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Published with Bouwick's .leo^raph-Y for Younè Australians 17_ '


GEOGRAPHY

FOR

YOUNG AUSTRALIANS.

BY

JAMES BONWICK, F.R.G.S., (Formerly Inspector of Schools, Victoria,)

AUTHOR OF “GEOGRAPHY OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND,'’ “DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF PORT PHILLIP,’’

ETC. ETC.

SIXTH EDITION OF FIVE THOUSAND.

SANCTIONED BY THE COMMISSIONERS OF EDUCATION IN VICTORIA

IJUIbourtu:

PUBLISHED BY W. ROBERTSON

8» ELISABETH 6TREET,

ANO SOLD BY ALL. BOOKSELLERS.

1867.

deakin univ. LIBRA**

INTRODUCTION.

Another issue of five thousand copies calls for the grateful acknowledgments of the author. The information has now been brought up to the present date. For further particulars of Australian Geography, reference can be made to the larger work, entitled “ Geography of Australia and New Zealand,” published by the author, and to be had of Mr. George Robertson.

JAMES BONWICK.

St. Kilda, Melbourne, March 1, 1867.

GEOGRAPHY

FOE

YOUNG AUSTRALIANS.

Geography is the science which teaches us about the surface of the earth, and the different countries into which it is divided.

The World is a large round body, called a Globe, which is surrounded by stars, situated at various distances from it.

The Sun gives light to the earth, and to some other bodies, called planets, which revolve or turn round the sim.

It is ninety-five millions of miles distant from us ; it is nearly three millions of miles round ; and it is above a million times larger than our world.

The Sun never moves from its place, hut the earth revolves once each day, so that the different parts of its surface may be brought opposite to the great light.

It is night in England when it is day in Australia.

This Globe performs its journey round the sun in a year of 365 days.

As the World is round, the sun shines more directly upon one country than another, so that one is hotter than another.

The earth is nearly 8000 miles in diameter, or measurement through; and nearly 25,000 miles in circumference, or measurement round.

The Moon revolves round it once a month, at a distance of 240,000 miles; it is not so large as the world.

The axis of the globe is the diameter, of which the two ends are the Poles, or Turning Points.

England is towards the North Pole, and Victoria is towards the South Pole.

An imaginary line drawn round the globe, equally dividing the distance between the two Poles, is called the Equator or Equinoctial Line.

There ar.e two other imaginary lines drawn round the globe, north and south of the Equator, called Tropical Circles.

That towards the North Pole is the Tropic of Cancer, and the other towards the South Pole is the Tropic of Capricorn.

They extend 23| degrees, or about 1600 miles, from the Equator; being a quarter of the way from the Equator to the Poles.

At some place or another between these two Tropics, the sun is seen exactly overhead at twelve o’clock.

The space between these two Tropics is called the Torrid or Hot Zone.

At a distance of 23^ degrees, or 1600 miles, from the North Pole, is the Arctic or Northern Circle.

The Antarctic or Southern Circle is the same distance from the South Pole.

North of the Arctic Circle, and south of the Antarctic Circle, lie the Frigid or cold Zones.

Between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer is the North Temperate Zone, in which England is situated.

Between the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn lies the South Temperate Zone, in which Tasmania and Victoria are situated.

The Temperate Zones include an area of one-half the surface of the world, the Frigid Zones one-twelfth, and the Torrid Zone has nearly one-half.

A Map is a representation or picture of any part of the surface of the earth.

The top of a Map is the north, the bottom the south, the right hand side the east, and the left hand side the west.

At noon, if we stand with our faces towards the sun, we have the north in front of us, the south behind us, the east to our right hand, and the west to our left hand.

Lines drawn upon maps and globes from Pole to Pole are called Meridians of Longitude.

They are at a distance of one degree from each other; and, there being 360 degrees or divisions in every circle, there will be 360 Meridians of Longitude.

The First Meridian is reckoned by the English to be that passing through Greenwich near London.

The distance of any place is calculated by its distance east or west from the first meridian; there being 180 degrees of east longitude, and 180 of west longitude.

The difference of time in different countries is four minutes to each degree of longitude.

Three hundred and sixty times four minutes, or 1440 minutes, would be equal to 24 hours.

A town fifteen degrees east of another will be an hour earlier in time; if west, an hour later.

The space between the meridians of longitude increases in width towards the Equator, and narrows towards the Poles.

Lines drawn upon maps and globes parallel to the Equator are called Parallels of Latitude.

They serve to mark the distance of any place north or south of the equator.

The whole distance from the equator to each pole is 90 degrees. London is 51 degrees of north latitude, or 51 degrees north of the equator.

Melbourne is 38 degrees south latitude, or 38 degrees south of the equator ; so that it is 13 degrees nearer the equator than London.

Sydney is 4 degrees nearer that line than Melbourne is, and Adelaide 5 degrees.

A degree is divided into 60 divisions called Minutes, and these again into 60 other divisions called Seconds.

The length of a degree of latitude is rather more than 69 English miles, or 60 geographical miles.

Tlie length of a degree of longitude on the equator is 69 miles; but elsewhere it varies according to the distance from the poles.

360 times the length of a degree of longitude, at any place, will give the measure of a circle of the world drawn through that place.

The circle of the equator is 360 times 69, or 24,840 miles.

The surface of the earth consists of land and water.

There are three times as much water as land.

Portions of land are called Continents, Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmuses, Capes or Promontories, Coasts or Shores.

A Continent is a large portion of land divided into several countries, and not separated by any seas.

An Island is a portion of land surrounded by water.

A Peninsula is a portion of land almost surrounded by water.

An Isthmus is a narrow neck of land which joins a peninsula to a continent, or two continents together.

A Cape or Promontory is a point of land stretching out into the sea.

A Coast or Shore is the edge of land next the sea.

The divisions of water are Oceans, Seas, Lakes, Gulfs or Bays, Rivers, Straits, and Estuaries. An Ocean is the largest collection of water.

A Sea is a smaller collection of salt water.

A Lake is a body of water surrounded by land.

A Gulf or Bay is a portion of the sea running into the land.

A River is a stream of water rising in the land, and running into a sea, or lake, or some other river.

A Strait is a narrow passage between two seas.

An Estuary, a Frith, or a Sound, is a long narrow bay into which a river flows.

There are five continents ; namely, Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and New Holland or Australia.

Of these, America and Asia are the largest, and Europe and New Holland are the smallest.

There are five great oceans. The Pacific, 10,000 miles wide, separates America from Asia and Australia.

The Atlantic, 4000 miles wide, separates America from Europe and Africa.

The Indian Ocean lies south of Asia.

The Northern Ocean is towards the north pole, and the Southern towards the south j)ole.

The surface of the world is divided into the six following great divisions :—Europe, Asia, Africa, America, Australasia, and Polynesia.

Europe and Australia are at opposite sides of the globe, and furthest from each other.

Polynesia consists of many small islands in the Pacific Ocean.

The continent of New Holland, or Australia Proper, is the largest island in the world.

The following are the principal countries and towns of these divisions : —

AUSTRALASIA.

Chief Towns.

Sydney

Melbourne

Adelaide

Perth

Brisbane

Hobart Town

Wellington


Countries.

New South Wales Victoria South Australia Western Australia Queensland Tasmania or Van Diemen’s Land New Zealand

POLYNESIA.

The principal groups of islands in Polynesia are those of Feejee, Friendly, Samoan, Dangerous, Marquesus, and Sandwich Islands.

The most important Islands are New Caledonia, Tahiti, Tonga, and Hawaii.

ASIA.

Countries.

Asiatic Russia

Tartary

China

Birman Empire India

Affghanistan

Persia

Arabia

Asiatic Turkey

Chief Towns.

Tobolsk

Bokhara

Pekin

Ava

Calcutta

Cabul

Teheran

Mecca

Smyrna

EUROPE.

Countries.

Chief Towns.

European Turkey

Constantinople

Greece

Athens

Italy

Rome

Switzerland

Berne

Prussia

Berlin

Austria

Vienna

Russia

Petersburg

Sweden

Stockholm

Denmark

Copenhagen

Holland

Amsterdam

Belgium

Brussels

Pin gland

London

Scotland

Edinburgh

Ireland

Dublin

France

Paris

Spain

Madrid

Portugal

Lisbon

AFRICA.

Morocco

Morocco

Algeria

Algiers

Tunis

Tunis

Tripoli

Tripoli

Egypt

Cairo

Abyssinia

Gondar

Natal

D’Urban

Cape Colony

Cape Town

Congo

St. Salvador

Ashantee

Coomassie

Siberia

Monrovia

Sierra Leone

Freetown

Houssa

Sackatoo

NORTH AMERICA.

Chief To urns.

Fort York

Montreal

Frederickton.

Halifax

St. John’s

Washington

Mexico

Guatemala


Countries.

Hudson’s Bay Territory Canada

New Brunswick Nova Scotia Newfoundland United States Mexico Guate mala

The West Indian Isles of Cuba, Ilayti, Jamaica., See., lie between North and South America, im and about the Gulf of Mexico.

SOUTH AMERICA.

Columbia

Bogota

Guiana

George Town

Brazil

Rio Janeiro

Paraguay

Assumption

Veraguay

Mount Video

La Plata

Buenos Ayres

Bolivia

Chuquisaea

Peru

Lima

Chili

’ Santiago

Patagonia

No towns

AUSTRALASIA.

The continent of New Holland, or Australia, Ls 2500 miles from east to west, and 2000 the greatest breadth from north to south.

It is bounded on tlie north by the Indian Archipelago, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the west by the Indian Ocean, and on the south by the Southern Ocean.

Its area is 3,000,000 square miles, being fifty times the size of England.

A square mile is a space one mile long and one mile broad.

Australia is divided into New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, and Alexandra or North Australia.

Tasmania, or Van Diemen’s Land, is about 150 miles south of Australia.

New Zealand is 1000 miles east of New Holland.

VICTORIA.

This golden land has Bass’s Straits to the south, the Murray river to the north, South Australia to the west, and the Alps to the east.

Cape Howe is its most eastern point; that and the Murray separate it from New South Wales.

The western boundary, longitude 141° east, divides it from South Australia.

It is 500 miles long by 200 broad, with an area of 90,000 square miles, and 650,000 people.

The northern plains are poor, and southern rich.

The middle mountain range contains much gold.

The Alpine country is cool, woody and beautiful.

The chief exports—gold and wool, £14,000,000.

The imports of the colony are tea, sugar, wines, spirits, tobacco, and manufactured goods.

Oapt. Murray entered Port Phillip Bay in 1802.

Colonel Collins tried to form a colony there with a party of convicts in October, 1803.

He removed the settlement to Van Diemen’s Land in January, 1804.

Messrs. Hume and Hovell came overland from Sydney to Port Phillip Bay in 1824.

Captain Sturt rowed down the Murray in 1833. Sir T. L. Mitchell saw the west country in 1835. Mr. Henty settled in Portland Bay in 1834.

Mr. Batman came to Port Phillip in May, 1835. Mr. Fawkner’s party arrived in August, 1835. Port Phillip Avas called Victoria on July 1st, 1850, and Mr. Latrobe was first Governor. The Gold-diggings commenced in July, 1851. The gold exported, nearly £150,000,000. Victoria received its New Constitution, November 23rd, 1855, twenty years after settlement. Mountains.

