    ...    ...    1

Feeding, hand, before the age of six months ..    55

Feeding, hand, at the seventh, eighth, and

ninth months    ...    ...    ...    ...    59

Feeding, hand, at the tenth, eleventh, and

twelfth months ...... ...    ...    60

Feeding, hand, from twelfth to eighteenth

month    ...    ...    ...    ...    ..    61

Feeding, hand, from eighteenth month to two

years ...    ...    ...    ..    ..    ...    62

Feet, ill effects of cold    ...    ...    ...    ...    40

Fireplace in bedroom advised ...    ...    ...    46

Fish, when allowable to infant    ...    ...    31

Flannel bandage, abdominal    ...    ...    ...    39

Flour and mustard poultice    ...    ...    ...    146

Fomentation of poppy heads and camomile

flowers    ...    ...    ...    ...    ..    132

Fomentations    ...    ..    ..    ...    ...    130

Fomentations, how to    make    ...    . ...    130,    131

Food, Allen and Hanbury's    ...    ...    ...    28

Food, Benger’s    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    27

Food, Carnrick’s............ ...    26

Food, malted and    plain whey......... 158

Food, malted, sometimes beneficial ...    ...    29

Food, Mellin’s ............... 28

Food, Neave’s ............... 30

Food, Nestle’s    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    30

Food, patent, to be used cautiously ...    25, 26

Food, Savory and Moore’s    ...    ..    ...    28

Food, tinned, to be used cautiously ...    25, 26

Jour months, infant carried for    ...

PAGE

...    42

...    42

...    41

...    46

...    109

25, 26 ...    5

31, 61 ...    35


Four months, perambulator after    ...

?'resh air, a necessity ...    ...    •••

Fresh air in bedroom necessary ...

Fresh Air League ..    ......

Freshness of food essential    ...    ...

Fresh vegetables for nursing mothers <’resh vegetables, when allowable to infant Motion in chronic wasting disease ...

G

lathered breast, threatened ... lelatine and cows’ milk    ..

llycerine enema in Constipation graduated measures necessary Irowth, Infantile, Measurements Guides to infant’s welfare    ...


65


16, 132 ..    71

..    48


and W eight 83, 84 ...... 13


H

Hand and breast feeding combined ...    ...    50

Hand feeding ...    ...    ...    ..    ...    7, 55

Hand feeding, before the age of six months... 55 Hand feeding, at the seventh, eighth, and

ninth months    ..    ...    ...    ...    59

Hand feeding, at the tenth, eleventh, and

twelfth months    ...    ...    ...    ...    60

Hand feeding, from twelfth to eighteenth

month    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    61

Hand feeding, from eighteenth month to two

years ...    ...    .    ...    ...    ..    62

Head to be protected    ...    ...    ...    ...    38

Healthiness of Australian cooler weather ...    96

Honey and milk ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    132

Hot baths, action of    ...    ...    ...    ...    36

Hot baths, value of    ...    ..    ...    ...    36

PAG!

Hot weather, never wean during ...

... 4, 81

Hunger, cry of............

1

111 effects of cold feet ... ... ...

... 41

Increasing mother’s milk ... ..

... 1

Indigestion, cry of ... ... ...

... !

Infant, broth, when allowable to ...

... 31

Infant carried for four months... ...

... 4:

Infant creeps and crawls at nine months

... 4;

Infant, different cries in ... ...

... ‘

Infant, egg, when allowable to ...

... 3

Infant feeding bottle recommended ...

... 2;

Infant, fish, when allowable to ...

... 3

Infant feeding before the age of six months. .. 5.'

Infant feeding at the seventh, eighth,

and

ninth months ... ... ...

... 5f

Infant feeding at the tenth, eleventh,

and

twelfth months ... ... ...

... 6(

Infant feeding from twelfth to eighteenth

month ... ... ... ...

... 61

Infant feeding from eighteenth month to two

years ... ... ... ... ...

... 6‘.

Infantile Cholera.............

... 7t

Infantile Measurements, Weight and Growth 83, 84i

Infant, meat, when allowable to ...

... 31

Infant not to be weaned during hot months... 4, 8(

Infant not to sleep at breast ... ...

( \

Infant perambulator, when to use ...

... 4i

Infant, progress of .........

... li

Infant, regular habits necessary in ...

... 1

Infant, separate cot for... ... ...

... 4ü

Infant sleeps 20 hours out of 24 ...

... 44

Infant stands at 12 months ... ...

... 4S

Infant, vegetables, when allowable to...

31, 61

Infant walks soon after 12 months ...

PAGE

.. 43

Infant welfare, guides to ... ...

