THE

AUSTRALIAN

BABY

A HANDBOOK FOR MOTHERS

MR§ EVERETT ELL1SS

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TO THE READER.

Messrs* Ward, Lock & Co* Ltd*, will be greatly obliged if you will kindly recommend The Australian Baby to lady friends and acquaintances. Nicely produced and posted free for i 3. The publishers hope you will agree that it deserves a wide and extensive sale.

The Sydney Art Needlework Society

Has the Latest and Most Exclusive Designs in Corticelli, Stamped Linens, and Silks. Competent teachers for Maltese and Torchon Lacemaking. Work commenced, and all instructions given. Special designs executed by experienced artists. Please send stamped envelope. Circular posted on application. All embroiderers’ requisites in stock. “Corticelli Home Needlework Journal,” 2s. per annum, or single copies, posted, 9d.

Mrs. EDWARDS, Principal, 68, Strand (first floor).

HARBUTT’S

‘PLASTICINE’

THE NEW AND EVER PLASTIC


MODELLING MATERIAL

For the

Construction of MODEL CASTLES, HOUSES, BRIDGES, FOUNTAINS, &c. FLOWERS, ANIMALS, FIGURES, and all

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No SCHOOL or NURSERY complete without it.


Affords inexhaustible occupation and delight in the Nursery for busy little fingers and active brains.

PLASTICINE stimulates the INVENTIVE, CONSTRUCTIVE, and ARTISTIC faculties of the young.

It is a FACT that everyone can Model ! And that PLASTICINE is the best “means of expression. Try it and see! Clean, antiseptic, and requires no water.

“ PLASTICINE is something new,

And Hopes to make a friend of you."

This beautiful material is being largely adopted by School Boards, Kindergartens, and Teachers, and has received hundreds of unsolicited testimonials from Parents and Artists in England.

PLASTICINE is packed in attractive boxes, suited for presents, and home, schools, &c., or for amateur use. Supplied by Messrs.

ROCHUSSEN BROTHERS,

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Sole Agents—who will send samples and full particulars, and addresses of town agents.

“How to use Plasticine as a Home Amusement." The popular

instruction book, 64 pages full of illustrations, described by the Press as aFund of Rollicking Recreation ! ! "

THE AUSTRALIAN BABY.

ABSOLUTELY PURE, THEREFORE BEST.

HAS STOOD THE TEST OF TIME,

CADBURY’S Cocoa closely resembles Milk in the large proportion of Flesh = forming and Strength = sustaining elements it contains. It is very easily digested, and imparts new life and vigour to those of delicate constitution. St is “a perfect food,” entirely free from drugs or any admixture.

CADBURY’S Cocoa is Absolutely Pure, therefore best for Children. It contains all the nutritive elements indispensable to Healthy Growth and Development,

The LANCET (May 27th, 1899), says: “The statement that Cadbury's Cocoa is an absolutely pure article cannot be controverted in view of the results of analysis which, in our hands, this excellent article of food has yielded.”

CAUTION, “How to test the Purity of Cocoas.—If treated with alkali and chemicals, such cocoas will have a medicinal scent when the tin is opened, and will be a darker colour when in liquor. Cadbury’s Cocoa has no addition of any kind, and is guaranteed absolutely pure

Australian Baby

fl Ibanbboofe for Mothers.

MRS. EVERETT ELLISS.

=H=

LONDON:

WARD, LOCK & CO., LIMITED,

NEW YORK AND MELBOURNE.

1902.

While she sleeps, she grows— Gives health, beauty and repose.

PEE PACE.

ND yet another book. Small, yet with its ambitions. It

would seek to make pure the river at its source. To show the mothers of Australia the way by which the unborn and the just-born child may wax strong and mighty, instead of weedy and listless, as too often he does.

It is during the first two years of life that the foundations of health or disease are laid. The mothers here are very willing. They cheerfully spend themselves almost to their last breath to nurse back to health a sickly child, but they are ignorant in so many cases, and it is this ignorance that has produced the sickly child—this sickly child who in a few years has to help to make or mar the nation.

I do not claim to be the first with such an offering. More than one doctor has written ably on the different branches of the subject.

My small book is just a woman’s book to women. Women in the cities anxious to set their children sturdy on their feet, but too young or too old-fashioned to know how best to do so—they cannot rush for medical advice on every little point. Women cut off in the bush from doctors’ skill, and left to struggle through burning summers with perhaps children whose delicate digestions a total lack of knowledge on the subject cannot fail to ruin for life.

If any of the hints within these pages are the means of setting some little Australians well formed and active minded on their road to manhood, I shall be more than repaid.

At some future time I hope to follow this little physical manual with one dealing with the mental and moral welfare of the child, his games and amusements, the sympathy and discipline that seem to me peculiarly necessary in this land of warm suns, where so often, through a little want of thought and training, he is allowed to become the ambitionless, uninteresting, and profitless youth we meet on every hand.

ANNIE ELLISS.

Sydney. October, 1902.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Before Birth.—Pre-Natal Influence—The Health of the

Mother—Ablution—Diet—Corsets—Exercise...... 9

CHAPTER II.

Preparations for the Small Stranger.—General Remarks—Hygiene of Clothing — The Layette — Long Clothes—Short Clothes—Descriptions—Lists...... 17

CHAPTER III.

Still Further Preparations.— The Cradle—The Baby

Basket—The Bath—The Perambulator—The Nursery 28

CHAPTER IV.

The Birth.—The Last Preparations—The Making of the Bed—The Birth (nurse and doctor being unavoidably absent)—Attention to the Mother—The Baby...... 36

CHAPTER V.

Breast Feeding.—Breast Feeding—The Mother s Care of Diet—Regularity in Feeding—Wet Nurses—leaning —Baby’s Diet after Weaning ............43

CHAPTER VI.

Hand Feeding.—Regularity and Cleanliness—Articles required—Milk—Dilutants—Malted Foods—Diet Lists to the Third Year..................

CHAPTER VII.

Progress of the Child.—Condition at different months—

Intelligence—Creeping—Walking — Weight and Size 77

CHAPTER VIII.

Teething.—Order of Teeth—Care of them—Health during

the time ...    ...    •••    •••    •••    •••    •••    82

CHAPTER IX.

Sleep and Exercise. — Hours of Sleep—No rocking or

walking about—Sleeping out of doors—Exercise    ... 86

.    CHAPTER X.

Diet Troubles.—Danger of the Australian Summer

Gastric Disorders especially considered.........91

CHAPTER XI.

Common Illnesses of Babies.—Bronchitis—Chicken Pox

99


117


124


Colit—Constipation— Convulsions — Croup—Diarrhoea —Diphtheria—Earache—Eczema — Measles Mumps —Infantile Paralysis-Rickets—Scarlet Fever—Scurvy —Thrush—Whooping Cough    ...    •••    •••

CHAPTER XII.

Nursery Accidents.—Burns and Scalds—Bruises—Cuts-Foreign Bodies in the Ear —Poisoning—Slings— Swallowing Foreign Bodies ............

Sick Room Recipes.—Barley Water—Beef Tea—Chicken Broth — Peptonised Milk — Raw Meat Juice—Raw Meat Pulp — Rice Water—White of Egg Solution ...

THE AUSTRALIAN BABY.

CHAPTER I.

Before Birth.

Pre-natal Influence.—The Health of the Mother.—Ablution.— Diet.—Corsets.—Exercise.

Pre-natal Influence.—It behoves every wife the instant she knows she is about to become a mother, to set the house of her health into as perfect order as it is in her power to do. She must recollect that now it is no longer a question of herself, but of that other unborn human being whom she is developing.

It would be well if she would bear in mind throughout those momentous nine months whom she is developing. She may make her resolutions when the nine months are over, and the tiny precious morsel is within her arms—mighty resolutions, and good ones— but that is in many matters too late. She has already, perhaps, endowed him with a delicacy of constitution, a peevishness of

temper, an excitable, restless, exacting disposition that may cruelly handicap him throughout life.

Every child has a right to be ivell born, to be cared for, to be welcomed. So far, then, as lies within a woman’s power, she should guard herself, take thought for her health—all the minute details that make the prosperity of the whole; for her temper, making it as serene, and trustful, and placid as may be. She should resolutely determine not to hand down to one who will be dearer than life itself to her, tendencies and capabilities that will spoil life for him.

There are many pleasures that she must be content cheerfully to forego for these nine months. If she has been a Society butterfly, the time has come now for a little folding of those wings to sleep.

In those delightful tumultuous days behind her of balls, and races, and pic-nics, and bicycle rides, she has been reckless of her health very often. She cannot be so now without actual sin.

What, if in the years to come, some frail or mis-shapen child looks at her with wistful eyes that accuse her of placing this burden upon him. And her thoughts have to traverse an agonised road back to the time when she would tight-lace, or have just another dance.

Or perhaps, later, when she watches her sons and daughters go to take their place in the world. They have no deformity perhaps, no actual constitutional taint; but that son is undersized, that one suffers from a chronic indigestion that makes him morose and disliked ; this daughter has a complexion like mud; that one is anaemic, haggard-looking.

And this is the heritage the mother has given them perhaps, or their father has helped to build up for them.

In so prescribed a space as this, I shall not dare even to touch on the outskirts of the great question of heredity.

But with all my heart I would urge the woman about to become a mother to pause and think how much may be done, or howmuch misery laid up for another, in those nine months of pre-natal life, and the first two years when the little child is helpless in her hands for good or evil.

Health of the Mother.—By this, I do not wish a woman for one moment to regard herself as an invalid. She is only fulfilling a perfectly natural function, and has little to do but live a simple, natural life for the time in order to bring a healthy child into the world, and to rise up healthy again from her bed.

She need merely give up her more feverish pleasures,—dancing entirely ; too constant attendance in hot theatres and crowded drawing-rooms; all horse and bicycle exercise and fatiguing climbing.

For the first few months there is no reason why she should not go out in moderation—for her mind wants plenty of occupation and change to keep healthy.

Later on a quiet home life, with varied pursuits in it, is best. Let her read, paint, play, garden if she is able to, wood carve —if she can—sew, and even if she have several servants, do more than she ordinarily does in the active management of her house. She should also walk once or twice daily, just as far as she is able to without fatigue.

Ablution.—Unless she be really delicate there is no reason why she should not have her cold bath daily—winter as well as summer. Nothing else is so invigorating and fortifying — nothing so helpful during the trying time of early morning sickness.

If, however, she be really delicate, and the winter cold bath be followed by ill effects, she should have a little warm water in her bath, but on 110 account forego the daily plunge nor substitute for it a hot bath, which is enervating and weakening.

Diet.—As a rule, the appetite itself is guide sufficient with regard to the question of diet. Some women, in their excessive eagerness to develop a healthy, fine child, force themselves from the beginning to eat sufficient to nourish two lives.

This is a great mistake, for, in the beginning, the embryo life is too minute to need the mother to increase her appetite in the slightest degree; indeed, she may, if she be so minded, take less food than she is accustomed to •— in the earlier months a full diet is frequently abhorrent to her on account of her feeling more or less sick.

Otherwise her diet should be plain, light, and varied, with a plentiful supply of fruit and vegetables.

By no other means can she keep her digestion in order; three-fourths of the ailments and miseries of pregnancy arise from indigestion and constipation. Once let a woman realise this, and guard against it, and most frequently her health will be little different from what it ordinarily is, or, as is often the case, better than ever before.

Breakfast should consist of porridge and an egg, or some bacon, or a piece of fish, or a plate of stewed fruit and cream, with coffee or cocoa as the accompanying drink. For lunch, a chop, a sweetbread, brains, some nourishing soup or fish. For dinner, grilled or roast or boiled meats or poultry (fried and made dishes should be left alone), fresh vegetables and a simple sweet or milk pudding; for drink, a glass of aerated water with fruit syrup, or plain water.

She will do well to let wine alone, unless eontrarily ordered by her doctor, and to take tea only at four o’clock, or at lunch time.

She should be up early, and to bed early, and sleep in a room with the window wide open. When will the world regard the night air as harmless! An hour’s rest on a sofa in the open air, once or twice daily, especially during the last three months, will prove beneficial.

It is surely not necessary to add that a woman with a tendency to weakness of the parts, or the fagged mother of several children, must not lead a stirring life like this. In such cases, rest in a recumbent position is a necessity several times a day.

Corsets.—She must leave her corsets off entirely after the sixth month, and long before that time use elastic laces and give herself infinitely more room than she is accustomed to. How otherwise can the young life expand properly ?

Tight-lacing is one of the most frequent causes of miscarriage, moreover, and of the tiresome illnesses so many women suffer from long after the child is in the world.

Simple precautions like the foregoing will keep a woman with a sound mind in a sound body, and most of the wearisome discomforts that are so inseparably associated with pregnancy will be quite unknown to her.

That ailments incidental to the condition do occur occasionally is true, and this book, being written for the Australian baby, has, unfortunately, but the briefest space to devote to the Australian mother.

CHAPTER II.

Preparations for the Small Stranger.

General Remarks.—Hygiene of Clothing.—Long Clothes.—• Short Clothes.—Description.—Lists.

IIow much of the weary waiting-time of the long nine months is wiled away in the fashioning of the wee garments ! The dainty materials, the small careful stitches, the strange little shapes seem to appeal in some way to the slumbering motherhood of the sewer, and into the quiet, dull hours dances a ray of the tender sunshine that is soon to spread over all the days.

But here let there be some happy medium struck.