The Lofty Alps are to the east and north-east. Some peaks are 7000 feet above the sea level. The Warragong and Mupiong chains are highest. Ilotham of Muniong, 7000 ft.; Delegete, 4000. Wood’s Point is a golden part of the Alps.

Baw Baw and Buffalo ranges are north-east. Wellington and Castle Hill are in Gipps Land Forest Hill is the source of the Murray River. The Strzelecki Range is south-west of the Alps. The Main Dividing Range is from east to west between the Murray and the sea.

The Pyrenees form part of the Dividing Range. The Amphitheatre hills belong to the Pyrenees. Blackwood is a southern spur of the Range. Granite Alexander chain is a northern spin-dividing Sandhurst from Castlemaine.

Macedon, Cole, and Ararat, are lofty hills.

Victoria and Grampian Ranges are westward.

Sturgeon and Abrupt are fine Grampian peaks.

Mount William, of the Grampians, is 5000 feet high. It is thirty miles west of Mount Ararat.

The Dundas Range is near the Glenelg River.

Korong, Hope, Swan Hill are toward the Murray.

The Cape Otway Ranges are very scrubby.

Hoddle Range is east of Corner Inlet.

Buninyong, Warrenheip, Tower Hill, Napier, Ecles, Franklin, Elephant, Noorat and Leura were once active volcanoes. Most are southwest. Buninyong is 2450 ft., Franklin 2100 ft., Napier 1440 ft.

Riyers.

The Murray, after running 1600 miles along the northern boundary, enters South Australia.

Its total length to the sea is above 2000 miles.

The Murrumbidgee and Darling run from the north and east of the Murray.

The Mitta Mitta and Ovens are Alpine branches.

The flowing Goulburn, the Campaspe, and the Loddon are southern branches of the Murray.

Flyer’s Creek and Jim Crow run to the Loddon.

The Avoca runs north towards the Murray.

The Wimmera, from Mount Cole, runs through Lake Ilindmarsh into the dreary Mallee Scrub.

The Western Hopkins reaches Warrnambool Bay.

Emu runs into Hopkins, Eumarella is west of it.

The Fiery Creek runs south from Mount Cole.

The Glenelg receives the Wannon, and partly separates Victoria from South Australia.

The pretty Barwon flows by Geelong from the Cape Otway country.

The Leigh runs by Ballarat into the Barwon.

The Yarra Yarra is from the Southern Alps. It runs 200 miles westward to Melbourne.

The Saltwater River is from Mount Macedon. The Albert and Tarra are by Port Albert.

The Rushing Snowy is in East Gipps Land. Mitchell river runs south-east to Lake King. Tambo runs south to Lake King.

Avon and Perry to Lake Wellington, Gipps Land. Macalister and Flowing Creek into the Latrobe. The Latrobe runs east to lake Wellington.

The Genoa is in the extreme east, by Cape Howe. The Crooked is a golden Alpine river.

Jordan, north of Gipps Land, by Wood’s Point. Gellibrand and Curdie are near Cape Otway.

Lakes.

The western lakes Terang, Purrumbeet, Iveilam-beet, and Wangoon, were once craters.

Salt Boloke is near Fiery Creek.

Burrumbeet and Learmonth by Ballarat.

Fresh Burrumbeet 12 square miles. Learmonth 3. Fresh Wendouree is the reedy lake of Ballarat. Salt Corangamite to the S.W. is 90 miles round. Fresh Colac, south-east of it, has 12 sq. miles. Salt Conneware is south of Geelong by the sea. Salt Tyrrell and Mitre are in Wimmera District. Shallow Fresh Hindmarsh is in the N.W. scrub. Fresh Omeo is a shallow Alpine Lake.

Salt Wellington, King, Victoria, in Gipps Land. Fresh Albacuyta, Boga, Baal Bard, by Murray.

Bays.

Port Phillip Bay is 40 miles across.

Western Port is east of Port Phillip.

Coal Anderson Inlet is east of Western Port. Sealers Cove is in Wilson’s Promontory.

Corner Inlet and Port Albert are more eastern. Coal Apollo and Loutit Bays near Cape Otway. Port Campbell and Curdie’s Inlet, W. of C. Otway. Warrnambool Bay is west of Port Phillip.

Port Fairy of Belfast is west of Warrnambool. Open Portland Bay is west of Port Fairy. Bridgewater Bay is west of Portland Bay. Discovery Bay is at the month of the Glenelg.

Capes.

Cape Howe is the eastern extremity of Victoria. Wilson’s Promontory is the southern extremity. Bold Schank is at the west of Western Port. Patterson with its coal is east of that Port. Lonsdale and Nepean are the Port Phillip Heads. Pocky Otway is south-west of Port Phillip Heads. Moonlight Head is near Cape Otway.

Nelson and Bridgewater are west of Portland.

Islands.

Gabo Isle is near Cape Howe.

Swampy Snake Island is in Gipps Land.

Glennie Isles are near Wilson’s Promontory. French and Phillip Isles are in Western Port. Volcanic rock Lawrence is near Portland. Basaltic Julia Percy is off Portland Bay.

Counties and Districts. Mornington, Evelyn, and Anglesey counties are east of Port Phillip Bay.

Bourke is on the north side of the Bay.

Talbot and Dalhousie are north of Bourke. Rodney is between the Goulburn and Campaspe. Polworth and Heytesbury are to the south-west.

Grant is the county about Geelong.

Grenville, Hampden and Ripon, are westward. Normanby and Yilliers are by Portland Bay. Dundas and Follet are by the Western border. Gipps Land is between the Alps and the sea. Wimmera district is north-west of the colony. Murray district is north-east, towards the Ovens. Loddon district is between the Campaspe, Murray, and Avoca Rivers.

Towns.

Melbourne, on the Yarra Yarra, in lat 38° south, long. 145° east, has 130,000 people. Williamstown and Sandridge are its ports. Warrnambool Port is 170 miles S.W. of Melbourne.

Belfast Port is 25 miles west of Warrnambool. Queenscliffe is 20 south-east of Geelong.

Geelong is 50 miles south-west of Melbourne. Portland is 250 west; Alberton 200 east. Ballarat is 100 west; Castlemaine, 75 N.W. Kyneton is 50 north; Colac is 90 south-west. Camperdown, between Colac and Warrnambool. Sandhurst, on the Bendigo Creek, is 100 N.W. Heathcote, on the MTvor, is 80 north.

Omeo is 300 north-east; Wangaratta, Ovens, 160. Seymour is 70 north-east; Kilmore, 40 north. Echuca, Hopwood’s Ferry, Murray, is 170 north. Swan Hill, on the Murray, is 230 north-west. Belvoir, Murray, near Albury, is 210 north-east. Albury is nearly 400 south-west of Sydney. Beechworth and Yackandandah are by the Ovens. Climes is 25 north of Ballarat; Creswick 12. Scarsdale and Smythesdale are south of Ballarat. Ararat, near the Grampians, is 60 west of Ballarat.

The Great Western and Pleasant Creek are north of Ararat.

Hamilton, on the Grange, 220 west of Melbourne. Crowlands, of the Pyrenees, north west of Ararat. St. Arnaud, NewBendigo, 150 N. W. of Melbourne. Daylesford is between Ballarat and Castlemaine. Inglewood is 80 north-west of Sandhurst. Maryborough is 25 west of Castlemaine.

Dunolly is 12 north of Maryborough.

Avoca is north of the Pyrenees range.

Talbot, of Daisy Hill, is south of Avoea.

Sale, Gipps Land, is 50 north-east of Alberton. Stratford-on-Avon, is north of Sale.

Bairnsdale on the Mitchell, is 50 east of Sale. Jericho on the Jordan. 10 S. of Wood’s Point. Wood’s Point of the Alps, 200 east-north-east of Melbourne, is on the Upper Goulburn.

Snowy Creek, Gipps-Land, 2/0 east of Melbourne. Casterton on the Glcnclg, 270 west of Melbourne.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

This wool colony has the ocean to the east, Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia, to the west.

Its northern boundary is about lat. 29°, and its western, 141°. The Murray River and Cape Howe separate it from Victoria.

Its greatest length is 900 miles. Its width from © © # # north to south is 500. The coast is 800.

The area is 325,000 square miles, being nearly four times as large as Victoria.

Riverina, north of the Murray, contains about 100,000,000 acres, or 150,000 square miles.

Tlie population of New South Wales is 450,000. The natives, once numerous, are fast dying out. The country has vast grassy plains.

The exports are gold, copper, coal, wool, sheep, and cattle, of the value of £7,000,000 a-year. The coast was seen by Captain Cook in 1770.

A settlement was made by Captain Phillips, in 1788, at Port Jackson, and called Sydney.

Mr. Oxley made discoveries in 1 823.

Captain Sturt sailed down the Murray in 1830. Sir Thomas Mitchell discovered many fine rivers in 1832 and 1835.

Gold was discovered in April, 1851, near Bathurst. Mountains.

A coast range is parallel to the main range.

The Liverpool range is part of the dividing hills. Hanging llock of the Liverpool is 3400.

Mount Royal is 3000 feet; Burning Wingen 1800. The Blue Mountains are 100 miles west of Sydney. Victoria and York are Blue Mountain peaks. Canobolas of the Blue Hills is 4500 feet. Mittagong range south of Blue, Peel Range north. Ben Lomond of New England is 5000 feet.

The Australian or Snowy Alps run south-west.

Kosciusko is 7300 feet, and Murragural 6990. Murray is 7000, and Dargalby the Murray 5500. The Warragong Alps are near Victoria.

Ram’s Head of the Muniong is 6840.

The high Maneroo Table Land is east of Alps. Table Lands rise from 2000 to 4000 feet.

North Lindsay is 5700, and Hastings 6000 feet. The Nundewar Range is west of the Darling. Many isolated mountains on the interior plains.

Grey and Barrier Ranges arc on the South Australian border.

Rivers.

The River Darling from the north-east flows about 2GOO miles into the River Murray.

The Darling drains three-fourths of the Colony. Barman, or Karaula, a great eastern tributary. Peel and Macquarie run north to the Darling. The Paroo runs southward towards the Darling. Gwydir, Castlereagh, and Bogan to the Darling. Murrumbidgee runs from the Alps to the Murray. The long, lazy Lachlan joins the Murrumbidgee. The Lachlan gold diggings are near its source. The Billabong from Murray to Murrumbidgee. The Wakool and Edward reach the Murray.

The Murray sources are in the Muniong Alps. Its outlet is through the sea lake Victoria.

The rivers reaching the Pacific are not long. The rapid Hawkesbury enters Broken Bay.

It receives the Wollondilly and the Nepean.

The rocky Skoalliavcn is south of Sydney.

The coal river Hunter is 100 north of Sydney. The Cedar M‘Leay and Manning are north east. The Noble Clarence runs 250 miles to the sea. Golden Turon is branch to Golden Macquarie. Dumaresq is on the Queensland Boundary. Murrumbidgee is 1300 miles long, Lachlan 800. Macquarie 800, Hunter 300, Hawkesbury 350. Namoi is 660, Gwydir 500, Bogan 500.

Lakes.

The Sea Lakes of Macquarie and Tuggcrali are north of Sydney.

Lovely Illawarra and shallow George are south. Bathurst near George is 10 miles round.

Bays.

Twofold Bay is near Cape Howe.

Batman Bay is north of Twofold Bay.

Jervis Bay is near Shoalhaven mouth, lat. 35°„ Pretty Botany Bay is south of Port Jackson. Port Jackson is the noble harbour of Sydney. Broken Bay and Port Hunter are north of Sydney. Ports Stephen and Macquarie are more north. Trial Bay is at the mouth of the Macleay.

