THIRD CLASS new 4nd enlarged edition

WHITCOMBES

HUMAN

GEOGRAPHY

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FOR AUSTRALIAN SCHOOLS


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CONTENTS

(THIRD CLASS GEOGRAPHY)


Part I. First Notions on Geography

-THE SCHOOL LOCALITY..........

Plan of My School District ..    ..    ..    ..

FINDING DIRECTION ..........

The Compass ..    ..    .. G    ..    ..    ..

Find the Cardinal Points from the Midday Shadow Finding the Cardinal Points by Facing the Midday Sun Finding out where the Sun Rises and Sets ..    ..

-FINDING OUT ABOUT THE SEASONS......

Chart of the Seasons—Summer ..    ..    ..    ..

-SOME TERMS USED IN GEOGRAPHY......

OUR OWN LAND—AUSTRALIA........


Part II. Talks and Stories on Geographical Topics

CHILDREN OF MANY LANDS

Wandi the Aboriginal ..    ..

Children of the Pacific Is.— Alo and Malu of Samo Lal and Chandi of India ..    ..    ..    ..

Feysal and Nerid of Egypt    ..    ..    ..

Ito and Yo-San of Japan ..    ..    ..    ..

Wang Wen-ti of China ..    ..    ..    ..

Mirko of Lapland    ..    .    .. ■    ..

Kalik and Natsek, the Eskimo Children ..

-ANIMAL LIFE OF MANY LANDS ..    ..

With the Buffalo Hunters in North Australia Catching WiLp Elephants in Burma The Homelands of the Lion ..

The Homelands of the Tiger ..

The Homelands of the Monkey ..

The Homelands of the Camel ..

A Visit to the Zoo    ..    ..


-TRAVEL TALKS ......

With the Swifts and the Sandpipers to A Tour of New Guinea    ..    ..

SOME WONDERS OF THE WORLD

A Visit to Vesuvius. .    ..    ..

The Pitch Lake of Trinidad ..

A Visit to the Blue Grotto of Capri The Geysers of New Zealand .. Jenolan Caves ..    ..    ..

Great Waterfalls ..    ..    ..


Siberia


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A PICTURE SHOWING HlGH LANDS AND LOW LANDS.

Find the snowy peak. Of what use is it ? Trace the course of the river. Of what use is it ?

Find the waterfall. Of what use is it ?

From


Human Geography," Book 1, by Dr. J. Russell Smith by kind permission of the John C.


Winston Companyj


Registered at the General Post Office. Sydney, for transmission through the post as a book.

Wholly set up and printed in Australia.

WHITCOMBE & TOMBS PTY. LIMITED, 154 Castlereagh Street. 1941

3Bc2/ 7 Q//d76fy- <T 7

INTRODUCTION

—N ■*»    :


I his is your first real book on Geography. You will • i11<i it easy and pleasant to read, and full of pictures too. At the end of each lesson you will find a list of “things to do.” Most of these are easy enough for you to do yourself, with very little help from your teacher.

Make a scrap-hook out of brown paper, about the size of a large drawing book. Put a picture of your home town on the cover, and call your book “My Geography Scrap-book.” Now when you do your geography lessons you will think of many other pictures you have seen, besides those in your Geography book. If you collect these for your scrap-book it will surprise you to find how easy and interesting your geography will be to learn.

There is no need for you to cut up good books to get your pictures. You will find plenty in old magazines, in newspapers and on post-cards. Pick out the best and arrange them carefully, as the lessons in this book are arranged. Then paste each one neatly in vour scrapbook, and write a little note under it saying what it is and what it teaches you about the lesson you have been learning.

By collecting pictures tor your own book, and working through the “things to do” in this one, you will soon find out many useful things about the world we live in.

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WHITCOMBE’S

HUMAN

GEOGRAPHY

For Australian Schools

Little children at school in India

THIRD CLASS
WIIIT COM BE & TOMBS PTY. LIMITED

SYDNEY AND MELBOURNE

CHRISTCHURCH AUCKLAND WELLINGTON DUNEDIN INVERCARGILL LONDON

WHITCOMBE’S HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

THIRD CLASS

PART I.—FIRST NOTIONS OF GEOGRAPHY.

WHERE TOM BROWN AND I SIT


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1.—The School Locality.

Here arc some plans drawn by Bob King, a boy in Third Glass at a country school. Look at each plan carefully. Then read what Bob wrote* about it.

1 go to a small country school. This is a plan of my classroom. My friend, Tom Brown, and 1 sit at tin* back of the room. Our seat is the farthest from the door. Gan you see the way 1 march when 1 go to play !

'This is a plan of my playground. As soon as 1 go to play, 1 run to the school water tank to get a drink. I have marked the path I take on my plan. Last Arbor Bay I planted a tree in the playground. (Mil you find it ?

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On my plan of the school district or locality, 1 have shown von the track 1 take when I go from my house to school or to t he railway stat ion.

The land around the school is flat. Most of the people in the locality are farmers. They grow wheat and keep sheep.

In a hollow or gully at the foot of Mount Pinnacle, there is a government tank or dam when» drovers water their sheep. The fanners sink dams in hollows at the foot of sloping land on their farms.

I)raw plans of your classroom, your playground, and your school locality.

Is there a river near? Show it on your plan. Do farmers use the water from the river to irrigate' (bring water to) their fields? If there is a large dam in your district, show it clearly on your plan. Notice where the fanners sink small dams or tanks on their land.

In districts near the sea, ships come up

rivers to trade. If vou have such a river on

*

your plan, draw a ship on it.

On the sea coast there are harbours or inlets where ships call. Show any harbour near your school on your plan. Draw a ship in the harbour.

When you have finished the plan, use it to help you build a model in your sand-tray.

Things To Do.

1.    Show railways on your model by making a track of matches.

2.    Pse matches to mark fences. Matches and black cotton will give the idea of wire fences in country districts.

3.    Make model houses from match boxes.

A. Send your plan (or a photo of the model) to a hoy in another district. Ask him to send you his plan. P*uild a model of his district.

2.-F1N DIxG 1 )lKKCTIOX.

Finding the Cardinal Points from the Midday Shadow.

In our part of the world, the sun is always in the north at midday (12 noon). Fix a straight stick upright in the playground where the sun can shine on it. At midday, draw a line along tlie shadow made by the stick. One end of the line points to the sun in the north. The other points to the south.

Draw another line, crossing the north-south line at right angles. When you are facing north, the end of this line on your right hand points to the east. The other end points to the south.

W e have now found the four cardinal (or chief) points of the compass—north, south, east, and west.

Things To Do.

1.    Mark the four cardinal points clearly on your playground.

2.    From the playground direction-cross, find the direction of the railway station, the church, the post office, your house and other places from tlie school.

3.    Try to remember one place (it need not he a building) at each point from your school.

4.    On maps and plans, the top is generally the north. Where are the other cardinal points? Show the four points on the plan of your school locality.

The Compass.

Sailors and airmen keep their course by using a compass. If you have a pocket compass, you will see that it looks something like this.

The compass has four directions on it which we have not mentioned.

They are north-east (N.K.), south-east

S.E.), north-west (X.W.) and south-west (S.W.). North-east is half-way between north and east. Where are the other new points?

The needle of the compass swings on a pin fastened to a card on which the cardinal and the four other common points are printed. W hen you use the compass, the black end of the needle points north. The silvery end points south. The card doesn't swing, so you must turn the compass case until the letter N (for north) is under the north end of the needle. You can now find any direction by using the compass.

Things To do.

1.    See if the compass shows the same direction as the midday shadow line. If the direction isn't quite the same, ask your teacher why.

2.    Add your four new points to the playground direction-cross.

3.    Find the direction of the wind each day. Remember that we name a wind after the direction from which it comes.

4.    Keep a wind chart.

5.    Rub a needle several times in the same direction with one end of a magnet. Put it on a thin piece of cork and float it in a dish of water. Watch what happens.

N

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Finding* the Cardinal Points by Facing the

Midday Sun.

This hoy is facing the sun at midday. North is in front of him. 11 is shadow points to the south. His right hand is pointing to the east, and his left hand to the west.

Go into the playground at midday, and find the cardinal points in this way for yourself.

Finding out Where the Sun Rises and Sets.

We say that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. This is not quite true. It is only in September and March that the sun rises exactly in the east, and sets exactly in the west.

Due east of my home is a hill. In September, the sun rose behind the hill. In October, it crept a little south of the hill. It crept a little farther south in November. In December, it rose almost in the south-east. 1 wondered where it would rise in January. 1 watched. It began to creep back to the east again. By the time March came, the sun rose behind the hill, as it had done in September. It rose a little north of the hill in April and farther north in May. In June, it rose almost in the north-east.

A little church is due west of my home. In September, the sun set behind the church. Each night, it set a little to the south, till, in December, it set nearly in the south-west. Then it began to move a little nearer the church. In March, it set behind the church again. Then it crept a little north each evening. In June, it set almost in the northwest.

As the sun changes its position in the sky the earth slowly changes from one season to another. You will read about the seasons in another part of this book.

Things To Do.

1.    At the sides of this page, there are sketches of the places where the sun rises and sets each month. Watch the sun yourself, and make drawings like these. If you get up too late to see the sun rise, make drawings of the sunset. It always rises opposite to where it sets.

2.    On what side of your school does the sun never shine? Why?

3.    Notice the months when the sun shines for a long time each day. Are they hot or cold?

4.    When you have read the chapter, “The Story of the Seasons,'’ answer these questions:—In what season does the sun rise south of east? When does it rise north of east ?

3.—Finding out about the Seasons.

Poplar trees in summer.

The same trees in winter.


Day and Night.

You know that the sun seems to rise in the east in the morning, pass across the sky during the day, and set in the west at night. What really happens is that the sun is still, but that the earth turns round on its axis once in 24 hours. The half of the earth turned towards the sun is having day, while the half turned away from the sun is having night. Day is the time for work and night is the time for rest.

The earth moves round the sun. It takes a year to do this. At some parts of the year, the place where we live seems to be closer to the sun than it is at other times. That is why we divide the year into parts called seasons. They are spring, summer, autumn and winter. They follow each other, and each lasts for three months.

In summer, the sun sends us more light and heat than it does at any other season. The weather is hot and the days are long. In winter, the sun sends us less light and heat than it does at any other season. The weather is cold, and the days are short.

In spring (September, October and November), many trees and plants that have been lifeless during the cold winter are covered with green leaves. Birds build their nests. In summer (December, January and February) crops ripen. Baby birds try their wings. In autumn (March, April and May), many trees and plants lose their leaves which turn red, brown or yellow, and

A Springtime scene.


fall to the ground. These trees and plants sleep during the winter, in winter (June, July and August), when we get up in the morning, we find the grass white with frost. Few birds are seen in this cold season. In some districts, snow covers the ground.

As the seasons alter, we notice many changes in our parks and gardens, on the farms and in the bush. In the orchards and the shops we see different fruit from season to season. We play different games and wear different clothes.

Length

of

Days

Weather

Clothes

Games

Fruit

In Park, Garden, Bush, Orchard, or on Farm

Birds Seen

What Birds are doing

Long

Very

Light

Cricket

Plums

Fruit being

Swallows

Feeding

days

Sun

rises

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south of east.

hot

clothes

swimming

pears

peaches

picked. Crops being harvested. Wheat being carted to silo. Asters, phlox, zinnias, cosmos are in flower.

cuckoos

swifts

sandpipers

butcher-bird

dotterel

magpie-lark

honev-eater

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breeding

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y y y y

A (’hart of the Seasons.