It is true there seems something wanting, something a little unnatural in the woman who sets no stitch at all herself for the little life, but merely asks her husband for a cheque varying from T10 to ToO, and, thus armed, goes off: to some baby-linen shop where she buys everything ready-made.

But by no means free from blame is she who, day by day, and almost from morning to night, sits running microscopic tucks and gathers, embroidery, wonderful designs in silk, and keeping her machine flying for hours at a stretch. She had infinitely better buy her muslin ready-tucked, and content herself with far less elaborate smocking and embroidery, and give the little life and her own health the benefit of pleasant exercise in the air.

Hygiene of Clothing.—Now, I say at once that I am not going to push my hygienic notions, strong as they are, to quite such severe lengths as do many of the modern doctors and nurses. I have had produced for my edification many a time a baby clothed in Jaeger from top to toe, or in three or four plain garments of the white or grey Health flannel that constitutes the very scientific Layette.

“ There you are,” says the upholder of this system ; “ warmth, lightness, the minimum number of garments to worry the child with, simple laundering, simple making.”

And I have been duly impressed, for these are most important points.

But the eternally feminine heart in me has hankered after the more old-fashioned, delightful little bundles of soft laee and muslin that some mothers present to their admiring friends. It seems a baby’s prerogative to conquer hearts by reason of its daintiness and freshness. And your grey Health Layette !

Let us see how we may compromise. First, remember these modem doctors and nurses are unassailably right: wool, and nothing but wool, even in Australia, must be next the skin. Away with those beautiful little linen or fine cambric shirts that used to be worn; or stay,—if you actually have any of them, the nurse may be glad to use them for just the first wTeek, while the infant’s skin is so delicate. After that, and through its life, Wool—a very fine, light kind in summer, a thicker one for winter.

Infants lose heat much more readily than adults, while at the same time their circulation is comparatively poor.

It is plainly necessary that they be not exposed to cold winds or draughts, and that their bodies be kept warm. The only material that combines lightness and looseness of texture, and is at the same time a bad conductor of heat, is wool, either in flannel or knitted form.

Vests.—First, then, a soft white knitted vest loosely worked in Bee fingering, with somewhat coarse bone knitting needles. White satin ribbon may draw up the tiny neck. These make delightful “idle minutes’ ” work, and cost only a few pence. Woven ones, pure wool, may be bought for a shilling or eighteenpence each, but do not wash so well as the home-made.

Binders.—On the fire with any of the long cotton swathes that our grandmothers, and even our mothers, used to bind round and round the innocent little bodies. It is surely hardly necessary to point out that such bandaging must be harmful, seeing it compresses the abdomen and chest, prevents the proper expansion of the lungs, and interferes with the circulation. Ignorant customs die hard, however, and the abominations are still offered to one at the baby-linen shops. All that is necessary is a long strip of good white flannel, five or six inches wide, and long enough to wrap comfortably round the body twice; it should then be secured by a couple of very small safety-pins. It should not be put on too loosely, or it will slip up, and its great object—its protection from chill of the bowels — be lost. There should be no sewing at all about these binders, so that there be no ridges for the delicate skin; simply take a length of flannel, a yard or a yard and a quarter long, and tear it into strips.

The Squares.—For these, nothing is so good as white Turkish towelling cotton or linen; diaper is most insanitary when it clings cold and wet to the child, and is a frequent source of soreness of the skin. Let there be a plentiful supply of these necessary articles, as they should never be merely dried and then used again. They must be thoroughly washed and boiled—without soda—after each time of using. For travelling, or, if the expense can be afforded, for all times, quite the best material is a pad of absorbent cotton wool laid within an ordinary square.

The Long Petticoat must be of all wool flannel, and may be prettily embroidered at the hem. The bodice should be of two thicknesses of the flannel, quilted, and the sleeves of either this garment or the vest should reach the elbow. The length should be what is commonly known as “ three-quarter.”

There is no need whatever, here in Australia, even in winter, for the long long-clothes that make English babies’ lives a burden to them for the first few months (sometimes five) of their existence.

In summer here, the baby need only be kept in even the three-quarter length of garment for seven or eight weeks. In winter, they are advisable for three or four months.

Let the long petticoat therefore only extend a foot or so beyond the infant’s feet.

White Petticoat.—Your strict hygienist would mulct you of this garment; but, made of thin cambric or muslin, there can be no objection as to weight, and it may be slipped on at the same time as the robe. It may be tucked and lace-trimmed, according to fancy.

Robes.—Unless the baby is one that sees very much company (and none of them should do this), one elaborate robe is sufficient. Very dainty day-gowns may be made of white Liberty silk; these are by no means expensive, as so little trimming is necessary; they are very soft and light and very easy to “ get up.” Haircord muslin or cambric are also recommended. For winter wear we may give the hygiene doctor his way and use white wincey, cream nun’s veiling, cashmere, or gauze flannel.

At the end of this chapter I shall give a list of the necessary long clothes for the first two months ; the mother with a full purse may increase its quantity as she pleases, but the number of articles given will keep the child in comfort for the time.

For night-wear nothing is needed but a vest, a binder, a square, and a flannel nightgown. These latter of cream French flannel, feather-stitched with silk, make very pretty garments. Eighteen pence to two shillings a yard will buy a fine soft make that is unshrinkable with reasonably careful washing.

Short Clothes. — The wise mother will have had these all made during the nine months’ waiting, for she will have very little time, the baby once on the scene, to give to her needle. The remarks made about materials for the long clothes apply equally here.    Wool must be again the

great stand-by.

Knitted Vests again, but of a larger size, as the child will now be growing rapidly; it is a good plan to make three sets of these in three different sizes for the first year. Sleeves to reach the elbow.

The Flannel Binders may be replaced in one month, advantageously, by little woven or knitted belts, that are drawn up over the child from the feet. For fully eighteen months these important little articles should not be thrown aside; their use may save the child many a crying night, many a gastric attack.

The Short, Warm Petticoats may be either knitted or of cream flannel; they must be either buttoned or sewn to flannel bodices.

The Muslin Petticoats may be according to fancy. It is a good plan to make them with very long bodices, and then a frill of tucking and lace.

The Frocks should be, for the first year, of fine cream cashmere, Indian gauze, flannel, or nun’s veiling. If white muslin be greatly desired, it should be used as an over-frock.

A Pelisse will now replace the shawl or cloak. At nine or twelve months little flannel or knitted drawers, buttoned on to soft jean stays, may now to advantage replace the squares in the day-time.

In the summer the child should be accustomed to going with quite bare feet; indeed, many children grow so hardy in this way that the mothers continue this plan in the winter too. For a young child, however, liable to gastric disorder, woollen booties should be worn in winter; for out-of-doors use these should be made long enough to extend to the knee—indeed, a sensible pilch much used lately is a combination of pilch, stockings, and booties.

LONG CLOTHES LIST.

3 very soft knitted vests.

3 flannel binders.

3 flannel petticoats.

3    white muslin petticoats.

4    simple day gowns.

1 robe.

3 flannel night gowns.

3    or 4 dozen squares.

1 woollen shawl or cloak.

1 light wool bonnet.

1 house shawl.

4    pairs of woollen boots.

1 light veil.

SHORT CLOTHES LIST.

4 knitted vests.

3    knitted or woven shaped belts.

4    knitted or flannel petticoats.

4 white muslin petticoats.

4 cashmere frocks.

8 pinafores.

8 bibs.

6 pairs woollen boots.

6 pairs knitted or flannel drawers.

3    dozen squares.

1 high-day pelisse and bonnet.

1 everyday pelisse and bonnet.

4    flannel night gowns.

CHAPTER III.

Still Further Preparations.

The Cradle.—The Baby Basket.—The Bath.—The Perambulator.—The Nursery.

All is not even yet ready, though stacks and stacks of small garments are awaiting their wearer.

Baby's Bed must be ready for him, for from the day of his arrival he must possess his own. Passing by the risk of infant suffocation, which is too terrible to be contemplated, a baby needs the purest air and plenty of space and freedom. To hold him under heavy bedclothes close to another body is to enfeeble him from his earliest days.

So a cradle or bassinette must be obtained and put in readiness at the same time as the little clothes. The best kind is like a long simple basket; no rockers—remember these are absolutely tabooed, and if the cradle you possess has them, your first task will be to remove them. No stuffy hood—• the best arrangement to hold the mosquito net is to have three light pieces of cane fastened together at one end and spread out at the other, and fastened into three little holes at the cradle head; it is most important to have plenty of breathing space about the head, and the way some mothers line and pad a cradle is wrong in the extreme.

The wicker work may be covered with a white or delicately-coloured cambric or sateen, and a white muslin covering, easily detached for washing, may come over this. No curtains at all but the mosquito net.

The contents should be a little mattress of hair or flock ; a properly stitched down mattress and not a feather-pillow bed as so many use ; this latter is far too enervating for the small body. A soft pillow for the head, either of down or of feathers; a piece of waterproof sheeting; a small underblanket ; and a pair of soft top blankets.

For appearance a dainty silk or muslin quilt may be used in the day time, hut there should be nothing except the porous blankets at night.

No sheets at all until the child is three or four years old. Better than an underblanket is an under-sheet of thick white flannelette; half-a-dozen of these should be made, and they can be washed and boiled without trouble.

The Baby Basket should be of two or three tiers, high enough to be a comfort to the mother during the bathing operations, when she is in need of four hands. It may be lined and covered prettily with white washing silk or muslin to match the cradle.

There should be a pincushion stitched to one corner, a needlebook to another, and pockets should be made to hold the cottons and oddments (of which there is soon a surprising variety).

The basket should be carefully stocked with the following articles fully a fortnight before the expected birth.

LIST FOR BABY’S BASKET.

Powder box and puff—with a mixture of best violet powder and white Fuller’s earth.

Cake of pure soap—in a xylonite box.

Soft Turkey sponge.

Needles. Cotton. Thimble.

Safety pins—large and small, and of the best nickel only

Pot of boracic ointment.

Pot of white vaseline.

A piece of soft old linen.

Some whitey-brown thread.

A large Turkish towelling—or flannel— bath apron.

A complete suit of the child’s clothes.

The Bath.—For this a small zinc or enamel bath should be used; these are to be obtained on a stand which saves the mother many an aching back, but if expense be an object, the purpose may be equally answered by standing the ordinary little bath upon a box or low chair. Baths made of thick rubber are being used in America and elsewhere, so that if the soapy infant should slip from the mother’s hand a little it is not hurt.

The Perambulator.—A go-cart is suitable only for a child who can sit up. A perambulator mounted on easy springs and long enough for the child to lie in and sleep comfortably is a real necessity For the first two or three weeks he is better carried in the nurse’s arms ; after that time he is in a far more restful, healthy position lying snugly wrapped up on his soft cushions and shielded from the sun and wind by the movable hood of the perambulator.

Besides its use for exercise, a perambulator should act as the day-time bed of the child; in all except windy, wet, or very hot weather a child should after the first month be accustomed to sleeping out of doors- The perambulator is a very convenient thing to wheel for this purpose into a shady corner of the verandah or to a pleasant spot on the grass.

The Nursery—It is greatly to be hoped that there is a room in the house the mother will be able to take over entirely for use as a nursery.

For while perhaps not such an absolute necessity in this bright climate as in England, where the weather keeps a child three parts of its time within doors, still a room for the small person’s meals and bathing, and for all the paraphernalia it accumulates even before it arrives at the dignity of toys, is a most desirable thing.

Else that too frequent sight in the Australian home of the middle class: a dining-room with baby furniture very much in evidence, a bedroom lumbered up with bath and screen and hosts of little garments, the perambulator filling up what was once an artistic hall.

A room with a sunny aspect should be chosen, yet it should be one that gets its hours of shade in the long hot summer days.

For the floor the washable cork carpet is better than linoleum, as the latter is rather comfortless for a small child who spends most of his time on all-fours. If linoleum be used, rugs, easily taken up for shaking, should also be laid down.

A roomy press, with plenty of shelves, will hold the wardrobe of the Young Person.

This press may be economically made of deal or pine, and stained with the Butterfly

Screen Stain, or Cedarine—a vegetable stain —or painted a pretty turquoise blue.

A table—a Pembroke preferably, for this has a leaf to be let down when not needed large — should stand against a wall. A covering for it — not sesthetic, but highly useful—is a pretty oilcloth, whereon a child can mess with its paints and spill its tea-party materials without reprimand.

Very useful too, as the child grows older, is a second table, with its legs sawn down to the height of the small humanity that uses it.

A toy cupboard will find its way here as a matter of swift necessity, and orderly habits should be early instilled. A tiny child of eighteen months may be taught to put away its playthings, and indeed, will take a pleasure in doing so.

It is a good plan to insist upon tidiness, even in the matter of toys.

The walls should be either kalsomined or covered with sanitary paper.

For the fireplace, provide without fail a high nursery guard, and see that it has hooks that fasten securely to the mantelpiece ; otherwise there is an irresistible

temptation to “ under six ” to drag this respectable piece of furniture    from its

position and play zoo behind it.

For the rest, the room should be as bright and pretty as possible, for this is the child’s right.

CHAPTER IY.

The Last Preparations.—The Making of the Bed.—The Birth.

—Attention to the Mother.—The Baby.

In a small work like this, advice relating to the actual delivery of the child may by some be considered somewhat beyond its scope. Yet it cannot be overlooked that, in a land like Australia, with its miles and miles of country away from doctors, the small stranger may arrive on the scene and no medical aid whatever be at hand.