Capes.

Danger and Byron are north by Queensland. Howe is the southern point by Victoria. Sugarloaf is north-east of Port Stephen.

Smoky Cape is by Trial Bay.

Banks and Solander are by Botany Bay. Perpendicular Cliffs are by Jervis Bay.

Towns.

Sydney, the capital of Port Jackson, lat 34° S., long, 150° E., has 90,000 persons.

Pretty Parramatta is 15 miles wTest of Sydney. The Windsor Farms are on the Hawkesbury. Hilly Bathurst, by the Macquarie, is 120 west. Golden Ophir and Sofala are r ear Bathurst. Wellington is 230 miles north-west of Sydney. Mudgee and Dubbo are near Wellington. Newcastle is the coal port of the Hunter. Maitland, Morpeth, Singleton, by the Hunter. Hastings is on old Port Macquarie.

Carrington and Stroud are by Port Stephen. Grafton is on the rich flats of the Clarence. Tenterfield of New England is to the north.

Gold Tamworth is on the Peel River.

Rocky Armidale is in New England.

Braidwood or gold, Macquarie for health.

Farm Goulburn and Araluen are southward. Berrima has iron, and Mudjee farms. Wollongong and Kiama are in fair Illawarra.

o o    %    b

Hay is at a crossing of the Murrutnbidgee.

Yass and Wagga are by the Murrumbidgee. Hilly Forbes is in the Lachlan Gold F ield. Gundagai is on the Murrumbidgee Flats.

Eden and Boyd Ports are at Twofold Bay. Deniliquin is on the Wakool of the Murray. Moarna and vine Albury are on the Murray. Wentworth at junction of Murray and Darling. Menindie and Bourke are on the Darling. Weimby, Murray and Murrumbidgee junction.

QUEENSLAND.

Queensland was separated from New South Wales on June 3rd, 1859.

It is bounded by the sea on the east and north, by lat. 29° S. to the south, and by long. 138° E. to the west.

Its length from north to south is 1200 miles.

The area is 680,000 square miles, seven times as large as Victoria.

New South Wales is to the south, and Alexandra land of North Australia to the west.

Burke’s Land is near the western border.

The population is about 80,000

The climate is hot, but generally healthy.

The exports are wool, tallow, gold, copper, cedar.

2'ook discovered the eastern coast in 1770.

Leichhardt crossed to Port Essington in 1845.

Mitchell found a fine country in 1846.

Kennedy was killed on York Peninsula, 1848. Burke and Wills crossed to Flinder’s river, 1861. Landsborough and Walker explored in 1862. McKinlay explored to the Gulf 1862 and 1865. Moreton Bay was settled 1825 from Sydney. Hilly New England runs into Newr South Wales. The Darling Downs are west of Moreton Bay. Maranoa district is west of Darling Downs. Leichhardt district is north-west of Moreton Bay. Kennedy district is north of Leichhardt.

Mitchell district is west near Burke’s Land.

The Nonda country is east of the Gulf.

Fitzroy Downs are north-wTest of Darling Downs.

Mountains.

The Bunya Bunya Range runs north-west.

The Denham chain runs east and west.

The Eastern Dividing Range is by the sea.

The Northern is near the Gulf of Carpentaria. Mount Lang is the head of the Lynd.

Volcanic cones head the Victoria and Belyando. Expedition Range is west of Port Curtis.

Aldis Peak is one of the Expedition Range. Quartz ranges lie in Burke’s route.

Mount Ellery is near the Flinders River.

The Peak Range is wrest of Broad Sound.

Barkly, Mueller, McKinlay ranges are west. Gideon 1880 ft., Verdon 2000, Halford 1800, ft. Mount Bon wick, volcanic cone, 22^° S., 141^° E. Rivers.

Short streams flow on the Pacific ocean side.

The great drainage is south to the Darling, south-west to Lake Torrens, and north to the Gulf.

Condamine is by Darling Downs to the Darling. Brisbane and Bremer are by Moreton Bay.

The Mary and Burnett run north to Hervey Bay. Mackenzie, Isaacs, and Dawson meet the Fitzroy. Leichhardt’s Burdekin is north of Fitzroy.

The noble Belyando flows north to the Burdekin. The Maranoa and Balonne join the Culgoa, and that flows south to the Darling.

The Warrego and Paroo run south to the Darling. The Thompson runs south to the Victoria or Barcoo; it rises near the source of the Flinders. The Barcoo becomes the Cooper’s Creek westward. Cooper’s Creek drains it into Lake Eyre.

The Thompson and Barcoo run 1000 miles.

The Gulf streams are Mitchell, Norman, Flinders, Gilbert, Leichhardt, Albert, and Nicholson. Mueller Creek crosses the Tropic about 141° E. Sturt’s Eyre Creek is at the south-west corner. Burke’s Cloncurry is the western Flinders river. McKinlay and Barkly run north to the Flinders. The Lynd flows north to the Mitchell.

Bays,

Moreton Bay is 500 miles north of Sydney. Hervey and Wide Bays are north of Moreton

Bay- ...    .

Port Curtis is 200 miles north of Wide Bay. Keppel Bay receives the Fitzroy river.

Broad Sound and Port Bowen are north-east. Port Mackay by Cape Palmerston, is in lat. 21£°. Edgecombe, Halifax, and Temple Bays are north. Cleveland and Upstart are north of Port Denison. Itockingham Bay north of Halifax is in lat. 18°. The Gulf of Carpentaria is north-west.

Whitsunday Passage is by Cumberland Islands. Torres’ Strait divides Australia from New Guinea.

Capes.

Break Sea Spit, off Sandy Cape, is by Hervey Bay.

Palmerston and Townsend are by the Sound. Capricorn is near the Tropic of Capricorn. Sandwich and Melville are north-eastward.

York is the most northern point of Australia.

Islands.

Stradbroke and Moreton are in Moreton Bay.

Great Sandy Island shuts out the south storms.

Cumberland and Northumberland are clusters.

Booby and Wednesday are by Cape York.

Curtis and Keppel are by the Tropic.

The Barrier Coral Reef is 1200 miles Ions.

©

Towns.

Brisbane, the capital, is on Moreton Bay.

Its lat. is 27rr° S., long. 158° E.; population, 7000. Ipswich Coal on the Bremer, 25 from Brisbane, Gayndah on the Burnett, 220 north of Brisbane. Drayton and Warwick are on the Darling Downs. Maryborough, Wide Bay, is 250 N. of Brisbane. Gladstone is on Port Curtis, 400 north. Rockhampton, on the Fitzroy, is 450 north.

Peak Down Diggings 200 N.W. of Port Curtis. Golden Canoona is west of Rockhampton. Somerset, on Albany Isle, is near Cape York. Townships are at Broad Sound and Port Mackay. St. Lawrence is on the Waverley, Broad Sound. Bowen of Port Denison is in lat. 20° S.

Cardwell, on Rockingham Bay, is 350 from Gulf.

ALEXANDRA, OR NORTH AUSTRALIA.

This is between Queensland and Western Australia, under the jurisdiction of South Australia. It is so called by Mr. Stuart, after the Princess of Wales.

It has the Indian Seas to the north, lat. 26° south, long. 138° east, and long. 129° to west. Captain Sturt crossed the Stony Desert in 1845. Leichhardt traced the Gulf Land in 1846.

Mr. A. C. Gregory explored the Victoria in 1856. Dr. Mueller was botanist of the Expedition Mr. Stuart crossed from Adelaide to Van Diemen’s Gulf, by Port Essington, in 1862. The Dutch discovered the coast in 1616.

Captain King surveyed much coast line in 1820-2. Landsborough and M‘Kinlay explored in 1862. Settlements once established at Port Essington were abandoned because of the bad climate. Palmerston was near the mouth of the Victoria. A new town is being formed on the north coast.

Mountains.

Murchison and Ashburton ranges in the interior. A collar range is round the Gulf of Carpentaria. Forbes, Ligar, O’Shanassy are by Burke’s Land. Macadam and Heales are south of the Gulf. Mount Stuart is the centre of Australia, lat. 22° Waterhouse, Barkly, and Davenport are central. Granite ranges head the Victoria River.

Basaltic plateau is north and south of the Roper. Newcastle Table Range by the Victoria, long. 130°.

Macdonnell ranges are on the tropic of Capricorn.

Rivers.

The fine Roper nms east to Gulf of Carpentaria. Chambers and Strangway reach the Roper. Albert and Nicholson are Gulf streams.

The Alligator and Adelaide by Van Diemen’s Gulf.

Stokes’ Victoria and Wickham are north-west. Fitzmaurice joins the Victoria by Palmerston. The Herbert is south-west of the Flinders.

The Adelaide is east of the northern Victoria. Stuart’s Attack Creek is central of the continent Newcastle wrater is east of Victoria river.

Bays.

The deep Gulf of Carpentaria is north-east, Limmen bight is south-west of the gulf.

Van Diemen’s Gulf is north of Port Essington. Clarence Strait joins it to the Indian Ocean.

Port Essington is in Victoria Peninsula, lat. 11°. Anson Bay between Adelaide and Victoria rivers. Adam Bay is north of the Adelaide River. Capes.

Arnhem is the west corner of the Gulf.

Maria Van Diemen is north-west.

Islands.

Wellesley and Groote Eyland are in the Gulf. Melville and Bathurst are in the Indian seas.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

Western Australia extends from the 129th degree of longitude to the Indian ocean.

It is 1300 miles from north to south, and 800 wide. On the west coast, are the lands of Arnhem,. Edel, De Witt, Dumpier, and Tasman.

Dry Nuyt’s Land is by tbe Southern Ocean.

The north coast is 300 miles from Timor Island. The settlements are at the south-west corner, on and near the Swan River. Population, 25,000. The Denison Plains are south of Camden harbour. Godinho, the Portuguese, discovered part of the north-west coast in 1601.

Part of the coast was seen by the Dutch in 1616. The colony was settled in 1829 by the English. Mr. F. Gregory explored to the north-west, 1862. Exports are wool, sandal-wood, copper and lead. Victoria district is rich in metals, lat. 28°—30°. Mountains.

Darling and Roe ranges, in the settled district. Stirling and Roe are north of King George’s Sound. Granite Bruce is 200 east of North-west Cape. Waterloo, Trafalgar, and Cockburn are north. Granite ranges lie north-east of Shark’s Bay. Volcanic hills are east of North-west Cape. Mueller and Wilson are by Stmt Creek, lat 20°. Rivers.

The Swan is 150 miles long. The Avon joins it. The mahogany Blackwood is near cape Leeuwin. The Murchison, west coast, is S. of Shark’s Bay. Regent, Fitzroy and Glenelg are to the north. Sturt is in the north-east, near the Victoria.

The Gascoinge flows westward to Shark’s Bay. Fortescue and De Grey are between Roebuck Bay and North-west Cape.

The Cambridge between the Glenelg and Victoria.

Lakes.    •

There are many salt-lakes in the south west part. Lakes Moore and Austin are N. of Swan River. A Salt-lake receives Gregory’s Sturt Creek.

Islands.

The Dutch Dirk Ilartog is in Shark’s Bay. Prison Rottenest is at the mouth of the Swan. Dampier Archipelago Isles near North-west Cape. Buccaneer Archipelago near Camden Harbour. Bays.

Geographe Bay is north of Cape Leeuwin.

