33WÍ3JU4 (o\5

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 12.] MELBOURNE. [Septembee, 1899.

RELIEVING GUARD.

[T. S. K. obiit (Latin word meaning “ died ”) March 4th, 1864.]

Came the relief.1 “What, sentry, ho !

How passed the night through the long waking ? ”

“Cold, cheerless, dark,—as may befit The hour before the dawn2 is breaking.”

“No sight? no sound?” “No; nothing save The plover from the marshes calling,

And in yon western sky, about An hour ago, a star was falling.”

“A star? There’s nothing strange in that.”

“No, nothing; but, above the thicket,

Somehow it seemed to me that God

Somewhere had just relieved a picket.”3

—Bret Harte, an American novelist and poet.

N.B.—The reply in each verse is made by one of the relief guard, who is identical with the writer of the poem.

1.    Relief. It is the rale in the army for each soldier to take turn in keeping guard. The one who has to do so is called the relief Several soldiers leave the camp together, and each takes up his position when he comes to it, relieving the one already on guard. Compare “In the Crimean War,” p. 84 of the November ’98 number of The School Paper—Class IV.

2.    Hour before the dawn. The hour before the morning breaks is considered to be the darkest and coldest time of the night.

3.    Picket, soldier placed to guard the outposts of a camp.

RIP VAN WINKLE —continued.

Dis-pu-ta-tious, inclined to dispute or argue.

Phlegm (flgm), sluggishness ; dullness; want of interest.

Tran-qui'-li-ty, calmness; composure.

Bil-ious look-ing, sallow ; yellowish.

Ha-rang-Uing, making a noisy or pompous speech.

Ve-he-ment-ly, in a forcible or passionate manner.

Jar-gon, confused, unintelligible language.

Pol-i-ti-cians, persons versed or experienced in the science of government.

Ref 'u-geef one who, in times of persecution or political commotion, flees to a foreign power or country for safety.

Mi-li-tia, body of citizens enrolled for military instruction and discipline, but not subject to be called into active service except in emergencies.

clouds of tobacco-smoke, a lean, bilious-looking fellow, with his pockets full of handbills, was haranguing vehemently about citizens’ rights, elections, members of Congress,1 liberty, Bunker2 Hill, heroes of ’Seventy-six,3 &c., all of which were a perfect jargon to the bewildered Van Winkle.

2.    The appearance of Rip, with his long grizzled beard, his rusty fowling-piece, his uncouth dress, and an army of women and children at his heels, soon attracted the attention of the tavern politicians. They crowded round him, eyeing him from head to foot with great curiosity. The orator bustled up to him, and, drawing him partly aside, inquired on which side he voted. Rip stared in vacant stupidity.

3.    Another short but busy little fellow pulled him by the arm, and, rising on tip-toe, inquired in his ear whether he was Federal or Democrat.4 Rip was equally at a loss to comprehend the question ; when a knowing, self-important old gentleman, in a sharp cocked hat,5 made his way through the crowd, elbowing them about as he passed, and, planting himself before Van Winkle, with one arm akimbo, the other resting on his cane, his keen eyes and sharp hat penetrating, as it were, into his very soul, demanded in an austere tone what brought him to the election with a gun on his shoulder and a mob at his heels, and whether he meant to breed a riot in the village.

44 Alas ! gentlemen,” cried Rip, 441 am a poor quiet man, a native of the place, and a loyal subject of the King,6 God bless him ! ”

4.    Here a general shout burst from the bystanders—44 A Tory ! a Tory !7 a spy! a refugee ! hustle him ! away with him ! ” It was with great difficulty that the self-important man in the cocked hat restored order; and, having assumed a tenfold austerity of brow, he demanded again of Rip what he came there for, and whom he was seeking. The poor man assured him that he meant no harm, but merely came there in search of some of his neighbours who used to keep about the tavern.

5.    44 Well, who are they ? 'Name them.”

Rip bethought himself a moment, and then said, 44 Where’s Nicholas Yedder ? ”

There was silence for a little while, when an old man replied in a thin, piping voice, 44 ‘Nicholas Yedder!’ why, he is dead and gone these eighteen years ! There was a wooden tombstone in the churchyard that used to tell all about him, but that’s rotten and gone too.”

“Where’s Brom Dutcher?”

6.    44 Oh, he went off to the army in the beginning of' the war, and was killed or drowned, they say: I don’t know—but he never came back again.”

44 Where’s Yan Bummel, the schoolmaster ? ”

44 He went off to the wars too, was a great militia general, and is now in Congress.”8

Rip had no courage to ask after any more friends, but cried out in despair,—44 Does nobody here know Rip Yan Winkle? ”

440h, Rip Yan Winkle!” exclaimed two or three; 44oh, to be sure! That’s Rip Yan Winkle yonder, leaning against the tree ! ”

7.    Rip looked, and beheld the precise counterpart of himself, as he went up the mountain—apparently as lazy, certainly as ragged. The poor fellow was now completely confounded. In the midst of his bewilderment, the man in the cocked hat demanded who he was, and what was his name. “I don’t know !” exclaimed Rip ; “I’m not myself—I’m somebody else. That’s me9 yonder ! I was myself last night, but I fell asleep on the mountain; and they’ve changed my gun ; and everything’s changed ; and I’m changed, and I can’t tell what’s my name, or who I am ! ”

8.    The bystanders began now to look at each other, nod, wink significantly, and tap their foreheads10 with their fingers. At this moment, a fresh, comely woman pressed through the throng to get a peep at the grey-bearded man. She had a chubby child in her arms, which, frightened at his looks, began to cry. “ Hush, Rip ! ” said she, “ the old man won’t hurt you.” The name of the child, the air of the mother, the tone of her voice, all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. “What is your name, my good woman ?” he asked.

“Judith Gardenier/’

9.    “ And your father’s name ? ”

“Ah, poor man ! Rip Van Winkle was his name, but it’s twenty years since he went away from home with his gun, and he has never been heard of since; his dog came home without him. But whether he shot himself, or was carried away by the Indians, nobody can tell. I was then but a little girl.”

Rip had but one more question to ask; but he put it with a faltering voice : “ Where is your mother ? ”

“ Oh, she too is dead but a short time since: she broke a bloodvessel in a fit of passion at a New England11 pedlar.”

10.    There was a drop of comfort in the intelligence. Rip could contain himself no longer. He caught his daughter and her child in his arms,—“I am your father,” he cried; “young Rip Yan Winkle once, old Rip Van Winkle now ! Does nobody know poor Rip Van Winkle?”

All stood amazed, until an old woman, putting her hand to her brow, and peering under it in his face, exclaimed, “Sure enough, it is Rip Van Winkle ! it is himself! Welcome home again, old neighbour ! Where have you been these twenty long years ? ”

11.    Rip’s story was soon told, for the whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. The neighbours stared when they heard it ; some were seen to wink at each other, and put their tongues in their cheeks ; and the self-important man in the cocked hat screwed down the corners of his mouth, and shook his head; upon which there was a general shaking of the head throughout the assemblage.

—From the Sketch Book, by Washington Ikying (1783-1859), an American Author.

1. Corgress, collective body of senators and representatives of the people of a nation, especially of a republic, constituting the chief legislative body of the nation. In the United States, the Continental Con- ress, consisting of deputies from the 13 states then existing, met in 1774. The Federal Congress took its place in 1781; and the Congress of the Unit ed States displaced this in 1789.

2 Bunker Hill, near Boston, north-east of the United States. It is noted as the scene of ths first important battle in the American War of Independence (1775).

3.    ’Seventy-six On the 4th of July, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was made. Georye Washington (1732-99) stands pre-eminent as the one great figure of the American War of Independence. He became first President of the United States (1789).