This is the beginning of a chart for the summer season. Keep one like it and write down what you notice each season. You will be able to think of more things to write about than there are here. When you fill in the columns about birds, put down every bird you see. If the birds are building their nests, write that down, and so on. The next column will tell you some things to write about.

Things To Find Out Each Season.

1. If the days are long or short;

LL if the days are hot, cool or cold ;

3.    the clothes people wear;

4.    the games played ;

f>. the fruit in the shops or on the trees;

6. what is happening in the park, the garden, the bush, or on the farm.

4.—Some Terms Used ix

Geogra piiy.

A mountain is the name for very high land. If it were not so high, it would be a hill. A hill is high land less than 1,000 feet above the sea. A mountain is reallv a big hill.

From my house, at the foot of a mountain, I can see other mountains. The low land between the mountains is a valley. Many people live in the valley. Can you think of several reasons for this? The mountains protect it from the wind. When the rain runs down the mountain side, it carries mud into the valley. This mud makes the soil in the valley so rich that things grow well there.

It often rains on mountains and hills. Most of the rain soaks into the ground until it reaches clay or rock. Then it finds its way out of the side of the mountain or hill and forms a spring of clear water. The water runs down the mountain side or slope as a small stream or creek. Other creeks join it, and it becomes a river running down to the sea. Sometimes other rivers flow into it. Creeks and rivers running into the main stream are called tributaries.

The spring in the mountains where the river began its life as a little creek is called its source. As the river comes near the sea, it becomes wide, and, sometimes, deep. The place where it runs into the sea is called its mouth.

Not all rivers flow straight into the sea. Sometimes a creek or a river flows into a hollow in the ground, and forms a big pool. This is a lake.

When the river has flowed down the mountain slope, it runs through fiat country before it reaches the sea or the lake where it ends its journey. This fiat land is a plain. Plains often have rich soil. Most of the people of tin* world live on plains. Wheat is grown and sheep are kept on inland plains. Dairy cattle are bred on plains near the sea, and on mountain slopes and tablelands.

Flat land on the top of mountains is called a tableland or mountain plain. Flat land near tin* s<*a is called a coast a! plain. Once I went in a boat down the river which rises or lias its source in tin* mountains near mv home. I sailed out of its mouth on to the sea, and along the sea-shore. In the distance, the shore looked like a long line at the edge of the sea. This is called the coastline.

In the sea, I saw a piece of land surrounded by water. This was an island. There are many islands in the sea. There are also islands in many lakes and rivers.

Mountains, hills, valleys, rivers, lakes

and plains are found all over the world.

Your teacher will show you how they are

marked on maps. See how many ot them

you can find on your map ol the world.

Some countries, like Switzerland, have no

coastline, because thev are not near the sea.

Find these countries on your map of the world. Make a list of the countries which have coastlines, and a list of those which have not. Try to find some islands on your map. Australia is a very large island.

Things To Do.

1.    Make a model in your sand-tray, showing a hill, a valley, a river, a lake, a plain, the coastline, and an island near the coast.

2.    Collect pictures of these for your scrapbooks.

3.    Write a composition telling the story of a river.

4.    Study the relief map of Australia on page 14. Find some Australian rivers that flow into lakes.

Most people live on the plains


Mustering on an Australian sheep station. The pictuie shows both high lands and low lands.

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THIRD CLASS

5.—Our Own Land: Australia.

Australia is the smallest continent. To the east of Australia is the largest ocean, the Pacific. To the west is the Indian Ocean. The Araf ura Sea and some smaller seas lie to the north. To the south is the Southern Ocean.

Look at the relief map of Australia on page 14. Do you notice that the coastline has few large openings? In the north is the Gulf of Carpentaria. In the south is a long, narrow bend in the coast called the Great Australian Bight.

Cape York is the most northern point in Australia.    Wilson9s Promontory is the

most southern. Find these places on the map. You will see from your map that the distance across Australia from coast to coast is greater than the distance from north to south.

The relief map shows the build of Australia which is also explained in a sketch on this page.

Round the coast is a narrow plain which lias a good rainfall in most parts, and is watered by many small rivers. Most of the people of Australia live on the coastal plain. On the coast of Queensland, which is very hot and wet, sugar-cane, bananas and pineapples grow well. On the coastal plain of New South Wales and Victoria are timber forests and dairy farms. In some parts, oranges and grapes grow.

The coast of South Australia has a light rainfall. In many places in this district, farmers grow wheat and breed sheep. On the south-west coast of Western Australia are rich dairy farms, orchards, and hardwood forests of karri and jarrah. Cattle are bred in great numbers on the north and north-west coast of Australia.

The Eastern Highlands run in a bow for over 2,000 miles down the eastern side of Australia, from the north of Queensland to the middle of Victoria. In parts of Queensland, these highlands are hundreds of miles across. Farmers on the highlands grow wheat and other crops, and keep sheep and

The Build of Australia. Note the four main divisions as shown by the different shadings.

cattle. On the western slopes of the Eastern Highlands, which are not steep like the eastern slopes, there are valuable wheat lands. Sheep are bred in large numbers on these western slopes.

The highest mountain in Australia, Mount Kosciusko, in the south of N.S.W., is in the Eastern Highlands. The Great Dividing Range is another name for the Eastern IIighlands.

The Central Plain stretches from the Gulf of Carpentaria to the southern part of Australia. Cattle and sheep are bred on the northern and central parts of this plain. Sheep and wheat farms are spread over the southern part. Near the Western Slopes of the Eastern Highlands, wheat farming is more important than wool-growing. As we travel away from the slopes, we find fewer wheat farms. The rainfall becomes less, and the land, on that account, is more suitable for sheep-breeding.

Cooper's Creek and other rivers flow across the middle of the Central Plain into Lake Eyre. In dry weather, these streams often stop flowing. The southern part of the Central Plain is watered by the Murray-Darling River which rises in the Eastern Highlands. Your map will show you

1 he Hostel at Mt. Kosciusko, the hi^he^t peak in Australi i. This is the coldest region in Australia, and snow

sometimes falls even in summer.


that this river (lows into Encounter Bay. The Darling is really a tributary of the Murray. The Murrumbidgee is another tributary of the Murray, and the Lachlan is a tributary of the Murrumbidgee. Between the Murrumbidgee and the Murray is a rieli sheep and wheat district called the liirenna.

The Western Tableland or Western Plateau stretches over more than half of Australia. Most of this tableland is a high sandy plain with little water. The highest part is the Macdounell Ban ye in Central Australia. 1 lore there is water, and horses, cattle and sheep are bred.

Most of Central Australia is hot and dry. The little rain that does fall comes in summer. For most of the year, Central Australia is a desert. Very few white people live there.

On the northern parts of the Western Tableland heavy rain falls in summer. There are large cattle stations in this area. On the south-western part of the tableland, where there are more than 25 inches of rain each year, forests of jarrah and karri are found.

Learn the names of the four main parts of Australia:—

(1)    The Coastal Plain.

(2)    The Eastern Highlands.

(3)    The Central Plain.

(4)    The Western Tableland or Plateau.

Things To Do.

1.    Make a plasticine model of the four divisions. Use green plasticine for the plains, red for tlie Eastern Highlands, and yellow for the Western Tableland.

2.    Show the Murray-Darling River, Lake Eyre, and Mt. Kosciusko.

3.    Use paper dags to show the position of your school, and places about which you have read in this part of your book.

4.    Collect pictures about Australia for your scrap-book. Try to get pictures to illustrate life on the plains, the highlands, and the Western Tableland. Arrange them in special parts of your scrap-book.

5.    You may like to get your class-mates to help you build a large playground map of Australia.

PART II.—TALKS AND STORIES ON GEOGRAPHICAL TOPICS.

1.—Children of Many Lands.

A camp of Australian blacks.


Wandi the Aboriginal Boy.

Wandi is an Australian black boy. The hunting ground of liis tribe is many miles west of Alice Springs, a town in the middle of Australia. Wandi and his sister, Brinawa, wear no clothes. They seldom see white men.

The men of the tribe carry stone axes and knives, shields, nulla-nullas, boomerangs and spears. They use a “woomera” or throwing stick to throw their spears a long way. They hunt kangaroos and emus. Women, and children like Wandi and Brinawa, catch small birds, honey-ants, snakes, goannas, lizards and grubs. They gather seed from the nardoo plant, and grind it into flour by rubbing it between two stones.

At night, the hi acks cam]) at a water hole, where they sometimes spear fish. They cook their food in hot ashes, in dry weather, they dig in tin» ground for water-bottle frogs that store water in their bodies. They know where to find soaks or underground springs in the beds of dry rivers. Blacks never waste water, for Central Australia is a hot, dry land.

Their homes are bark lints called umia-mias.” Blacks never stay long in one place, and mia-mias are easy to build. To make a mia-mia, two forked sticks are stuck in the ground. Another stick is placed across them. Then bark and branches are leant against the sticks.

When Wandi and Brinawa were babies, they slept in cradles lined with leaves. A bark cradle is a coolamon. One made of wood is a pit chi.

The men, women and children of the tribe dance and sing at meetings held round

Iheir camp fires. The meetings are called corrobóreos. When Wandi is a young man, a special meeting called the bora Mil be held at full moon. Only men will attend it. (’ids will be made on Wandi’s body. Clay will be put in them to make high ridges on his skin. He will be given a belt of hair. A bull-roarer is used to keep women and children away from the bora. They will be killed it they come near the place where it is held. The bull-roarer is a piece of wood shaped like a fish and fastened to a stick. It makes a crying noise when swung in the air.

Wandi can copy the sounds made by every bird and animal in his hunting ground. He plays with a “kukerra” or playing stick. It is four feet long, and shaped like a tadpole. He throws it at an ant-hill. It he hits it, the “kukerra” bounces and comes back to him. He has a toy boomerang. Sometimes he plays with his pet dingo.

“Hunting the Kangaroo” is a game played by Wandi and other boys. One boy hops about like a kangaroo. The others hunt him with toy spears.

Brinawa has a doll made from a forked stick. I t has no arms and no head. Brinawa carries it in a dilly bag of woven grass. She thinks it is a wonderful toy.

Things To Do.

1.    Trace out a map of Australia. Shade in the part where Wandi lives.

2.    build a model of a mia-mia or gunyah.

2. Make a boomerang out of plasticine.

4. Try to make a small bag out of grass.

f>. Collect pictures about the Australian blacks.

6. lii some tribes, cuts are not made on the bodies of young men. Try to find out what is done instead.

Children of the Pacific Islands: Alo and Malu of Samoa.

Scattered over the blue Pacific Ocean are hundreds of beautiful islands. Some are coral islands that have been built up by millions of tiny sea-creatures called coral polyps (pol-ips), which live and work in warm, shallow parts of the ocean. Many of the South Sea Islands, as the islands of the Pacific are called by most people, are the tops of mountains whose slopes are under the sea. Around these islands, which are mostly larger than those built by the coral polyps, these tiny creatures make reefs or low banks of coral.