Sandy King George’s Sound is to the south-west. Champion Bay is in lat. 29°.

Shark’s Bay, with its pearls, is on the west. Cambridge Gulf and Sunday Strait are north-east. Admiralty Gulf is by Cape Londonderry. Roebuck Bay is in lat. 18° King’s Sound by it. Niclcol Bay, lat. 20£°, is west of Roebuck Bay. Camden Sound or Harbour is in lat. 15^°, the mouth of Grey’s Glenelg river.

Port Gregory is by Gantheaume Bay south-west. Capes.

Stormy Cape Leeuwin is the south-western corner. Point D’Entrecasteaux is south-east of Leeuwin. Naturaliste is north of Leeuwin, and Nuyt east. North-west Cape is at that corner of Australia. Sterile Londonderry is to the north-east.

Towns.

Perth, the capital, lat. 31°, long. 116°, is on the 1 Swan River. Population, 6000.

Freemantle, the sandy port, is 12 from Perth. York is 6 0 miles east, and Guildford 9.

Bunbury is on Geographe Bay.

The Geraldine lead mine is near Champion Bay. Australind, a private town, is 100 south of Perth. Augusta, southward, is in the mahogany forest. Albany, 260 miles south-east of Perth, is on the barren shore of King George’s Sound.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

South Australia is to the west of Victoria and New South Wales, the south of North Australia, and the east of Western Australia,

Lat. 26° is the northern border, long. 141° the eastern, and 129° the western.

It contains 360,000 square miles, being four times the size of Victoria.

Much of the country is sandy and waterless.

The population is 180,000. The natives are few. The exports are copper, lead, wool, flour, gold. The exports are £2,500,000; imports £3,300,000. It was first settled by a company in 1836. Captain Flinders in 1802 discovered the coast. Captain Stmt passed down the Murray through the country in 1830, and south desert in 1845. Eyre -went overland to King George’s Sound, 1841. Stuart explored central and northward in 1862-3. Burke and Wills died near Cooper’s Creek, 1861.

Me UXTAIKS.

Rich mineral ranges run between the Murray river and the gulfs St. Vincent and Spencer. Lofty is 2,300ft., Bryan 3010, Razorback 2920. Barker and Remarkable are rich mineral hills. Brown and Arden are at head of Spencer’s Gulf. Mount Gambier and Mount Schank are old volcanoes, near the Victorian boundary. Gawler range is in Port Lincoln peninsula, Warburton range is W. of Lake Gairdner. Sandhills abound to the north-westward.

Red Serle and Hopeless are near the salt lakes. Stuart’s range west of Lake Eyre is in long. 135 .

Rivers.

The Murray runs through salt Lake Victoria over a bar into the sea of Encounter Bay.

No other river flows throughout the year.

The Torrens, by Adelaide, is lost in a swamp. The Burra and others are lost in the Murray scrub. Cooper’s Creek, near Sturt’s Stony Desert, carries the Barcoo to the salt lake of Eyre. Strzelecki Creek the south end of Cooper’s Creek. Pretty Blanche water meets the Strzelecki. Neales, Frome and Chambers run to Lake Eyre. Lakes.

Lake Torrens is north of Spencer’s Gulf.

Eyre, north of Torrens, is 150 long by 20 broad. Blanche east of Lake Torrens is 120 by 12. Gairdner the largest lake is west of Torrens. Lake Hope is south-west of Cooper’s Creek. These salt lakes receive the rivers of the interior. The Stony Desert is north-east of the lakes.

Lake Victoria is 30 miles long. The Goolwa is a passage of the Murray into it.

Salt Lake Albert falls into the Victoria.

The shallow, salt Coorong, by the sea coast, is 80 miles long, and joins the Victoria Lake. Islands.

Barren and saline Kangaroo is 100 miles long Scrubby Hindmarsh is between the Goolwa Passage and the lake Victoria.

Marshy Torrens is near Adelaide.

Nuyt’s Archipelago are near Western Australia. Thistle and Banks’ group are in Spencer’s Gulf. Flinders of Investigator’s group is east of Bight. Gulfs and Bays.

The Australian Bight is the open western bay.

Fowler and Streaky Bays are near it.

Gulf St. Vincent, near Adelaide, is 150 long. Copper Yorke Peninsula divides Spencer’s Gulf from Gulf St. Vincent. North Arm by Adelaide. Port Lincoln, Eyre Peninsula, west of Spencer’s. Rapid and Holdfast Bays are in Gulf St. Vincent. Port Elliot is west of the mouth of the Murray. Victor Harbour is 6 miles west of Port Elliot. Encounter Bay is to the south-east of Adelaide. Lacepedc Bay is south of Encounter Bay. Guichen and Rivoli Bays are to the south-east. Backstairs Passage lies between Encounter Bay and Gulf St. Vincent.

Capes.

Cape Jervis is south of Gulf St. Vincent. Northumberland is near the Victoria boundary. Counties.

Frome, Burra, Stanley and Light are north, Adelaide and Hindmarsh are central.

Russell, Robe and Grey are south-east.

Flinders is in Port Lincoln Peninsula.

The Limestone Tatiara country is near Victoria. The Mount Gambier Oasis is south of Tatiara. Towns.

The towns are principally between Gulf St. Vincent and the Murray.

Adelaide, the capital, is in lat. 35° south, and long. 138° east with a population of 25,000. Port Adelaide is six miles from the city. Salisbury is between Adelaide and Gawlertown. Kooringa at the Burra Burra copper mine is 100 miles north of Adelaide,

Level Gawlertown, on the Gawler, is 25 north Copper Kapunda, on the Light, 50 north.

Farming; Mount Barker is 25 east.

Golden Echunga is near Mount Barker.

Angaston is 50 north-east, and Tanunda 40. Wakefield is at the head of St. Vincent Gulf. Augusta is at the head of Spencer’s Gulf.

The mining Wallaroo is west on Yorke Peninsula. Port Victoria on west side of Yorke Peninsula. Moonta copper mine is on Yorke Peninsula.

Rich and lovely Willunga is 30 south of Adelaide. Wellington and Moorunde are on the Murray. Port Lincoln Town is 200 west of Adelaide.

Port Macdonnell is near Mount Gambier.

Fertile Mount Gambier district is 270 south-east. Greytown, squatting Rivoli Bay is 240 south-east.

TASMANIA, OR VAN DIEMEN’S LAND. This fine island is separated from Victoria by the sea of Bass’s Straits, 150 miles wide.

The Southern Ocean is on the east, westand south. It is 250 miles long, with 95,000 people.

It contains one-fourth the area of Victoria.

The western side is hilly, scrubby and poor.

The exports are wool, timber, coal, fruit and corn. Tasman, the Dutchman, saw this land in 1642. Lie called it Van Diemen, after the Dutch Governor of Java.

Colonel Collins formed a convict colony in 1804. It is now a free, healthy, and beautiful colony. Only one male native is now alive.

Mountains.

One chain runs from north to south.

The middle part is high table land.

The lake region is an elevated plateau 4000 feet.

Surrey and Hampshire hills arenorth-west. Arthur, Bathurst and Hartz ranges are south.

St. Patrick’s Head is on the east coast.

Basaltic Wellington is near Hobart Town. Wellington is 4200 feet; Ben Lomond, 5000. Dry’s Bluff is the east end of Western Tier.

The Peak of Teneriffe and Frenchman’s Cap are-westward towards Macquarie Harbour. Denison range is west of the Gordon River. Rivers.

The Derwent, from Lake St. Clair, passes Hobart. Nive, Ouse, Dee, Clyde, Styx and Jordan join it. The Jordan from Jericho flows by Bagdad.

The noble southern Huon waters a rich country. Rapid Gordon and King enter Macquarie Harbour.. Long, winding South Esk is from Ben Lomond. The North and South Esk meet at Launceston. The Salt Tamar receives the two Esk Rivers. The Macquarie falls into the South Esk.

Mersey, Forth, Cam, Emu reach Bass’s Straits. Arthur and Pieman’s are north west.

Lakes.

St. Clair and Great Lake are 4000 feet high. Sorell Lake is the source of the rocky Clyde. Pedder and Edgar are by the Huon head.

Echo is the source of the Dee.

Lake Arthur is by Wood Lake.

Bays.

Storm Bay receives the Derwent River. D’Entrecasteaux’s Rocky Channel joins it.

Deep Macquarie Harbour is on the west side. Port Davey is a safe southern harbour.

Coal Recherche Bay and South Port are south Cook’s Adventure Bay is in Bruni Island.

Coal Port Arthur is in Tasman’s Peninsula. Emu Bay and Port Sorell are northward. , Oyster Bay and Swan Port are eastward.

Bass’s Strait is between Tasmania and Victoria. Banks’ Strait is south of Flinders’ Island.

Capes.

Circular Head and Grim are north-west.

Granite Portland is north-east.

Flinders’ Point Hibbs is on the west coast. Rough Patrick's Head is eastward.

Tasman’s Peninsula is eastward of Storm Bay. South Cape and South-west Cape are lofty. Islands.

Barren Flinders is in Bass’s Strait.

Dangerous King is west of the Strait.

Long Bruni is south of the Derwent entrance. Fertile Maria and Coal Schouten are east. Lovely Norfolk is 1200 miles north-east.

Towns.

Hobart Town, on the Derwent, is in latitude 43° south, and longitude 147|° east, with 20,000 people.

Launceston, on the Tamar,is the northern capital. Perth 12 miles S., Westbury W. of Launceston. Golden Fingal by Ben Lomond S. E. of Perth. George Town is the seaport of Launceston. Longford is on the fertile Norfolk Plains. Timber stations are at the Mersey and Emu. Burgess at Port Sorell. Deloraine, north-west. Torquay, Port Frederick, is on Mersey river. Good farms are near Stanley of Circular Head. Campbeltown, Both well, and Oatlands are central. New Norfolk and Hamilton are west of Hobart. Franklin is in the Huon settlement westward.

B

The coal mines of Port Arthur are in the old penal settlement of Tasman’s Peninsula. Bagdad, Jerusalem, Jericho, are south east. Richmond, on Coal river, is south of Jerusalem. Bathurst, south-west, is in Port Davey.

Victoria Valley is between the Ouse and Dee.

NEW ZEALAND.

New Zealand is 1200 miles east of Australia. Victoria is about as large as all New Zealand. North Island is 500 miles in length.

South Island is 500 long by 150 broad.

North contains 40,000, South 55,000 square miles. They were discovered by Tasman in 1642.

.Cook sailed round them in 1769.

An English colony was first formed in 1841.

The exports are gold, wool, copper, flax, potatoes. The climate is moist, cool, and healthy.

The European population is above 230,000.

The Maories, or natives, are but 45,000.

Only a few hundreds are on South Island.

NORTH ISLAND.

North Island is divided into four provinces. Auckland, to the north, is 350 miles long. Population, 50,000.

Wellington, south, 200 long, has 30,000 people. Taranaki, west, 100 long, has 4000.

Hawke’s Bay, east, 100 long, has 2000.

Mountains.

Golden Coromandel range is near Auckland. Central Lofty Tongariro volcano is 6500 feet.

Ruapelm, south of Tongariro, is 9000.

Snowy Egmont, 8500 feet, is westward. Edgecombe, by Plenty Bay, is 6000 feet.

Rua Eline Range is north of Wellington.

Rtvers.

Rocky Waikato is 250 miles long.

The golden Thames is near Auckland.