4.    Federal or Democrat. The Federals and Democrats were political parties in the United States. The Federalists favoured the administrator) of President Washington in opposition to the Democrats (Greek demos, i he people, and kratein, to rule), otherwise called Republicans or Anti-Federalists.

5.    Cocked hat. The American patriots turned up the brims of their hats.

6 The King, George III. (1760-1820).

7.    A Tory, an American who adhered to the cause of Great Britain during the revolutionary struggle.

8.    In Congress, a member of the Parliament of the United States.

9.    That’s me, an ungrammatical sentence.

10.    Tap their foreheads. Intimating that there was something wrong with his brains ; in short, that he was mad.

11.    New England, states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, north-east of the United States of America.

WATER SUPPLY IN THE INTERIOR OF WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

San^i-ta-ry, pertaining to health ; designed to secure or preserve health. (N.B.—Sanatory, healing ; curative ; conducive to health.) E-quip ment, outfit.

Trans-ferred' carried across; removed from one

place to another.

Lore, body of knowledge.


O-a-sis (o'-a-sis or o-d'-sis), fertile or green spot in a waste or desert.

In-va ri-a-bly, always.

In-fal-Ii-ble, sure ; certain.

Fa-Cil^i-tate, make easy or less difficult.

Route (root), course ; road or path.


1. In the interior of Western Australia, which is, comparatively speaking, a dry and arid country, travellers and explorers have to depend, not on rivers or reservoirs for their water supply, but on various sources unknown to any one who lives in a well-watered land. Communication, transport, and life itself depend so much on the existence of means by which the thirst of man and beast may be alleviated, that a good supply of fresh water is a necessity.

• 2. On the Eastern Goldfields, fresh water is used not only for drinking and sanitary purposes, but also in the work of obtaining the gold. Salt water can be procured in abundance ; but, as this is practically of no use for the batteries that crush the gold-bearing-stone, most of the mines have condensers as part of their equipment.

3.    A condenser is constructed and worked in the following manner. Several large, iron tanks, holding generally about 300 gallons each, are built into a mass of brick-work over a large furnace. These tanks are termed stills. The stills are filled with brackish water obtained from “ underground,” and a large fire is kept going in the furnace, until the water boils, and goes off in steam. This steam passes out of the stills by the only opening leading from them, leaving all the salt and any other solid behind, and makes its way along a pipe, which is seldom less than 200 feet in length. This pipe, in order that it may occupy as little room as possible, is coiled backwards and forwards on rests built to hold it.

4.    To cool the steam and convert it back into water, large tanks called coolers are used. A cooler is a cylindrical tank, with several pipes let through from top to bottom. The steam passes through the tanks, and comes in contact with these pipes, through which a

continuous draught of cool air is passing. This cools the steam gradually. It passes through several coolers, gradually becomes cooler and cooler, until it is condensed into water, and trickles out of the last-one into a large tank ready to receive it.    _

5. This water is perfectly pure. In fact, condensed water is too pure, as, in the process of condensing, it is deprived of all its mineral substances, and good water always has a certain amount of lime and iron dissolved in it. This defect, however, is easily remedied by putting some rusty iron, and a small quantity of lime, into the tank.

CONDENSER AT THE BOULDER NO. I MINE, KALGOGRLIE.

(From a photograph by Messrs. Joshua and Dwyer, Kalgoorlie.)

6.    Condensed water is sold in the larger towns of the goldfields, for example, Coolgardie, Ivalgoorlie, Kanowna, and Menzies, at the rate of eight shillings per 100 gallons, or, when bought by the single gallon, two pence per gallon.

When the manager of a condenser gets an order for, say, 200 gallons of water, he brings round his cart, on which is fastened a tank, and measures off the quantity, which is transferred from the one tank to the other by means of a siphon. The water is then conveyed to the customer’s house, and siphoned into his tank. Two hundred gallons of water, together with the weight of the tank and the dray, make a load of over a ton,—quite enough for one horse to pull.

7.    In the early days of the gold-rush, before condensers were erected, a gallon of water, sometimes not very clean, often cost as much as a shilling, and was then equally as precious as the yellow magnet that had attracted the miners.

8.    A few words may prove of interest concerning the supply of water for the prospector who leaves the region of condensers, and goes “ out back,” braving the peril of a terrible death m his eager search for wealth. Often, a human skeleton, bleached by the burning rays of a pitiless sun, is discovered by other prospectors, bearing melancholy evidence of a terrible death from hunger and thnst.

9.    The three principal sources from which fresh water may be obtained in these unsettled districts are soaks, gnama (nah-mah) holes,

GNAMA HOLE NEAR KURNALPI.

(From a photograph by Messrs. Joshua and Dwyer, Kalgoorlie.)

and claypans. It frequently needs an experienced traveller, well acquainted with bush lore, to be able to tell when he is near one of them.

10.    A soak is usually found in a district of granite formation. A large watershed, sloping to a valley, indicates where water is to be obtained. Sometimes the precious fluid is found in a pool on the surface. At other times it is necessary to dig for it. The place to dig is always marked by green grass or rushes growing over it—an oasis in the midst of a desert.

11.    The water, if not on the surface, will generally begin to ooze out when only a few inches of earth have been dug up, but, sometimes, the patience of the thirsty traveller is sorely tried while he is digging a hole three or four feet deep. The water gradually trickles out, until there is enough to quench his thirst and that of his camel. Few travellers dare to quit the towns and travel “out back” without taking with them one or more trusty and useful “ships of the desert.”

12.    These soaks, if tliey are often drawn upon for a supply of water,

will eventually dry up. It was principally by means of soaks that the teamsters with their loads of flour,    tinned    provisions,    mining implements, &c., were, in the    early days    of the    rush, able    to water their

horses or bullocks on the journey to Southern Cross and Coolgardie.

13.    Gnama holes are    a curious    natural    formation    to be met with

only in the interior of    Australia.    They    consist of    cavities in the

earth, often large enough to hold 100,009 gallons of water. Some of these holes are of a very remarkable shape. They are narrow at the top, it may be only two feet across; but they widen out into a large

FRESH-WATER LAKE CONTAINING CLAYPAN, NEAR BLACK FLAG.

(From a photograph by Messrs. Joshua and Dwyer, Kalgoorlie.)

subterranean tank as they descend. The water being hidden from the fierce rays of the sun does not evaporai e very quickly, and it is always cool. Another advantage is, that animals cannot get to the water to pollute and spoil it.

The blacks, to hide the openings, make a practice of covering them with large stones.

Another kind of gnama hole, that shown in the photograph, is shaped like a huge, roundish basin.

A remarkable thing about these holes is, that they are invariably found on elevated ground. Very often they resemble a large underground tank in the flank of a hill.

14. A claypan is the easiest to find of the three sources of fresh water supply. The interior of Western Australia is dotted here and there with small lakes, some fresh, others salt, and only containing water for a few weeks after heavy rain. A claypan generally exists in the fresh-water lakes. It is a large basin in the middle of the lake.

It has a clay bottom, and. consequently will hold water for a much longer period than the surrounding parts of the lake. Its position is generally indicated, by the cluster of reeds or long grass growing round its margin. Some claypans have a capacity of fully 500,000 gallons.

15.    Now-a-days, parties of men who journey into unknown parts of Central Australia always take care to have with them a man with wide experience in country of a similar character, so that he will be able to find water if it is near them. Many instances are recorded of persons perishing from thirst, although they were actually not far from water. A camel is an infallible guide for finding water, as it always quickens its pace when it scents the precious fluid.

16.    The Coolgardie Water Supply Scheme will relieve the people of the Eastern Goldfields of much of their anxiety in regard to water.