I shall therefore set forth a few brief hints of what to do when the great hour of the child’s birth has arrived, and medical aid is unavailable — presuming, of course, that the mother has everything in readiness : the baby’s basket, the towels, the bath, and her own requisites.

In the beginning of labour, when the pains are at a respectable distance apart, there is no reason why the woman should take to her bed.

There is much, we will say, to be done, and the time has not yet arrived for her to consider herself an invalid,

It would be well to run over all the articles in baby’s basket again, to be quite sure nothing has been overlooked; to see the flannel receiver is in readiness for its tiny guest, and to superintend the making of her own bed.

If the nurse is in the house (and it is to be sincerely hoped that she is), she will, of course, attend to these things herself.

But it very frequently happens, through the mother’s miscalculations, that the alarmed husband rushes out at the last moment to summon both nurse and doctor, and the wife and “ help ” are left alone in the crisis.

The Making of the Bed calls for early attention. Many mothers manufacture a bed for the occasion, which can be easily removed afterwards without disturbing her, and leave her own unsoiled and comfortable.

The removable bed is made as follows :

1 yard American oilcloth (white).

An old blanket, folded.

An old quilt (a white honeycomb one serves well).

1 yard American cloth (white).

These articles are to be placed in the order named, in a folded sheet, which is to be sewn together.

If this simple matter has been attended to previously, the making of the bed will be soon completed.

I must just whisper before proceeding further that, for an occasion like this, doctors and nurses dislike spring mattresses. Therefore, if an ordinary straw one be in the house, all the better.

The bed itself should be conveniently high, as a low one is particularly trying to the nurse.

The Malting of the Bed.—If there be no removable one—each article to be placed in the order given:—

(1)    Bed.

(2)    Oilcloth (about 1 h yards square).

(3)    Sheet.

(4)    Fourfold sheet.

(5)    ll yards square of American oil

cloth.

(6)    Quilt.

(7)    Sheet.

The bed being now ready, it would be well if the woman set out certain requisites for herself—the disinfectants upon the washstand (Condy’s Fluid and Jeyes’ Disinfectant being all that are ordinarily required); the bandage for herself (she should have three of these, each l£ yards unbleached twill calico, folded lengthways and run together), and 1 lb. of absorbent cotton wool.

These are all the necessary preparations, although many women supplement them.

The first stage of labour may vary from a few hours to a day, or even two days. This is the time when the woman usually is thankful to have a few necessary duties to perform, and to be more or less busily employed. In a first confinement this is the particularly long and tedious time, and is usually twice as long as in after labours.

When the mouth of the womb has become sufficiently dilated, the expulsion of

D

the child begins, and the pains become much more frequent and severe. The woman should now undress and make herself comfortable for her coming ordeal.

Now if a nurse be in the house, and a doctor at hand, the patient need worry herself about nothing in connection with her delivery.

If, however, she lives in remote parts, and be expecting the arrival of doctor and nurse hourly, it would be well, in the interests of herself and child, to instruct the most efficient help at hand.

It may here fall to the lot of a woman to have to inspire courage at a time when she is entitled to be encouraged, cheered, and directed herself.

The occasion, however, must be regarded, and the woman’s own welfare demands that she knows what is to be done, and instructs some other how to do it.

The change in the programme of pain having now come about, she must give herself up to her hour, and she has little thought or care for preparations, small or lavish.

It will be wise, particularly if neither nurse nor doctor be present, to go to bed. She must instruct the attendant (if the nurse and doctor have not arrived) to be very careful not to allow the child to fall into the bed. So soon as the head is born it must be carefully supported, and a finger applied to the neck to see if the umbilical cord be around it. If so, it must be gently and instantly slipped over the child’s head; a finger should also be put into his mouth to remove any mucus.

It is imperative that the baby be given sufficient room to breathe, and that his breathing be well established.

Should he not cry, a few smart smacks must be given to the buttocks.

If the child has been born for any length of time, and the doctor is still absent, it may be necessary to tie and cut the cord. A piece of twisted thread (four threads about a foot long, and knotted top and bottom) is tied securely, about two inches from the child’s body. A second piece is usually tied about an inch further from the child, and the cord is cut between the two ligatures.

The after-birth should not be brought away by any but a medical man. It must, if the doctor has not yet arrived, be allowed to come away itself, but the attendant must keep a hand upon the abdominal wall over the uterus.

We will suppose that the after-birth has come away without assistance, as it generally will do, and that the umbilical cord is cut— the baby must now be put into his flannel receiver into a safe place, while the mother receives a little attention.

The soiled linen may be all removed, the patient cleansed with warm water, into which a few drops of Condy’s Fluid have been poured, and a piece of absorbent cotton wool be applied.

The attendant should now give the exhausted woman a little time to rest after her labours, and we will hope that by now either nurse or doctor will have arrived.

The exigencies of space here demand that the Morsel alone occupy the remainder of our time and attention.

Breast Feeding.—The Mother’s Care of Diet.—Regularity in Feeding.

Breast Feeding.—It is a lamentable fact that the majority of Australian women are physically unable to suckle their own children, at any rate, for more than the first few weeks. This may, in a very great measure, be set down to our climate.

Of those from whom nature and climate do not withold this boon, there are many who deliberately decide not to suckle the little child to whom it is their duty to give of their best.

How many lives have been sacrificed to the mother deliberately placing the question of convenience before her great natural duty, it is impossible to say.

A hand-fed child is always exposed to multitudinous dangers that do not come near a breast-fed one. This is particularly the case in our summer months, and wili be dealt with more fully in a later chapter.

43

There is something abnormally cruel in a woman whom Nature has endowed with a plentiful supply of the best food in the world for her baby, deliberately withholding it and deciding to give it a substitute, for the sake of her own convenience, and one can hardly feel pity for her if disaster follows her attempts at hand-feeding.

She should count the cost, certainly; but what woman with a mother’s heart in her but will smile in scorn at placing it beside the unspeakable joy of being in herself the very fountain of life and happiness for her child.

The cost ? She will need to live a simple healthy life ; to exercise care over her diet, renouncing many dainties she may have a particular weakness for; to keep early hours ; and to strive by every means in her power to preserve an even cheerful temper.

She will have in all probability to slip away from fashion and society for nine months, or at least to grant them a very meagre share of her attention.

That is the cost. If she can seriously contemplate placing it before her baby’s welfare, there can be but little mother-love in her heart.

Nature, with her infinite carefulness, has made provision for the tiny life from the very beginning. But the mother must strive by every means in her power to make and to keep her milk good, and, very frequently, to increase its quantity.

In a first confinement, for two or three days after baby’s arrival, the mother has very little milk. Her breasts are usually hard and swollen, and she is more or less feverish.

It is during these few days especially that the nurse becomes a very dragon of watchfulness. She will tell the young mother “ that the milk is coming,” and impress firmly upon her the need for the most absolute quiet.

For it is the young mother who most frequently rebels. She, in eight cases out of ten, is feeling very well; of course, she is in the recumbent position, and has hardly thought of moving, so that she does not know her own weakness, nor how ill she would feel were she not lying still.

But she is sure that so long as she lies quiet, her mind, her tongue, and her eyes may work. She pleads for her mother, her sister, or her own familiar friend.

It is here that the good nurse is adamant. Too well she knows the danger to mother and child that even the pleasantest excitement may be. No visitors whatever is her rule, until the milk , is established; no reading, no writing — nothing but sleep, food and sleep, and the bliss of stroking the tiny hand and cheek.

The gravity of the occasion impresses the mother; but she wonders whether all this food and unbroken peacefulness can possibly bring about what the nurse so certainly seems to expect.

And at last, with joy, she realises that it has come, and that she is in very truth suckling her own child

The first attempts at suckling are usually somewhat painful, and the fluid secreted is known technically as colustrum — a fluid necessary to the child chiefly on account of its laxative qualities.

^Regularity in Feeding.—From the beginning, regularity in feeding must be observed. Baby should be fed regularly — by the cloclc, although but few mothers think that regularity with breast-fed babies is needful.

So soon as the milk is established, and for the first few weeks, he should be fed every two hours until 10 p.m. After that hour one meal in the night will be quite sufficient, although the morning one will need to be given about 6 a.m.

When he is a month or six weeks old, two-and-a-half hour intervals in the daytime should be instituted, and by the time he is three months old it will be well to put him upon three-hour intervals.

He will come to his meals with a good appetite, and the interval between each meal will allow the mother to have a good breast of ‘milk for each meal.

It is a good plan to give him both breasts each time This will do away with that tendency of mothers to give one breast more frequently than the other—a habit all too easily set up and difficult to break through.

He will usually take from ten to fifteen minutes over each meal, and fall asleep satisfied and happy as he finishes.

The mother should gently control the flow of milk by pressure upon the gland with her fingers. So, too, it is often necessary to prevent baby burying his foolish little nose and losing his breath.

The Mother's Care of Diet,—It is neither necessary nor desirable that a nursing mother should have hard and fast rules as to diet. She may advantageously allow herself a wide range of choice. The great thing is that her food should be both simple and nourishing.

If she can take two meals a day of porridge food so much the better—for baby. A plate of oatmeal porridge, with brown sugar and plenty of milk, for breakfast, and a basin of groats, made with milk, at bedtime.

Groats, cocoa, and milk are each of the greatest importance, not only for improving the quality of the milk, but for increasing its quantity.

The drinking of stimulants—stout, brandy, whisky, etc.—is not to be advocated. Their effect is but transitory exaltation of spirits, and the mother commonly pays heavily in depression afterwards. Not only that, but the effect upon the child is the reverse of good.

If the quantity of milk should be small, the drinking of milk or cocoa will bring about infinitely better results for the child than ale or stout. A nursing mother whose supply is given to running out would do well to arrange her meals, so that she can always have something, if only a glass of good milk, shortly before baby’s next drink falls due.

She may, with advantage, take a glass of milk between breakfast and lunch, and a cup of milk-made cocoa between lunch and dinner.

Upon her diet list she may write mutton, lamb and beef, poultry and fish, green vegetables, and light puddings. A moderate amount of fresh ripe fruit is of great service to her.

Highly seasoned dishes, indigestible meats (such as goose, duck, pork), pastry, pickles, cabbage, and lemon drinks should be strictly avoided.

Brains, oysters, sweetbread, and fish are particularly serviceable to a nursing mother. They are also easy of digestion and nourishing.

But in spite of all the milk-producing food that the willing mother can take, in spite of her closely following all the rules known to her for securing baby’s own natural food to him, her milk will sometimes unaccountably fall short of the desired quantity and quality, and baby will publish the fact in loss of flesh, restlessness, and general disgust at life.

It will be then in the child’s and her own interest to supplement her own supply with one, two, or even three bottles a day. Much as she may dislike introducing him to cow’s milk, and greatly as she may dread the effects, it is obviously the only thing to be done.

She can arrange the meals alternately thus—

6 a.m.—The breast (she should have plenty for this meal if she has trained baby to sleep well at night).

9 a.m.—The bottle.

12 noon.—The breast—and so on.

This system will give her six hours in which to secrete a plentiful supply of milk.

Wet Nurses.—Various causes may arise which may make it impossible or hurtful for a mother to suckle her own child—

(1)    The milk may not put in an appear

ance at all.

(2)    Having appeared, it may suddenly

desert the mother.

f3) The mother may have grave reasons for determining, even before baby’s arrival, not to suckle him — she may have some acquired or hereditary disease, which would make it dangerous for her to do so.

In the case, then, of providing the child with a substitute for its own food, one of two things may be done—

(1)    The services of a wet nurse may be

engaged.

(2)    The child may be reared by means

of artificial food.

In this chapter the first of these two means will be referred to, as that relates to breast-feeding.

There can be no doubt that to obtain a thoroughly good wet nurse is to give the child the best chance of becoming strong and healthy. Very often indeed it appears to be his one chance of living at all.

Yet it must be remembered that each mother’s milk is adapted to her own particular child, and therefore even the healthiest foster-mother cannot provide a food so beneficial to the baby as the mother herself.

It is desirable to discover as much as possible about the wet nurse’s hereditary taints, general health, and disposition. The condition of her own child will speak volumes for or against her qualifications as a foster-mother.

The age of her own child should correspond, as nearly as may be, with her foster-child, and her own age be between twenty and forty.

Weaning.—The age at which baby should bs weaned is still, and has every appearance of continuing to be, a vexed question.

Nine months is usually the limit for suckling; but, again, it is often urged that he should be suckled until he has cut his first twelve teeth.

In the majority of cases, however, Nature steps in and decides the question.

She causes the milk to diminish or to disappear altogether, and baby has, perforce, to accept the bottle.

Few mothers are nowadays, and in Australia, able to nurse their children for longer than seven months; but when they, by giving extra and very careful care to themselves, can possibly continue for the whole first nine months, they confer upon their child a boon it is impossible to overestimate.

If, indeed, the mother’s health is good, and the baby thriving, it might be advantageous for him to be suckled for the first year of his life.

Nine months is, however, the time-established period, and it is true that those children are healthiest and strongest whose weaning is commenced at nine months and completed by the tenth.

Our Australian summer is, however, a hazardous time in which to wean a baby, be he any age. If it be possible to avoid it, he should never be weaned either in the summer or in the face of it—or when he is having a tussle with a tooth.

A mother should remember that in either case he has quite enough to struggle with, without having diet troubles added to the list.

Sometimes, however, it happens, before he has completed his ninth month, and in the face of the summer, that the mother will discover that she is again pregnant. In such a case there must be no hesitation —baby must be weaned immediately. Indeed, in all probability, he will have taken this great matter into his own small hands, and have weaned himself.