The natives of the South Sea Islands are divided into two groups; the frizzy-haired and the wavy-haired. West of the Fiji Islands, which belong to our Empire, the natives are mostly short people with frizzy hair, like the Solomon Islanders and the Papuans. East of Fiji, the tall, lazy, wavv-haired natives live. Both the frizzy-heads and the wavy-heads have many of the same habits, grow the same crops, and make the roofs of their houses of grass and palm leaves.

There are many happy children in the South Sea Islands, but we shall read about Alo and his sister, Malu, because they live in the Samoan Islands, the most beautiful of them all. These islands are north-east of Fiji.

Some of the islands of Samoa belong to the United States of America, but others are governed from New Zealand. One of these is Fpolu (Oo-po-loo) the loveliest of the group. Fpolu is the home of Alo and Malu. They are proud to live on the island, for near their village is Vailima (Vy-/ee-mah) where the great Scottish writer, Robert Louis Stevenson, who wrote “Treasure Island," lived for some years. Alo and Malu sometimes walk along the “Road of the Loving Heart," which loads to the grave of this famous man who was loved by the natives of l polu. They built the “Road of the Loving Heart” which winds to the top of the hill where Stevenson is sleeping.

Alo wears a “lava lava” round his waist. This is a short skirt of tapa cloth, which is made from the bark of trees. Malu sometimes wears a “lava lava,” but she

likes her skirt of palm-leaves much better. Round her neck she hangs strings of brightly coloured seeds. In her hair she puts pretty flowers. The skin of Alo and Malu shines like satin, for they rub it with coconut oil. Once a week, the children cover their wavy hair with lime. Their hair is really black, but the lime makes it a shiny red-gold colour. The tall, brownskinned, good-looking natives of Samoa are very fond of red hair.

A native house in Samoa, one of the South Sea Islands.

[Tattersall, photo

Alo and Malo live in a strange house. The framework of the house is made of the trunks of coconut trees. The round roof is thatched with sugar-cane leaves and palm leaves, held together by strips of palm. The roof is made so that it can be lifted off the house. A roof takes a long time to build, so the Samoans take it away with them when they decide to build a house in another place. When they build the new house, they put the old roof on it.

The Samoans build the framework of tree-trunks, but they do not make walls for their houses. Instead, they make blinds from coconut fibre and banana and palm

leaves. They hang these from the framework of their houses. As Samoa is in the Tropics, or the very hot part of the world near the equator, these blinds are rolled up in fine weather to let the cool sea breezes blow through the houses. When it is raining, the blinds are let down. As heavy showers fall about once each day, the blinds are often pulled down.

There is only one room in Alo and Malu’s house. Malu and her mother cover the floor with mats which they make from tapa cloth. They paint pretty patterns on them with dyes made from the juices of plants and seeds. Their favourite colours are red, yellow and brown. Mats of tapa cloth are spread on the floor for beds. The beds have queer pillows, for they are made of pieces of bamboo fastened to two low legs of bamboo or palm-wood.

Packing bananas in Samoa for export.

[Tattersall, photo

The heat and the rain make plants grow well in the islands of Samoa. On Upolu and the other islands, the mountains are covered with thick forests in which many kinds of palm-trees, bananas and breadfruit grow wild. Brightly coloured flowers grow wild also. Alo and Malu love flowers. When visitors come to see them, the children wear wreaths of flowers round their necks, and place garlands of flowers round the necks of their visitors.

Bullock waggons carting coconuts to the storing sheds.

[Tattersall, photo


Alo likes to paddle his canoe out to the coral reef around Upolu and spear fish. His mother wraps the fish in leaves from the taro plant and cooks them in hot ashes. The taro plant, which has big dark green leaves, is grown in the garden round the children’s hut. The roots of the plant are eaten as food, while the leaves are used as cups and plates.

In the garden there is a patch of yams, which taste like sweet potatoes, and clumps of banana and breadfruit trees. Alo and Malu eat plenty of bananas, and enjoy a meal of baked breadfruit.

On their lovely island, the tall coconut palm grows nearly everywhere. It is very useful. The milk inside the nut is good to drink. The white nut under the coconut shell is eaten. The hard shell is made into cups and water jugs. From the leaves, blinds and roofs are made. The framework of houses is built of the tree-trunks. The coconut fibre is used to make rope and fishing nets. Every part of the tree is useful, even the oil which Alo and Main use to rub into their dark skin.

'The chief amusement of the children and all the natives of Samoa is dancing. When they dance, they sit on the ground and swav their bodies about, and make graceful movements with their arms. As they decorate themselves with flowers and ferns, the dancers look very beautiful. All the time they are dancing, the Samoans sing their lovely songs.

Alo and Main are care-free, jolly little people. If you were to go and see fhem, they would cover you with bright flowers, and say, ‘ ‘ talofa, ’ ’ which means “I give my love to you.”

Things To Do.

1.    Find out the poem that is carved on the grave of Robert Louis Stevenson. Learn it.

2.    Make a model of a house in Samoa. The picture in this book will help you.

3.    Collect pictures about the Pacific Islands for your scrap-books.

4.    Imagine that you are Alo or Malu, and tell the class about your life.


HOOPS OF CANE OR LONG, THIN SAPLINGS FOR FRA ME WO RI

REEDS OR CANES WOVEN

THROUGH FRAMEWORK FOR WALLS

5. You may like to compare Alo’s house with a very different one in South Africa. It is the home of a Zulu family. The picture shows that the Zulu hut is round like a huge bee-hive. The framework is made ot* many hoops of cane or thin saplings. Reeds of cane are woven through the frame and the roof and walls are covered with thatch of grass and large leaves. The doorway is so low and small that you have to crawl through it. YVhy do you think it is made like that? A number of Zulu huts arranged in a ring forms a village or kraal (krahl).


Their father had a Buffalo to pull his plough.

Lai and Chandi of India.

Lai and his sister, Chandi, are darkskinned Hindu children. They live by the Ganges River in India, the land of elephants and tigers. Benares, a city famous for its beautiful temples, is near their village. Like all Hindus, Lai and ( ’liandi think that the Ganges is a sacred river, and that Benares is the most holy place in India.

Their home is n mud hut with a straw roof. They sit on the floor, and sleep on it, wrapped in cotton sheets. Their land is so hot that they don't need woollen blankets to cover them.

The children drink water. This is boiled first to kill the germs of a terrible plague called cholera, which causes many deaths in India. They eat with their fingers. Their food is boiled rice and currv.

In fine weather, their mother cooks outside the house. In June, when it rains heavily, she cooks inside on a mud fireplace. As there are no windows, the house is soon filled with smoke.

Their father has a buffalo to pull his plough. He grows rice in his field. The rice straw makes roofs and mats. ( liandi and her mother grind the grain into flour between two stones.

( liandi likes to make mud pies. Lai flies a kite. Chandi doesn't go to school, but Lai does. His teacher is the priest at the village temple.

Lai’s father pays the priest a little money, and gives him rice. Lai has only four holidays a month, two days at new moon, and two at full moon. A school festival is held for a week each year, to honour the Hindu goddess of learning. Then Lai wears his best clothes, a cloth called a “dhoti” round his waist, a short shirt, a long white robe, a turban, and sandals. At other times, he wears only a cotton shirt because of the heat.

When his father is working, he wears only a “dhoti” aftd a turban. On feast days, he dresses as Lai does at the school festival.

Chandi and her mother both wear a cotton cloth called a “sari" wrapped round their bodies. One end comes over their heads like a hood. They have silver bangles on their arms and legs and wear ear-rings.

Sometimes, Lai and Chandi go to Benares in a cart pulled by a zebu, a humpbacked bullock. They visit the temples and the bazaar, where there are many shops. They watch the snake-charmers, and the jugglers, who do wonderful tricks.

Things To Do.

1.    Make a model of Lai's house.

2.    Collect pictures about India and Hindu life for your scrap-books.

3.    Draw Lai flying his kite.

4.    Dress a doll to look like Chandi.

5.    Make a list of crops grown in India.

Feysal and Nericl of Egypt.

Feysal and his sister, Xerid, live in a village on the River Nile in Fgypt. Their home is about sc*veiity milc*s from Cairo, a big city. The Pyramids and the Sphinx a re near (1airo.

The Pyramids are old stone tombs that look like the tents of giants. The Sphinx is the oldest statue in the world. It has a man’s head, but a lion’s body.

Fgypt is a hot land, so the ehildren are dark. Tliev wear light cotton clothes. Their home is a mud hut with a Hat roof of straw. Inside are only a few mats, some water pots, and a brass pot for cooking.

Their fat her is a 4 ‘ fellah '' or fa rmer. 11 e uses a bullock and a camel to pull his wooden, plough. In summer, he grows cot ton and corn, in winter, he grows wheat and barlev.

Feysal helps liis father in the iields. Xerid and her mother often work in the fields, too. Sometimes, Feysal rides his pet donkev or makes whistles from reeds growing in the Riven* Xile. Xerid helps her mother grind wheat and corn into Hour by turning a handmill made from two stones. She makes “kous kous” by rolling steamed wheat into little balls. Xerid brings drinking water from the river in a clay jar or pitcher which she carries on her head, just as Fgyptian girls did in the days of Joseph, thousands of years ago. In the villages along the Xile the people still live in the same way as tin* ancient Fgypt ians did in I >ible t imes.

It seldom rains in Fgypt. Once a year, at the end of summer, tin» Xile overflows, and brings mud and water to the iields. For the rest of the year, Feysal and his father water their crops by using a “shadoof” or water-lift. This is made» by swinging a pole from a post on the river bank. At one end of the pole is a leather bucket. At the other is a heavy lump of mud. Feysal pulls the bucket into the river. When he lets go, down swings the mud weight, and up comes the bucket. His father empties it into little channels dug across his land.

l sing a “ shadoof ” or ancient water-lift.

Many farmers live near (lie River Nile. The rest of Egypt is a desert where Arabs wander with t-heir eamels. Some Arabs make their homes at an oasis, a place where there is a spring of water. Here they grow dates, figs, oranges and crops of corn.

There are not so many shadoofs now as there used to be. The farmers have been taught to make better use of the waters of the river, and have cut channels over their fields where the water may run. W hitt* men have» built great walls or dams across the Nile to store up the water. When a farmer needs water he opens a gate and lets it (low along the channels on his farm.

A beautiful scene at an oasis.

are date palms

The trees


[h'.N.A. photo

Arabs and camels making their way to an oasis in the desert.

Things To Do.


1.


‘ )


4.


Collect pictures of Egypt books.

Build an Egyptian village the Nile.

Build the house of Feysal Tn your sand tray show desert.


for your scrap-

oil the banks of

and Nerid. an oasis in the


wv C. - ,z>


*


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Silk comes from the little cases or cocoons which silkworms spin about themselves. This picture shows Japanese children picking the cocoons out of the straw in which the silkworms were put before they began

to spin.    fFrontHome Folks," by Dr. J. Russell Smith

Ito and Yo-San of Japan.

1 to and his sister, Yo-San, have yellow skin and slanting eyes. They dress in kimonos. They wear short socks called “foot-gloves.” Their street shoes are blocks of wood tied to their feet bv two

%r

cords. At homo, they wear straw slippers. Yo-San wears a flower in her hair. She often carries her mother’s baby on her back.

Their father has a silkworm farm near Tokyo, the biggest city in Japan, “the Land of the Rising Sun.” Sometimes they go to Tokyo in a rickshaw, a sulky pulled by a man. They like to see the motor cars in the streets.