A large reservoir is being built on the Helena River, at Mundaring, in the Darling Range, between Perth and Coolgardie ; and the water is to flow from it through 328 miles of piping to Mt. Burges, a small hill near Coolgardie. The route followed will be that of the railway, as this will facilitate the conveyance of the pipes and machinery from the coast. The pipes will be laid above the ground on wooden blocks, so that any leakage may be at once detected. There will probably be eight pumping stations along the course of the main, each provided with three pumping engines in case of breakage to one. An idea of the magnitude of the reservoir on the Helena may be gathered from the fact that the wall of the dam is to be 100 feet high. The estimated cost of carrying out the scheme is £2,500,000.

—Mark J. Graham, Kalgoorlie State School.

ODE ON A DISTANT PROSPECT OF ETON COLLEGE.

An-tique; ancient.

Sci-ence, any branch of organised knowledge considered as an object of study; here, knowledge in general.

Mo-men-ta-ry, lasting a very short time. Red-o-lent, giving forth a sweet smell. Prog-en-y, offspring; children.

(The poet describes Eton and the surrounding country as seen from, a distance.)

Ye distant spires, ye antique towers, That crown the watery glade,

Where grateful Science still adores Her Henry’s holy shade;And ye, that from the stately brow Of Windsor’s heights the expanse below Of grove, of lawn, of mead survey ; Whose turf, whose shade, whose flowers among

Wanders the hoary Thames along His silver-winding way :


De-scryj see; discover.

Bux-om, vigorous; lively.

Min-is-ters, attendants who (in this case) carry out the fate allotted to each human being. Bale-ful, deadly; destructive.

Gris-ly, horrible; gruesome.

Con-demnedj sentenced; doomed.

(He describes the pleasures a person feels on revisiting theplace where he spent his happy schooldays.)

Ah, happy hill, ah, pleasing shade,

Ah, fields beloved in vain,

W here once my careless childh ood stray ed, A stranger yet to pain !

I feel the gales that from ye blow A momentary bliss bestow,

As, waving fresh their gladsome wing, My weary soul they seem to soothe, And, redolent of joy and youth,

To breathe a second spring.


(lie asks the River Thames who are the boys noiv at school there, and mentions their various pastimes.)

Say, Father Thames, for thou hast seen Full many a sprightly race,

Disporting on thy margin green,

The paths of pleasure trace,

Who foremost now delight to cleave With pliant arm thy glassy wave ?

The captive linnet which inthral ? 2 What idle progeny succeed To chase the rolling circle’s speed,

Or urge the flying ball ? 3

While some on earnest business bent Their murmuring labours ply ’Gainst graver hours, that bring constraint

To sweeten liberty;

Some bold adventurers disdain The limits of their little reign,And unknown regions dare descry:

Still5 as they run they look behind; They hear a voice in every wind,

And snatch a fearful joy.

(His though ts turn to the light-heartedness of boys’ lives, and to their ignorance of the trouble manhood is sure to bring.)

Gay hope is theirs, by fancy fed,

Less pleasing when possessed ;

The tear forgot as soon as shed,

The sunshine of the breast:

Theirs, buxom health of rosy hue,

Wild wit, invention ever new,

And lively cheer of vigour born ;

The thoughtless day, the easy night, The spirits pure, the slumbers light, That fly the approach of morn.

Alas, regardless of their doom The little victims play !

No sense have they of ills to come,

Nor care beyond to-day;

Yet see how all around them wait The ministers of human fate,

And black Misfortune’s baleful train ! Ah, show them where in ambush stand, To seize their prey, the murderous band!

Ah, tell them they are men !


(He describes the desires and passions that assail men. He gives human attributes to each, that is, personifies it.)

These shall the fury 6 passions tear,

The vultures of the mind,

Disdainful Anger, pallid Fear,

And Shame that skulks behind ;

Or pining Love shall waste their youth.. Or Jealousy with rankling tooth That inly gnaws the secret heart ;

And Envy wan, and faded Care, Grim-visaged, comfortless Despair,.. And Sorrow’s piercing dart.

Ambition this shall tempt to rise,

Then whirl the wretch from high,

To bitter Scorn a sacrifice,

And grinning Infamy.

The stings of Falsehood those shall try,. And hard Unkindness’ altered eve,

That mocks the tear it forced to flow ; And keen Remorse with blood defiled. And moody Madness laughing wild Amid severest woe.

Lo ! in the vale of years beneath A grisly troop are seen,

The painful family of Death,

More hideous than their queen:

This racks the joints, this fires the veins, That every labouring sinew strains, Those in the deeper vitals rage:Lo ! Poverty, to fill the band,

That numbs the soul with icy hand, And slow-consuming Age.

(He comes to the conclusion that, as there is n&-escape from the troubles of life, boos had better b° in ignorance of what the future has in store for them.)

To each his sufferings: all are men Condemned alike to groan,

The tender for another’s pain,

The unfeeling for his own.

Yet, ah! why should they know their fate ?

Since sorrow never comes too late,

And happiness too swiftly flies,

Thought would destroy their paradise.®' No more ; where ignorance is bliss, ’Tis folly to be wise.


—Thomas Gray (1710-71).

1. Henry’s holy Shade. Eton College, on the north bank of the Thames, was founded in 1440 by Henry VI., a pious and meek king. Windsor is opposite Eton.

2 The captive linnet which inthral ? This is a condensed way of saying, “ Who set traps for

linnets, and, having caught them, put them in cages ? ”

3.    The notes of interrogation after “ wave,” “inthral,” and “ ball” (the poet’s punctuation) are not correct if “ say ” is transitive. To justify the punctuation consider “say” parenthetical. Thus, “Who,” say (or tell me), Father Thames, “ now delight to cleave, &c.”

4.    Disdain the limits Of their little reign, go “out of bounds,” though they have been forbidden> to do so.

5.    Still, always. (A meaning once common in poetry.)

6.    Fury, like the Furies, goddesses whom the ancient Greeks conceived as punishing men for their crimes.

7- Those in the deeper vitals rage. The reference is to internal diseases.

8. Paradise, “ from an old Persian word meaning pleasure-garden, here means simply happiness, happy frame of mind.”—“Gray’s Bard, Elegy, Ode on Eton College, and Progress of Poesy, with notes, by Robert Craig, M.A., from which book also some of the other explanations have been adapted.

A CHAT ABOUT WATTLES.

Leg^ume (ISg-ume or lee-gum«1), pod with two valves, as that of a pea.

Prop-a ga-ted grown ; produced.

Im-per-vi-OUS, not admitting of entrance or passage through.

Char ac-ter-is-tics, distinguished traits, qualities, or properties.

Es-sen-tial-ly, really.


D:£a-lect, form of speech of a limited region or people, as distingui hed from other forms nearly related to it.

Ag-gre-gate, amount to.

Ap-prox-i-mate-ly, nearly.

Tecll-ni cal-ly, according to the signification of terms as used in any art, business, or profession

1.    The word wattle is one which we in Australia have peculiarly adopted as our own, and this is how its adoption came about. It dates from Anglo-Saxon times, and signifies twigs or saplings, or flexible rods plaited or interwoven together. The word has survived (chiefly in provincial dialects) to modern days; and, when the early settlers of this colony found it convenient to construct the framework of the walls of their dwellings and other buildings of twigs and split saplings, the operation was called “ wattling,” and the material used, “ wattle.” Hear Sydney Cove, there grew in abundance, overhanging the watercourses, a small tree with thin, flexible stems, which was frequently used for the purpose, and hence was first called “ Wattle ” or k‘ Black Wattle.” It is known to botanists as Callicomaand has cream-coloured flowers, in globular heads. Subsequently, other plants, which we now call Acacias,2 were used for the purpose, and these are recognised as “ Wattles ” in most parts of this continent, whether their stems and twigs are used for wattling or not, while the name, as applied to Callicoma, has almost fallen into disuse, except amongst a few old-fashioned people.