The mother will have noticed that her milk was disagreeing with him, that he had been growing pale, had been frequently and unusually sick, before he went to such extreme measures as to voluntarily renounce his one-time dearest comfort.

If, however, this has not occurred, and baby at nine months old is still fondly addicted to his natural food, and the mother has decided to wean him, she should bring the new order of things into force by degrees.

The word “weaning” itself suggests a gradual coaxing from.

The mother should commence by introducing baby to cow’s milk once a day only for the first week.

She may, for instance, make his mid-day meal of cow’s milk and barley water. A week later she may make the evening one the same, and a few days later the early morning one also. Thus, by the tenth month she will have gradually accomplished what she may have been dreading for months.

Should baby, however, be very troublesome over his new food, it may be better for the mother to smear bitter aloes upon her nipples, or to hand the child over to someone else’s keeping for the trying time. But in all probability the bitter aloes will be effectual.

The mother herself will need attention during the weaning process. If it has been brought about gradually, all the better for

E

her.    Having less demand made upon her,

she will respond in a less and less degree, and the milk will slowly forsake her.

In this case, she will rarely have to do more than rub her breasts with warm camphorated oil, and take very little liquid.

But if weaning occur suddenly, owing to one of baby’s freaks, or his own perception of what is best for him, the mother will in all likelihood be in a grievous plight. She may be quite unable to raise her arms, to do her own hair, or to attend to her baby.

Even here there is little to be done. She must drink—next to nothing. She will probably be suffering mightily from thirst, but all she may do, is to wet her lips—and take a sip or two.

A soap-plaster (made by a chemist) applied to each breast is of the greatest benefit, and assists rapidly in drying up the milk.

Baby's Diet after Weaning.— Baby’s new food should be very weak at first, whether ho be weaned at three months old or at nine.

The first bottle indeed should only consist of one part milk to three parts of barley water.

The milk should always be boiled. Reference will be made in the chapter relating to the hand-feeding of infants to the necessity for boiling the milk.

The quantity of milk should be gradually and carefully increased until, by baby’s tenth month closes, he is taking 8 ozs. of milk and 2 ozs. of barley water to a meal.

A teaspoonful of Allenbury’s, Mellin’s, Savory and Moore’s, or Frame Food, may with advantage be added to each bottle — and gradually increased to a dessertspoonful.

Thus at eleven months old he should be taking five meals a day, and each meal should consist of

8 ozs. milk.

2 ozs. barley water.

1 dessertspoonful of food.

Probably he will need nothing stronger than this till he is a year old; but should there be indications that his food is not strong enough, other articles may be added to his menu, viz. :

Custard, beef tea, bovril, mutton and chicken broth, boiled or poached eggs, and bread crumbs.

The great need for regularity in feeding presses now even more than when he was breast-fed.

CHAPTER YI.

Hand - Feeding.

Regularity and Cleanliness.—Articlos Required.—Milk.—• Dilutants.—Malted Foods.—Diet Lists to the Third Year.

It is now necessary to consider the case of a baby doomed to be band-fed from the first.

The task of rearing him will be in the great majority of cases more troublesome in every way than if be bad been granted even a few weeks of bis own particular food.

Then again, if be step into lifo with an Australian summer sun blazing above bis little bead bis ordeal will be tenfold harder and his mother’s worries proportionately increased. Yet, with care and unremitting attention, a bottle-fed baby is often exceedingly healthy and robust. But suitable food, and food to suit baby’s individual requirements, must be provided •

59

regular hours of feeding be rigorously observed ; and scrupulous cleanliness be insisted upon.

If a mother be unable from any cause whatever to suckle her own baby, it is her duty, in the artificial rearing of him, to double her care, and, no matter luhcit her position in life, to give personal service or personal supervision to it herself.

If not the most important, at least one of the most important features in rearing a child by hand is the scrupulous cleanliness of the bottles, jugs, and saucepans used. The least carelessness in this respect may cause a bad attack of diarrhoea and sickness, a heavy penalty for baby to pay for his own mother’s negligence. It would be well, indeed, for baby to have his own little array of china and cooking utensils set aside as his particular property, and to be used for no other purpose than his food. In the hope that this may be done, I now give a list of the different articles required. Two feeding bottles, strainer, thermometer, two jugs, two small enamelled saucepans, one two-ounce measure, one ten-ounce measure.

I would suggest baby possessing a small hanging safe of his own. This could be placed in a sheltered, sunless position out of doors, and have pure air playing around it day and night.

Feeding Bottles.—The simpler the feeding bottle the better. It is almost needless nowadays to warn mothers to shun bottles with tubes. One cannot but wonder how such dangerous things ever came into use at all. There is a flat-bottomed feeding bottle to be specially recommended. It will stand upright, and has no joints and crevices in wdiich food may lodge. It is graduated in ounces and half ounces, and has a wide teat which will easily turn inside out. The Allenbury feeding bottle is also very good. It has no tubes, is graduated, and provided with a good teat at one end and an opening at the other, to allow it to be well cleaned and for air to enter behind the milk.

Two Jugs.—Two of these are necessary, and it is to be urged again that they be

different from those in household use. They should be wide-mouthed, that the whole hand may enter to thoroughly cleanse them.    They should each hold about

l\ pints. One is for the barley water and one for the milk.

The Measures.—Two and ten ounces each will be needed if any attempt at accurate measuring is to be essayed.

The    Saucepans. —- These    should be

enamelled, and be baby’s property entirely. Otherwise, their scrupulous cleanliness may not be ensured, and they may be in use at a moment when particularly needed. One saucepan is for the barley water and one for the food, and each should hold rather more than a pint.

Strainer.—An    enamelled strainer very

finely perforated.

Thermometer.—A separate thermometer should be used; Allenbury’s is greatly to be recommended. The food should register just over 99° when baby takes it.

The question, “What shall baby be fed on ? ” has for answer, as might be expected, “A food as nearly identical with its mother’s milk as possible.” Many patent foods claim for themselves this quality; but it must be insisted there is no universal infants’ food. Every baby has his own idiosyncrasy, and a food that will suit three children of the same age will utterly disagree with the fourth. The simplest and commonest substitute for mother’s milk    is diluted cow’s milk.

Goat’s milk is sometimes used for nursing purposes, especially by those who fear tuberculosis. It is certainly very nutritious, being richer than cow’s milk. It requires diluting in the same manner, but being so strong in itself the addition of cream is not required.

Coiv's Milk.—Cow’s milk differs from human milk in two important details :

1.    It contains richer solid constituents, proteids or casein.

2.    It has less sugar.

Therefore, if we dilute the milk and add a certain amount of sugar, it will be seen that the same constituents in the two milks are contained proportionately. And yet, after thus altering cow’s milk, experience proves that the results of cow’s and of human milk in the same child are utterly different. The casein of cow’s milk, however carefully diluted, clots into hard lumps extremely difficult for the baby to digest and frequently sets up diarrhoea It is necessary then to further alter the character of the milk even after we have ascertained its constituents and the proportions of the constituents to be correct. The boiling of the milk and the addition of a thickening substance to separate the particles of casein have been found to best answer this purpose. Boiling the milk is indeed an absolute necessity—even apart from the fact of it lessening the size of the clots. We must remember that cows suffer from various infectious diseases, and that milk is responsible for numberless epidemics.

It is an established fact now that milk

is one of the most active of agents for spreading abroad: typhus, typhoid and scarlet fevers, diphtheria, and that most dread scourge — consumption. And boiling the milk is the simplest method of destroying these disease organisms. At the same time it renders the milk less liable to undergo the fermentative changes known as “ turning sour.” In Australia, particularly during the summer months, milk is most prone to take these turns, and should on no account be trusted for longer than a few hours. It cannot therefore be too urgently insisted that every drop of milk that finds its way into baby’s own jug shall be boiled just as soon as it comes into the house.

We have now come to the consideration of the second aid to prevent the clotting of the milk.

A method sometimes employed is the addition of an alkali, such as lime-water or bi-carbonate of soda—the other by adding a thickening substance like barley-water to split the curd.

The latter plan is the one most frequently employed, and the better. Various thickening materials are used, but the commonest are barley-water and oatmeal-water. Directions for making both will be found among the recipes.

Condensed Milk. —Where good cow’s milk is unobtainable only should condensed milk be used. Many mothers prefer it because it does not so easily turn sour as fresh milk, and is free from tuberculose germs, having been well sterilised. Yet babies fed on condensed milk have very rarely robust constitutions. They are fat, but their flesh is flabby; they have very little colour, and their bones and muscles are but poorly developed; consequently they run great risks of developing rickets and scurvy.

A good condensed milk is, however, to be preferred to an indifferent “ fresh ” milk, and may be—indeed, must be—improved by the addition of the “ fresh ” element.

For instance, it should be given raw meat juice, and cream, if it be used as a permanent diet.

It is extremely useful to have a tin of milk, of a good brand, in the house in case of an emergency, viz., the fresh milk turning sour.

The strength of the mixture must, of course, correspond with the child’s age—

1 part of sweetened condensed milk to 16 parts of water or barley-water is the weakest proportion ; and

1 part of the milk to 8 of water the strongest.

Humanised Milk. — The introduction of humanised milk into infants’ diets has been found to give most satisfactory results. It may be either purchased ready for use, or made at home, by means of Peptogenic Powders. Half-a-pint of cold water, half-a-pint of fresh milk, 4 tablespoons of cream, and 1 large measure of peptogenic milk powder are mixed together and pasteurised. It is very simple to make, and is frequently of great benefit to delicate babies, who have been denied their own mothers’ milk.

Peptonised Milk.—Peptonised milk is milk in which the troublesome casein has been digested before baby has taken it.

Although exceedingly useful for children with very delicate digestions, this form of milk should be used no longer than is absolutely necessary, as the enforced idleness of the digestive organs leads naturally to their weakness and atrophy. It should be merely used to tide a child over a difficulty, and should be left off as soon as may be, but gradually. It stands to reason that organs that have had all worked saved them should not suddenly have it thrust upon them again.

Thus, a teaspoon of peptonised milk may be taken from the bottle and be replaced by one of ordinary boiled milk; two days later two teaspoonsful may be taken and so replaced, and so on, regularly and at xegular intervals, until the child can take the whole meal of boiled milk. Fairchild’s Zymine Peptonising Powders are the best of all the preparations offered. They may be purchased for a very reasonable sum, and are put up in small boxes, twelve tubes being in a box. The fullest directions are given with the powders.

Sterilised Milk.—Sterilised milk is simply milk in which all the micro-organisms have been destoyed by means of heat.

A simple way to sterilise milk is to boil it; but as a high temperature must be maintained for a lengthy period, and there would be a great risk of burning the milk, a proper apparatus must be used. There are many of these on the market, each furnished with its own list of “ directions for use ”; consequently, it is needless to say more of them beyond urging that the simpler the machine the greater its recommendations.

An important point to be remembered is, that so soon as the process is completed the bottle containing the milk should be placed in cold water and kept in a cool place.

Dried Milk Food.—These foods, like condensed milk, are deficient in important elements, and no child should be fed upon them when fresh milk is procurable, if the child can digest fresh milk.

When a child is not able to digest fresh milk, however, or if any emergency arise rendering such milk difficult to procure, such foods are very useful as a temporary expedient.

But it must be borne in mind always that tinned foods are lacking in freshness, and that babies fed upon them for any length of time are sickly, and liable— indeed, almost certain — to develop scurvy and rickets. Yet in cases of illness they are often exceedingly valuable; indeed, many a bewildered mother wonders what she would have done without some such staff to lean upon.

Carnrick’s Soluble Food I rank preeminently first. It is, I believe, the most expensive of all the infants’ foods; but it approaches very closely to mother’s milk, and is a very safe food for babies with the most delicate stomachs.

Allenbury’s No. I. and No. II. are also exceedingly good, and scores of mothers place absolute reliance on Horlick’s Malted Milk.

Full directions are given with each tin or bottle, and the preparing of the food is in each case simpleness itself.

Malted Foods. — These foods, used in addition to cow’s milk, form a very useful part of an infant’s dietary.

The purely starchy foods, such as corn« flour, arrowroot, etc., should never be used for infants under six months old, and but sparingly until the close of the first year. In the malted foods the starch of the different grains has been changed into grape sugar, so that the work of digestion has been greatly eased. These foods have not only nourishing properties, but are very useful for diminishing the curd in the milk. Of these, I can confidently recommend Frame Food, Allenbury’s No. III., and Savory & Moore’s.

Diet List.

Number

Age of Infant. Quantity per Meal.    of Meals

per Day.

1 week    ....    l£ ozs......... 10

6 weeks    .... 4 ozs. 3 drs> ....    9

F

Age of I-ifant.

Quantity per Meal.

Number of Meals

2 months .

.. 4 ozs. 5 drs.

per Day. ... 8

4 months .

.. 6 ozs.....

... 7

6 months .

.. 8 ozs.....

... 7

8 months .

.. 9 ozs......

... 6

9 months .

.. 10 ozs.....

... 6

For the first 3 months, 2^ hour intervals should be observed between the meals. Afterwards, however, 3 hour intervals may be instituted with advantage.

Baby from the beginning should be educated very gradually to take milk, but at the age of three months, if all be going well, he should be able to digest one part of lime water or barley water to two parts of milk. By the time he is six months old he should have three parts of milk to one of dilutant; and at nine months each bottle should consist of eight parts of milk to one of dilutant.