The rich Hutt valley is towards Wellington. Wanganui is east, Mokau north of Taranaki.

Lakes.

Some lakes were once volcanic craters.

Hot and sulphur lakes are by Rotorua lake. Lake Taupo, near Tongariro, is 35 miles long.

Bays.

Thames Firth is south of the Bay of Islands.

The Bay of Islands was settled by the Missionaries through the Rev. S. Marsden, 1815. Plenty, Poverty, and Hawke Bays are eastward. Tauranga harbour is north of Bay of Plenty. Palliser is south, Hokianga is north-west. Doubtful Manukao harbour is west of Auckland. Kaipara harbour is north of Manukao.

Port Elliot is the open Taranaki roadstead. Windy Port Nicholson is in Cook’s Strait. Cook’s Strait divides North from South Island.

Cafes.

Cape Maria Van Diemen is by North Cape.

The Reinga, or native Spiritland, is north.

Bold Egmont is the western promontory.

Palliser is south of the North Island.

Cook’s Kidnapper and Turnagain are east.

Islands.

Copper Barrier is north of Auckland.

The Sulphurous White Island is in Plenty Bay. Kapiti of Cook’s Strait is north of Wellington.

Towns.

Auckland on volcanic hills in lat. 37°, long. 175°. Rocky AVellington is on Port Nicholson, lat. 41°. The Governor resides at the capital there.

Petre is at the mouth of the Wanganui river. New Plymouth is in fertile Taranaki westward. Napier is the port of Hawke’s Bay on the east. Wellington is 400 miles south of Auckland. Waimate is the old mission station northward.

SOUTH OR MIDDLE ISLAND.

South Island is divided into five provinces. Nelson, north, 180 miles long, 12,000 sq. miles. Marlborough, north-east, is 120 long, 60 broad. Canterbury, central, is 300 long, 150 broad. Otago, south, is 200 long, 150 broad.

Southland, cut out of Otago, is 120 by 70. Rocky Banks’ Peninsula is part of Canterbury. Nelson was founded in 1842, Otago 1848, Canterbury 1850, and Southland 1861.

The South Island contains about 150,000 whites. Stormy Stewart’s Island is south of all.

Mountains.

The Southern Alps run down by the west coast. Cook is 12,500 feet high, with fine glaciers. Franklin is 10,000, Looker-on 9000, Mack ay 7500. Alexandra, and Castor and Pollux are west.

Ben Nevis is near Lake Wakatipu.

Umbrella range is by the Dunstan mountains.

Rivers.

The Wairau, of Marlborough, reaches Cloudy Bay. The Avon and Ashburton are in Canterbury.

The Waitaki is between Otago and Canterbury. Grey is west, between Nelson and Canterbury. Golden Buller, of Nelson, is on the west coast. New River and Jacobs are in cold Southland. Many short eel streams flow west to the sea. Greenstone river is west of Lake Wakatipu.

The coal and golden Molyneaux, or Clutha, flows through Otago from Canterbury.

The Taieri is near rocky Dunedin.

The Haast is from Grey’s range to the west coast.

Lakes.

Brunner and Sumner in Otago and Canterbury. Ellesmere and salt Coleridge are in Canterbury. Wanaki, Hawea, and Teanau, in Alpine Otago. Wakatipu, of west Otago, is 1300 feet deep.

Bays.

Tasman or Blind bay is by Nelson.

Queen Charlotte’s Sound and Cloudy Bay, of Marlborough, are in the Straits.

Cook’s Strait is between North and South Island. Fovcaux Strait, between South and Stewart Islands. Massacre Bay is now the Golden Bay of Nelson. Pegasus Bay is north-east of Canterbury.

Port Lyttelton, the eastern port of Canterbury. Ports Cooper and Levy are in Banks’ Peninsula. Otago Harbour and Molyneux Bay are of Otago. Preservation Inlet is south-west of Otago.

Milford Sound, a good harbour of west Otago.

Martin’s Bay is a new western port o? Otago. Paterson Inlet is in Stewart Island.

Capes.

Campbell, of Marlborough, opposite Wellington. Saunders, of Otago, is off Dunedin.

Slope Point is the southernmost cape.

South and Southwest Capes are in Stewart Island. The Bluff is a few miles from Invercargill. Windsor Point is south-west of Otago.

Cascade Point and Abut Head of West Otago. Foul wind is west, and Farewell north of Nelson.

Islands.

Preservation and Secretary are westward. Steward, 50 miles long, is south of South Island. Chatham Islands are east of South Island.

Cold Auckland Isles are iu latitude 51° S.

Towns.

Nelson is west of Wellington, and same latitude-Collingwood gold-field is north-west of Nelson. Picton, of Marlborough, is 30 miles E. of Nelson. Lyttelton port is 8 miles from Christchurch. Christchurch, lat. 431°, is capital of Canterbury. It is 200 S.E. of Nelson, 300 N.E. of Dunedin. Hokitika mines north-west coast of Canterbury. Greymouth, north of Hokitika, has gold and coal. Timaru is on the south-east coast of Canterbury. French Akaroa Port is in Banks’ Peninsula. ^ Dunedin is capital of Otago, lat. 46°, long. 170? Chalmers is port of Dunedin, in Otago Harbour-Clydesdale is at the Dunstan diggings. _ Golden Queenstown is on the Lake Wakatipu.

Kingstown is between Southland and Otago. Molyneux is at the mouth of the Molyneux. Farming Oamaru is north-east of Otago. Invercargill, lat. 46i°, is the capital of Southland.

For further particulars see the author’s “ Geography of Australia and New Zealand,” Robertson, publisher.

POLYNESIA.

Polynesia, of many islands, extends for thousands of miles between Australia and America.

Some isles are of lava, but most of coral origin. They are hill-tops of a sunken continent. Western Polynesians are black, Eastern are olive. The Melanesian Isles are near the Equator.

The Polynesians grow cocoa-nuts, sago, sugar, arrowroot, and cotton.

Once all cannibals, many are now Christians. Savage New Hebrides are N.E. of Queensland. Several Missionaries were killed there.

The French New Caledonia is 200 miles long.

It is 1000 miles north of New Zealand.

Fiji Islands are between Samoa and Hebrides. The lovely Friendly Islands are east of Fiji. Tongataboo, of the Friendly, is 60 miles round. The Samoan or Navigator’s group are fruitful. The Society Islands include Tahiti, Eimeo, &c. Tahiti is 5000 miles north east of Sydney.

The French have seized that fairy Christian land. The Cannibal Marquesas Isles are by the Equator. The rich Sandwich Isles are west of California. On volcanic Hawaii Captain Cook was killed.

Honolulu is the whaling port of Oahu Isle. The Sandwich king is an educated Christian.

INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.

These islands are between Australia and Asia. They are mountainous, hot, moist and fertile. Their products are gold, sugar, cotton, rice, sago, spices, gutta-percha and coal.

The population is about 20,000,000, who are chiefly heathens, though some are Mahometans. New Guinea, the largest isle, is 1400 miles long. The people are savage negroes, and some Malays. The ourang-outang and bird of paradise are there. Torres Strait divides New Guinea from North Queensland. It is full of coral rocks and islets. Arroo, Timor, and Sandal-wood isles are west. Fertile Java, west of Timor, is 700 miles long. Volcanoes are numerous, earthquakes common. Unhealthy Batavia is the rich port of Java. The Dutch hold Java, Timor, Spice Isles, &c. The tin island of Banca is near Sumatra.

The Moluccas or Spice Isles are on the Equator. The curiously-shaped Celebes is rich in gold.

The active Bugis of Celebes are native traders. Borneo Isle is 800 miles long by 500 broad.

The Dyaks of Sarawak are under English rule. The British colony of Labuan Isle has coal. Woody, golden Sumatra Isle is 1000 miles long. The trading Malays are on many islands.

They are active but cruel Mahometans.

The English Isle of Singapore is by the Equator. It is on the way from India to Australia. Malays, Chinese, and English meet to trade.

ASIATIC ISLES.

The Piratical Sooloo Isles are by the Equator. The Philippine Isles belong to the Spaniards. Manilla, the capital, exports cigars and sugar. The civilised Loo Choo Isles are near China.

The populous Japan Isles are west of China. Jeddo, the capital, has two millions of people. The Japanese are educated, rich, and prosperous. Their religion is Buddhist idolatary like Chinese The Russian Kurile Isles are by Kamschatka. They are very cold, with many volcanoes.

ASIA.

Asia is five times the size of Australia. It is 6000 miles long. Its population is 700,000,000, of whom only 4,000,000 are Christians.

RUSSIA IN ASIA.

This country is 4000 miles long, with very few people. The exports are furs, gold and iron. The golden Ural Mountains are on the west side. Yenesei river is 3000 miles; Oby and Lena 2000. The Cossacks got cold Siberia 300 years ago.

The native tribes are Pagan or Mahometan. Tobolsk and Irkutsk are towns of Siberia.

The dog-sledged Kamschatdales live eastward. Petropauloski is the strong Kamschatka town.

TARTARY.

Tartary extends 4000 miles, with 30 millions. The inhabitants wander with their flocks.

Chinese Tartary is in the Chinese Empire.

The valley of the Amoor river is now Russian. Woody Manchooria east, desert Mongolia west. Mantchoo Tartars have held China 200 years» Samarcand and Bokhara are two western towns. Lhassa is the capital of mountainous Thibet. Some Himalayan peaks are six miles high.

CHINA.

China is 1500 miles long,, with 400,000,000 pagans. It was civilised 3000 years ago.

The exports are tea, rice, silk, and chinaware. The wall north of China is 1700 miles long. Pekin is the capital; Canton is the trading port. Nankin has fine porcelain. Shanghai is a port. The Yellow and Blue rivers are 3000 miles long. The English hold Hong Kong Isle, near Canton. Macao is a Portuguese island near Canton.

The Tartars conquered China several times.

The Tiping rebel Chinese profess Christianity.

INDO-CHINA.

This country, between India and China, contains the Burmese and Annam empires, Siam Kingdom, and Malaya Peninsula. Pop. 30 millions.

These are rich in gold, teak, gutta-percha, silk.

The golden Irrawaddy is a large river.

The English possess golden-templed Rangoon and Pegu; the tea land of Assam; and the ports of Moulemein, Penang, and Malacca.

Ava is the capital of the lively Burmese,

Hue is in Annam, or Cochin China.

The French hold part of Annam.

Cambodia and Laos are large countries near it.

INDIA, OR IIINDOSTAN.

India is 2000 miles long, with 200 millions.

It has been gradually conquered by the English. The exports of this rich land are sugar, cotton, tea, opium, rice, and silk.

The lofty Himalaya Hills are to the north.

Some peaks are 30,000 feet above the sea level. Ganges River is 1700 miles long; Burrampooter, 2000; the Godavery runs eastward.

The Indus and Sutledj rivers arc north-west.

The pretty Yale of Cashmere is north-westward. Malabar Coast is S. W., Coromandel is S. E. Ncpaul is N., Mysore S., the Carnatic S. E. Scinde and the Punjaub are western provinces. Calcutta, the capital, is in Bengal Province.

Hilly Simla is near the source of the Ganges. Kurrachee Port is at the mouth of the Indus. Madras is on the east coast, Bombay the west. Lucknow is in Oude, Goa on the west coast. Holy Benares, Cawnpore, Patna, by the Ganges. Wealthy Delhi was capital of the Mogul Empire. Lahore is the Punjaub town of the warlike Sikhs. The Spice Isle of Ceylon is south of India. Kandy, Point de Galle, Columba are its towns.