2.    The term wattle is, however, by no means universally applied to plants of the genus Acacia, particularly in the far western parts of the colony. Myall, boree, mulga, brigalow, cooba, dead-finish, gidgee, hickory, rniljee, umbrella-bush, wait-a-while, and yarran, amongst others, are all members of the great wattle family.

3.    Acacias are found in the warmer regions of the earth, particularly in Australia and Africa. They aggregate nearly 500 species for the whole world, of which considerably over 300 are found in Australia alone. It will, therefore, be seen that the Acacia is mainly Australian. The number of species can only be stated approximately, as botanists continue to discover additional ones.

4.    Having spoken thus generally, let us consider details. First, let ns examine the blossoms. It will be found that wattles fall into two great groups ; those which have their flowers in small round heads or fluffy balls, and those in which the shape of the flowers may be described as short, blunt rods, or, technically speaking, “ spikes.” Now, if we look at the blossom with a pocket lens, we shall observe that it consists of a very large number of tiny flowers, forming, in fact, a colony of little flowerets, the structure of which, though minute, is as perfect as that of the large, showy hibiscus so common in gardens. These minute flowers will be found each to contain perfect sepals 3 (and therefore calyx4), petals5 (and therefore corolla6), a large number of stamens,7 together with a pistil.8 The tiny sepals and petals differ amongst themselves in shape, texture, markings, in the presence or absence of hairs; and, as these characters often determine the species, it follows that it may be necessary for the botanist to examine minutely a plant submitted for his opinion.

5.    The colour of wattle-blossoms varies from a pure white to a deep yellow, different species showing flowers of varying shades of cream-colour and pale yellow. As a rule, they do not show to advantage as cut flowers, their exquisite fluffiness departing as soon as they are removed from the plant.

6.    Most of us are aware that the fruit of the wattle is a pod or legume, which, although varying a good deal in shape in different species, bears a strong family likeness to the homely pea or bean. Hence it is that the wattle belongs to the natural order Leguminofce.In some seasons, the conditions for forming pods are unfavourable over large areas, and hence we may look for them in vain; but those of the ornamental wattles are well worthy of collection, as these plants are best propagated from seed. And here it may be mentioned that the outer coat of the wattle-seed is very tough, and impervious to moisture, so that it does not germinate readily. Accordingly, before sowing, it is well to soak the seeds in hot, nearly boiling water, or partly bake them, an operation which Nature herself often performs by means of bush fires. Wattle-seed may, in dry grass-land, remain in the ground without germinating for many years; but, if a fire passes over the country, a crop of young wattles is frequently a result.

7.    If I were to say that most wattles have no leaves, my readers would think I was not speaking seriously. The feathery foliage of the black and silver wattle, finely divided so as to be almost fern-like, consists of true leaves ; but most of our wattles have “ leaves/’ which structurally are only leaf-stalks or petioles10 flattened out, forming what are known as “ phvllodia.” 11

8.    Many of these phyllodia look like the leaves of other trees, gum-trees for instance, others are long and narrow like a tape, while others again are thin and pungent-pointed12 like needles. Most are quite green, but several look as if they have b:^en dusted over with flour. In a word, it may be said that the shape, texture, markings, and other characteristics of these phyllodia present almost endless diversity of appearance.

9.    Wattles vary much in size when fully grown. Some tiny species hardly exceed 3 or 4 inches in height, and may be crushed like the grass of the field. Most of them are shrubs, or trees of moderate size, while at least two species attain the stature of large forest trees, both of them being found to measure up to nearly 4 feet in diameter, while the one has been found to attain a height of over 100 feet, and the other the extraordinary height of 150 feet.

10.    As has been already hinted, the wattle may reasonably be looked upon as a national Australian plant, and hence it would behove boys and girls to set about the very pleasant task of studying it. The structure of the flowers, pods, and phyllodia should be made out from

actual examination of a twig ; this will impress the subject on the memory better than endless reading of descriptions.

11. The wattle is essentially a flower of winter or early spring, and its cultivation is easy. It brightens up our gardens and roadsides at a season when there are few other flowers,—and no flowers are more effective than yellow ones. When these facts are realised, we shall see more wattles adorning the homes of this bright, sunny land than we do at present, for they are themselves an emblem of sunshine.

—J. H. Maiden, in The New South IVales Educational Gazette.

N.B.— In reference to several of the botanical terms used below, see p. 108 of the current month’s-number of The School Paper—Clans IV.

1.    Callicoma, Greek kalos, beautiful, and koine, hair, in allusion to the heads of the flowers.

2.    Acacias, perhaps from the Greek alcazo, I sharpen, in allusion to the sharp spines of many oP the African and Asiatic species, which are, however, not characteristic of most of the Australian ones.

3.    Sepal (see-pal or sep-al), an individual leaf of a calyx. Latin sepio, I enclose.

4.    Calyx, the outer or lower whorl of a flower. Latin calyx, Greek Icalux, a cup, in allusion to the usual shape.

5.    Petal, an individual leaf of a corolla. Greek petalon, a leaf.

6.    Corolla, the whorl within or above the calyx. It is usually light-coloured. Latin corolla (diminutive of corona), a little crown.

7.    Stamens, an inner whorl of the flower. In some cases the stamens are present in one flower, while the pistil occurs in another. Stamens consist of filaments terminated by anthers.

8.    Pistil, the innermost whorl of any plant. When mature it is converted into fruit, and contains the seeds. Latin pistillum, a pestle, in allusion to its usual shape.

9.    Leguminosa, Latin, nom. case, legumen, genitive case, leguminls, all manner of pulse, as peas,., beans, &c.

10.    Petioles (pet-i-oles), leafstalks ; footstalks of a leaf, connecting the blade with the stem.

11.    Phyllodia (singular, phyllodium), petioles dilated into the form of blades. Greek phullon*. a leaf; oidos, like.

12.    Pungent-pointed, prickly-pointed ; hard and sharp.

HOME THOUGHTS FROM THE SEA.1

Nobly, nobly Cape St. Vincent to the north-west died away,

Sunset ran, one glorious blood-red, reeking into Cadiz Bay;

Bluish ’mid the burning water, full in face Trafalgar lay;

In the dimmest north-east distance dawned Gibraltar grand and gray ;

“ Here and here did England help me : how can I help England ? ”■—say, Whoso turns as I, this evening, turn to God to praise and pray,

While Jove’s planet'2 rises yonder, silent over Africa.

—It. Browning (1812-S9).

1.    Brown-ing wrote these lines when on board a ship approaching Gibraltar from the west.

2.    Plan-et, Jupiter, the largest, and Venus, the brightest of the planets. A planet is a heavenly body that revolves round the sun. The Earth is a planet.

All the places mentioned in the poem are associated with deeds of British prowess. Off Gape St. Vincent, the British fleet under Admiral Jervis (Nelson second in command) defeated the Spanish fleet in 1797. In Cadiz, Bay, 30 English ships, under Sir Francis Drake, in 1587 attacked and destroyed 100 Spanish vessels that were being got ready for the invasion of England. Cadiz itself was taken by Raleigh, Howard, and Essex in 1596, Gibraltar, taken by Sir George Rooke in 1704, was nobly defended against the attacks of the Spanish and French from 1779 to 1782, and is to this day garrisoned by British troops. Off Cape Trafalgar, the British fleet under Nelson defeated, and almost entirely destroyed, the combined navies of France and Spain (1805). Nelson died in the hour of victory, but left to his country as a legacy the mastery of the seas never since disputed.

LEVUKA PUBLIC SCHOOL.

1.    The Levuka Public School is built on the slope of a steep mountain rising abruptly a little to the rear of the business houses and public buildings on Beach-road. The situation is extremely picturesque.