Their house is made of paper fastened to bamboo frames. It has no doors or windows, but its walls slide back to let in air and sunshine. In April, when the cherry trees flower, the garden round their house is bright with pink blossoms.

Sticct Life in Japan

In the house, tin* children and their parents sit on cushions on the floor with their legs tucked under them. They use low stools for tables. They sleep on quilts on the floor, and rest their necks—not their heads-—on pillows of wood or cloth filled with sawdust.

The house has one room. Charcoal is burnt in a fire-box in the centre. Paper screens divide the house into bedrooms at night.

A lower 1'estival in Japan.

Yo-Nan and I to eat rice, fish and vegetables with their chopsticks. They drink tea, without milk or sugar, from cups with no handles. Water for the tea is boiled in a kettle on the fire-box.

Many Japanese grow rice or tea. Others are fishermen. Manv more work in factories in cities like Tokyo.

No matter when they are born, people in Japan add a year to their age on New Year’s Day. Then Tto is given a kite and a top. Yo-Kan gets a little wooden bat called a battledore, and a ball with feathers stuck in if called a shuttlecock. They feast on rice cakes boiled in soup, and drink *Moso" made from sweet rice wine and spice.

This isn't their only birthday party.

Every girl in Japan has a party on 3rd March. This is “The Feast of the Peach Blossom” or “The Doll Festival." ()n this day, girls place dolls, which have been kept in their family for many years, on shelves in their homes. They get new dolls as presents.

Boys have a party on 5th May. This is “The Feast of the Iris," a Japanese flower. Thev wash in water into which an iris has

•r

been dipped, and drink rice wine in which an iris has been soaked, to make them brave and strong. The day is also “The Feast of Flags." Paper flags shaped like the carp, a Japanese fish, are flown from poles in the garden of every house. A big flag is flown for the eldest son, and smaller ones for other sons. The carp is a brave fish, so it teaches boys to be brave. Boys are given kites shaped like a fish or an animal. They feast on rice boiled with red beans, and on rice cakes. In their houses, statues of great Japanese heroes are placed on a shelf.

There are many other feast days in Japan. In November, “The Feast of the Chrysanthemum," the favourite flower of »Japan, is held. There is also “The Feast of Lanterns.”

Ito and Yo-San are taught to love flowers and mountains. Sometimes they go to see Fuji Yama, near Tokyo, the most beautiful mountain in Japan.

When they are at school, Ito and Yo-San don’t wear their kimonos. They dress like Australian boys and girls. Their schools are like ours.

Things To Do.

1.    Dress in kimonos and pretend you are having afternoon tea in a Japanese house.

2.    Build a Japanese house. Fse matches for the bamboo frames.

3.    Collect pictures about Japan.

4.    Make a battledore and a shuttlecock.

5.    Dress a doll like a Japanese child.

6.    Make a model of a rickshaw.

Chinese workmen planting rice plants in a field that has been flooded with water.    [F.X..I. photo]


Wang Wen-ti of China.

AY ang A\ en-t 1 lives in a mud house with a straw roof on the banks of the Yang-tse River in China. Wang is his family name. We should call Wen-ti his Christian name. He puts his family name first. If we did this, Jack Smith would be called Smith Jack.

W en-ti has yellow skin and slanting eyes. His straight, black hair is cut short. Once all men and boys in China wore pigtails. Wen-ti's sister, Fu-jen, has a pigtail. When she gets married, she will tie her hair up.

Wen-ti s lather is a 1 armor. He grows rice and vegetables. lie has some bamboos and some mulberry trees. He makes furniture t rom bamboo cane. 11 is silkworms cat mulberry leaves. Silkworms spin cocoons ol silk. \\ en-ti and Fu-jen like to unwind the silk. Their father sells it. He keeps his silkworms on trays in his house.

Fu-jen and Wen-ti drink tea without milk or sugar. They eat with chop-sticks, not with knives and forks. 'They have rice at every meal. Sometimes they have fish and vegetables, too. They seldom eat meat. Their father owns two buffaloes, but he keeps them to pull his plough.

A Chinese farmer ploughing

On the river the children see ships with bamboo sails called junks. They also see houseboats or sampans. There are so many people in China that all of them cannot get land to live on. Large numbers live on houseboats. Some of them are fishermen. They fish with birds called cormorants. Each bird has a string tied to one leg, and a ring round its neck to stop it eating tlie fish. It dives into the water and catches a fish. Then its owner pulls it into the boat and takes the fish.

C hinese Houseboat

Wen-ti wears long trousers of blue cotton, and a tunic with baggy sleeves. lie has cloth sandals and a round black cap. Fu-jen wears long, wide trousers and a jacket that buttons at the side, and has a high collar. In wet weather, they wear raincoats of bamboo leaves.

Fu-jen and Wen-ti play a kind of tennis. They use a cork with leathers stuck in it for a ball, and hit it with their slippers. Wen-ti flies a kite. He also plays marbles and peg top. Fu jen makes mmlpies and plays hopscotch.

Chinese children in a houseboat

When their father takes them to town on his wheelbarrow Fu-jen buys a fan. Wen-ti buys a new kite. So does his father, for even men flv kites in China. The favourite pastime in China is kite-flying.

Fu-jen stays at home all day and helps her mother to weave cotton cloth. Wen-ti goes to school, lie writes with a brush instead of a pen. He starts at the bottom right-hand corner of his page, and writes up and down like this—

for

sign

for

signs

tree

the

words.

uses

is

This

Wenti

Things To Do.

1.    Make a model of Wang Wen-ti s house.

2.    Write a story telling how he would catch fish.

2. Dress dolls in clothes like those worn by Wang Wen-ti and Fu-jen.

4. Collect pictures about China.

Mirko of Lapland.

Mirko is a yellow-skinned Lapp boy in north Sweden, where tlie sun never shines in winter, but shines even at miiinicfhf in summer.

in the icy winter, when the ‘‘Northern Lights'’ blaze in the sky, he lives in a wooden house in the village of Abisko. In summer, lie goes with his father and other Lapps to find pastures for their reindeer. Then lie lives in a tent or kata (pronounced “kaw-ta”) of cloth or deerskin. The reindeer feed on lichens growing under the snow in winter. In summer, they eat grass and buttercups on the mountain slopes.

Mirko rides in a pulka or sledge drawn by a reindeer. 11 is father runs beside it on skis. Sometimes Mirko rides a reindeer. It isn’t strong enough to carry a man on its back.

A kata or tent in Lapland


The postman delivers

For part of the year, Mirko goes to school at Abisko. In summer, a teacher goes with the Lapps on their travels. Mirko\s sister, Inka, is at a college at Mur-jek, where tin* Swedish Government trains Lapps to Ik* teachers. At school, he learns that Lapland is tin* name for the north of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, when» MO,000 Lapps live. Some live in forests of fir and birch all the year, and food their reindeer on moss and grass. They grow crops of rye, and have comfortable homes. The coastal Lapps are fishermen. Only mountain Lapps like Mirko’s father travel with their herds in summer.

M irko\s father keeps dogs to ‘‘round up" the reindeer, and protect them from the wolf, the lynx, and the wolverine. Old dogs mind the Lapp babies while they sleep in their cradles of birch bark.

Mirko eats reindeer meat, and cheese made from the milk of the reindeer cow or from goat’s milk, for his mother keeps a tow goats. His boots and clothes are made of deerskin. Sometimes he wears

the mail in Lapland.

woollen clothes. His coloured cloth cap tells the Lapp tribe to which he belongs. Round his neck is a little» bell, so that he can’t get lost.

Like other Lapp boys, Mirko is a clever wood carver. During the long winter evenings, he spends his time whittling toys out of wood. His father sells reindeer skins and furs, and buys knives, cloth, tobacco, coffee, sugar, and other things he needs to make his life pleasant.

Things To Do.

1.    Ask your teacher to read you the chapter about Lapland in “The Story of San Michele" by Axel Munthe.

2.    Make a model of a kata.

M. Pretend you are a Lapp, and tell the class

about vour life.

*

4. Collect pictures about Lapland.

f>. Find out what the Lapps use for beds, thread, socks.

(>. Draw a reindeer pulling a sledge.

7. Read any stories about Lapland in your school library.

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Eskimos live in the land that is shaded.


PACIFIC

OCEAN


Kalik and Natsek, the Eskimo Children.

Kalik and his sister, Xatsek, are yellowskinned Eskimo children. They look like Lapps. They live at Aklavik (Ak-la-vik), a village near the mouth of the Mackenzie River in the far north of Canada. Two hundred Eskimos, some white men and some Indians live in the village. In winter, Kalik and Xatsek go to the village school.

Their father, Xar-gar-chuk, owns a wooden house with four rooms. Wood isn't scarce near the Mackenzie River. Spruce trees, 50 feet high, grow along its banks. The house has furniture and crockery like ours, a cooking stove that burns wood, a wireless set and a gramophone. Orulo, the children's mother, is proud of her sewing machine.

Xar-gar-chuk and many other Eskimos in the village own small schooners fitted with petrol engines. They are fur traders.

An Eskimo hoy with young husky


In winter, when the Arctic Ocean and the rivers of North Canada are frozen, and snow covers the ground, the men of Aklavik go hunting. The hunters ride in sledges pulled by reindeer or strong dogs called “huskies." Like the Lapps, the Eskimos often use reindeer to pull loads. They eat reindeer meat. Once Eskimos hunted with spears. Now they use guns and traps. They catch the Arctic fox, the mink, tin* marten and the musk rat. Sometimes they shoot a polar bear or a wolf.

The hunters build “igloos." An “igloo" is a hut made of ice bricks, and can be built

Eskimos with their sledges drawn by a team of dogs.

in two hours. It is shaped like a basin turned upside down. A low tunnel is made for a door. Eskimos crawl into an “igloo." It is lighted by kerosene lamps or bowls of fat in which wicks of moss are dipped. At the (‘ini of winter, the hunters take their furs back to Aklavik.

Erom June to October, there is summer. For some months in summer the sun never sets. When the ice breaks, the Eskimos go tishing. Kalik and Xatsek help their mother to dry some fish. It is stored till the next winter.

During summer Xar-gar-chuk sails in his schooner to buy skins from Eskimo seal-

A happy Eskimo child

hunters who live along tin* coast in skin tents called “tupiks.” In winter, they build “igloos." They hunt seals in summer in light narrow boats of skin called “kayaks.' These can In* paddled between the ice-floes.

Xar-gar-chuk makes trips down the Mackenzie Rive]’ to buy furs from Eskimos and Indians. He sells them to white men who visit North Canada in steamers to buy them. For his furs Xar-gar-chuk gets money, and buys flour, fruit, vegetables, sugar, salt, guns, iron goods, cloth and warm clothes.

People like Kalik, Xatsek and their parents live in Alaska, Northern Canada, Labrador and Greenland. Many dress like white people. In winter some wear Eskimo clothes. They have long boots of sealskin or deerskin reaching above the knees, trousers of skin that come up to their armpits, fur gloves, and a “parka'' or coat of fur that comes down to their knees. It has a warm hood.

Things To Do.

1. Find pictures about the Eskimos.

Build a winter village near the sea. Build the igloos out of loaf-sugar. Be sure to add 1 unnels for doors.