Should the combination of milk and lime water, or milk and barley water, or milk and lime and barley water, fail to give satisfactory results, it may be as well to give baby a little help into life by entirely digesting the milk for him, viz., peptonising it; but, as soon as possible, he must be educated to do his own peptonising.

Cream, with the greatest advantage, may be added to each and every bottle. Most mothers greatly undervalue cream, and are, indeed, a little afraid of it. It is of untold value to babies.

At the fourth and fifth month a teaspoonful of one of the malted goods should be added to the food, and a month or two later a good dessert-spoonful may be used. This will generally be a sufficient amount of the food, with the amount of milk named in the table, until a child is a year old. The barley water should be made twice in the twenty-four hours.

If it be desired, beef tea, mutton and chicken broths, and custards may be added to the dietary at nine months. But it is rarely necessary to do so if the milk itself be rich country milk, and particularly if cream can be afforded. It must be borne in mind that nothing can ever take the place of milk to a baby, and to stint in milk is but the poorest economy.

When a child is a year old the feeding bottle should be put aside. The child is now quite old enough to drink from a cup.

His menu is now much more varied, but milk is still the most important item in his diet.

His meals may be arranged as follows:

Diet List from Twelve to Eighteen Months.

7.30    a.m.—Two or three tablespoonsful

oatmeal porridge ; or bread and milk (stale bread being used) ; or a boiled or poached egg, with a little stale bread, and 8 ozs. of diluted milk to drink.

11 a.m.—8 or 10 ozs. of boiled diluted milk.

2.30    p.m.—A custard made with 1 egg

and half-a-pint of milk; or half-a-pint of beef tea, Bovril, or mutton or chicken broth, and stale bread crumbs; or gravy and finely sieved potato, and a plate of thin rice or sago pudding; or stewed brains and potato and pudding.

6 p.m.—Half-a-pint of boiled diluted milk and a rusk well beaten in.

10    p.m.—8 ozs. of milk food, or biscuits

and milk.

From Eighteen Months to Two Years and a-Half.

8 a.m.—A bowl of bread and milk, or thin porridge ; or a boiled egg and thin bread and butter.

11    a.m.—8 ozs. of milk and malted food.

2 p.m.—Beef tea; or gravy and finely-sieved potato and carrot, or cauliflower, and a plate of milk pudding; or a little finely-minced boiled fish, chicken, or meat, and potato, and a plate of pudding, and baked apple.

4.30    p.m.—A drink of boiled milk and a

biscuit.

6.30    p.m.—Half-a-pint of milk and malted

food; or bread and milk ; a cup of milk and some bread and butter, or biscuits and milk.

At this age all light puddings may be freely taken — custards, rice, sago, and tapioca.

Bread must always be a day old, and milk must still occupy the most important place in the diet.

The juice of grapes and oranges is also of great value.

CHAPTER VII.

Progress of the Child.

Condition at Different Months—Intelligence.—Creeping.— Walking.—Weight and Size.

For the first few weeks no one except a mother, or perhaps a sympathetic nurse, is very much struck with baby’s progress. The mother, however, will be able to tell the hour when he first evinced interest in those bedroom suns—the brass knobs of the bedstead—when his wandering glance was rivetted upon the bed-hangings and the nurse’s cap, when his small frame first quivered and started at the slamming of a door, and, rapturous moment! when the first smile illuminated his tiny face.

Usually these momentous happenings take place during the first few weeks of his existence. But, at first, sleeping and feeding occupy the entirety of the small

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life, with a fragment of time spent in toilet operations and intervals in crying for or over his food.

Later, during the second month, a lighted candle or a bright object will attract his attention; he will delight his mother’s heart with occasional smiles, and will, when happy and contented, twitter away like a joyous-bird.

Third Month.—During the third month baby usually demonstrates his command over his limbs and his joy at life generally by vigorous kickings.

He takes an interest in his hands, and his waking moments are much occupied in watching them, in moving his fingers, and at clutching at objects within his reach. By the end of the third month he should be able to support his own head, and will have come into that very human possession, a temper, of which he will give manifestations when things go wrong, i.e., if he is not picked up when he asks to be, etc.

Fourth and Fifth Months.— His hands are now of much service to him. He can firmly grasp and keep objects of interest, and delights in flinging them to the floor. He can support his head quite well, can distinguish a stranger from his home beloveds ; laugh joyfully, etc.

Sixth to Ninth Month.—He can now sit in his own chair (which should be softly cushioned to support his back) for short intervals. He has his own toys, knows the names of those around him, of pussy, the dog, the ball, doll, bird, etc. He may lie on the floor and kick away to his heart’s content now.

Tenth to Twelfth Month.—He should now be able to sit up quite strongly by himself. At the tenth month he will in all probability be crawling about the floor. He may perhaps only shuffle himself along with a sideway motion. By the eleventh month he can often pull himself into a standing position and stand upright without support, and he is generally able to walk soon after he is a year old. By the ninth month he can clap his hands and say, “ Da-da, mama, ba-ba, ta-ta,” and babble all day long with but few intelligible words. He will chuckle with delight at his own small jokes. He knows his own name perfectly, and the sight of other children fills him with joy.

The Second Year.—Early in this period he will be master of the art of creeping and crawling, and before the end of the first three months of it, he will be toddling uncertainly about, and walk fairly well at eighteen months old. His vocabulary is much enlarged. He can blow out a match, gnaw a crust, and mimic many sounds. During the second half of the second year he can trot about freely everywhere, feed himself, string a few words together, and understand perfectly the pictures in his books.

Weight, Size, etc— Every mother should weigh her baby. The most satisfactory plan is to have a weekly weighing-day and to enter the results in a note-book. This plan affords a very good idea of baby’s progress. The weight of a new-born baby varies considerably, even without taking count of poolittle morsels who slip into the world a few weeks, sometimes two months, before their time. But the weight of a full-time nine months child varies not a little ; as a rule, however, the weight of a newly-born baby averages from 6£ lbs. to 7^ lbs. The following table shows what he should weigh presuming him to have been lbs at birth:

lbs.

ozs.

End of 1st month ....

.... 8

10

End of 3rd month...

.... 12

4

End of 6th month ....

.... 15

8

End of 12th month

.... 22

8

A fair weekly increase is 6 or 7 ozs. The average height of a baby at birth is 19 or 20 inches, and at six months 26 inches, while, if he have been progressing as he should, at a year old his height should be 30 inches.

CHAPTEE VIII.

Teething.

Order of Teeth.—Care of Them.—Health During the Time.

This term is applied to the time at which the teeth begin to find their way through the gums. It is well known that the growth of the teeth commenced before birth.

As a rule a baby is toothless for the first seven months of his life, the teeth appearing in regular order, and in good time it is one of the signs of the satisfactory progress of the child.

The following is the common order in which the sets appear, although of course there is frequent deviation from the rule, even with good health :

First Set.—The two middle teeth of the lower jaw, known as the incisors. These are generally cut about the seventh month.

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Second Set.—The two central incisors of the upper jaw and the two lateral incisors of the upper jaw—one on each side of the central teeth. These are cut about the ninth or tenth month.

Third Set. — The two lateral incisors of the lower jaw and the four front molars— during the twelfth and thirteenth month.

Fourth Set.—The four eye, or canine teeth; usually those in the upper jaw appear first. This occupies from the eighteenth to the twentieth month.

Fifth Set.—The four back molars, during the end of the second year or early in the third year.

With most healthy children teething causes but slight, if any, derangement of health. There may be feverishness and peevishness, but usually no interference is needed. Naturally, the advance of the tooth through the gum is slow, and it should only very rarely be assisted by the lancet. If a “ tooth ” be lanced too early, the wound will heal, and the tooth have to make its way through a scar.

Mothers are too apt to attribute all the baby’s troubles to the teeth. The fact that “ baby is cutting a tooth ” is, in many homes, taken as a reason for accounting for any malady that may attack a child at this age.

But it must not be forgotten that the health has a great effect upon the teeth. Ill-health causes malformation of the enamel of the tooth and its early decay.

It is of the greatest importance to take care of the “milk” teeth, for upon their well-being depends very greatly the health of the permanent set. Therefore, from the first, the child should have its teeth cleaned, at first with a little soft rag, later on with a tooth-brush.

If, when cutting a tooth, a child is restless and feverish, a warm bath at bed-time will often act like a charm.

A mackintosh bib, worn under the frock, will protect the chest from the effect of the “ dribbling,” and save many and many a cold.

A dose of castor oil is often invaluable for teething troubles, relieving the gums and reducing feverishness.

Weaning, or any great change in diet, should never, if possible, be attempted while a child is cutting a tooth. Opportunity for such changes should be taken of the intervals between the appearance of two sets.

Syrups and soothing powders should never be given without a doctor’s advice.

CHAPTER IX

Sleep and Exercise.

The question of “ How long should baby sleep ? ” is one which, in the beginning of things, is settled by that small person himself. But later on things mundane and hereditary have much to say in it.

Baby’s ability to sleep depends not merely on “ how things fall out.” It is in the first place conceded by heredity and strengthened by health and education. For it is true that excitable, nervous babies are born as well as made; babies who never were, and never are, good sleepers.

In many instances, pre-natal influences have brought about this deplorable state of things—the mother having led an excited, artificial, restless life—but, again, ancestry itself is not altogether silent on this score.

A sleepless baby is, in nine cases out of

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ten, a delicate, peevish one, and, a delicate, peevish baby is rarely a good sleeper, so mothers are apt to tangle cause and effect.

The education of a baby in regard to the question of sleep is of the greatest importance, and, given a due recognition of this, and stern adherence to the great laws of health, a mother may learn to smile by-and-by at the insomnia of baby’s ancestry.

During the first fortnight of his life he should, if all be well with him, be in an almost perpetual state of sleep for fully twenty out of the twenty-four hours.

By the time the mother has him in her own control—which is to say at the second month—his periods of wakefulness will have increased, but she must bear in mind that her “training-time” has commenced.

No Rocking.—Let her beware, as she values her future peace, not to trip, trip him to sleep in her rocking-chair, nor to put her foot on his cradle-rocker (which, by the way, should not exist), and lullaby him into dreamland.

Let her begin from the very first to lay

G

the first person of the household into his little crib, and to leave him to wander alone into sleep. He will find the way, and remember it too, and many wearisome hours will be saved for mother and nurse.

At six months old he should sleep from 6.30 p.m. till 10 p.m., and from 10 p.m. till 6.30 a.m.

During the morning and afternoon he should have two sleeps of one-and-a-half hours each.

At twelve months old he should have two or two-and-a-half hours’ sleep in the day-time, and sleep the clock round at night.

From two years old, till five or six years of age, a child should always have a day-sleep from one to two hours in length.

In Australia, happily, for the greater part of the year, this day-sleep may be taken out-of-doors.

The perambulator may be made snug with baby’s own macintosh, blanket, pillow, and mosquito nets, and baby be bathed and fed and placed within it and wheeled to the verandah, the garden, the lawn, or, as it frequently falls out, a bit of scrub-land. If there are trees, so very much the better for baby.

This sleeping out-of-doors in the fresh air, beneath a tree, cannot be too highly spoken of. Of itself, it is almost enough to transform a weakly, sleepless baby into a strong, robust one. Of course, there are times when the wind is piercing cold or flame hot, and then, as the mother’s own wisdom will suggest, baby will be best in a house built with hands.

Exercise.—The first exercises baby takes are those aimless kicking movements, which give him such huge delight. A mother should anticipate this desire of her child’s several times daily—unpin the clothes from about his little legs, place him on a mattress or a pillow, and leave him to follow the bent of his apparently foolish young nature.

This is, in truth, an important part of his development, and is what a good romp is to an older child, or a bracing walk to a girl or boy.

At six months old he may be placed on the floor on his back—draughts well provided against. By eight or nine months he will have probably rolled over and essayed a few crawling movements.

By the time he is ten or eleven months old he will delight in sitting on the floor and playing with his toys, crawling from room to room, and getting into inconceivable mischief.

At a year old he can usually pull himself to his feet, and a little later be walking. There are, of course, backward and forward children, heavy and wiry; and it must be remembered that where a thin, wiry child may be trotting about at thirteen months, it is well if a heavy, fat one has not found his feet at fifteen months.

With a good garden, or a paddock, and some trees, children may frequently dispense with the constitutional; otherwise, in the city and house-crammed suburbs, they must have their regular outings to the highest, healthiest, least house-ridden part of such locality, twice a day.

CHAPTER. X.

Diet Troubles.

In this chapter I propose to deal solely with that great summer scourge—diarrhoea. It is veritably a terror that stalks these tropical lands and lays cruel hands upon little children. The peculiarly susceptible age is from six months to two years—as every mother knows, the teething time.

Poor little bottle-fed babies run very much more risk of contracting this formidable complaint than their happy little fellows, the breast-fed ones. Indeed, I cannot too strongly urge mothers to strive by every means in their power to postpone weaning until the first summer is over. Yet it may happen, as it so frequently does, that the baby has been weaned—is beyond the bottlefeeding age.

The symptons of summer diarrhoea or enteritis are almost too well-known to need description. Generally there is a little time of warning—baby is less happy than usual, is a trifle pale, his tongue is white-coated, perhaps he has vomited a little, and there is some looseness of the bowels. Presently these symptoms grow worse, feverishness sets in, the vomiting and purging increase. And then, almost before the anxious mother has awakened to the fact that “ baby is not very well,’’ she learns that he is a victim to that summer scourge, enteritis. Sometimes the disease has a brief course and rages for a time that may be reckoned by hours, when improvement, or, alas! fatal results, occur. Or, again, it will continue not for days, but for weeks, and even months, now better, now worse, now bewilderingly terrifying, now hopeful.