2.    The reserve around the school contains a commodious and well-kept playground, where athletic games and exercises are judiciously

LEVUKA PUBLIC SCHOOL.

(From a photograph by the head teacher, Mr. D. Garner Jones.)

encouraged by the teachers. This ground is surrounded by exquisite tropical foliage, and, on both sides of the avenue leading to the school, suitable trees have been planted, which now form a delightfully shaded archway.

3. One remarkable event, which should be of interest to all boys and girls of the English-speaking race, occurred at this school in connexion with the Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen. On Sunday,

the 20th of June, 1897, the citizens of Levuka assembled in the school reserve, and there initiated that “‘Wave of Song’1 which, encircling the globe, expressed an Empire’s patriotic joy.” Levuka had this distinguished and unique honour owing to its geographical position ; its longitude being 178° 5P East.    —E. C. E.

1. The Old Hundredth was the hymn chosen for the occasion by the Queen.

FEDERATION.

1.    The question whether Victoria should join in a federation of the Australian Colonies or not was put to the electors on the 27th of July, aud answered in the affirmative by a majority of more than 15 to 1, the voting being “ Yes ” 152,653, “ No ” 9,805.

The Victorian readers of The School Paper will, no doubt, remember the date, for the Premier of the colony (Sir George Turner) gave them a holiday, with the object of impressing upon them the importance of the decision that was to be made by their fathers.

New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania have also by large majorities accepted the same conditions as those placed before the Victorian electors, so that a union between four at least of the Australian colonies is certain of being accomplished after the sanction of the Imperial Parliament has been obtained, and the necessary formalities have been observed.

2.    The federation of the provinces of the Dominion of Canada, which took place in 1867, was necessitated by the rivalry of two sections of its inhabitants, the French Roman Catholics and the British Protestants. The United States of America formed their union in 1775 for urgent reasons, the principal being the need of showing a solid front in their efforts to maintain their rights in the face of what they considered to be the unjust demands of the mother country (Great Britain). The German Empire united in 1870 for the sake of military defence against France. In the case of Australia, however, there has been no impelling necessity, but only a strong feeling among its people that unprofitable rivalry would be brought to an end, that greater stability would be secured, and that a decided step towards nationhood would be taken, if a federal government were entrusted with the direction of all matters affecting the continent as a whole.

3.    New South Wales was founded on the 26th of January, 1788, and, till within the last twenty years, the trend has been in the direction of a division of the continent into separate states. It is not to be supposed that statesmen were blind to the advantages of union, and, beginning in 1849, several attempts to obtain it have been made at intervals, but with little result, till in 1883 a federal conference was held at Sydney. From that meeting was evolved the Federal Council, the annual assembling of which kept the idea of union alive. This Council, some years ago, held an important meeting at Hobart, and from that time federation became a national question. In 1891 a convention sat at Sydney, and produced a Commonwealth Bill. Its conditions were considered unsatisfactory, and no decided advance was made towards agreement between the colonies interested till 1897-8, when the Federnl Convention composed of representatives—50 in all—from New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia, met in turn at Adelaide, Sydney, and Melbourne, and framed a federal constitution in the form of a Bill for enactment by the Imperial Parliament. Amended in certain particulars by the Premiers of the six colonies, who held a conference at Melbourne early in this year, it was (as stated above) recently submitted to the electors of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania, and accepted by large majorities. On the 3rd of September, the vote will be taken in Queensland, and perhaps in Western Australia also before the end of the year.

4.    The decision having been made in Victoria, Parliament lost no time in passing an address to Her Majesty the Queen, praying that the Commonwealth of Australia be established and that the Bill embodying the Federal Constitution be brought before the Imperial Parliament. The other colonies in which the constitution has also been accepted by the electors have, or will, take the same step ; and it is thought that in February next the Bill will become law. Only a short time should then elapse before the arrival on our shores of the Governor-General of the Commonwealth ; and, by the middle of the year probably, the election of members to form its governing body, which is to consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, will take place.

5.    When, on the 16th of August, Parliament presented to His Excellency Lord Brassey for transmission to England the address to the Queen and a copy of the Constitution Bill, he made the following speech:—

6.    “ The address which you ask me in your name to transmit marks a turning point in your national history. It closes an era in which great things have been done. In no other country, no, not in the most advanced of the communities of the old world, are law and order more assured, the public tranquillity less disturbed, the standard of living for the whole people higher, the provision for education more liberal. In none is self-government, the distinctive gift of our race, more admirably illustrated. Statesmanship, eloquence, sound common sense, lofty patriotism have never been wanting even in the smallest of the Australian Parliaments.

7.    “ And now, looking forward to the future, and remembering all that you have done in the past under the difficult circumstances of rivalry and separation, who shall measure the achievements which may be accomplished by your united efforts ? You will be greatly strengthened for defence. Your trade will grow by leaps and bounds. The common credit will sensibly lighten the public charge. All petty jealousies will disappear. Time would fail me were 1 to attempt to enumerate all the advantages which are certain to accrue in the near future from federation. I rejoice that the closing stage of my public life has been associated with a movement which, as far as in me lay, 1 have earnestly striven to help forward. It has had from Lady Brassey and myself the heartiest good wishes. Unless it had been so, I should

have been no fitting representative of the Queen and her people in the United Kingdom. All your hopes for the future are fully shared in your old mother land; and, as in the coming years you become, in an increasing degree, a powerful and prosperous state, the possession of a happy and contented people, supreme in these southern seas, there will be no envious feelings. Your greatness will reflect glory on the home of your fathers. There, as here, it will be said, now and always, and from a full heart, ‘ Advance Australia.’ ”

NOTICE.

Prizes offered to Pupils in the State Schools of Victoria by Dr. Gresswell, Chairman of the Board of Public Health.

Dr. Gresswell offers for competition six prizes for essays on the following subjects (a ■first and a second prize for each subject) :—(1) What do you know of Typhoid Fever, and how would you prevent and how would you avoid it ?    (2) What do you know of

Tuberculosis, and how would you prevent and how would you avoid it? (3) What do you know of Hydatid Disease, and how would you prevent and how would you avoid it ? The conditions to be observed are as follow :—

1.    The competition is limited to pupils who are 14 years of age or over on the dates fixed for receipt of essays, or to those who have a Certificate of Merit. In both cases, the competitors must have attended the statutory number of days for the three quarters ¡prior to the date for the receipt of essays.

2.    Competitors must write in a clear, legible hand, and on only one side of the paper.

3.    Competitors may go to any source for information, but must be prepared to give

assurance that the composition of their essays is their own. All quotations must be enclosed in inverted commas.

4.    Competitors may write their essays where or when they please, except at school

during school hours. The length of the essays should not exceed the amount of matter contained in three full pages (prose in large type) of The School Paper —Glasses V. and VI.

5.    No essay will be accepted unless sent in through the head teacher of the school

in which the competitor is a pupil.

■6. The essay on Typhoid Fever must be in the hands of the head teacher of the school on or before the 20th November, 1899 ; that on Tuberculosis on or before the 20th December, 1899 ; and that on Hydatid Disease on or before the 20th February, 1900.

The prizes will be books or articles of the value of two guineas in the case of the "first prizes, and of one guinea in the case of the second prizes.

Head teachers are requested to announce this in their respective schools, to give any information as to the conditions to be observed by the competitors, to forward the essays received at once to the Secretary for Education, certifying on the cover of each •essay that the competitor has complied with all the conditions specified above.

Head teachers will be supplied with circulars of information on Tuberculosis, Hydatids, and Typhoid Fever, issued by the Board of Public Health, on making application for them to Dr. Gresswell, Chairman of the Board of Public Health, Railway Buildings, Spencer-street, Melbourne. The number of circulars required must be stated in the application. Applications already received will be duly attended to.