AFFGHANISTAN, OR CABUL.

The hilly land of the Affglians is 1000 miles long, with 6 millions. Cabul, Herat, are its towns. Affglianistan is between India and Persia.

BELOOCHISTAN.

This bare and hot region is south of Cabul.

The wandering Belooclies are shepherd robbers. Kelat, the capital, was taken by the British.

PERSIA.

Persia, 1000 miles long, has 10 million people. Its exports are opium, carpets, and perfumes. Teheran, the capital, is among the hills.

Ispahan is a flowery oasis in the desert.

The River Tigris flows to the Persian Gulf. Cyrus, the Persian, took Babylon 2400 years ago. The Persians, once Fire worshippers, are now Mahometans. Bushire is their gulf port.

ARABIA.

Arabia, 1600 miles long, has 8,000,000.

It exports some drugs, coffee, and spices.

The Bedouin Arabs are plundering herdsmen. The Israelites were in Stony Arabia forty years. Mounts Sinai and Horeb are in that part. Mahomet was born at Mecca 1300 years ago. Medina was the place of his burial.

The English hold strong Aden, by the Red Sea. East Muscat is under a rich native prince.

Part of the interior is civilised and fertile.

TURKEY IN ASIA.

Asiatic Turkey, 1200 miles long, has 16,000,000 people, who are chiefly Mahometans.

The exports are silk, fruits, opium, and drugs.

Its chief parts were Asia Minor, Palestine or Holy Land, Syria, Assyria, and Armenia.

The River Euphrates unites with the Tigris. Babylon was on Euphrates, Nineveh on Tigris. Smyrna, Ephesus, and Sardis were of Asia Minor. Bagdad was the capital of the Mahometan Saracens, who arose in Arabia.

Smyrna and Beyrout are trading ports.

Rich Aleppo and rose Damascus are in Syria. Palmyra, in the desert, was built by Solomon. Fair Cyprus and Rhodes are Turkish Islands. Arabs, Turks and Greeks live in Turkey.

Old Troy stood near the Bosphorus, 1200 B.C.

PALESTINE, OR HOLY LAND.

Palestine, the ancient Canaan, is 200 miles long. The cedar hills of Lebanon are northward.

Mount Carmel is west; Nebo, south; Olivet, by Jerusalem; Gerizim, near Samaria.

The River Jordan flows through Lake Gennesaret into the salt and sulphurous Dead Sea. Nebuchadnezzar subdued the Jews 600 B.C.

The Roman Titus took Jerusalem in the year 70. The twelve divisions or tribes of Israel were:— Asher, Naphtali, Zebulon, Issachar, to north. Half Manasseh, Gad, Reuben, to the east. Ephraim, Half Manasseh, Dan, to the west. Benjamin, Simeon, and Judah, to the south.

In the time of Christ there were five provinces:— Galilee, north; Samaria and Judea, south. Perea and Iturea beyond the Jordan, east. Jerusalem. Bethlehem, Jericho, were in Judea. Samaria and Shechem were in Samaria province. Nazareth and Capernaum were in Galilee.

Tyre and Sidon were north Phoenician ports.

WATERS OF ASIA.

Behring’s Strait, between Asia and America. The cold Sea of Okotsk, near Kamtschatka.

The stormy Yellow Sea, east of China.

Bay of Bengal, between India and Birmah. Persian Gulf, between Persia and Arabia.

The coral Red Sea, between Egypt and Arabia. Straits of Babelmandeb, south of Red Sea. Straits of Menaar, between India and Ceylon. Straits of Sunda, between Java and Sumatra.

EUROPE.

Europe is 3500 miles long, containing an area rather larger than Australia. It has a population of 300 millions of Roman Catholic, Greek, and Protestant Christians, and 5 millions of Mahometans.

TURKEY IN EUROPE.

It is 700 miles long, with 17 millions of people. Most of the inhabitants are Greeks.

This fertile land exports corn, silk, and fruits. The Turks took Constantinople from the Greeks in 1453. It is on the Bosphorus Strait.

The Danube River falls into the Black Sea. Varna is in Bulgaria; Belgrade in Servia;

Yanina in Albania ; Silistria on the Danube. Candia or Crete Isle, south of the Archipelago.

MODERN GREECE.

Greece is a small, hilly, seagirt country.

Old and beautiful Athens is the capital. Corinth Isthmus joins the Morea Peninsula. The currant Corfu and Zante are Ionian Isles. The Princess of Wales’ brother is elected king:. Greece was freed from Turkey in 1830.

ANCIENT GREECE.

It was the home of learning, liberty, and the arts. There were trading Athenians, fighting Spartans, and conquering Macedonians.

Xerxes, the Persian, was beaten at Salamis. Alexander the Great lived 2200 years ago.

The Greeks were subdued by the Romans, 150 B.C.

ITALY.

Italy is 700 miles long, with 25 million people. Savoy belongs now to France, the Pope holds Rome, but the King of Italy has the rest.

The Alps are north; Blanc is 15,000 feet high. The Apennine ranges run from north to south. The sluggish yellow Tiber waters Rome.

The Arno is in Tuscany, and Po in Lombardy. Rome was once the largest town in the world. Naples town is near the volcano of Vesuvius. Gay Florence and straw Leghorn are in Tuscany. Genoa port is north-west, and island Venice east. Turin is the capital of the province of Piedmont. Milan is the rich town of the Lombardy Plains. The corn island of Sicily is south of Italy.

Etna is its volcano, and Palermo its chief town. The strong little Malta isle belongs to England.

Sardinia and Corsica isles are westward of Italy. Volcanic Stromboli is one of the Lipari Isles.

SWITZERLAND.

This mountain land is 200 miles long.

The Oberland Alps have large glaciers.

William Tell beat the Austrians 500 years ago. Berne is capital, and Geneva is rich in trade. Lausanne, Zmich, and Basle are fine towns.

The lakes are Geneva, Zurich, Lausanne, Constance, Lucerne, and Neufchatel.

GERMANY.

This region contains, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Wurtemburg, Baden, &c.

PRUSSIA.

Prussia is 700 miles long, with 30 millions.

It is the best educated country of Europe.

It exports corn, flax, wool, and timber.

Hanover and other states are added to Prussia. Berlin is the new capital; Königsberg the old. Cologne, on the Rhine, has a fine cathedral. Memel, Dantzic, Stralsund, are Baltic seaports. Aix-le-Chapelle and Bonn are in Rhineland. Breslau is in Silesia, Frankfort west, Tilsit east. The Hartz mountains are rich in metals.

The Rhine, Oder and Elbe flow northward. Hamburg, Lubec, Bremen are German ports. Munich is in Bavaria; Dresden, in Saxony. Stuttgard in Wurtemberg, Carlsruhe in Baden.

AUSTRIA.

Austria is 800 miles long, with 35 millions. Brave Hungary is the eastern province.

Hilly Bohemia, the apple country, is northward. Vienna, the capital, is on the River Danube. Prague is in Bohemia; Bucla in Hungary. Council of Trent, in Tyrol, was 300 years ago. Salt Cracow is in Polish Gallicia, to north-east. Trieste is the chief port of the Adriatic.

The Carpathian Hills divide Austria from Russia. The Tyrolese and Noric Alps are in Austria.

RUSSIA.

Russia is 20 times the size of Victoria.

It has 75 million people; religion, Greek Church. Its exports are corn, wool, hides, tallow, deal. The Russians are of Sclavonic, and Germans of Teutonic race; as most Irish are Celtic.

The golden Ural Range is the eastern boundary. The \ olga River flows to the inland Caspian Sea;

Vistula, to the Baltic; Don, to the Azof Sea. Poland was shared by Russia, Austria, Prussia. Peninsula of Crimea is south, by the Black Sea. Petersburg, the capital, is on the River Neva. Peter the Great founded it in 1705.

Moscow, the old capital, is in the interior.

It was burnt in 1812 to keep out the French.

W arsaw was once the capital of Polish Kingdom. Fishing Archangel is by the cold White Sea. Astracan is at the mouth of the great Volga. Strong Cronstadt is the port of Petersburg. Sweaborg is the Baltic port of Swedish Findland. Revel and Riga are Baltic timber ports.

Sebastopol ancl Balaclava are in the Crimea. Odessa is the corn port of the Black Sea. Kherson and dockyard Nicliolaf are south.

SWEDEN AND NORWAY.

Copper and iron mountains divide Western Norway from Eastern Sweden.

They are 1000 miles long, with 5 million people. Cold. Stockholm, on many Islands, is the capital. Upsal is the university town; Tornea is north. Bergen and Christiana, Norwegian pine towns. Frozen Lapland is north of wooded Sweden. Dovrefeld range central; Lofoden Isles are west.

DENMARK.

Low, marshy Denmark, is a Baltic Peninsula. Strong Copenhagen town is in Zealand Isle.

The Sound and the Belts are Straits.

Holstein and Schleswig are joined to Prussia. Jutland is the mainland part of Denmark. Denmark, Sweden and Norway form Scandinavia. Iceland Isle is 300 miles east of Greenland. Reikiavik is its capital, Hecla its volcano.

HOLLAND.

The 4 million Dutch export butter and cheese. Trading Amsterdam is the prosperous capital. The King lives at the beautiful Hague.

Port Rotterdam is on wooden piles in the sea. The Rhine and Schelde enter the German Sea. The Zuycler Zee and Haarlem Meer are sea lakes.

‘ BELGIUM.

Belgium is small, but has 5 millions of people.

It was once Flanders. The people Avere Flemish. It and Holland once formed the Netherlands. The Belgians export lace, coal, flax, carpets. Brussels the capital; Antwerp and Ostend, ports. Waterloo Battle, near Brussels, Avas in 1815. Ghent, Bruges, and Liege haAre manufactures.

ENGLAND AND WALES.

England is 400 miles long, Avith 23 millions.

It is two-thirds the size of Victoria colony.

It is the richest country iu the world.

The Queen rules o\Ter 250 millions of people. There are about 50 English colonies.

In Asia we luwe India, Ilona Kona. Penana.

In Africa, Cape Colony, Natal, the Mauritius.

Jn North America, nearly half the continent.

In South America, Guiana, and Falkland Isles. Romans conquered the Britons 1800 years ago. Saxons, or English, Avith Danes, came afterwards. Normans, from Norway and France, came in 1066. England, Scotland, and Wales form Great Britain. The British channel separates England and France. The Irish channel separates England and Ireland. St. George’s channel is AArest of Wales.

The Wash is a bay on the English east coast. Spurn Head, Naze, and Forelands are E. capes. Beachy Head, Portland, Start Point, S. capes. Lizard Point, and Land’s End are south-west. Sea Fell Hill, 3166 feet; Welsh SnoAvdon, 3570. The Cheviot Hills unite England and Scotland. Helvcllyn, Cader Idris, and CotsAvold are high.

Tlic English backbone is rich in coal, iron, lead. The river Severn, 200 miles long, rises in Wales. Thames runs by London, Mersey by Liverpool. The Trent is central, Medway is in Kent.

The Humber receives the Trent and Ouse.

One Ouse flows to the Wash. There are 3 Avons. The chief lakes in the north-west corner are Windermere, Derwentwater and Ulleswater. The Isle of Man is west. Anglesea is by AVales. Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney are by France. England has fifty counties and Wales twelve.

Towns.