3.    Dress a doll like an Eskimo.

4.    Read a little book by Martin Murray called “Two Boys in Eskimo Land."

2.—Animal Life of Many Lands.

With the Buffalo-Hunters in North Australia.

Jack Brown, a good rider and a crack shot, has gone to live with his uncle, a buffalo-hunter in the Northern Territory. Here is a letter sent by Jack to his younger brother, a schoolboy in Sydney

Cannon Hill Camp,

Near the East Alligator River, Northern Territory.

17th October, 1940.

Dear Frank,

After a long sea-trip from Sydney, ! reached Darwin, the chief town of the Northern Territory. Here Uncle Harry met me with his new lugger, in which he had brought a load oi buffalo-hides to Darwin. Before leaving for the East Alligator River, which flows into Van Diemen's (¡ulf about 140 miles east of Darwin, Uncle loaded the lugger with supplies of food, tobacco and bullets, and many bags of salt which he needs for treating buffalo-hides soon after the beasts are skinned.

We lett Darwin early one morning, and ran nort h across ('larence St rail to Melville Island, where we spent the day. On Melville Island 1 saw many fall blackfellows and some of the big, slate-grey buffaloes that roam the plains of the island in thousands. Next morning we left Melville Island, and, as the lugger is fitted with a powerful motor, reached the mouth of the

Alligator River during tin* night. Uncle's blaekboys, Tommy Graham and Billy Smith, who called themselves after the tirst white men for whom they worked, let down the anchor and we stopped at the month of the river till morning. Then wo moved slowly up the river, in which there are many sandbanks, for about 30 miles, till we came to a rough, wooden jetty running out into the water. Mere Uncle stopped tin* lugger and Tommy and Billy moored it to the jetty.

I n a few minutes about a dozen blaekboys jumped aboard. They had come from the camp at Gannon Hill to unload the supplies. They told Uncle that his partner, Dave Dawson, was bringing sonic horses down to the river for us. We walked down the jetty to the shore and met Dave with the horses. Now wo left the blaekboys to bring the supplies to the* camp, and rode about a mile to Gannon 1 lill.

Our camp, near tIk* foot of Gannon Hill, is a large hut built of trunks of pandanus palm-trees, and roofed with sheets of bark from the paper-bark tea-tree. Near the hut are some horse-yards, where the horses are kept in the wet season. In the Northern 'Territory, which is hotter than New South Wales, because it is much nearer tin? equator, the wet season begins in December and ends in March. During the “wet,” as the wet season is called, the plains around the East Alligator and other rivers are covered with water to a depth of as much as ten feet. Every buffalo-hunter builds a camp like ours, in a place where the land is too high to be flooded. During the “dry," the hunters spend weeks away from the camp on hunting trips; but, in the “wet" they live at the cam}), or leave it in charge of a few trustworthy blaekboys like Tommy (i rah am and Billy Smith, and go to Darwin.

I had been at (Turnon Hill about a week,

practising shooting from horseback, when a myall or “wild black" came to the camp to tell ns that many “anoburro," the blacks' name for buffaloes, were feeding on the Mega la Plain, about 1*2 miles south of our camp, across a sandstone ridge. We left 'Tommy and Hilly to mind the camp, and set out on a buffalo hunt. Lucie, Dave Dawson and I, and a few of our trained blackboys, rode horses used to buffalohunting. The rest of our blackboys rode after us, leading the paekhorses with our supplies. In front of us trotted the wild black to whom Lucie had given a few sticks of tobacco. He led us to a gap in the ridge lined with ironwood, stringy-bark and blood wood trees, from which flew kookaburras, cockatoos and many kinds of parrots. Soon we were on a grassy plain dotted with water holes. As we moved on, thousands ot* birds, ducks, geese, cranes, plovers and pelicans rose from the water-holes in clouds. We camped for the night at a waterhole near a clump of tea-trees.

In the morning we divided our blackboys into two groups—the skinners and the salters, and set off after the buffaloes. Our guide led us through the clump of tea-trees and through about a mile of tall bamboo jungle. Then we saw the buffaloes in front of us. Each of us and our few trained “boys” carried a rifle and a belt of cartridges. We carried more in our pockets. We rode forward. The buffaloes saw us and started off across the Megala Plain.

For about a mile the buffaloes ran faster than our horses. Then their great weight

each weighs about half-a-ton—made them slow up. They began to spread out in a long line. We rode after them holding our rifles in one hand, as if thev were pistols. As we reached a buffalo we placed the muzzle of our rifle on its back near the loins and fired. At the sound of each shot, our well-trained horses swerved at right angles. If a buffalo is only wounded it will turn and make a sweep with its horns at the nearest horse. The horses are trained to swerve as soon as they hear a shot, so that they and their riders will run no risk of being honied by a wounded buffalo.

As one of the big slate-grey beasts was killed, the skinners ran forward with then-sharp knives and quickly cut its hide off. Then the salters threw the hide across the back of a pack-horse and followed the skinners till they had loaded several more hides, which are often an inch or more thick and weigh as much as 170 lbs. Then they returned to our camping place near the tea trees, spread out the hides and sprinkled them with from 10 to 20 lb. of salt, according to their size.

During the day we killed fifteen buffaloes and returned to our camping ground very much pleased. 'The next morning one boy was left at the camp near the tea-trees to hang the hides on drying racks made from branches. The rest of the party came with us on another buffalo hunt.

Lor three weeks we hunted on the Megala Plain and then returned to Hannon Hill with many hides. As the hides take a week to dry we had a number to hang on drying-frames near our hut. When we reached Cannon Hill Camp we folded and stacked the dry hides. The others were not folded for another week, as buffalo hides are spoilt if they are folded before they are quite drv.

“The Maroubra,” a small flat-bottomed steamer, has come up the Last Alligator with supplies for the buffalo-hunters’ camp at Oenpelli. Her captain will post this letter in Darwin for me.

Several times a year small steamers like the “Maroubra” sail from Darwin with supplies for the buffalo-hunters along the coast and up coastal rivers like the West,

Buffalo, North Australia.


South and Hast Alligator. They take loads of hides hack to Darwin. There they are shipped to Sydney for sale to England and other countries. The hides make tough leather and are used to make belts for big machines. Sometimes the hides are worth as much as £2/10/- each, so you will see that buffalo-hunters often make a good deal of money, as a good hunter will sometimes kill a thousand buffaloes a year.

Some hunters, like Uncle and Dave Dawson, own their own luggers, and bring their supplies from Darwin themselves and take their own hides there. Others own motortrucks and run their hides to stations on the railway line from Birdum to Darwin. Others carry their hides to the railway on pack-horses.

1 suppose you want to know what happened to the wild blackfellow. He goes “walkabout.” after every hunting trip to look for more buffaloes. Then he comes to

Cannon Hill to tell us where they are.

«

As “The Maroubra" is sailing shortly 1

O    V

shall close now.

Your loving brother,

Jack.

Things To Do.

1.    Get some pieces of leather to represent buffalo hides. Make a model of the East Alligator River, and show the Cannon Hill Camp and the jetty. Tie a small boat up to the jetty for Uncle Harry’s lugger. Stack the hides on the jetty ready for loading.

2.    Make a model of the lagoon near Cannon Hill. Small tin bottle tops, coloured red, will boat in the lagoon, and serve for water-lilies.

3.    Build a model showing the sandstone ridge and the Megala Plain, (hit buffaloes and horses and riders out of cardboard, or model them from plasticine. Place them on the plain. Show a few dead buffaloes.

4.    Find out what other wild animals besides buffaloes are in the Northern Territory.

What reptiles are in the rivers?

o. Most people in the Northern Territory are not buffalo hunters. How do they make a living?

• ) — ♦ > t


'laming a two-months’ old elephant.


Catching Wild Elephants in Burma.

In the teak forests of Burma thousands of elephants are used to carry huge logs and stack them in piles. A few of those animals are bought in elephant markets as fully trained “workers/’ A good “tusker” is worth from six to seven hundred pounds. The calves of female “workers" arc sometimes trained to work in the teak forests. Young elephants cannot be used to do work till they are fourteen, when they become “travellers" and are trained to carry light loads. At eighteen they are used to carry the smaller logs, but they do not become “workers" till they are full-grown at the age of twenty-five.

As a young elephant has to lie kept for years before lie becomes a “worker” and fully trained elephants are dear to buy, most ot those needed to work in the teak forests are caught wild and trained.

Mach year hundreds of wild elephants are caught in the thick jungle around Ivatlia, a town on the Irrawaddy River in Burma, 160 miles north of Mandalay. To catch these elephants traps called “ked dabs" are used. Those are often several acres in size, and a whole herd of wild elephants can be caught in them at a time. A “keddah" is a stockade made of bamboo or t roe-trunks, from 12 to 15 feet high. The entrance to the “keddah” is narrow like the neck of a bottle. It has a very strong gate which is left open till the wild herd is inside.

When an elephant hunt is on, forty or fifty “oozis,” the name used for elephant drivers in Burma, take their tame elephants to where the wild herd has its feeding ground. Then a “keddah” is built. The tame elephants are hobbled while this is being done, and everyone works very quietly, so that t he herd will not be alarmed. In a few days the “keddah" is ready.

A wiki bull Klephant

11,011 the tame elephants are driven round the herd. Little by lit11<k the wild elephants an* driven towards the trap, in which there an* several tame elephants to encourage their wild brothers and sisters to <>•<> inside. In a few hours tin* whole herd

n

is in the 4‘keddah.’' Then a native, who has been hiding, closes the gate. The elephants are caught and have no hope of escape.

Next morning the gate is opened and tame elephants chosen tor their size and strength are placed in the “keddah." Sometimes their riders or “oozis" drive them in. Two of these* elephants come up to a wild elephant, one on each side?, and beat him with their trunks till In* is quiet. Then the quiet animal is beaten and pushed out of tin* “keddah” by the tame elephants. As he comes out of the gate, natives called “noosers” fasten ropes round his hind legs and he is tied to a tree lor a tew hours without any food. Then he is led, and is now, in most cases, quiet enough to be driven into the teak forest, where he is tied up for about a week and fed each day. It may take several days to get the whole herd out of t he stockade.

Young elephants are otten let loose, to save the bother of looking after them for years till they become useful. fl In* training of the full-grown animals begins in about a week. In two months tin* elephants are trained to fall in line to get their breakfast, a huge ball of boiled rice and a lump ot brown sugar. Then they are taught to march to a river and drink. Now they are ready to work in the teak forests. For a year the animals are not worked hard, as the strain of being captured tells on them, and it is wise to give them an easy time for a year and then make them “workers."

Flephant-catching is very dangerous. Sometimes a wild bull elephant will charge a tame elephant in the elephant ring that is driving the herd into the stockade. Often the charging “bull" will frighten the tana* elephant who will throw his rider. The rider is picked up in the trunk of the wild bull elephant and tossed into the air. He falls heavily to the ground and is sometimes killed by the fall or trampled under the feet of the angry bull. Tame elephants arc often badly hurt by members of the wild herd.

Some Fmglishmen in Burma make* their living by catching elephants with tin* help of their native servants and their tamo elephants. They *<‘11 their catches to dealers in tin* elephant markets or to zoos or circuses that pay a big price for them when they are needed.

Things To Do.