Dr. Gresswell’s generous and laudable offer meets with the cordial approval of the Honourable the Minister of Public Instruction, who specially desires that all teachers will endeavour in every possible way to make the competition a success.

The following correspondents, R. I. Zelius, W. J. Barbour, M. Chin, W. Hoatson, A. M. Savige, C. Winckle, M. West, E. Grose, W. H. Davis, J. D. G. Roxburgh, N. Wilson, W. Wilkin, C. Corrv, Miss Thom, Mrs. Reid, R. Adams, J. Pagan, A. Jones, S. Wilkinson, A. C. D. Rivett, M. S. McKinnon, A. C. Thomson, J. Campbell, M. E. Whiteside, C. H. Goddard, Mrs. Crossman, L. Thomas, R. Lilley, J. E. Ford, are informed, at Dr. Gresswell’s request, that they will find answers to their questions ¡in the announcement made above.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

to SoHDDit Paper.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 13.] MELBOURNE.    [Octobee, 1899.

THE EVENING CLOUD.

(A SONNET.)

Ra-di-ance, brilliancy; splendour.    | DesTi-ny, lot; predetermined state.

A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun,

A gleam of crimson tinged its braided snow;

Long had I watched the glory moving on O’er the still radiance of the lake below ;

Tranquil its spirit seemed, and floated slow ;

Even in its very motion there was rest:

While every breath of eve that chanced to blow Wafted the traveller to the beauteous West.

Emblem, methought, of the departed soul,

To whose white robe the gleam of bliss is given;

And by the breath of mercy made to roll

Right onwards to the golden gates of Heaven,

Where, to the eye of faith, it peaceful lies,

And tells to man his glorious destinies.

—John Wilson (1789-1854), better known by his nom deplume (pen name) “Christopher North.”

OVERBOARD.

Till£er, lever fitted to a rudder-head, and used for turning the rudder from side to side in steering.

Ve-he-ment-ly, in a violent manner.

Gun-wale (commonly pronounced gun'-neT), the

upper edge of a boat’s side. 2

Din-gey or din-gy (“g” hard as in get), small

boat.

Hal-yards or hal-li-ards, ropes or tackle for hoisting or lowering yards, sails, flags, &e.

Gael ic (gnl'-ic, the “a” as in arm), the language of the Gael, especially of the Highlanders of Scotland.

“ Anywhere—right out! ” he answered carelessly.

2.    But it was all very well to say “ right out! ” when there was a

stiff breeze blowing right in. Scarcely had the boat put her nose beyond the pier—and while as yet there was but little way on her,— when a big sea caught her, springing high over her bows and coming rattling down on her with a noise as of pistol-shots. The chief victim of this deluge was the luckless Johnny Wiekes, who tumbled down into the bottom of the boat, vehemently blowing the salt water out of his mouth, and rubbing his knuckles into his eyes. Macleod burst out laughing.    '

3.    “ What’s the good of you as a look-out ? ” he cried. “ Didn’t you see the water coming ? ”

“Yes, sir,” said Johnny, ruefully laughing too. But he would not be beaten. He scrambled up again to his post, and clung there, despite the fierce wind and the clouds of spray.

“ Keep her close up, sir,” said the man who had the sheet of the huge lug-sail in both his hands, as he cast a glance out at the darkening sea.

4.    But this great boat, rude and rough and dirty as she appeared, was a splendid specimen of her class ; and they know how to build such boats up about that part of the world. No matter with how staggering a plunge she went down into the yawning green gulf—the white foam hissing away from her sides,—before the next wave, high, awful, threatening, had come down on her with a crash as of mountains falling, she had glided buoyantly upwards ; and the heavy blow only made her bows spring the higher, as though she would shake herself free, like a bird, from the wet.

5.    But it was a wild day to be out. So heavy and black was the sky in the west that the surface of the sea, out to the horizon, seemed to be a moving mass of white foam witn only streaks of green and purple in it. The various islands changed every minute as the wild clouds whirled past. Already the great cliffs about Dare had grown distant and faint as seen through the spray; and here were the rocks of Colonsay,2 black as jet as they reappeared through the successive deluges of white foam ; and, far over there, a still gloomier mass against the gloomy sky told where the huge Atlantic breakers were rolling in their awful thunder into the Staffa2 caves.

“ I would keep off a bit, sir,” said the sailor next Macleod. He did not like the look of the heavy breakers that were crashing on to the Colonsay rocks.

6.    And so they went plunging and staggering and bounding onwards, with the roar of the water all around them, and the foam at her bows, as it sprang high into the air, showing quite white against the black sky ahead. The younger lad, Duncan, was clearly of opinion that his master was running too near the shores of Colonsay ; but he would say no more, for he knew that Macleod had a better knowledge of the currents and rocks of this wild coast than any man on the mainland of Mull. John Cameron, forward, kept his head down to the gunwale, his eyes looking far over that howling waste of sea ; Duncan, his younger brother, had his gaze fixed mostly on the brown breadth of the sail, hammered at by the gusts of wind ; while, as for the boy at the bow, that enterprising youth had got a rope’s end, and was endeavouring to strike at the crest of each huge wave as it came ploughing along in its resistless strength.

7.    But, at one moment, the boat gave a heavier lurch than usual, and the succeeding wave struck her badly. In the great rush of water that then ran by her side, Macleod’s startled eye seemed to catch a glimpse of something red—something blazing and burning red in the waste of green, and almost the same glance showed him that there was no boy at the bow! Instantly, with just one cry to arrest the attention of the men, he had slipped over the side of the boat, just as an otter slips off a rock. The two men were bewildered but for a second. One sprang to the halyards, and down came the great lug-sail ; the other got out one of the long oars, and the mighty blade of it fell into the bulk of the next wave as if he would with one sweep tear her head round. Like two madmen the men pulled; and the wind was with them, and the tide also ; but, nevertheless, when they caught sight—just for a moment—of some object behind them, that was a terrible way away. Yet there was no time, they thought, or seemed to think, to hoist the sail again ; and the small dingey attached to the boat would have been swamped in a second; and so there was nothing for it but the deadly struggle with those immense blades against the heavy resisting mass of the boat. John Cameron looked round again; then, with an exclamation of impatience, he pulled his oar across the boat.

8.    “Up with the sail, lad ! ” he shouted ; and again he sprang to the halyards.

The seconds, few as they were, that were necessary to this operation, seemed ages ; but, no sooner had the wind got a purchase on the breadth of the sail, than the boat flew through the water, for she was now running free.

“ He has got him ! I can see the two ! ” shouted the elder Cameron.

And as for the younger ? At this mad speed the boat would be close to Macleod in another second or two ; but, in that brief space of time, the younger Cameron had flung his clothes off, and stood there stark naked in the cutting March wind.

9.    “This is foolishness!” his brother cried in the Gaelic. “You will have to take an oar ! ”

“ 1 will not take an oar ! ” the other cried, with both hands ready to let go the halyards. “ And, if it is foolishness, this is the foolishness of it ; I will not let you or any man say that Sir Keith Macleod was in the water and Duncan Cameron went home with a dry skin.”

10.    And Duncan Cameron was as good as his word ; for, as the boat went plunging forward to the neighbourhood in which they occasionally saw the head of Macleod appear on the side of a wave and then disappear again as soon as the wave broke, and, as soon as the lug-sail had been rattled down, he sprang clear from the side of the boat.