.. 13

Inflammation or Chafing of The Buttocks

.. 61

Inflammation of the Lungs, and Bronchitis

.. 65

Inflammatory Diarrhcea... ... ...

.. 77

Information, useful, for Australian mothers

.. 64

Injuriousness of starchy foods... ...

17, 25

Inunctions, value of oily ... ...

35, 36

J

Juice, raw meat ... ... .. ...

... 148

K

Kinder-Milch ... ... ... ...

20, 53

L

Laudanum and starch enema ... ...

... 128

Length of infant at birth ... ...

... 83

Length of time at each nursing ...

... 1

Lime water ... ... ... ...

... 11

Lime water and cows’ milk ... ...

11, 12

Lime water, barley water, and milk ...

... 52

Lime water, signs of its disagreeing ...

... 14

Lime water, to prepare ... .. ...

11, 133

Linseed tea ... ... .. ...

... 133

Loeflund’s Kinder-Milch ... ...

20, 03

Lotion for painful Teething ... ...

... 87

Lotion for Sore Nipples .. ... ...

.. 65

Lotions for Thrush ... .. ...

... 88

Lungs, Inflammation of, and Bronchitis

... 65

M

Malted food and plain whey .. ...

... 158

Malted foods sometimes beneficial ...

... 29

Measurements, Infantile, Weight and Growth 83,84

PAfil

Measures, graduated, necessary    ...    ...    41

Meat juice, raw ...    ...    ......... 141

Meat pulp, raw ...    ........ 15(

Meat, when allowable to infant    ...    ...    31

Mellin’s food ..    ...    ..    •••    2f

Milk, analysis of breast... ...    ...... 1

Milk, analysis of cows’............ f

Milk and gelatine    ............135

Milk and honey......... 132

Milk, barley water, and lime water    ...    ...    52

Milk, boiled    ...    ...    ...    • ••    133, 134

Milk, cream must be present in ...... 121

Milk gruel, peptonised ...    ...    •••    • •    143

Milk, increasing mother’s ...    ..    •••    6

Milk, lime water, and barley water    ...    ...    52

Milk must contain cream    ...    ...    121

Milk, peptonised............ •••    139

Milk, sterilized ...    ...    ...    • ••    135 to 138

Mixed diet    ...    ...    •••    •••    •••    ^0

Mosquito nettings    necessary ......... 47

Mothers, Australian wine for nursing    ...    6

Mothers, diet of nursing ......... b

Mother’s milk, increasing ...    •••    9

Mountain Air, characteristics of    ..    ■    101

Mountain Air, effect on Appetite ...... 105

Mountain Air, effect on Blood... . -    104

Mountain Air, effect on Health ...... 105

Mountain Air, effect on Nervous System ...    106

Mountain Air, effect on Sleep ....    ...    ...    105

Mountain Air in Diarrhceal Diseases...... 106

Mountain Air in Infantile Diseases    ..    ..    10S

Mountain Air, remedial agent, a    ...    ...    95

Mountain Air, value of............ 105

Mustard and flour poultice ......... 146

Mutton broth ...    ...    ...    ...    •••    139

INDEX.

173

N

PAGE

Napkins ... ... ... ... ...

... 84

Neats-foot oil inunctions valuable ...

... 35

Neave’s food ... ... ... ...

... 30

Necessity of fireplace in bedroom ...

... 46

Necessity of fresh air ,. ... ...

... 41

Necessity of fresh air in bedroom ...

... 46

Necessity of graduated measures ...

... 48

Necessity of mosquito nettings ...

... 24

Nestis’s food ... .. ... ...

... 30

Nettings, mosquito, necessary......

... 24

Never wean during hot months ...

... 4, 80

Ninth month, feeding at ... ...

... 59

Nipples, lotion for Sore ... ...

.. 65

Non-inflammatory Diarrhoea ... ..

.. 77

Nursing, length of time for each ...

... 1

Nursing mother, Australian wine for...

... 6

Nursing mother, diet for .. ...

... 6

Nutritious enemata ... ... ...

... 129

o

Oatmeal in dietary ... ... ...

... 59

Oatmeal, when allowable to infant ...

... 59

Oil, Neats-foot, inunctions valuable ...

... 35

Oily inunctions, value of ... ...

35, 36

Over-fatty soaps ... ... ... ...

... N33

Overlaying ... ... ... ...

... 45

P

Painful Teething, lotion for ... ...

... 87

Patent foods to be used cautiously ...

25, 26

Peptonised beef tea ... ... ...

... 142

Peptonised milk............

... 139

Peptonised milk gruel ... ... ...

.. 143

Perambulator after fourth month ...

... 42

Phosphate of Soda in Constipation

PAGE

...... 70

Plain whey .........