1.    Find out the name for an elephant-driver in India.

2.    Foiled pictures of elephants at work in India and Burma.

3.    Make some model elephants out of coloured cardboard or plasticine. Place some of them iu a “keddah.” Use the others to make a ring of elephants driving the wild ones into the “keddah.”

had no time to load his gun. He stood still and faced the lion, expecting to be torn to pieces by its powerful claws. As the lion was about to spring he called out loudly. 4* Stop ! Stop ! *' The lion became frightened and ran away.

The Lion

[By courtesy of the SydneyTelegraph"


ou all know that lions can be tamed, for you have seen them doing clever tricks in circuses. Kosa Bonlieur, the famous painter of animals, had a pet lion called Nero, which she kept in her house for many years.

The Homelands of the Lion.

The lion is one of the fiercest animals, yet it belongs to the same family as your pet cat. Lions are the biggest cats in the world.

Have you ever seen how rough your cat's tongue is? A lion has a tongue like that of the cat, but it is much rougher. If you watch the lion at the zoo at feeding time you will see that it uses its rough tongue to strip the meat from bones.

Lions live on the hot grassy plains and in the forests of Africa. Some live in Persia or Iran, and a few in India. The male lion has a bushy mane around its neck and shoulders. The lioness has no mane.

Lions are of the same colour as the dry grass and rocks of their home-lands. Thus they are not easily seen if they hide in the grass or on rocks near water-holes to catch their prey. They feed on zebras, giraffes and antelopes. Until their prey come near they crouch as quietly as your cat does when it watches a mouse. Then they jump upon the backs of the terrified animals and break their necks. When lions are old, or when food is scarce, they become man-eaters.

Although they are so strong and savage that they are the terrors of the forest and the plain, lions are easily frightened. A hunter was once cornered by a lion. He

The Tiger

[By courtesy of the SydneyTelegraph"

The Homelands of the Tiger.

The tiger is a big cat with a beautiful coat of yellow and black stripes. It is a fine jumper and swimmer, but cannot climb trees.

Tigers live in many parts of Asia, but the largest roam in the jungles of Bengal in the north of India. They hunt buffaloes and deer, and kill them by jumping on their backs and breaking their necks. At night they come into the villages and kill cattle. When tigers are too old to hunt in the jungle they become man-eaters. They kill hundreds of people in India every year.

Tigers hate noise. Natives frighten them away from their villages by making loud noises.

The tiger is more savage than the lion, and is much harder to tame.

Baboon    Orang-utang.    Gorilla.    Monkey and oung.

Some Members of the Monkey Family.


The Homelands of the Monkey.

What fun it is to watch the monkeys at the zoo! The happy little folk scamper about, play tricks on each other and chatter away to their hearts’ content. The mother monkeys nurse and pet their babies, but scold them when they are naughty.

Monkeys live in trees in the forests of hot lands. They eat fruit, leaves and nuts. Some of them spend their whole lives in the tree-tops and never come to the ground.

Thirty-two kinds of monkeys live in Asia and Africa. They are called Old World monkeys. They use their fore feet as we use our hands and move about in the trees at great speed. They have pouches in their cheeks and can stuff a lot of food into their mouths. Most of them have short tails. Leopards and snakes, which like to eat them, are their worst enemies.

The macaques and the Rhesus monkeys of India are well-known Old World mon-kevs. These friendly little fellows are easily tamed. The ugliest Old World monkeys are the baboons of Africa and Arabia. They are often very savage.

In Central America and South America live the New World monkeys. They have no pouches in their cheeks, but have more teeth than other monkeys and long tails. They hang from trees and swing about by their tails and use them to pick up things as we use our fingers. Other monkeys cannot use their tails in this clever way. The American monkeys are afraid of the jaguar.

There are thirty-six kinds of New World or American monkeys, but the thin, longlegged spider monkey of Brazil is the cleverest.

The big man-like apes with no tails, like the gorilla and the chimpanzee of Africa, and the orang-utan of Borneo and Sumatra are cousins of the monkeys. The gorilla is the largest of the apes. An old man gorilla is bigger than a man and weighs over twenty-five stone.

An Arab and his wife on their racing camel. Note the oasis


The Homelands of the Camel.

Camels are tall animals with long necks and humped backs. They live in the deserts of Africa, Arabia and Central Asia. The camel of Africa and Arabia lias one hum]). That of Central Asia lias two humps.

People use camels to take t hemselves and their goods across the desert, so the camel is called “The Ship of the Desert.’’ This is a good name for him. He sways about as he goes along, and his rider is “seasick” until he gets used to being on his back.

The camel is stupid and bad-tempered,

• 11 ^ 1 11 I in desert lands. Tie can travel for three days without a drink, as he stores water in pouches in his stomach. He has a hard mouth and very long teeth, and can eat the prickly plants that grow in the desert. When food is


scarce the camel seems to live on his hump which becomes much smaller.

On each toot a camel has two toes which spread out when he walks. A soft pad between his toes stops him from sinking in the sand. II is eyes have long lashes to protect them from the hot sun and keep sand out. During a sand storm he closes his nostrils.

Arabs in the deserts of Africa and Arabia eat camel flesh. They make cheese trom the milk of the she-camel. The hair ol the camel is used to make carpets, cloth and brushes.

A pack camel can travel four miles an hour, carrying a load weighing a quarter of a ton. Riding camels have a speed of ten miles an hour. For a short distance they can gallop up to thirty-two miles an hour, with their legs moving like pistons. In desert lands soldiers often travel on camels.

In desert parts of Australia camels are used to carry goods, but motor-lorries are taking their place. In some parts of Central Australia the camels now wander in flocks, wild and unclaimed.

Things To Do.

1.    Collect pictures of as many wild animals as you can. Find out something about them.

2.    Ask the teacher to help you draw a big map of the world on brown paper or cardboard. Paste pictures of animals on it, or cut them out ol coloured paper. Be sure to put the animals in the part of the world in which they live.

3.    Find out the animals that come from hot, warm or cold countries.

4.    Make a jungle in your sand tray. Put models of the wild animals of India in it.

5.    Make another jungle to show the wild animals of Africa.

6.    You may like to use your sand tray to show the hoirjes of the animals of the Frozen North, South America, and other countries.

o n <e p n s a:


Entrance^


Reservoir


SànJ M Shelter Sketk &    V //f'osk


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1.    Summer House'

2.    Onnkjng Fountain

3.    Ladies Lav1

4.    Mens Lav*

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A¡'aydlon


Shtittr


Vonkeys


Dingo


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Lawn


Picnic Area


A Wallaces


Entrance to Zoo and Aquarium


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-V plan of tht Sydney Zoo flt I ¿uonjjja 1 ark.    }fy courtesy of the Tor on ta Park Trust

A Visit to the Zoo.

Nearly every large city in the world lias a zoo, which is a park in which collections of wild animals are kept. The people of Sydney are very proud of their zoo at Taronga Park, on the shores of Svdnev Harbour, for it is one of the most beautiful zoos in the whole world. We shall visit it.

At Circular Quay we each buy a strip of tickets. There are three of them on the .strip. One admits us to the zoo, the others are for our ferry trips to and from Taronga. We go aboard a ferry, and in fifteen minutes reach Athol Bay. We land and walk up a hill for a short distance to the zoo itself. We pass through a turnstile and are in “Animal Land."

At Taronga Park there are hundreds of Australian trees and shrubs, beautiful gardens, grassy lawns and many pretty fern gullies. Most of the animals an* not kept in cages, but are housed in rocky dens which are surrounded by walls and pits so that the animals cannot escape. The beautiful surroundings and the large dens for the animals make Taronga Park look more like a real country, in which wild animals are wandering about, than a zoo.

A Polar hear, whose home is amid snow and ice in the

far north.

The first animals we visit are the polar hears. We watch them swimming* about in the large pool in their den. AVe laugh as the great white animals flop about in the water. The polar bears come from the frozen Arctic, in the far north of the world, and think they are back in their cold home again as they cool themselves in the pool. AVe spend a few minutes looking at “Silver Queen,” the mother polar bear, and her •cub, “Snowball.” “Snowball” was born at Taronga. “Silver Queen” weighs 600 lb., but little “Snowball” ■weighs much loss. When a polar bear cub is born it weighs only 3 lb.

Near the polar bears we see “Tim,” a big brown bear from the Himalaya Mountains in India. “Tim” is not as big as “Silver Queen,” for polar bears are the biggest bears in the world.

Like all children, we hurry lo “Elephant’s Walk ’ and have a ride on Ranee, the tame elephant. Near “Elephant’s Walk,” we see the small train called “The Taronga Park Express.” We go for a run •on the express and are carried along much quicker than we were on Ranee’s back.

Some animals of the hot lands that you may see in the Zoo

Now we visit our Australian friends, the kangaroos, and see Mrs. Kangaroo carry ing her “joey” in her pouch.

We decide to wander about now, and visit as many animals as we can. During Ihe day we call at the home of “Dizzy,” the hippopotamus, and see his wife “Fatima,” and her baby, “Sheba,” who was born at Taronga in 1938. “Dizzy” and his family spend most of their time in the pond in their zoo home. Their real home is in the hot land of Africa. In Africa every hippopotamus lies about in the shallow parts of rivers to keep himself cool.

We leave the ugly “hippos” and go to see our old friend “Ohu,” a young lady from Borneo. “Chu” is a female orangutan. She is an ape and is a very ugly girl.

She is full of fun and verv tame. When we

see her she is very happy, as she has just eaten a bunch of ripe bananas. Now we visit the gibbon. lie is an ape from the East Indies, like “Chu.” The gibbon is swinging himself about in a tree, by his long arms. Apes have no tails, but the gibbon does not mind, for his arms are so long that he uses them to swing himself about, as South American monkevs use their tails. The gibbon has a band of white hair round his face, and looks very comical.

We call on “Sammy,'’ the chimpanzee from the African jungle. He is a very clever ape, and can sit on a chair like a boy. “Sammy” looks just like an ugly little boy; but, of course, he is really much bigger than a boy.

We leave “¡Sammy” and go to the monkey-house, where we see the spider monkeys from South America, who swing about by their long tails, and many other clever monkey folk. 11 is 2.30 p.m., so we run away from the monkey-house, and go to see the monkey circus, which is held in a special place near the top gate of the zoo each day at this time. We laugh until we cry, as we see a small monkey dressed like a jockey riding a dog round the circus ring.

When the circus is over we pay a call on “High” and “Mighty,” the zoo giants. “High” and “Mighty” are about fifteen feet high. They are giraffes from Africa. They have the longest necks in the world. In the forests ol Africa their long necks would be very useful, for giraffes eat the tender leaves growing on the tops of high trees. Poor “High” and “Mighty” are the quietest animals in the zoo. They have

Young orang-utans whose home is in the great forests of Borneo, a hot wet island to the north of Australia.

no voice at all, and cannot make even the slightest sound. We say “good-bye” to the silent giraffes, and go to say “good-afternoon” to the little striped horses from Africa called zebras (this word is zebras). When the zebras hear the lions roar, they tremble with fear. In Africa lions like to eat zebras for their supper.

A fur seal.

It is nearly 3.30, so we hurry to the sealpond to watch the seals being fed. As the keeper throws fish into the pond the seals dive from the rocks around it into the water and eat the fish. The rocks are painted white to look like the ice of the frozen Antarctic, where thousands of seals live.