11.    For a second or two, John Cameron, left by himself in the boat, could not see any one of the three ; but, at last, he saw the black head of his brother, and then some few yards beyond, just as a wave happened to roll by, he saw his master and the boy. The boat had almost enough way on her to carry her the length ; he had but to pull at the huge oar to bring her head round a bit. And he pulled, madly and blindly, until he was startled by a cry close by. He sprang to the side of the boat. There was his brother drifting by, holding the boy with one arm. John Cameron rushed to the side to fling a rope ; but Duncan Cameron had been drifting by with a purpose ; for, as soon as he got clear of the bigger boat, he struck for the dingey, and got hold of that, and was safe. And here was the master, too, clinging to the side of the dingey so as to recover his breath ; but not attempting to board the cockle-shell in these plunging waters. •

12.    There were tears running down John Cameron’s rugged face as he drew the three up and over the side of the big boat.

From Macleod of Dare, a novel by William Black.

1.    Colonsay, island, south-west of Scotland, one of the Inner Hebrides.

2.    Staffa, small island, west of Scotland, one of the Inner Hebrides. It is noted for Fingal’s Cave, which is two hundred feet long, seventy feet high, and forty feet wide. The sea forms the floor, and broken columns the roof.

THE GOLD PALACE OF OUT-OF-DOORS.

Mi-das, mythical king of ancient Phrygia in Asia Minor, who, having been granted his wish by Bacchus, wished that whatever he touched might turn to gold.


Sym-pho-ny, consonance or harmony of sound. In -cense, perfume exhaled from spices and gums when burned in celebrating religious rites. In-fin-ite, unlimited ; boundless.


On the finest street of the city, Midas has built his home,

Stone from substantial foundation to the rounded breast of the dome ; Old masters1 within glow softly (at a price they were bought and sold), And the flash of glass and gleam of plate are signs of wealth untold : But I know a palace that’s fairer,

God’s Out-of-door Palace of Gold.

You may heap up uncounted millions and get all that money can buy,

But you can’t take the blue from the mountains or the stars from the velvet sky; The glory of early summer, the breath of the flowers unfold All the riches of nature for the heart that can love and hold—

Crowned with the wealth God giveth In His Out-of-door Palace of Gold.

Such paintings our eyes may feast on no master may overpass ;

Such shine on the field and river, such glint in the green of the grass;

Such tints when God strings the rainbow after the storm has rolled,

Or sunset dies over water with mountains for background bold;—

It’s only a step up to Heaven From the Out-of-door Palace of Gold.

Divine is the soul of music when harmonies rise and die

Up at the stars, with the upturned soul winging them company ;

And the music is sweetest and vastest when spring breaks the hush of the cold With one superb symphony, in the new year come for the old—

A world flinging its rapture of singing Through the Out-of-door Palace of Gold.

Give me an eye to see and a heart that can understand ;    ,

Catch such contentment and peace as a man may on every hand ;

Read nature's riddle aright, and make the most of this old Dear earth mother, till she holds me enthralled and controlled,

And, saved by my love, I am worthy to live In her Out-of-door Palace of Gold.

Then, Lord, when Thine angel shall tell me ’tis time for my sun to set,

Let me go through the night with Thy stars for light, and wind and violet For music and incense ; who knows but the morn shall hold A day of more radiant beauty than the dreams of the earth ever told—

All the glad forever of living In God’s Infinite Palace of Gold.

—J. H. La Rochs, in Outing, reprinted from The Practical Teacher.

1. Old masters, old paintings. The old masters were distinguished painters, especially those of the 16th and 17th centuries.

RECORDING THE RAINFALL.

Ofo-serv£a-tO-ry, building fitted with instruments for making observations of natural phenomena, such as the motions of the heavenly bodies, variations in barometric pressure, earthquake shocks, &c.


Gauge (gdj), measure ; any instrument or apparatus for ascertaining the numerical elements of a phenomenon.

De-vised! contrived ; invented.

Ac-cu-rate-ly, exactly ; without error.


1.    Rain falling on the earth rapidly disappears either by soaking into the ground, or by running along the slopes into a neighbouring stream, or by evaporation.

If we wish to ascertain the exact amount of rain that falls upon a certain space, we must have means which will prevent the escape of the rain by any and all of these ways, and the facility to measure it when caught. One of the instruments devised for this purpose is called a rain-gauge.

2.    When rain falls in Victoria, the amount, ascertained for each twenty-four hours, by means of rain-gauges, is recorded at 90 stations, and sent daily to the Melbourne Observatory. There are in addition 510 monthly recording stations, chiefly post and telegraph offices.

The gauge is a simple contrivance, and may be easily made. It consists of a funnel called a conductor, and of a clear glass bottle called a receiver.

3. Nine a.m. is the hour for looking at the rain-gauge and for taking measurements. Then the conductor is removed, and. the /mu. . .    ,    ,

#i?    .,    .    , .    7    .. (This is drawn to a scale not

contents, it any, o± the receiver poured into a glass nearly so much reduced measure, which holds 50 ' 'points, half an inch giuge.1)6 case °f the ram"


Diagram of Rain-gauge.


■klN CH


poms

_JO


-4-0


-30


-20


to


ik


Glass Measure Holding Half an Inch of Rain.


(written thus, -50). It takes 100 points (written thus, POO) to make

an inch.

4. By means of the large receiver alone it would be very difficult to measure rainfall amounting to, say, yq (jth of an inch. A glass measure of much smaller diameter is, therefore, used. Say, for example, the rain-gauge has a diameter of 10 inches, and the glass measure a diameter of 1 inch, a rainfall of rJ-0-th of an inch, when poured into the latter, will rise to an inch, and thus can be accurately noted. The conductor of the gauge at the Observatory, Melbourne, is 8 ins. in diameter ; the glass measure 2£ ins.

Rain-gaugb at Observatory Grounds, Melbourne. 5< jn the directions issued to

observers by the Government Astronomer, it is notified that the gauge should be placed on the ground with the mouth not more than 2 feet

EMPTYING THE CONTENTS OF THE RECEIVER INTO THE MEASURE.


above the surface, firmly secured, and the conductor perfectly level. It should be away from trees, buildings, and all objects likely to cut off rain, either when falling down straight, or when drifting with a strong wind. Care should be taken that no drippings from trees or fences reach the gauge, and that the conductor does not become choked with leaves or insects.

6. The highest yearly rainfall record at Melbourne was 44-25 ins., in 1849, and the lowest 15*61 ins., in 1898. The highest yearly average for a period of seven years, recorded in Victoria, was 72-20 ins., at Ditchly-park, Beech Forest (Cape Otway District). The lowest yearly average for a period of six years, 11*04 ins., at Yelta, Mallee District.

—Compiled from The Australasian (in which the illustrations appeared) and Cowham’s Graphic Lessons in Physical and Astronomical Geography.

THE SOUTH SEAS.

No. 1.—NEW CALEDONIA.

De-pend-en-cy, territory or district subject to a kingdom or state.

Con-tour, outline of a surface or figure. Es-ca-peesl French convicts escaped from New Caledonia. 3

For-ward (pronounced in this connexion for-ard), fore part of a ship.

As-sid^U-OUS, diligent ; unwearied.

De-tour; circuitous route.

Ex-O-dus, a going out or away.

from the decaying vegetable matter after a day or so in the Tropics may well be imagined. As some compensation, however, for any lack of comfort, the officers, one and all, were assiduous in their efforts to make the trip as pleasurable as possible for the passengers.

7. The Birksgate started from Port Jackson at 11 o'clock on a dark and foggy night, and after four and a half days arrived at Noumea, the capital of New Caledonia.

The main barrier coral reef which encircles the island is for the most part at some distance from the mainland. The entrance through this reef at Noumea is about 13 miles from the town itself.

Cathedral


Water-works.

NOUMEA, NEV

The inner harbour of Noumea is a land-locked bay, well sheltered by surrounding picturesque hills and rocky islets, and is admirably adapted for a naval station.