..... 156

Plain whey and barley water ..

.....’158

Plain whey and cream......

... 122, 158

Plain whey and malted food ...

..... 158

Plain whey, barley water, and cream

.. 122, 158

Plain whey, to prepare......

..... 157

Poppy heads and camomile flowers

fomen-

tation... ... ... •••

..... 132

Poultices...... ...

... ... 145

Poultice, Bread ... . • ••

..... 146

Poultice, Linseed ......

.. .. 145

Poultice, Mustard and Flour ...

.. .. 146

Poultice, Starch ... .. ...

..... 147

Poverty of Blood... ... ...

.. .. 64

Powder, dusting ... ... ...

..... 67

Powder, toilet .. ... ...

..... 68

Progress of infant ... ...

.. . 13

Protection of head necessary ...

..... 38

Pulp, raw meat ... ... ...

..... 150

R

Raw meat juice ..i .. ... -

... 148

Raw meat pulp...... • ••

... 150

Recipes and accessory information

... 112

Regular habits in infant desirable

... 1

Remedial value of Mountain Air

... 95

Rest in Mountain Air, value of

... 105

Rice water ... ... •••

... 150

Rickets ... ... ••• •••

... 84

Rickets, causes of ......

84, 85

Rickets in Australian cities ...

... 85

Rickets, symptoms of ......

85, 86

Rickets, treatment of ......

... 86

Rusk in dietary.........

60, 61

S    PAGE

Separate cot for infant ...    ...    ...    ...    45

Seventh month, feeding at ...    ...    ...    50

Signals, Danger ...    ..    ...    ...    ...    75

Signs of lime water disagreeing    ...    ...    Id

Six months, feeding before the age of ..    ...    55

Sleep ..    .............. 44

Sleep, effect of Mountain Air on ...    ...    105

Sleep, evils of want of ...    ...    ...    .    44

Sleep, infant not at breast    ...    ...    ...    2

Sleep, 20 hours out of 24    ...    ...    ...    44

Soap ..    ...    ......... ...    32

Soap, Baumol skin ...    ...    ...    ...    34

Soap, Colgate's White Castile ..    ...    ...    32

Soap, different varieties of ..    ...    ...    32

Soap, Unna’s over-fatty...    ...    ..    ...    33

Soap, White Castile ...    ...    ...    ...    32

Sore Nipples, lotion for ...... ...    65

Spasm of the Throat, Catarrhal ...... 73

Spasm of the Throat, Catarrhal, symptoms of 73, 74 Spasm of the Throat, Catarrhal, treatment of 74,75 Starch and laudanum enema ...    ...    ...    L28

Stai’chy foods injurious]... ...    ...    17, 25

Sterilized milk ........... 135 to 138

Stimulating embrocation for Constipation ...    71

Stockings, woollen    ...    ...    ...    40

Strength of condensed milk advised...... 19

Sulphur in Constipation............ 70

Symptoms of Amemia......... ..    64

Symptoms of Catarrhal Spasm of the Throat 73, 74 Symptoms of Choleraic Diarrhoea ...    80,81

Symptoms of Colic ...    ...... 68, 69

Symptoms of Croup    ...    ...    .    73,74

Symptoms of Danger ......... 75 76

Symptoms of Eiarrhcea, Choleraic ...    80, 81

Symptoms of Diarrhoea, Chronic ...

PAGE

82, 83

Symptoms of Diarrhoea, Inflammatory

78, 79

Symptoms of Infantile Cholera ...

80, 81

Symptoms of Membranous Croup ...

... 74

Symptoms of Rickets .. . ...

85, 86

Symptoms of Teething ... ... ...

... 87

Symptoms of Thrush .. ... ...

... 88

Symptoms of True Croup ... ...

... 74

Symptoms of Vomiting...... —

89, 90, 91

Symptoms of Wasting ... ... •••

92, 93

T

Teething......... ... •••

... 87

Teething, symptoms of ... ...

... 87

Teething, treatment of ... ... ..

... S7

Temperature of bath ... ... •••

... 34

Temperature of teething infants ...

... 87

Temperature, taking the ... ...

... 151

Tenth month, feeding at ... ...

... 60

Thermometer ... ... ••• •••

... 151

Thermometer, description of ... ...

151,152

Thermometer, how to use .. ...

152,153

Thermometer, purchasing a ..

... 153

Threatened Abscess of Breast ... ...

... 65

Throat, Catarrhal Spasm of ... ...

... 73

Throat, Catarrhal Spasm of, symptoms of

...73, 74

Throat, Catarrhal Spasm of, treatment of

...74, 75

Thrush ...............

... 87

Thrush, prevention of.........

... 88

Thrush, symptoms of .........