The lions from Africa, the striped tigers from India and Java, the spotted leopards

An African leopard.

from Asia and Africa, and the jaguars from South America are fed at 4 p.m., so now we go to see these great cats eat their meat. We like to watch all these beautiful cats, but we spend most of our time at one of the lions’ dens, where we find ‘‘Watch” the lioness and her three little cubs, “Stop,” “Look,” and “Listen,” who look like overgrown kittens.

It is nearly time for us to go home, so, like good Australians, we take a peep at the koalas, the native bears of Australia, in another part of the beautiful zoo, and then go to catch our ferry back to Circular Quay.

Things To Do.

1.    There is a plan of Taronga Park Zoo in this book (on page 42). Look at the plan, and make a list of the animals and birds shown on it. Find out the countries from which they come.

2.    Try to learn something about each of these zoo folk.

3.    The fishponds at the zoo have a rather queer name. What is it?

«•> m    m

3.- l HAVEL l ALKS.

Routes followed by Sandpipers and the fork-tailed Swifts.

With the Swifts and the Sandpipers to Siberia.

Have you ever watched the swifts flying high in the air to catch insects? They look like swallows, but are bigger. They come from Asia. It is winter in Asia, when it is summer in Australia.

In cold weather few insects are about, so swifts visit us when winter comes to Asia. When our cold weather comes they return home to nest and breed. They breed in June.

Both the fork-tailed swifts and the needle-tailed swifts visit us. At the end of our summer the fork-tailed swifts fly home to a small island olT the east coast of China. There they build their nests in the sides of cliffs. The nests look like little plates. They are made of straw with a few feathers twisted in it. The birds cover the straw with a kind of glue from their mouths to make it hard.

The fork tailed swift

Some of the needle-tailed swifts nest in the Himalaya Mountains in the north of India. Others have their homes in Mongolia, Japan, or Siberia. They breed on cliffs, but we know nothing about their nests.

Several kinds of sandpipers visit us in our warm weather. They also come from Asia, where they breed in June. They are waders. You see them on beaches or near swamps, rivers or dams. They feed on small sea-creatures or on water-insects and worms. The red-necked sandpiper is about seven inches long. Other sandpipers are about two inches longer.

The red-necked sandpiper visits us in July, and goes home to North-eastern

Siberia in February. The sharp-tailed sandpiper comes from North-eastern Siberia, too. We see him first in September. He goes home at the end of April.

The common sandpiper visits us in September, but flies home to Northern Siberia at the end of March. AVe see the curlew-sandpiper for most of the year, but he breeds in Northern Siberia. Both these birds build nests in a hollow in the ground lined with dry grass, moss or leaves. The red-necked sandpiper makes a mound for his nest. We know nothing about the nest of the sharp-tailed sandpiper.

Nature has taught the swifts and sandpipers to find their way over land and sea. Some of them fly over 8,000 miles twice a year on their trips to and from us. They fiy at a great height to avoid hawks. Sandpipers seem to travel mostly at night, when they fly about 600 miles. Swifts are much faster birds. They can fly between 170 and 200 miles an hour. We know that swifts fly by day, and cling to cliffs or the trunks of trees at night.

Things To Do.

1.    Make a list of birds that spend summer in N.S.W. and winter in Queensland or the East Indies.

2.    Place the swifts, sandpipers and other birds on your seasons’ chart.

3.    Collect pictures of these lands for your scrapbooks.

4.    Watch for swifts and sandpipers in spring and summer. Find out all you can about them.

The natives of New Guinea shown in this picture were, until recent years, head hunters. [Allen Danes, photo

A Tour of New Guinea.

A steamer takes us from Sydney to Port Moresby, a town in Papua (Pah-poo-ah). Papua belongs to Australia. It is the southeastern part of New Guinea, a large island north of our land. It is very hot and wet.

About 300 miles west of Port Moresby, the Fly River flows into the sea. Let us visit the river in a schooner. As we pass along the coast of Papua, we see coral reefs and beaches lined with coconut palms. Behind the palm-trees are mountain slopes covered with forests.

We sail past villages where the houses are built on poles stuck into the sandy beach or fixed in the water near the shore. Many have two storeys. The houses are made of bamboo, and have roofs of sago-palm leaves. Sago palms grow in the swamps of New Guinea.

A schooner on the Fly River


Near their villages the natives grow sugar-cane, coconuts, bananas, bread-fruit and yams. They also eat sago, fish, wild pigs and birds.

The Papuans are brown people with mops of frizzy hair. In it they stick feathers from the bird of paradise or the cassowary, a bird like an emu. They make holes in their noses and put pieces of bone, shell or pig tusk through them. They wear shell bangles and ear-rings.

Women wear skirts of sago-palm leaves, which they split into long strings, dye a pretty colour, and fasten to belts of kurra-kurra grass. Men wear aprons of tapa cloth, made from bark. They have necklaces of crocodile teeth and arm bands of coconut fibre. They tie strings of dogs' teeth round their foreheads.

We watch the Papuans fishing in their dug-out canoes. Some canoes have “outriggers” so that they won’t tip over in storms. Many natives have fishing nets of grass. Others use fish traps, shaped like bird cages, with holes at each end. They are made of palm leaves or strips of bamboo.

On mudbanks in the Fly River we see crocodiles. Along the river we pass natives spearing fish or shooting them with bows and arrows. We come to thick jungles where the Papuans hunt wallabies, wild pigs, cassowaries and carpet snakes. Their spears and arrows are tipped with bone or the claws of a cassowary. They use stone axes.

We call at some river villages. The houses are like those on the coast. In every village several houses are built in the tree

A pigmy tree-house

tops. When enemies attack them the natives climb into these houses by bamboo ladders.

Far up the river we visit pygmies or

little men who live in tree houses all the

time. They enter them by climbing up high

poles. Like the other natives of New

Guinea, they smoke. Tobacco and sugar-

%

cane grow wild in New Guinea.

Things To Do.

1.    Find New Guinea on your atlas. What

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animal does it look like?

2.    Make a skirt from some leaves.

3.    Make a model of a dug-out canoe.

4.    Build a tree house in your sand tray.

5.    Collect pictures of New Guinea for your scrap-books.

THIRD CLASS 4.—Some Wonders of the World.


The top of Mount Vesuvius, showing steam and dust pouring like smoke out of the crater.


A Visit to Vesuvius.

In parts ot the world there are mountains shaped like cones or ant-hills. In the top of each is a basin-shaped hole from which a pipe goes down into the middle of the hot earth. Such mountains are called volcanoes. They have been built up when hot ashes and melted rock poured from their craters. A volcano that at times still sends forth steam, ash and molten rock is an active volcano. A very famous active volcano is Mt. Vesuvius, near Naples in Italy.

Let us pretend that we are having a holiday at Naples, a city on the north side of the lovely Bay of Naples, in Italy. Across the bay, about 10 miles east-south-east of the city, we see Vesuvius, the best known


Con« formed of Oir«pnofe lava and Scoria


which

p*p« passes


a n i c pipe


tire mountain in the world. We wish to visit it.


We take an electric train to the foot of the volcano. Now we go to the top of the smoking giant, four thousand feet above, in a train which runs up the steep mountain side on cog-rails. The lower slopes are covered with olive groves and vineyards. The upper slopes are buried under ashes from the volcano.


The train finishes its climb. We get out and look at the steaming crater of Vesuvius. Heat from the glowing crater makes everything hot, even the hard lava under our feet. We throw a match box into a smoking crack. The box is soon in flames. V e look around us and see the ruins of the ancient city oi Pompeii (Pom-pay-ee) about five miles below us, to the south-east.


A noise like thunder comes from the volcano, and stones and sparks shoot from the crater. We are frightened and are glad to get back into the train and go down the mountain side, then back to Naples.

Later in the day we go by car along a special motor highway to Pompeii. Seventy-nine years after Christ was born, the city was buried under dust, ashes and lava from Vesuvius. These have been cleared away, and visitors can walk through the city gates, and down the paved streets in which ruts made by chariot wheels so long ago


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A scene in the ruined city of Pompeii—Mt. Vesuvius in the distance.

are still seen. As we walk along we see the ruins of temples and houses. On the walls of one house there is a painting of Vesuvius as it was before the city was destroyed. Then vineyards and forests covered the mountain to its top, which was a grassy hollow.

Above tin* door of one of the houses we see a notice “Cave Canem,” which means “Beware of the dog." These two words are in Latin, the language of the people who once lived in the dead city. We think that if we had lived in Pompeii we should have written “ Beware of the volcano" over our door.

Things To Do.

1. Find Naples, Vesuvius and Pompeii on your map of Italy.

2.    Make a model on your sand tray showing the Bay of Naples, the city of Naples, Mt. Vesuvius and the ruins of Pompeii. The water in the Bay of Naples is very blue. Put blue paper on your sand tray to show the

• bay. If you put water on the tray, colour with a blue bag. A few houses made from match boxes will mark the city of Naples. Place black and red paper in the crater of Vesuvius to remind you of ash and flames. A few round sticks may be put on the sand tray to act as pillars of ruined temples at Pompeii.

3.    Show the road from Naples to Pompeii. Put a toy motor car on it.

4.    Use matches to show the railway from Naples to Vesuvius.

5.    Look at the map of the world, and find out the wav we should go from Sydney to Naples. What oceans and seas would we cross?

The famous pitch lake of Trinidad. Its area is about 100 acres. Notice the railway lines.


The Pitch Lake of Trinidad.

The island of Trinidad, in the West Indies, is part of the British Empire. It is only 50 miles long and about 37 miles wide, but it is a wonderful place. Some of the best cocoa in the world comes from Trinidad. Sugar-cane, rice, limes and bananas grow well there.

Port of Spain, on the north-west coast, is

the largest town in Trinidad. About ten

miles from the town are the Maracas Falls

which rush over a steep cliff, 312 feet high.

There are several volcanoes on the island

that are called “mud volcanoes" because

they shoot out mud.

%

On the south-west coast, near the shores of the Gulf of Paria, is the most wonderful thing on the island—a Pitch Lake. It is about 100 acres in area. Over 100,000 tons of pitch or asphalt are dug from the lake each year, but it doesn’t get much shallower. In the last ten years it has sunk only a few inches. Holes made in the lake each day, when the pitch is dug out, are filled with pitch again by the next morning.

At a factory near the lake, the pitch is treated and loaded into barrels ready to be sent to other countries to be used on roads. The pitch is taken to the factory in trucks that run on railway lines placed across the lake. If the lines are not shifted every few days, they sink into the pitch and disappear. Strange to say, the pitch lake throws up things it swallowed hundreds of years ago. Sometimes trunks of trees and other articles come to the surface. The lake soon swallows them again.

Visitors looking at a tree trunk that has come to the surface of the pitch lake.


Workmen stand on the lake, but the asphalt bulges a little around their feet.

Ln cracks in the pitch there are pools of oily water where fish and frogs swim about.

Near the lake is the town of Brighton

where the pitch is loaded into steamers. Some of it is brought to Australia.

Things To Do.

1.    Ask your teacher to tell you about Columbus who found the island and Raleigh, an Englishman who got pitch there hundreds of years ago.

2.    Make a model of the island on your sand tray. Put a few model houses at Port of Spain and Brighton. Make a small lake out of pitch. Build some mountains near Port of Spain, and put silver paper down one side to show the waterfall.

3.    Find Trinidad on your atlas. Why is it a hot place? What big land is near it? What river in that land flows into the sea a little south of Trinidad?