London, lat. 51L° north, has 3,000,000 people. Manchester and Liverpool have 450,000 each. Liverpool and Bristol are west trading towns. Plymouth, Southampton, Brighton, are S. ports. Hull, of Yorkshire, has the chief Baltic trade. Portsmouth, Chatham, Woolwich, are dockyards. Oxford and Cambridge are university towns. Birmingham makes iron and brass goods. Sheffield, cutlery; Norwich and Macclesfield, silk. Leicester, stockings; Coventry, ribbons and lace. Manchester, Stockport, Preston, for cotton. Leeds, Huddersfield, Bradford, Halifax, for cloth. Black Wolverhampton and Dudley for iron. Newcastle, Sunderland, Whitehaven for coal. York, Litchfield, and Canterbury, for cathedrals. Wigan, Swansea, Barnsley, Leeds, Durham, coal. Stratford upon Avon, Shakespeare’s birthplace. Penzance and Redruth, Cornish tin and copper. Swansea smelting works are in South Wales. Beaumaris and St. Asaph are in North AVales. Berwick and Gretna are on the Scottish border.

• SCOTLAND.

Scotland is half the size of England though larger than Tasmania, with 3,000,000 people.

The King of Scotland became King of England after Queen Elizabeth’s death in 1603.

Macdui of the Grampian Range is 4400 feet.

Ben Nevis is 4370 feet; Ben Lomond 3200. Clyde River is by Glasgow ; Tay by Perth.

Lochs Lomond, Awe, Ness, Katrine, are lakes. The bare and bleak Hebrides are western isles. Lew’is, Skye, Iona, Staffa, Arran, Bute are wrest. The 670 Orkneys and the Shetland isles are north. The Frith, or bay, of Forth is by Edinburgh. Wrath and Butt of Lewris are north capes. Edinburgh has 150,000 ; Glasgow 450,000.

Leith is the port of beautiful Edinburgh. Glasgow has cotton and iron factories.

Greenock and rocky Oban are Western ports. Port Montrose and linen Dundee are east. Granite Aberdeen and Wick have fisheries. Cotton Lanark and shawl Paisley are south. Carron is famous for iron, Stirling for a castle. Perth and Inverness are Highland towns. Rothsay is in Bute; palace Balmoral is north. The Battle of Culloden was near Inverness, 1746.

IRELAND.

The island of Ireland is the size of Scotland. Its population is double that of Scotland.

It is only 14 miles from that country.

It exports butter, pork, cattle, linen, potatoes.

Conquered in 1172; united to Britain in 1801. The Shannon, 210 miles long, has fine salmon. The Liffey flows by Dublin; the Boyne, north. Bunn is north, Blackwater south, Barrow east. The west coast is rocky, barren and stormy,

The Maegillycuddy’s Reeks are 3400 feet high. Wicklow hills east, Knockmeledown 2700 feet. Pretty Lake Killarney is south; Neagh, north. Ireland had five kingdoms; has now 32 counties. Ulster Province is north; Leinster, east; Connaught, west; and Munster, south.

Dublin, the capital, has 300,000 inhabitants. Kingstown is the port of Dublin.

Busy Cork, with its fine harbour, is southward. Limerick and Galway are good western ports. Belfast port exports linen and farm produce. Kilkenny has coals, and Wicklow gold.

Limerick has gloves, and Maynooth a college. Waterford and Wexford are southern ports.

The Giant’s Causeway is north, by Londonderry. Rough Cape Clear is the south-western point.

FRANCE.

The British Channel divides it from England.

It is 600 long, and has 38,000,000 of people.

The exports are silk, wine, lace, and fancy goods. The great revolution of France was iu 1789; the second in 1830; and the third, in 1 848. Napoleon Bonaparte was made emperor in 1804. The Emperor Louis Napoleon is his nephew.

The Pyrenees mountains join Spain to France. The Auvergne are central, the Vosges eastward.

The Jura Alps range divides Italy from France. The Rhine is between Germany and France.

The Rapid Rhone runs southward; Loire, westward; the Seine, northward, through Paris. Once divided into 32 provinces, France is now in 86 departments or counties.

Beautiful Paris has 1,600,000 inhabitants.

Lyons has great silk factories on the Rhone. Calais, Boulogne, and Havre are north ports. Cherbourg has forts, Lille guns, St. Etienne iron. Brest navy yard and wine Bordeaux are west. Port Marseilles and ship-yard Toulon are south. Strasbourg on the Rhine. Rheims has champagne. Cressy battle was in 1356, Agincourt in 1415. Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica Isle.

SPAIN.

Spain has the area of France, and 16,000,000.

It exports wool, wine, olive oil, fruits, leather.

The Mediterranean is south, and the Bay of Biscay north. Spain is in 14 provinces.

Spain once held one-fourth of America.

It is now comparatively poor and very ignorant. Castile, Navarre, and Aragon were kingdoms. Spain is hilly ; the Pyrenees range is north. Tagus, the noble river, is 600 miles long.

The Ebro and Guadalquiver are fine streams. Nelson was killed off Cape Trafalgar in battle. Madrid, the capital, has an immense palace.

Gay Cadiz and iruit Malaga are southern ports. Seville has fine oranges, and Barcelona nuts. Saragossa and Badajos had dreadful sieges. English General Moore was killed at Corunna.

The rock fort, Gibraltar, belongs to England. Carthagena was a colony of old Carthage. Lovely Granada was the capital of the Moors. The African Moors were driven out in 1500. The Merino sheep came originally from Spain. The Phoenician Basques live in the hilly north.

PORTUGAL.

This land of fruits has 4,000,000 people.

Spain, France, Belgium, Portugal, are Rom. Catli. Lisbon, the capital, is at the Tagus entrance.

An earthquake destroyed it in 1755.

The wine port Oporto is on the Douro river.

WATERS OF EUROPE.

The Mediterranean Sea divides Europe from Africa. The Levant is the eastern part.

The North Sea or German Ocean is shallow. Dover Straits divide France from England.

The Baltic Sea is between Russia and Sweden. The Finland Gulf joins the Baltic.

The Gulf of Bothnia is north of the Baltic.

The icy White Sea is north of Russia.

Stormy Black Sea is south of Russia.

The Bosphorus Strait is by Constantinople.

The Dardanelles Strait, or Hellespont, is from the Marmora Sea to the Archipelago Sea The Archipelago island Sea is east of Greece. The Adriatic Sea, or Gulf of Venice, divides Italy from Turkey and Greece.

Gibraltar Straits join the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, dividing Spain from Africa.

AFRICA.

Africa is 5000 miles long. Its area is 12 million square miles, and population above 100 millions. It is of Pagan or Mahometan faith.

NORTHERN AFRICA.

Northern Africa includes Egypt and the Barbary States of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli. Exports are ivory, dates, palm oil, cotton, corn. Under the Romans there was a large and civilised population. Mahometan Arabs ruined all. Instead of traders, the people turned pirates.

Fez, Mogador, and Tangier, are in Morocco. Algiers fortress was taken by France in 1831. Constantine and Oran are towns of Algeria.

Tunis is where old Carthage stood.

Fezzan is south of Tripoli, by Barca.

The Atlas Range is in Morocco and Algeria.

EGYPT.

Egypt had once 100 millions of people; it now has but 5 millions, who are chiefly Arabs. Alexandria Port was established by Alexander. Cairo is on the Nile, Suez is by the Red Sea. Memphis and Thebes were towns 4000 years ago. The Nile is 4000 miles long.

The river banks are very rich from yearly floods. A canal will join the Red Sea to Mediterranean.

EASTERN AFRICA.

This includes the desert Nubia, the mountainous Abyssinia, the slave lands of Zanguebar and Mozambique, and the English colony of Natal.

Nubia, the ancient Ethiopia, has town Khartum. East Blue Nile and South White Nile meet there. The Abyssinians have a rude Christianity.

The Galla savages are south of Abyssinia.

The Zambesi is a large river with fine falls.

Nile is from lakes Victoria and Albert Nyanza. The interior is a well-peopled fertile plateau.

The Mountains of the Moon are in 10° south. Arabs and Portuguese have the eastern trade. Delagoa and Sofala bays are southward.

NATAL.

This Zoolu Kaffirland colony was settled in 1845* The exports are wool, tallow, cotton, and ivory. D’Urban is its port. Pietermaritzburg is hilly. Kaffraria is between Natal and Cape colony.

SOUTHERN AFRICA.

CAPE COLONY, OR CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

This English colony is about the size of Victoria. The population is 150,000 Dutch and English, and 150,000 Plottentots and Kaffirs.

The land of the Kaffirs is eastward and north. Hue wild animals are the elephant, lion, zebra, antelope, giraffe, ostrich, hippopotamus, &c. The Cape was discovered by the Portuguese in 1486, settled by the Dutch in 1652, and conquered by the English in 1806.

The exports are wool, wine, tallow, and ivory. The country is in many places a sandy waste. The Orange River, 1000 miles long, is the north boundary of the colony.

Table Mountain, by the Cape, is 3600 feet high.

Cape Town is in the latitude of Sydney. Graham’s Town is 600 miles east of Cape Town. The wool Port Elizabeth is in Algoa Bay.

The vineyards of Wynberg are westward.

Hope township is on the Orange ltiver.

Kaffir Lattakoo and Griqua Town arc northward. Trans-Yaal Republic of Dutch Boers, or farmers, is north-east of the Orange River.

Namaqua Hottentot land is north-west of Orange. A rich country exists north of the Cape Colony. Ngama is its lake, with lai-ge rivers into it.

Madagascar Isle, 1000 miles long, is north-east of the Cape of Good Hope; Tananarivo, town. Mauritius, or Isle of France, English sugar island, 40 miles long, is east of Madagascar. St. Louis is the chief town of Mauritius.

French Bourbon, or Re-union, is near Mauritius. St. Helena Isle, where Napoleon died, is N.W. Rocky Ascension Isle is north of St. Helena.

WESTERN AFRICA.

On the west coast are Angola, Congo, Loanga, the Guinea Coast and Senegambia.

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Benin, Ashantee, and Gold Coast, arc in Guinea. The. Niger runs from Kong Mountains to Guinea. The gorilla is in the Kong Mountains’ forests. The English colony of Sierra Leone is unhealthy. The exports are ivory and palm oil.

Liberia is a Negro and a Christian Republic Cape Coast Castle is an English fort in Guinea. The French settlements are on the Senegal river. Dahomey and Ashantee have female soldiers.

The Cape Verde Isles are opposite Senegambia. The Canary Isles are north of Cape Verde. Teneriffe Peak, 12,000 feet, is in a Canai'y Isle. The healthy Madeira Isles are west of Morocco. The orange Azores are west of Portugal.

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Fever Fernando Po Isle is near Benin of Guinea.

CENTRAL AFRICA.

The Sahara, or Great Desert, occupies most of Central Africa; it is 2000 miles long. -The oases are fertile watered spots in the desert. The noble Niger flows through part of the Sahara. Lake Tchad, 200 miles long, is in Soudan. Timbuctoo is the negro desert trading town.

The robbing Fellatahs live in Sackatoo.

The natives trade in gold, ivory, salt, and slaves. There are no volcanoes in Africa.

AMERICA.

NORTH AMERICA.

North America is 5500 miles long, having an area of eight million square miles, and a population of 50,000,000.

Danish America includes frozen Greenland. Russian America is the north-west corner.

BRITISH AMERICA.