Here let me whisper a word of comfort to the poor distracted mother ; her miseries at this time are in all probability beyond description. She has seen, in a cruelly short time, her plump, rosy child reduced to a pale, pitiful-looking baby, with a tiny pinched face, sunken-in eyes, and small, shrunken limbs. Things seem to be going rapidly from bad to worse, and of hope she has none.

Yet it can be truly said, that many, even delicate, babies’ powers of endurance are truly marvellous. Many a mother, in winter-time, will point to a rosy, toddling child and say, “ I never dreamed he could recover. For five weary months I carried him about on a pillow.”

Let “ Nil Desperandum ” with a baby ever be the motto. Multitudes of little children have made splendid recoveries, coming back from the very gates of death.

The days of the small beginnings, the days when baby is only “ not very well,” when his tongue is not healthy, and his bowels not too satisfactory—that is the mother’s moment. She may often prevent an attack of summer diarrhoea by simply being in time.

Firstly, administer a dose of castor oil; secondly, peptonise baby’s milk and place him on a very much weaker and smaller allowance (rice water may advantageously be used as the dilutant). These simple measures will frequently put an end to the disorder, and baby restore the equanimity of the household by being himself again.” But, alas ! there are less manageable cases; or a series of hot days will fall in, or, perchance, baby will be “ teething,” and matters will go from bad to worse—and how very bad “ worse ” can be, no one who has not seen can believe.

It will be well, indeed it is imperative, that so soon as the purging becomes frequent, milk in every shape or form be discontinued. A mother should understand that milk at such a time is an irritant, and to give it when baby is in such distress is worse than foolish. Yet it is essential that the little patient’s strength be maintained. A very safe, though expensive, form of nourishment is Brand’s Essence of Chicken. To a child of a year old, two teaspoonsful of this may be given in four teaspoonsful of rice water, into which has been dropped from ten to fifteen drops of brandy. This may be given every hour if the child be much exhausted, otherwise every hour and a half. One important point to be remembered is that all the nourishment must be given cold.

A few teaspoonsful of white of egg solution is often of great service, and if the exhaustion be marked, brandy should be added to this also. It must never be forgotten that in such a crisis as this brandy is of the utmost help, is indeed invaluable. Of course, only the very best brandy should be used. But where the exhaustion is extreme, where indeed hope lies dead, it must be borne in mind there is one grand restorative—champagne. Its workings are often indeed miraculous. It frequently immediately stops the sickness and soothes the stomach. From half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful, according to the gravity of the case, may be given in a little lime water every hour.

When the worst of the attack is over and matters are growing calmer, baby may very cautiously be introduced to milk again. But it must be carefully peptonised and diluted with either lime or barley water. Baw meat juice should be given at the same time, at intervals between the meals of peptonised milk. It may also be diluted with rice water, and, to a child of nine or ten months, a dessert-spoonful of the meat juice in an equal quantity of rice water may be given every two or three hours.

If, upon trial, it be found that neither the milk nor the raw meat juice can be taken, a change must at once be made, lest things go wrong again. Carnrick’s Soluble Food will, in an emergency like this, be frequently found invaluable, and Carnrick’s Liquid Peptonoids in place of the raw meat juice. Indeed, in our hot season, there is such an element of risk about the raw meat juice that it is often imperative to discontinue it.

The Liquid Peptonoids will be found to be very safe, rarely disagreeing. Brandy must not be added in giving them.

Gradually baby must be led back to his proper diet again, but it must be gradually. The milk must be less and less peptonised, and be given stronger and stronger. It is well to hasten to add a malted food to the milk before the peptonising is discarded.

I have spoken now of the cases which yield to treatment. There are hundreds of others, however, where everything is tried and nothing succeeds. Where the distracted mother watches the futility of medical aid, foods, nursing, restoratives, medicines; where, day after day, the same little white face greets,her from the pillow; where two forward steps are ever followed by one backward, what then ? What can she do ?

She can gather her little one into her arms and dee from the city, or from the hot backblock region to a mountainous country, where new winds blow. No wrords can over-estimate the wonderful efficacy of the mountain air for this ailment.

Every summer scores of babies are taken away by their miserable mothers upon pillows and almost lifeless, to be brought back again in the autumn pictures of childish health. But two cautions to mothers so doing. First, do not expect an instantaneous change. Be patient, and wait and watch. The electrical change may not appear in two or three days, or in two or three weeks ; but on no account return to the city or plain until the hot weather has gone, or the second stage may be vastly worse than the first. Second, having gone to the mountain air, live in it. Do not shut yourself and your child into a bedroom or live upon a verandah.

The verandah is to a certain extent shut in. It has a wall and a roof. Carry your baby away to the trees and live in their . kindly shade. Even on hot days (excepting, of course, heat wave days) they offer cool spots. Seek them out. High winds are bad for babies, but all trees have not the same aspect; it will usually be possible to find a tree with a kindly one.

In conclusion of this subject, I would say, no words can ever sufficiently extol this one thing—the living out-of-doors under the trees.

Try it you mothers with little pale babies—try it, and in even a few days’ time you will be amazed at the results of your new manner of living.

CHAPTER XI.

Common Illnesses of Babies.

Bronchitis.—Cold.—Chicken-pox.—Constipation.—Convulsions. — Croup. — Diphtheria. — Diarrhoea. — Earache. — Eczema.— Measles. — Mumps. — Infantile Paralysis. — Rickets. — Scarlet Fever.—Scurvy.—Thrush.—Whooping-cough.

Bronchitis.—This is one of those childish illnesses that demand great care. In its commencement, bronchitis presents the symptoms of a common cold. There is loss of appetite, more or less fever, and occasionally some vomiting. Wheezing can usually be distinctly felt on applying the hand to the chest and back. Sometimes the little patient is very restless, tossing off the bedclothes and refusing to lie still. At others, and he is then very seriously ill, he lies quiet, breathing in a panting way, and has a peculiar muffled cough.

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Treatment: A dose of castor oil in the beginning of the attack will frequently cut it short. Poulticing a young child is extremely difficult. A much better plan is to well rub the chest, back, and sides with hot camphorated oil. Meanwhile have a piece of flannel cut to well cover the chest and back, with a hole for the head to go through and a button and buttonhole on one shoulder. Saturate this well in hot oil, and place on the child so soon as rubbing operations are over. A good way to prepare this flannel is to place it in a soup plate, well saturate it with oil, place another soup plate over, and stand over a pan of hot water; be very careful, however, that it does not get too hot and terrify the child.

It is essential to maintain the little patient’s strength, and for this purpose good brandy may be given—(the dose is two drops of brandy for every month of baby’s life, in a little water). This, and the milk food, may be given every hour or two, as is requir ed.

The child should be placed in bed, if it will stay there, in a well-ventilated bedroom. It is usually imperative that the room has a fire and an even temperature be maintained. During convalescence the mother must be very careful, as it is extremely easy to have a relapse.

Cold.—Symptoms: These are very similar to a mild bronchitis; there is stuffiness of the nose, sneezing, and more or less fever and cough.—Treatment: A hot bath at bedtime and a dose of castor oil will usually cut short the trouble. If the fever be very high, a wet pack will rapidly reduce it—a dash of whisky may be put into the basin out of which the cloth has been wrung. Hot oil should be used in the manner described for bronchitis, and a tiny pad of cotton-wool may be dipped into the oil and inserted gently into the nostrils.

Chicken Pox.—Symptoms : This is one of the insignificant diseases of childhood. The child is “out of sorts,” perhaps a little sick and feverish—frequently, however, just “ not so well as usual.” In about a day the rash appears upon body, face, and neck. The rash consists of crops of spots (watery blisters), which dry, and grow about as large as peas. The period of infection lasts from three to four weeks.—Treatment: It is well to isolate the child, and keep him indoors while the rash is out. Simple food should be given, and a little laxative medicine, such as magnesia

Constipation.—This is more frequently the trouble of a hand-fed than a breast-fed baby. It constitutes one of the commonest of all the disorders of infancy and childhood. Very much may be done by the mother instituting regular habits from the first. It is not ^vell to use laxatives frequently, as the child grows dependent upon them. This condition is sometimes brought about by baby’s inability to deal with milk. The motions become dry and hard, and baby pale and flabby.

It is imperative, then, to make some change in the diet—to introduce raw meat juice, potatoes, carrots, and the juice of oranges (after the age of three or four months).

Castor oil will only temporarily relieve, not cure, the complaint ; but as the probabilities are that the child’s system demands more fat than the ordinary diet is supplying, the mother should add cream to each meal ; or, if cream is not procurable, cod liver oil should be given twice a day. The dose is one teaspoonful twice a day after food, to a baby of a year old.

Another very efficacious plan is to give the child a drink of cold boiled water immediately upon waking in the morning. The elixir of cascara sagrada is an invaluable remedy, and besides bringing about the desired results, has a tonic action upon the bowels. Tive to ten drops in a little water may be given twice a day. With a young baby the old-fashioned plan of introducing a small piece of soap into the bowel is often useful. The soap should be cut about the length of the finger, be tapered finely, and rubbed with oil. The point is inserted into the bowel, and held there for a minute or two. A glycerine injection is another very useful method of opening the bowels, a small teaspoonful of glycerine being the dose.

Convulsions.—Many diseases of infancy— scarlet fever, measles, whooping-cough—are attended or ushered in by convulsions. Again, a slight irritation in a child will cause a convulsion, thus: improper food, constipation, a troublesome tooth. Frequently, indeed more frequently than not, warning is given to the mother. The baby is dull, and feverish, and fretful. Then there is a twitching of the muscles of the face, the little hands will be stiff and difficult to open, and then the bewildered mother realises that her baby is in a fit.— Treatment: The first thing to do is to place the child in a hot bath. But at the critical moment it generally happens that there is very little hot water in the house. In the interval of waiting, the mother should mix some mustard and water, and dip the child’s feet (with its socks on) into the mixture, at the same time applying cold cloths to the head. As soon as the child is removed from the bath he should be laid down flat (without a pillow) upon his side. The bowels must be thoroughly opened with an enema of soap and warm water, and great care must be exercised over diet.

Croup. — Symptoms: These are usually wanting. The child is generally in good health, and goes to bed bright and happy—to wake about midnight, or in the early morning hours, or both—with a loud rasping cough and gasping for breath. The little sufferer’s face is blue and clammy, and the child himself terrified.—Treatment : Hot, moist applications must be made to the throat. A sponge for instance can be wrung out of hot water and held to the throat. The feet and legs should be placed in hot mustard and water, or, simply, if hot water be unavailable, a mustard plaster be applied to the feet. A teaspoonful of ipecacuanha wine must be given early in the attack, as speedy relief is obtained by making the child sick. If the attack be severe, a warm, moist atmosphere should be procured by means of a fire and the steam from a kettle. The child will most probably be quite well in the morning, but is very liable to an attack the next night.

Of course, the above only refers to false croup. True, or membranous croup is a very serious malady, and requires the earliest professional aid. True croup does not come on suddenly, hut is threatening for two or three days. The child is ill, unmistakably so— feverish and listless; he has a “ croupy ” cough, and grows steadily worse.

This is too serious an ailment for tampering with; yet, while waiting for the doctor, the mother can do much. Put the child into a hot, moist atmosphere, apply hot fomentations to the the throat, and give an emetic.

Diarrhoea.—Since this has been elaborated in the preceding chapter, I shall say but little here. No diarrhoea should be neglected. Should it be a slight one it may need no more than a dose of castor oil to carry away the irritant. But if it should persist, medical advice should immediately be sought. Even in the earliest stage, however, weaken the food and lessen its quantity, so that the stomach be not overburdened.

Diphtheria.—Symptoms : Sometimes the onset of the dread disease is gradual, sometimes rapid and acute. It frequently happens that the throat symptoms are the last ones to be recognised. It would be well if in all nursery ailments the mother invariably examined the throat. In diphtheria a thick, white membrane is to be seen in the throat, sometimes almost entirely coating the tonsils.

Fever is almost invariably present. The child is out-of-sorts—dull, heavy, miserable. He can with difficulty swallow his food, and lumps appear under his jaw similar to those in mumps.

Sickness is sometimes one of the earliest symptoms, and again in young children the disease is ushered in with alarming convulsions.—Treatment: As soon as ever the nature of the complaint is apparent, send for the doctor or take the child to a hospital. It is far too serious a malady for any mother to attempt its treatment. However mild its onset may be, the result cannot be forecast. It is highly dangerous in every stage, even in convalescence, when many complications may occur. In these days of anti-toxin recovery is the rule, and no case is without hope.

Very little can be done pending the arrival of the doctor. The small patient may be put to bed in a warm room, cloths rung out of hot water may be applied to the neck, and simple nourishment—milk foods, eggs beaten up with brandy and brandy and water —be given.

Earache.—Symptoms : Babies are martyrs to earache much more frequently than is supposed. The cry from this ache is incessant, and the child is restless and fractious. If the mother suspects earache, she should immediately try to relieve the little sufferer. —Treatment: She could wring baby’s own sponge out of hot water, for instance, and hold it close to the little ear. This will often act like magic. Perhaps the quickest and most effective treatment is to soak a little absorbent cotton wool in laudanum, and place it in the ear, and cover the ear with a piece of warm flannel.