... 88

Thrush, treatment of .........

... 88

Tinned foods to be used cautiously ...

25, 26

Toast water ... •• ••• •••

... 155

Toilet powder ............

... 68

Towels ...... ......

... 34

PAGE

Treatment of Anosmia ...    ...    ...    ...    64

Treatment of Bronchitis ...... 65, 66, 67

Treatment of Catarrhal Spasm of the Throat 74, 75 Treatment of Chafing ...    ...    ...    ...    67

Treatment of Choleraic Diarrhoea    ...    ...    SI

Treatment of Cholera, Infantile    ...    ...    81

Treatment of Chronic Diarrhoea    ...    ...    83

Treatment of Colic ......... 68, 69

Treatment of Constipation    ...    ...    70, 71

Treatment of Convulsions ...... 72, 73

Treatment of Croup ...    ...    ...    74,75

Treatment of Diarrhoea, Choleraic    ...    ...    81

Treatment of Diarrhoea, Chronic    ...    ...    83

Treatment of Diarrhoea, Inflammatory ...    79

Treatment of Diarrhoea, Non-inflammatory ...    77

Treatment of Inflammation of The Buttocks 67 Treatment of Inflammation of the Lungs 65, 66, 67 Treatment of Inflammatory Diarrhoea ...    79

Treatment of Lungs, Inflammation of...    65, 66, 67

Treatment of    Nipples, Sore    ...    ...    ...    65

Treatment of Non-inflammatory Diarrhoea ...    77

Treatment of Buckets    ...    ...    .    ...    S6

Treatment of    Sore Nipples    ..    ...    ...    65

Treatment of    Teething ...    ...    ...    ...    87

Treatment of Threatened Abscess of Breast ^65 Treatment of Thrush    ...    ...    ...    ...    88

Treatment of Vomiting...    ...    ...    ...    91

Treatment of Wasting    ...    ...    ...    ...    94

Tropical feeding bottle ...    ...    ...    23,    24 •

Twelfth month, feeding at    ...    ...    60,    61

Twelve months, twelve teeth    ...    ...    85,87

Twelve teeth at twelve months    ...    85,    87

Two years, feeding at    ...    ...    ...    ...    62

U

PACE

Useful addition of aromatic to diet

... 58

Useful information for Australian mothers ... 64

V

Value of cream ... ... ... ...

... 121

Value of cold baths ... ... ...

34, 35

Value of hot baths ... ... ...

... 36

Value of Mountain Air ... ... ...

... 105

Value of oily inunctions... ... ...

35, 36

Value of sleep in Mountain Air ...

... 105

Veal broth...... .........

... 156

Veal broth and barley water ......

... 22

Veal broth and barley water, with egg

.. 12 4

Vegetables for nursing mothers ...

... 5

Vegetables, when allowable to infant .

31, 61

Vomiting ... ... ... ... •••

89, 90, 91

Vomiting, causes of ... ... •••

89, 90

Vomiting, symptoms of...... ...

90, 91

Vomiting, treatment of.........

... 91

w

Wanting of proper cream supply in Australia 12.1

Wasting ... ... ... ••• 91,

92, 93, 94

Wasting, causes of .....

... 91

Wasting, frictions in .........

.. 35

Wasting, oily applications in......

... 36

Wasting, symptoms of.........

92, 93

Wasting, treatment of ... ......

... 94

Water in Constipation.........

... 70

Weaning ... ... ... ••• •••

... 4, 5

Weaning, not during hot months ...

■ .. 4, 80

Weight, Infantile, Measurements and Growth 8.3,84

Welfare, guides to infant’s ... ...

... 13

Wet-nurse .. ... ••• ••• •••

... 7

INDEX.

179

PAGE

Whey, plain ...... ......

.. 156

Whey, plain, and barley water... ...

... 158

Whey, plain, and cream ... ...

122, 158

Whey, plain, and malted food . ...

... 15S

vhey, plain, barley water, and cream

122, 158

jey, plain, to prepare... .. ...

... 157

✓Vdiey, white wine ... ... ...

... 158

Whey, white wine, and cream... ...

... 160

White wine whey... ... ... ...

... 158

White wine whey and cream......

... 160

Wine, Australian, for nursing mothers

... 6

Wine whey, white ... ... ....

... 158

Wine whey, white, and cream... ...

... 160

Woollen stockings ... ... ...

... 40

The Tropical Feeder.

THE BEST MODEL OF FEEDING BOTTLE OBTAINABLE.

The teat is fastened directly on the bottle, and there is no intervening indiarubber tubing to get foul.

When the end is unscrewed the feeder can v>e placed under the tap, and flushed through with water.

For full information—See Pagnr 23, 24.