British America, the size of Australia, includes frozen Labrador, foggy Newfoundland Isle, the interior woods and lakes, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada, Columbia, &c.

The Hudson Bay Hunting Company’s land is north of lat. 49°, and from long. 55° to 141°.

"Woody Rupert’s land is east of the Rocky Mountains.

Labrador is between Canada and Greenland.

Golden British Columbia is 500 long by 400 broad.

It is north of California and Oregon.

The exports are timber, furs, flour, fish, coal, gold.

The Rocky Mountains run from north to south.

Lakes Superior, Michegan, Huron, Ontario, and Erie, are south of Canada.

St. Lawrence River flows from these lakes.

The Falls of Niagara, between lakes Erie and Ontario, half-a-mile broad, are 160 feet deep.

The cold lakes Bear and Winnipeg are north.

The pine banks of Columbia River are west.

Coal and Gold Vancouver Isle, S.W. of Columbia.

Strait of Juan de Fuca divides Columbia from Washington territory of the United States.

Mackenzie River, 2500 miles, to the Arctic Sea.

Boothia Felix Land and Melville Isle are north.

Captain M‘Clure has passed through the Frozen Sea from the Asiatic to the European side.

Sir John Franklin was frozen up in that region.

The North Magnetic Pole is in 70° N. lat., 97° W. long. It was discovered by Captain Ross.

CANADA.

Canada has 350,000 sq. m. and 3 million people.

The English took it from the French in 1763.

The Upper Canadians are English, and Lower Canadians are chiefly French.

The exports are timber, fish, corn, ships, rock-oil.

The lakes divide it from the United States.

Fortified Quebec is the port of East Canada. Montreal is on an island in the St. Lawrence. Toronto and Kingstown are in Upper Canada. Ottawa is capital. Hamilton is on Ontario lake. Canada has very cold winters and hot summers. Fredericktown is the capital of New Brunswick. Halifax is in ship-building Nova Scotia.

St. John’s is in cod-fishing Newfoundland. Charlotte towm is in Prince Edward Island.

The colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Prince Edward are uniting.

The Danes knew these countries 900 years ago.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

This great republic is 3000 miles long, 1200 broad, containing 35 millions of people.

The country is as large as the Australian continent.

Its exports are gold, corn, timber, cotton, rice, tobacco, coal and manufactures.

The English settled in the country 250 years ago.

The United States were once 13 British colonies, which became free States in 1770.

There now 34 States and 11 territories.

Each State has its own independent laws.

A president and a congress are over all.

The north-eastern Federal States are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the district of Columbia.

The north-vTestern States are Ohio, Indiana, Michegan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota.

The Pacific States are Oregon and California.

The south-east States are Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky.

The west and south-west States are Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, Texas and Lousiana.

The western territories are Nebraska, Idaho, Dakota, Colorado, Indian Territory, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Nevada, and Montana.

Mormon Utah is east of California.

The Indians are rapidly dying off the land.

The Alleghany range is parallel to the Atlantic.

The Blue Mountains are between it and the sea.

The lofty western Rocky run through the States.

The golden Nevada hills are in California.

The western Mississippi river is 3000 miles long.

It falls into the Gulf of Mexico, by New Orleans.

Missouri, Arkansas, and Red are west branches.

Wisconsin, and Ohio with Tennessee, are eastern.

Rocky Columbia and Snake are in Oregon.

Sacramento and Colorado are in California.

The Jordan joins Utah lake and Great Salt lake.

The Utah Mormons live on its pretty banks.

Rio Grande del Norte is on the Mexican border.

The Alabama flows into the Mexican Gulf.

James is by Richmond, Potomac by Washington.

The Shenandoah flows north to the Potomac.

The Hudson runs by Saratoga and New York.

Delaware and Susquehanna are in Pennsylvania.

Lakes Superior, Michegau, Huron, St. Clair, Erie, Ontario divide the States from Canada.

Utah and Great Salt lakes are between the Rocky Mountains and California.

The Chesapeake Bay receives the Potomac. Cape Cod is off Boston; Hatteras, North Carolina. Long and Staten Isles are by New York.

Towns.

Washington, the capital, is in Columbia district. New York has a population of a million.

Boston is port of Massachusetts, New England. Detroit, by Canada, is near Lake Huron. Newhaven and Bedford are whaling ports.

Rich Philadelphia is in Pennsylvania State. Baltimore is in Maryland; Buffalo by Niagara. Cincinnati, on the Ohio, exports much pork. Buffalo is near the Niagara Falls.

Lowell is the cotton factory of the States. Charleston is the South Carolina cotton port. Wilmington is north of it, Savannah south. Richmond and Petersbxxrg are in Virginia. Vicksburg and Baton Rogue on the Mississippi. New Orleans, the Louisiana cotton port, is near the mouth of the Mississippi.

Astoria is a pine settlement of Rocky Oregon. San Francisco is the port of California. Sacramento and Stockton are Californian cities. St. Louis is a trading town of the Mississippi. Austin and Galveston are in southern Texas. Hilly Santa Fe is in the Indian New Mexico. Mobile, in Alabama, is a cotton port.

The Pilgrim Fathers settled at Plymouth, 1620.

MEXICO.

Mexico, south of the United States, has little good soil, but rich hills of silver ore.

The mahogany tree grows in the hot lowlands. Whites, Negroes, and Indians make 8 millions. Once a Spanish Republic, it is now an Empire. It has been a badly-governed, unhappy country. The Rio del Norte runs between it and Texas. The Americans took Texas, California, and New Mexico from the Mexicans in 1848.

Mexico, the capital, is on a fine elevated plain. Acupulco and Vera Cruz are the unhealthy ports. The Gulf of Mexico is 1200 miles long.

Yucatan has fine ruins of old Indian towns. Belize is an English settlement by Mosquito. The Spanish Cortez took Mexico in 1521.

GUATEMALA, OR CENTRAL AMERICA.

This is the southern continuation of Mexico.

This volcanic Republic has rich silver mines. Lake Nicaragua is between the Mexican Gulf and the Pacific, nearly connecting the two.

WEST INDIAN ISLANDS.

Hundreds of these small islands belong to England, as the Bahamas and Virgin Group. Columbus saw St, Salvador first in 1492.

Fertile Jamaica is the chief English colony.

The English Negro slaves were freed in 1835. Long Cuba and rich Porto Rico are Spanish. Havanna is in Cuba; Kingston is in Jamaica. Martinique and volcanic Guadaloupe are French. Hayti or St. Domingo is a Negro republican isle. The West Indian exports are sugar, tobacco, mahogany, cocoa, cotton, rum, and spices.

SOUTH AMERICA.

South America is 4500 miles long, and twice the size of Australia. The population of Whites, Negroes, and Indians, is 22 millions.

The religion of the people is Roman Catholic. The Spaniards and Portuguese had colonies there, which are now miserable republics.

The Andes mountains run near the Pacific.

Columbia includes the golden republics of Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador. Chimborazo and burning Cotopaxi are Andes hills. The Orinoco river waters rich plains.

The narrow Isthmus of Panama, dividing the Pacific from the Atlantic Ocean, is in New Granada. It joins North and South America. Silver Bogota and earthquake Quito are on the Andes. Cumana is on the east coast.

Chagres, Colon, Panama are isthmus ports.

GUIANA AND BRAIZLS.

This fertile low land, by the Atlantic, is divided among the English, French, and Dutch.

It exports sugar, cotton, rum, tobacco. Unhealthy Demerara is an English Province. Pepper Cayenne is the French convict colony. Vast golden Brazil has 7 million mixed people. Once a Portuguese colony, it is now an empire. The Amazon, from the Andes, runs 4000 miles. Rio Janeiro is the beautiful capital and port. Bahia and Pernambuco are by the Atlantic.

PARAGUAY, URAGUAY, LA PLATA.

This land of India-rubber is 500 miles long1. Assumption is the capital of Paraguay.

The Indians were once under Christian rule. Port Monte Video is in level Uruguay.

La Plata is 1500 miles long; one million population. On the rich pampas or plains are cattle stations. The capital is Buenos Ayre§, or good air.

La Plata or Silver river, is 2400 miles long.

BOLIVIA AND PERU.

Bolivia, or Upper Peru, is north of La Plata. General Bolivar freed the colony from Spain. Andes Peaks, in Bolivia, rise 25,000 feet.

Lake Titicaca, on the Andes, is 150 miles long. The silver mines of Potosi are very rich.

The golden land of Peru is 1500 miles long. Spanish Pizarro conquered it in 1532.

The Indians were civilised Sun-worshippers. Callao is the Port of earthquake Lima.

Guano comes from the dry Chincha isles.

CHILI AND PATAGONIA.

It is a long, narrow, wheat-growing republic. Gold, copper, silver and coal, are exported. , The Andes divide it from La Plata.

Santiago is the capital; Valparaiso is the port. Juan Fernandez island, west of Chili, was long the home of Robinson Crusoe, or Selkirk. Patagonia peninsula is claimed by Chili.

The Terra del Fuego isles are cold, wet, woody, and the natives are like our Australians.

Cape Horn, in lat. 56° S., is on an island.

SOUTH POLAR ISLANDS.

These may be parts of a southern continent. Falkland, an English colony, is near Patagonia. Adelie and Enderby lands are very cold.

South Victoria land is south of New Zealand ;

it was seen by Captain Ross in 1841.

Lofty Erebus volcano is in frozen Victoria land. An icy wall was seen there 1000 miles long.

The South Magnetic Pole is in lat. 75° S., long. 150° E., being 2500 miles south of Cape Howe.

WATERS AND CAPES OF AMERICA. Cold Baffin’s Bay is west of Greenland.

Hudson Strait leads from Hudson’s Bay.

Gulf of St. Lawrence is east of Canada.    •

Gulf of Mexico is south of the United States. Carribean Sea is south of the West Indies.

Gulf of Honduras is west of America.

Magellan Strait divides Patagonia from Fuego. Gulfs of Panama and Darien are central.

Gulf of California is west of Mexico.

Nootka and Queen Charlotte’s Sounds are N.W. Behring’s Strait is between Asia and America. Cape Farewell is south of Greenland.

Cape Horn is the southern point of America.

SCHOOL BOOKS BY MR. J. BONWICK, F.R.G.S.

Geography of Australia and New Zealand. Astronomy for Young Australians. Grammar for Young Australians.

Botany for Young Australians.

Fergusson and Moore Printers, 48 Flinders Lane East, Melbourne.

ADDITIONS.

Alexandra is now called the Northern Territory of South Australia.

The interior of Western Australia is sandy desert.

Central Australia has but few and small rivers.

Queensland grows sugar and cotton successfully.

The river Palmer Diggings are in Cape York Peninsula, of North Queensland.

Johnstone and Daintree Rivers, near the Palmer.

Cooktown, on the Endeavour river, is in 15^° S.

Normanton, Georgetown and Gilberton are near the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Mining Ravenswood is on the Burdekin river of Middle Queensland.

New Soutn Wales’ coal export grows rapidly.

Port Augusta heads the Spencer Gulf.

Port Victoria is west side of Yorke Peninsula.

Tin Mount Bischoff, west coast of Tasmania, is 50 miles S. of Emu Bay.

Noumea is the capital of New Caledonia.

Fiji is now a cotton growing English colony.

Germany, 800 miles long, with 40 millions population, became one Empire in 1870.

Diamonds and gold abound in Cape Colony.

In the United States of America there are 45 States and 10 Territories.

New States are West Virginia, Colorado, Nevada.