Eczema.—Symptoms : Eczema is a very common ailment of childhood, and one most difficult to cure. It is particularly common during the period known as teething. Its beginning is usually but a few scattered red pimples, although in some cases the child is covered all over with the rash. The rash is exceedingly itchy, and causes baby much pain and discomfort. The cause is often to be found in the quantity or quality of the diet. In some cases, attention to this factor will cure the malady.—Treatment: The best results are usually obtained by well oiling the skin, and when the crusts have been removed, applying an ointment, which can be obtained from any good chemist.

Measles, or Bubiola.—Symptoms : In young children this disease may be ushered in with convulsions, or false croup. In the beginning of this illness, the little patient has all the symptoms of a bad cold, a troublesome cough, and a sore throat. Sickness may be present, fever always is; accompanied by headache and debility. The rash usually appears on the fourth day—upon the face and neck first, thence spreading over the entire body. The rash consists of little pimples, which run together into blotches. After about five or six days, both rash and fever commence to disappear. Measles is a most infectious malady from the very beginning until the end of its career, and the small patient should be strictly isolated.—Treatment : Measles is not in itself an important disease, but its complications and consequences are often most serious. The child should be kept strictly in bed, and care must be taken that he does not catch cold. If the fever is very high, a wet pack is often most beneficial; the diet should be light, and barley water may advantageously be taken. The time of infection lasts from a month to five weeks.

Mumps.—Symptoms : The earliest symptoms are a feeling of chill followed by a slight fever. The face swells at the angle of the jaw near the ear, and the child is frequently a pitiful little object, both sides of the jaw sometimes being swollen at once. The symptoms usually subside in four or five days. —Treatment: Hot fomentations, of water or oil, are very soothing and efficacious. The diet should be simpler than usual. This disease is extremely rare with very young children.

Infantile Paralysis is of common occurrence during infancy. The first symptoms the mother usually observes are that one of baby’s limbs—most often a leg—has lost power of movement, and that the child is in evident pain. Later on, wasting of the limb comes on, and it falls behind the other, in varying degree, in size and strength.—Treatment: If some power can be retained for the poor little sufferer it is a great thing, and the mother in this, as in all baby’s troubles, has much in her own hands. The limb must always be warmly clad, and treated night and morning with hot and cold water douching and massage.

Rickets.—Rickets is a disease of mal-nutrition, and very amenable to treatment. It generally begins about the sixth or seventh month, or after weaning. The head increases noticeably in size, and perspires profusely even when the rest of the body is cool. The child is usually backward in teething, has large, swollen wrists, and even when held on his feet, at fourteen months old, makes no attempt to stand. Practical hands can detect the certain sign—the row of small bony lumps on the ribs.—Treatment: Plenty of fresh, rich milk, fresh air, and raw meat juice. The raw meat juice may be given twice a day, two tablespoonsful at a time. It is better to commence with a smaller quantity. Cream is of untold benefit for this complaint.

Scarlet Fever. — This is a highly contagious disease. The period of incubation is from two to six days. It is frequently ushered in with a shivering fit and sickness. The throat is not always affected; when it is it is red and raw looking. On the second day a brilliant scarlet rash appears at first on the body, then on the neck and face. After six days the rash begins to fade and “peel” off in little flakes. This period, the “ peeling ” period, sometimes lasts five or six weeks, and is the time of the greatest risk to contacts. Too much care cannot be taken, for where one child may have the affection very mildly, and be well again in a fortnight, another may take it from the same source, and have it violently, and moreover be visited by some of the complications of the disease. The complications are often more dread than the disease; and in order to, if possible, avert them, the child must be carefully guarded from catching cold, particularly during the “ peeling stage.” Dropsy and inflammation of the kidneys are amongst the most frequent of the complications ; and inflammation of the eye and ear is greatly to be dreaded.—Treatment: The child may be placed in a hot bath several times daily, or two or three times a day be placed in a wet pack. This usually greatly reduces the fever, and brings refreshing sleep. A few drops of sweet-nitre may be given, and if there be constipation, a little magnesia. The throat generally will need special attention—dressing with a throat brush, and cold water bandaging. The food must be light but sustaining. The great object is to keep up the little sufferer’s strength, that he may bear this burden of illness that has fallen upon him. But a doctor must be consulted, and his sanction be obtained to the hot bath.

Scurvy.—Symptoms : Scurvy is, fortunately, a disease of somewhat rare occurrence; it is due to a bad condition of the blood, and is, like rickets, due to faulty dietary. The disease is usually ushered in by increasing indisposition. Baby is pale, listless, and thin. His gums become spongy, and bleed on the smallest provocation. Haemorrhages occur in the skin, and the spots become discolorations ; frequently the face itself becomes swollen, the little legs hang lifeless, and usually both knees and ankles are swollen and tender. This disease occurs in the period of limit in diet; and upon the administration of proper anti-scorbutic diet, rapidly disappears. —Treatment: The alteration of the diet is consequently of first importance. The child must have been fed upon one in which the fresh element was entirely lacking. Potatoes are of the greatest value for this disease; two meals of potato gruel should be given each day. Orange and lemon juice is also of great value; a tablespoonful of either may be given with advantage each day. For the rest, plenty of sunshine and fresh air, well-ventilated bedrooms, and daily bathings are of great importance.

Thrush.—This is one of the simple, troublesome ailments common to hand-fed babies. It may be said that thrush is almost invariably caused by some error in cleanliness. Perhaps the mother has overlooked the fact that that strange little article, “ Baby’s Comforter,” requires continual washings; that baby’s toothless mouth needs washing out twice a day. She can never be, as I have said previously, too careful over bottles, teats, etc.

Thrush shows itself in tiny white spots, about the mouth and tongue of the little sufferer; sometimes his mouth is so painful that he turns from his bottle, dreading pressing his lips together.—Treatment: The mouth should be painted several times a day with a mixture of glycerine and borax, and a little magnesia or bi-carbonate of soda may be given, according to the age of the child.

Whooping Gough.—Symptoms : Whooping Cough commences like an ordinary cough and cold; indeed, several weeks may elapse before the “ whoop ” becomes evident. It is a disease justly dreaded by mothers and nurses, not only for its own sake, but for the evils it sometimes leaves behind it. —Treatment: During the earlier stage the child should be kept in the house, or in bed. The chest and back may be well rubbed with camphorated oil. If the paroxysms are very severe they may be shortened by the judicious use of an emetic, which loosens the phlegm. Some form of tar is now very much given, otherwise medicines appear to help but little. Later, when the disease has reached the chronic stage, change of air is of great benefit. It is then advisable, if the weather permit it, that the child live out of doors as much as possible.

CHAPTER XII.

Nursery Accidents.

Burns and Scalds—Bruises—Cuts—Foreign Bodies in the Ear— Poisoning—Stings—Swallowing Foreign Bodies.

Many accidents are quite of common occurrence among children, and every mother should know what to do and be able to do it as promptly and calmly as possible. For it often falls out that her child’s very life is dependent upon her promptitude and skill. But it is not sufficient for her to know herself; she should thoroughly instruct her nurse, for accidents have a perverse way of happening just when the mother’s back is turned.

Burns and Scalds.—A very quick way to relieve the first sharp pain of a burn or scald is to bathe the affected part with warm

117

water, and then to well sprinkle it with boraoio acid powder, a supply of which should bo in every household. Failing this, Hour may bo used.

If the injury be only slight, it will be sufficient to cover it with a cloth smeared with vaseline, and to change the dressing each day. A tablespoonful of carbonate of soda, dissolved in a pint of water, may be applied by moans of soft cloths, and will give much relief. It is particularly necessary to keep the wound clean, although over-much dressing should be avoided. It should be bathed each day with a little warm water and Condy’s Fluid, and be carefully covered with the vaseline cloths, or cloths smeared with boraoio acid and lard. If the burn be a bad one, and the little patient seem likely to collapse, brandy must bo given at once, and hot bottles be applied to the foot. A doctor should, of course, bo sent for, as the child may die from the shock.

Most mothers know now-a-days that in the ovont of baby’s clothes catching Hie they should immediately smother the llame. But this is a point upon which nurses need instruction. Never put these warning instructions off till to-morrow; to-morrow is all too frequently just a day too late.

Instruct your nursemaid yourself. Tell her who is your doctor, and make her understand that in the event of an illness or accident happening during your absence she is to send at once for the doctor.

Tell her if the child’s clothes catch fire she is not to run for help or water, but to snatch up a rug, or blanket, or tablecloth and smother and squeeze the flame out; then to give the child half-a-teaspoonful of brandy in a little water, and to cover the burn over with rags smeared in vaseline, and to send for the doctor. Should no rug or heavy clothing be at hand, fling the child down on the ground and roll it over and over. Never allow it to rush through a draught.

B1 •uises.—So soon as baby begins to crawl and walk, bruises come. In most cases they demand no notice beyond, perhaps, “a kiss to make it well,” and a laugh to carry away remembrance of the accident. In others, however, baby’s beauty is threatened—an ugly-looking lump adorns his forehead, and something must be done to prevent, if possible, it becoming uglier. It is generally quite enough to rub the place with a little butter or boracic acid ointment, or lard.

Guts.—Firstly, stop the bleeding. This can generally be done by pressing the edges of the wound together. Should it not be successful, however, the application of ice-cold or hot water will generally be so. The second point to be observed, with regard to a cut, as indeed it is with any wound, is to thoroughly cleanse it. A little lint should next be put on, and the poor injured part be tied up with soft rag. Frequently cold water and soft rag, sprinkled with boracic acid powder, is quite sufficient, and the small patient is hugely delighted and comforted by having the wound bound up and tied securely.

Foreign Bodies in the Ear.—The temptation to slip small articles—beads, peas, etc.— into the ear, seems to be inborn in and iiresistible to every small child. In many cases, the first thing that draws the mother’s attention to the fact, is that her child has become deaf, or is suffering from severe headache ; and the doctor, upon being consulted, has removed some small article from the ear. Years may even elapse from the time when baby first slipped his tiny plaything into his ear, until the doctor discovers its whereabouts. In every case meddling with the ear by incapable hands must be avoided. If the foreign body can be seen, a little warm water, gently poured into the ear may, and generally will, carry it out, otherwise no tampering should be allowed. The child should be taken to a doctor at once.

Poisoning.—If a mother exercised due care in putting all poisons out of the sight and reach of the child, poisoning cases would never occur. Since they are not always as careful as they should be in this respect, and since, moreover, babies have been known to find and eat safety matches, and to lick articles adorned with pretty paint, it is as well to consider poisoning with regard to children.

The first thing to do is to make the child sick. Give it a good drink of warm water, or salt and water, or tickle its throat, and send immediately for a doctor.

Stings.—Anything that serves to cool the sting is of great service. Cloths rung out of ice-cold water should be applied, and a little carbonate of soda may with advantage be put in the water ; afterwards well sprinkle the part with boracic acid powder, or rub boracic acid ointment upon it.

Swallowing Foreign Bodies.—Ever}7 mother is naturally alarmed when she discovers that her baby has swallowed a button, a bead, a small pet toy or a coin. There is, unfortunately, a stage in early childhood when everything that will go into the mouth is unhesitatingly thrust there by busy baby fingers. If baby simply swallow the offending object do nothing, unless he be old enough to take some soft, thick food, such as potatoes or porridge. If he be, give him a meal or two of such food, which will help in safely delivering the article swallowed. If,

as sometimes happens, the foreign body lodge in the throat, try to extract it with your finger, meanwhile soothing the child’s terrors. Should it resist these efforts, take the child by his heels and hold him head downwards, smacking his back. He will cough it up, almost certainly.

SICK ROOM RECIPES.

Barley Water.—Put two teaspoonsful of washed pearl barley into one pint of cold water, and let it boil gently until a little more than half remains. Strain and use.

It must always be borne in mind that barley water easily ferments. It must never be brought to the boiling point a second time, and in summer must be made twice a day.

Beef Tea.—Take one pound of good rump steak and cut into small dice, carefully removing every particle of skin and fat. Cover with cold water and stand aside for an hour in an earthenware jar; then place in a moderate oven for another hour. Strain through muslin, skim off any fat that remains, add a pinch of salt and serve.

124

Chicken Broth.—Free a small chicken from all fat, cut and chop it up into fragments, put into a pan, cover with cold water, and let it simmer gently for four or five hours, strain carefully; when cold, it should be a good jelly, and may be either given in jelly-form or dissolved, as required.

Peptonised Milk.—Fairchild’s peptonising powders are by far the best preparations for peptonising milk. Full directions are given on each box. In peptonising milk for a baby, rather less than the full tube should be used in case of bitterness ensuing.

Baw Meat Juice.—Take half-a-pound of the top side of the round of beef. Mince very finely, and almost cover with water. Stand aside for twenty minutes, then press carefully through muslin and strain if necessary. Care must be taken that the meat be always fresh and be kept in a cool place.

Baw Meat Pulp.—This is obtained by scraping the soft pulp of the meat from the fibrous element. One to two tablespoons of this may be given to a child of twelve months.

Bice-Water.—Take half-an-ounce of well-washed rice. Put it in a pint of cold water and let it boil gently for an hour. Strain.

White of Egg Solution.—Take the white of one fresh egg, beat it up thoroughly with from six to eight tablespoons of cold water (boiled water), then strain and sweeten.

INDEX.

Page

Page

Ablution of the mothc-r

... IB

Binders ... ...

20, 24

Accidents ... ...

... 117

Birth of child, preparations

Acid, boracic ...