4.    How would you reach Trinidad from Australia?

5.    Look for pictures of Trinidad for your scrapbooks.

The entrance to the wonderful Blue Grotto.

A Visit to the Blue Grotto of Capri.

Early in the morning, a steamer from Naples takes us about eighteen miles south to the harbour of Marina Grande on the island of Capri. Here we get into a rowing-boat and go for a mile or so along the rocky coast facing Naples. The town of Ana-Capri is above us, at the top of high limestone cliffs.

In the cliffs we see a narrow opening about three feet high. It is the mouth of the Blue Grotto, a wonderful sea cave, 118 feet long, nearly 100 feet wide, and forty feet high. Our boatman ships his oars. We bend down while he grabs a rope fastened along the low, rocky entrance, and pulls the boat into the grotto.

It is filled with beautiful blue light. The rocky walls are like curtains of blue and silver. The water beneath us is as blue as the sky on a sunny day. It is thirty-nine feet dee]), but so clear that we can see into it. It sparkles with silvery-blue lights. Every ripple on the water throws reflections around the grotto. Like dancing blue flames they flash across the walls and the arched roof of rock.

We look at each other. In this magic cave we have turned black. We trail our hands in the sky-blue water. They change from black to shining silver. The boatman's oars gleam like silver, too, as they dip into the lovely pool. A boy from another boat dives into it. Bubbles that glitter like jewels rise over his head. As he swims he seems to be a silver fish. Behind him is a track of blazing light.

At the far end of the grotto we see some stone steps. Once they led to a tunnel in the rocks overhead. Long ago the tunnel was blocked up during an earthquake that caused Capri to sink deeper into the Mediterranean Sea. The entrance to the grotto, which was over forty feet high, disappeared under the sea, leaving only a tiny opening above water. The grotto was forgotten until a fisherman found it again about 100 years ago.

A glimpse of Fairyland—inside the Blue Grotto.


Now sunlight readies tlie grotto through the entrance under the sea. Around Capri the Mediterranean Sea is very blue. As it passes through the clear water the sunlight changes from gold to blue. That is why the grotto is a blue Fairyland.

Our boatman tells us about the White Grotto and other caves on the coast of < -apri. We cannot visit them as our steamer is waiting to take us back to Naples. We take one last look at the marvellous beauty of the Blue Grotto, and then our boat is rowed back to the steamer.

Things To Do.

1.    Take a cardboard box with a lid. Colour the inside of the bottom of the box blue to represent the water in the Blue Grotto.

2.    Make a small hole in one end of the box for the entrance.

3.    Make a bigger hole in the bottom.

4.    Colour the globe of an electric torch with blue chalk or water colour.

5.    Place a model rowing boat in your box.

6.    Put the lid on. Light the torch and hold it to the hole in the bottom of the box. Look through the entrance you have made. This will give you an idea of what the inside of the Blue Grotto is like.

7.    Find out why people can‘t enter the grotto in windy weather.

s. There are some beautiful caves in N.S.W. Learn something about them.

Hot Springs Region, North Island, New Zealand.


The Geysers of New Zealand.

The district around Rotorua (Roh-to-roo-a), a village on the shore of Lake Rotorua, in the north island of New Zealand, 170 miles from Auckland, is often called ‘‘New Zealand's Wonderland." Here there are many strange sights steaming pools, hot lakes and bubbling pools of thick mud that look like boiling porridge. One of these bubbling pools of mud is called “The Porridge Pot.”

Every now and then tin* water in some of the steaming pools begins to boil and rise. Sometimes it rises high into the air like a beautiful fountain of steam and boiling water. As tin» water is seen through its veil of steam, it sparkles and glitters in the sunlight. These hot springs that throw up spouts of steam and boiling water are called geysers (f/u/f-zers).

The two finest geysers in the Hot Springs district around Rotorua aro Pohutu ( Po-hoo-too) and Wairoa (AVy-rmr-a).

Pohutu Geyser, Rotorua


The famous Pohutu Geyser is eighteen feet across. Visitors to Rotorua stand on its edge to see the water bubble and rise. As soon as it begins to rise, they stand back quickly. With a hissing, gurgling sound, the geyser throws a fountain of boiling water and mist v steam for fifty feet into the air.

The I \>hutu Geyser bubbles and tosses all day long, and has done so for hundreds of years. The Wairoa Geyser is much more peaceful. A Maori guide throws pieces of soap into it to make it work for visitors. It hisses and fumes for a while, then it shoots out its fountain of steam and boiling water. For several minutes the W airoa Geyser throws its fountain high into the air, for nearly a hundred feet. Then it becomes quiet again.

The geysers, the hot springs, the hot lakes and the bubbling pools of mud are caused by water that sinks into the earth. Inside the earth it is very hot. This water turns to steam and comes to the surface through cracks in the earth to form the marvels of “Xew Zealand’s Wonderland/*

To make a geyser there must be a long-pipe filled with water reaching down into a very hot part of the earth. If the water at the bottom boils and turns into steam while the water at the top is still cool the force of the steam is at times enough to blow a column of water and steam high into the air.

In some of the hot pools the Maoris do their washing and their cooking.

*

Things To Do.

1.    Gollect pictures of New Zealand's Wonderland at Rotorua.

2.    Watch the kettle when it boils over. Why does it remind you of ii geyser?

The Grand Arch —entrance to Jenolan Caves


Jenolan Caves.

Let us visit the Jenolan Laves, a wonderland under the ground in our own State. We travel from Sydney to Mount Victoria by train. From Mount Victoria we go by car to tin' Laves. The road winds between steep cliffs, through fern-clad gullies and tree-covered hills. At last we pass through the Grand Arch, a great archway of rock stretching across the road, and soon pull up at the Laves House, where we mean to spend a few days.

The caves have been lighted by electricity, which shows up their wonderful beauty. Ladders have been built in them or else steps have been carved out of the limestone rock of which the caves are made, so that visitors will be able to climb about in the caves easily and safely.

How excited we are when we enter our first cave. We walk into a dark tunnel. Our guide touches a switch. FJectric lights cleverly hidden in the caves flash on, and in front of us we see the beauties of the Orient Lave. In this cave there are more than 1,400 stops, but we do not mind, as we think we are in Fairyland. Lreat columns of sparkling limestone hang from the roof. As the lights shine on them they gleam like

clusters of wonderful jewels. ( Mlier columns of equal beauty rise from the floor of the cave. ( hi the floor the limestone has formed strange shapes, wrapped in cloaks of beau-tifui, glittering colours. On tlie sides ot the walls the limestone has formed sheets of sparkling rock crystal, which form ‘‘shawls’' and “blankets/' Some of these sheets of crystal have borders of dainty colours. Others are as white as snow.

Water soaking through the roof of the cave has formed the sparkling columns, that hang from the roof, the shawls and the blankets. Water dripping from the roof on to the floor lias formed the strange columns and shapes that rise from the floor. Here and there, the hanging columns and those rising from the floor have joined together, to form pillars of marvellous beauty. These pillars an* made from tin* lime that is in the dripping water.

In the Orient Lave we visit the Egyptian Chamber, the Lommonwealth Pillar and the Crystal Pool, which is very beautiful. During the afternoon, we visit the Lucas Cave which has 900 steps. Here we see the Cathedral carved from limestone by drops of water, and admire its lofty roof.

'


In the Jenolan Caves.

Next day, wo visit the River ('ave. It is very long, and has 1,250 steps. There is a river in the cave, which is called the River Styx. We (‘liter a small boat, and are rowed through the cave. The rock crystals hanging from the wall shine like magic lamps. Next we visit the Right Imperial Cave which also lias a river flowing through it. We see the Crystal Palace and its greatest treasure, “the Gem of the W est," which is formed of millions of crystals that hang like sparkling pieces of ice from the roof.

On tin» last day of our trip, we visit the Devil's Coachhouse, in which the floor and the roof are almost 500 feet apart.

We have not soon all the wonders of the Jenolan Caves, which have been cut through the mountains of the Main Range, part of the Groat Divide, by the action of

“The Willows," Jenolan Caves

running water. But we go back to Mt. Victoria, and catch our train to Sydney, pleased with the beauties we have seen, only 115 miles from our great city.

Things To Do.

1.    Collect pictures of the Jenolan Caves for your scrap-book.

2.    Build a model of a cave, with pieces of limestone hanging from the roof, and growing up from tin* floor, in a box. Put an electric torch to a small opening in the lid. Make an “eye-hole" so that you can see inside your model cave.

J. Find the Jenolan Caves and the Blue Moun tains on your map.

Yosemite Falls, in I'.S.A.

Great Waterfalls.

There are many ¿»-rent waterfalls in the world, but we shall mention only four.

The highest waterfall in the whole world is the Yosemite (Yo-.vr///-i-tee) Falls in the Yosemite Valley, about 200 miles from San Francisco, a city on the Pacific Coast of the l nited States of America. This fall has a leap of 2,600 feet. At first, the water rushes over a steep cliff, l,f)00 feet high. Then it runs swiftly over rocks for hundreds of feet more, and at last takes a final drop of 300 feet to the bottom of a deep canyon or valley.

The most famous falls in the world are the Niagara Falls in North America, be tween Lake Krie and Lake Ontario, on the Niagara River, which forms part of the St. Lawrence. Niagara is not the highest waterfall in the world, but it has the greatest flow of water. Sometimes the water flowing over Niagara is 60 feet dee]), (¡oat Island divides Niagara Falls into two parts. One, called the Canadian or Horse shoe Falls, is half a mile wide, and has a drop of 130 feet. The other, called the American Falls, is not nearh as wide, being only one-iifth of a mile in width, but it has a drop of 167 feet.

In winter, the Niagara Falls freeze, and then look more beautiful than in summer.

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Niagara Falls. in winter.

Another famous waterfall is the Victoria Falls in Africa, which were found by tin* explorer David Livingstone, and named after Queen Victoria. The Victoria Falls are in the Zambezi River in Rhodesia, a part of South Africa. Their width is a little mpre than a mile, and they drop over a cliff into a gorge, 400 feet below. The

Barron Falls, Queensland.

Victoria Falls.


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spray from the falls rises into the air for more than 1,000 feet, while the noise of the falling water can be heard for many miles. The natives call the Victoria Falls “Mosc-oa-tunga,” which means “The Smoke that Thunders.” A steel bridge, the highest in the world, has been built across the gorge below the Falls. Trains run across the bridge, and stop to allow the passengers time to admire the beauty of the A ictoria Falls.

There is a great waterfall in Queensland, the Barron Falls, near (’aims. Here, the Barron Kiver, a stream of water 300 yards wide, and sixty feet deep, rushes at a speed ot‘ 20 miles an hour over a cliff, between seven and eight hundred feet high. The

Barron Falls are one of the most marvellous sights in the world, and are said to be the greatest of Australia’s wonders.

Things To Do.

1. Find pictures of great waterfi scrap-books.

2.    Make a model waterfall in your sand tray. Use bricks or stones to make the cliffs. Pour water over the cliffs from a jug.

3.    You have seen that the Niagara Falls attract many visitors to Canada. In what other way are they very useful to the country near them ?

Map of the World, showing (1) Hot Lands (shaded with slanting lines), (2) Cool Lands (shaded with upright lines), and (2) Cold Lands (unshaded).

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