... 118

for ... ...

17-39

Alcohol (brandy) ...

... 94

Blankets ... ...

29, 30

Allenbury’s Food ... 57,70,71

Boiling of milk ...

57, 65

Attention to the mother at

Booties, woollen ...

... 25

weaning ...

55, 56

Boracic acid ...

... 118

Australian women as nurs-

Bottles, feeding ...

61, 74

ing mothers ...

48, 44

Brand’s Essence of Chicken 94

Avoidance of dishes

by

Brandy ... ...

... 94

nursing mothers

... 49

Breast feeding ...

43-52

,, ,, partial

... 65

Baby’s Basket ...

30, 81

Bronchitis ......

99, 100

,, Bath ...

... 81

Bruises ... ...

... 119

,, Bed......

28-80

Burns and scalds ...

... 117

,, Chair ...

... 79

Baby to sleep alone

... 28

Camphorated oil ...

56, 100

Bandage for the mother

... 39

Carbonate of soda ...

... 65

Bare feet ... ...

... 25

Carnrick’s Liquid Peptonoids 96

Barley water ... 57, 65, 124

Carnrick’s Soluble Food 70, 96

Bed, making of the mother’s

Casein ... ...

... 64

87-39

Castor oil ... 85,

103, 106

Beef tea ... ...

... 124

Catching fire, baby

117-119

Belts... ... ...

... 24

Chair, baby’s ...

... 79

Champagne... ...

Page ... 95

Changes in milk ...

... 64

Chicken broth ...

... 125

Chicken Pox ...

... 101

Child not crying at birth ... 41

Child, progress of ...

77-81

Cleaning the teeth...

... 84

Cleanliness... ...

60, 62, 115

Clothes, long ...

22, 23

Clothes, short ...

24, 25

Clothing, the mother

’s ... 14

Clothing, woollen ...

... 18

Cold, influenza ...

... 101

Colustrum ... ...

... 46

Condensed milk ...

66, 67

Condy’s fluid ...

... 39

Constipation ...

102, 103

Consumption ...

... 65

Convulsions ...

... 104

Corsets .....

... 15

Cough, whooping .,

115, 116

Cow’s milk.....

... 63

Crawling .....

79, 80

Cream ......

73, 112

Croup ... ..

... 105

Cuts........

... 120

Dangers in weaning

54, 91

Description of baby’s

clothes

Diarrhoea ... ..

17-27 91, 106

Diet list for nine months ... 71

Diet list for eighteen

months 74

Diet list for two and

a half

years ... ..

... 75

Diet, the mother’s..

13, 14

Diet troubles ..

... 91

Diphtheria ...

65, 103, 107

Dried milk foods ...

Page ... 69

Drinking of stimulants

... 48

Earache ... ...

... 108

Ears, foreign bodies in

... 120

Eczema.........

108, 103

Epidemics and milk

... 65

Exercise ...... 79, 89, 90

Feeding, breast ...

43-52

Feeding bottles ...

... 61

Feeding, hand ...

59-76

Feet, bare......

... 25

First stage of labour

... 39

Foreign bodies in the ear... 120

Frame food ...

57, 71

Frocks, short ...

... 25

Fuller’s earth ...

... 30

Gastro-enteritis ...

91-98

Glycerine and borax

... 115

Glycerine injection

... 103

Goat’s milk......

... 63

Go-cart ......

... 31

Hair mattress ...

... 29

Hand-feeding ...

59-75

Health in teething...

... 83

Height of baby ...

... 81

Hot bath ......

102,113

Humanised milk ...

... 67

Hygiene of clothing

18-25

Inability of mother

to

nurse ......

... 51

Infantile paralysis ...

110, 111

Influence, pre-natal

... 9-16

Intervals in feeding

... 47

Ioecacuanha wine ...

... 105

Page

Page

Jeyes’ disinfectant...

... 39

Pillow, the......

... 29

Jugs.........

... 61

Poisoning ... ...

... 121

Potatoes ......

... 114

Kicking ......

... 78

Powder box and puff

... 30

Pre-natal influence

...9-16

Lemon juice ...

... 114

Preparations for birth

of

Lime water... ...

... 65

child ......

17-39

Lists for baby’s basket

... 30

Press, the ... ...

... 33

List of clothes required

26, 27

Progress of child ...

77-81

Long clothes ... 22, 23, 26

Quiet essential for mothers 45,46

Macintosh bib ...

... 84

Making the mother’s bed 37-39

Kaw meat juice ...

95, 125

Malted foods ...

71, 73

Raw meat pulp ...

... 125

Measles or rubeola...

109, 110

Reasons for mother not to

Measures ... ...

... 62

nurse ... .. .

50, 51

Mellin’s food ...

... 57

Recipes ... ...

124-126

Milk, boiling of ...

57, 65

Regularity in feeding

... 48

Milk and epidemics

... 65

Rice water ... ...

... 126

Mother’s diet, the ...

48, 49

Rickets ......

... Ill

Mother’s milk ...

... 47

Robes ... ...

... 23

Mountain air ...

97, 98

Rocking the baby ...

... 87

Mumps ......

... 110

Saucepans ... ...

... 62

Nightdresses, flannel

... 23

Savory and Moore’s Food 57

Night nursing ...

... 47

Second stage of labour

... 40

Non-arrival of doctor

and

Scarlet fever 65,

112, 113

nurse ... ...

40, 41

Scurvy ... ...

113, 114

Nourishment for nursing

Short clothes ... 24, 25, 26

mothers ...

48, 49

Size of baby......

... 80

Nursery, the ...

32-34

Sleep, baby’s ...

86-89

Sleeping out of doors

32, 97

Orange juice ...

102, 114

Sleeping time, baby’s

... 88

Soap stick ... ...

... 103

Partial breast feeding

... 50

Speaking ......

... 80

Pelisse, the... ...

... 25

Sponge ......

... 31

Peptonised milk ...

68, 125

Squares ......

... 21

Perambulator, the...

... 31

Sterilised milk ...

... 69

Stings ......

Pago ... 122

Strainer, the ...

... 62

Summer diarrhoea ...

91-98

Swallowing foroign bodies 122

Table for nursery ...

... 34

Toothing ......

82-85

Thermometer ...

... 62

Thrush ... ...

114, 115

Tight lacing ...

... 15

Turkish towelling ...

... 21

Toy cupboard ...

... 34

Typhoid fovor ...

... 65

Umbilical cord ...

41, 42

Vests.........

Page 20, 24

Walking ... ...

80,90

Walls of nursery ...

... 34

Washing of squares

... 21

Waterproof sheeting

... 37

Weaning ... ...

52-56

Weaning and teething

... 85

Weight of baby ...

... 80

Wet nursos ... ...

51, 52

White of egg solution

95, 126

Woollen booties ...

... 25

Woollen clothing ...

... 18

Whooping-cough ...

115, 116

The ‘TIP-CAT’ Series

(BY THE AUTHOR OF “ LADDIE").

Large Crown Svo, Art Linen Gilt, Illustrated, 2s. 6d.

CHAMBERS' JOURNAL nay;:—“ The diffidence of the authoress of ‘Laddie' has hitherto prevented her real name and portrait from going forth to the public. But her work is finer, and has more grit, sanity, and beauty than is the case with writers who are better known. It is possible that her •Laddie’ may become a classic.”

TIP-CAT.

By the Author of “ Laddie.”

A very pathetic story of hardships and sacrifice, telling how the tenderness and generosity of one may make life smooth and happy for others.

DEAR.

By the Author of “ Laddie.”

The love-story of the daughter of a simple-hearted country clergyman. The way she is deprived of her lover, and duped into marrying the squire’s son, and the final attainment of her heart’s desire, are told with great charm and pathos.

PEN.

By the Author of “Laddie.”

A story of the neglect of two motherless children. The sketches of character and touching love passages are exceedingly well told.

MY HONEY.

By the Author of “ Laddie.”

•' It is always a pleasure to meet with a book by the authoress of •Tip-Cat,’ The story is full of charming character drawing.”— Graphic.

ROB.

By the Author of “ Laddie.”

•• Interestingly written, and will be read with equal pleasure by members of either sex.”—Westminster Gazette.

LIL.

By the Author of “ Laddie.”

•« A volume of interesting reading that should attract all young people.”—Sunday School Recorder.

OUR LITTLE ANN.

By the Author of “ Laddie.”

The story of a girl who from the time she left the country for town led a chequered life. The various episodes are cleverly connected, and the descriptive portions well told.

FAITHFUL.

By the Author of “ Tip-Cat.”

A delightful tale, and one of the most clever and fascinating stories the author has written.

LADDIE, etc.

By the Author of “ Tip-Cat.”

" It is possible that ' Laddie ’ may become a classic.”—Chambers' Journal.

THE CAPTAIN OF FIVE.

By Mary H. Debenham.

" Every human being over seven and under seventy will agree in pronouncing it delightful.”—Daily Chronicle.

HOLLYBERRY JANET.

By Maggie Symington (“Aunt Maggie ”).

"An excellent addition to a charming series.”—Academy.

THE PATTYPATS.

By H. Escott-Inman.

"One of the most delightfully droll story-books that it is possible to conceive of. Brimful of quaint and wonderful notions, and teeming with mirth and ‘go.’ ”—The Teachers' Aid.

THE NIDDING NOD.

By H. Escott-Inman.

" It continues with the happiest effect the nonsensical, whimsical, foncilul, and delightful account of the Pattypats. Brisker fooling never came from Fairyland.”—The Scotsman.

Works by Ethel Turner

(MRS. H. R. CURLEWIS).

“ Miss Ethel Turner is fast becoming to the world at large what the authoress of ‘ Little Men,' etc, was for generations past to America, and to children and grownup people alike all the world over.”—Westminster Gazette.

‘‘Miss Ethel Turner is Miss Alcott’s true successor, The same healthy, spirited tone is visible, which boys and girls recognised and were grateful for in ‘ Little Women ’ and ‘ Little Men,’ the same absence of primness, and the same love of adventure.—The Bookman.


Crown 8vo, doth gilt, bevdled boards, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.

Cloth gilt, plain edges, 2s. 6d.

LITTLE MOTHER MEG.

With Twenty-five Illustrations by A. J. Johnson.

This book is another of the Author’s delightful stories'of child life, full of the same charms which brought into popularity her earlier stories ; this new story is bound to enhance her reputation as one who can picture child life in all its natural innocence.

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, gilt edges, 3s. Gd.

Cloth gilt, plain edges, 2s. 6d.

THE STORY OF A BABY.

Illustrated by Francis Ewan and others.

“ A pretty and graceful little narrative.”—Daily Telegraph.

“A charming sketch of a girl-wife and the pitfalls of early married life."

—Liverpool Mercury,

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.

Cloth gilt, plain edges, 2s. 6d.

SEVEN LITTLE AUSTRALIANS.

With Twenty-six Illustrations by A. J. Johnson.

“ A capital story, charged with incident of a lively and stirring kind, in which children play some interesting parts.”—Saturday Review.

“ The pictures of their characters and careers seem taken from the life, and there is a novelty in some of the surroundings of the household which makes the volume eminently readable. . . . There are not wanting passages of true pathos, and some vividly picturesque descriptions of Australian scenery.”— Daily Telegraph.

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.

Cloth gilt, plain edges, 2s. 6d.

THE FAMILY AT MISRULE. A Sequel to the above.

With Twenty-nine Illustrations by A. J. Johnson.

“ Delightful young people they are, with all their mistakes and innocent naughtiness, yet so bright and natural they cannot fail to charm ."—Graphic.

“ All who were deliglned.with ‘ Seven Little Australians '—as all were who read the charming story—will welcome ‘ The Family at Misrule.’ . . . The story is charmingly written.”—Leeds Mercury.

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, gilt edges, 3s. 6d. cloth gilt, plain edges, 2s. 6d.

THREE LITTLE MAIDS.

Illustrated by A. J. Johnson.

“A tale of absorbing interest. The book all through is written in a vein that will afford genuine delight to those into whose hands it may fall.”—Morning A dvertiser.

“ A capital story, told with vivacity, point and humour. Admirably calculated to interest young people.”—Publishers' Circular,

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.

Cloth gilt, plain edges, 2s. 6d.

THE CAMP AT WANDINONG.

Illustrated by Frances Ewan and others.

“ Ethel Turner has given us in ‘ The Camp at Wandinong ' such an insight into the thoughts and nature of childhood as is nothing short of marvellous. It is no exaggeration to say that in our experience no truer representations of child life have ever been brought before the public. Mrs. Curlewis’s pathos is of that simple and intimate description that will find its way straight to the hearts of her readers.”—Ladies' Field.

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.

Cloth gilt, plain edges, 2s. 6d.

MISS BOBBIE.

Illustrated by Harold Copping.

<« Simply delightful. ... In its humour and its penetrating insight it is quite a masterpiece, comparable only with Miss Alcott’s “Little Men.'”—Daily Mail.

“In every way a delightful book. It is one of those simple histories of everyday life that children of all ages like to read, full of fast and furious fun.”—British Weekly.

Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, bevelled boards, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.

Cloth gilt, plain edges, 2S. 6d.

THE LITTLE LARRIKIN.

Illustrated by A. J. Johnson.

«« This is a most delightful, pathetic, and humorous—yet neither too pathetic nor too humorous—story.”—Speaker.

“So brightly written, and so full of delicate touches of both humour and pathos."—Pall Mall Gazette.

“An exceedingly clever and amusing story.—St. James's Gazette.