8. Noumea itself is beautifully laid out with wide, well-drained streets—most of them lined with shady trees. Public gardens have been formed in the middle of the town, and in these gardens is a square, dotted here and there with cocoa-nut palms, and bounded by flamboyer-trees. The flamboyer-tree is a species of acacia, and grows to a height of from 12 to 15 feet. It commences to flower in December, and, when in fall bloom, presents a perfect blaze of scarlet glory.

9.    In the square, aptly called Cocoanut Square, is a pavilion, where a hand of convict musicians plays three times a week. This band is said to be the finest in the Southern Hemisphere. Whether it is so or not I had no opportunity of judging, as, owing to the continuous downpour of rain during my stay, there was no performance by the band. For this rain the colonists were indeed thankful, as a drought had prevailed for some time ; but the Birksgate visitors had quite the reverse feeling, as it interfered with their sight-seeing.

10.    The public buildings are situated on rising ground to the rear of the town. These have been principally built by convict labour.

lie Nou.

Place des Cocotiers (Cocoa-nut Square).    Business part of town.    Gardens.

J.EDONIA.

The most prominent of these buildings is the Cathedral, an imposing structure both internally and externally, standing out as a good landmark to mariners entering the harbour.

11. In going through the town, one could not help commenting on the numerous cafés to be found everywhere. Almost every third building appeared to be a saloon, and men of all ranks and dress could be seen in the open under the broad verandahs sipping their wine leisurely, while inside in not a few of these places singing and dancing were being indulged in, before more or less appreciative audiences. It occurred to me that a vigorous local option1 campaign would not be amiss in the town of Noumea.

12.    The population of Noumea is about 5,000. Like that of Suva, the capital of Fiji, it is of every variety and colour, and includes, besides the natives and other South Sea Islanders, Europeans, Tonqninese, Japs, and Chinese. The prevailing language is, of course, French; but most of the townsfolk speak English fluently, and British coins are easily interchangeable.

13.    The natives of New Caledonia are sharing the same fate as most of the other South Sea Islanders, and before long will probably become extinct. It is difficult to estimate their number, but it is supposed to be somewhere between twenty and thirty thousand. They are a mixture of the Papuan and the Polynesian; and, although superior to the Australian aboriginal, are not so fine a race as the Fijian.

14.    The natural conformation of New Caledonia is mountainous, and the mountains abound in minerals—notably ores of chrome, nickel,

NEW CALEDONIAN NATIVES IN GALA DRESS.

cobalt, and copper. Free sulphur and gold reefs also exist, but the mining industry is not carried on to the same advantage as in the Australasian colonies. There is neither the freedom nor the enterprise.

15. Until recently New Caledonia was used by the French as a penal settlement. The first convicts were habitual criminals ; but, after the Commune of Paris2 in 1871, numbers of political prisoners were also transported to the island. The worst of the criminal class are confined on He (eel) Nou, at the entrance to the harbour. Foreigners are not permitted now to visit this island owing, it is said, to exaggerated reports having been made public as to alleged barbarities practised there on the wretched prisoners The number of convicts is estimated to be between six and seven thousand, the majority of these being libérés,3 men who have served their sentence, but are not permitted to leave the island. I saw many of these libérés at work on the wharves, and was not prepossessed either with their appearance or their industry. From time to time, some of these convicts have escaped, and have safely reached the coasts of Queensland and New South Wales, but they have never been regarded as a welcome addition to the population of Australasia.

16.    To look after this convict element and to act also as a line of defence, there is a strong garrison of French soldiery in New Caledonia. It consists of a regiment or so of infantry, one of artillery, and several hundred mounted military police. The officers belonging to these troops keep up the French style of living, and do not fraternise with the ordinary business people of the town. The wives and families of these officers and of the civic officials lead a life of privacy and social restriction. The difference between their mode of life and that of Australian women was well exemplified a short time ago, on the arrival of a steamer with a large number of tourists on board. Amongst these tourists were several girls who, in parties of two, three, and four, without male escorts, simply overran the place on their bicycles. They astonished the French matrons, and made their daughters sigh in vain for similar liberty of action.

17.    After “ doing the sights ” of Noumea and its immediate surround

ings, we proceeded on the voyage to Fiji. In order to save a considerable detour, the captain took the steamer through theWoodin Passage, whence we had a magnificent view of the adjacent highlands. Four or five hours brought us to the Havanna Pass, and thence from the unruffled sea within the reefs into the trough of the troubled deep, when the usual exodus from the deck of those who invariably “ seek the seclusion that a cabin grants,” took place.    _^ q Eddy

1.    Local option, the right or obligation of determining by popular vote within certain districts, as in each county, city, or town, whether the sale of alcoholic beverages within the district shall be allowed.

2.    The Commune Of Paris or The Commune, the revolutionary government which the communists, so called, attempted to establish in 1871. It occurred soon after the evacuation of Paris by the German army, and was of the nature of a civil war. Many public buildings were wrecked, and wholesale robbery took place. Communism, a scheme which contemplates the abolition of inequalities in the possession of property, as by distributing all wealth equally to all, or by holding all wealth in common for the equal use and advantage of all ; extreme socialism.

/ / .

3.    Libérés (leeway-rays'), persons who have been convicted of crime and imprisoned, but, at the expiration of their sentences, have been permitted to go at large and to labour for themselves, subject to certain conditions, such as good behaviour, and presence at a periodical roll-call.

“WITH BRAINS, SIR.”

1. “Pray, Mr. Opie,1 may I ask said a brisk amateur student to the great painter, sir,” was the gruff reply—and the right one.


Am-a-teur (dm-a-ter' or am'-a-ture'), person who studies an art for pleasure.

Art-ist, person skilled in some one of the fine arts -poetry, music, painting, engraving, sculpture, and architecture.

Me-chan-i-cal, done as if by a machine, or by habit.


Ex-pound-er, person who explains. Ais-thet-ics, theory or science of the beautiful in art; the principle of taste (from a Greek word meaning “ I feel ”).

Me^di-ate, not direct.

what yon mix yonr colours with ? ” “With brains,


Many other artists, when asked such a question, would have either set about detailing the mechanical composition of such and such colours, in such and such proportions, compounded so and so ; or perhaps they would have shown him how they laid them on : but even this would have left him at the critical point. Opie preferred going to the quick and the heart of the matter : “ With brains, sir.”

2.    Sir Joshua Reynolds2 was taken by a friend to see a picture. He

was anxious to admire it, and he looked over it with a keen and careful but favourable eye. “ Capital composition; correct drawing; the colour and tone excellent: but—but—it wants—it wants—That!” snapping his fingers; and, wanting “ that,” though it had everything else, it was worth nothing.    *

3.    Again: Etty,3 who was appointed teacher of the students of the Royal Academy,4 had been preceded by a clever, talkative, scientific expounder of aesthetics, who had delighted to tell the young men how everything was done—how to copy this, and how to express that.

A student went up to the new master: “ How should I do this, sir ? ” “Suppose you try.”—Another: “What does this mean, Mr. Etty?” “ Suppose you look.” “ But I have looked.” “ Suppose you look again.”

4.    And they did try, and they did look, and look again ; and they saw and achieved what they never could have done, had the “ how ” or the “ what ” been told them, or done for them. In the one case, sight and action were immediate, exact, intense, and secure ; in the other, mediate, feeble, and lost as soon as gained.

5.    Encourage, therefore, in the learner not merely book knowledge, but the personal pursuit of natural history, of field botany, of geology, of zoology. Give the young, fresh, unforgetting eye exercise and free scope upon the infinite diversity and combination of natural colours, forms, substances, surfaces, weights, and sizes. Give young students everything, in a word, that will educate their eye and ear, their touch, taste, and smell, their sense of muscular resistance.5 Encourage them to make models, preparations, and collections of natural objects. Above all, try to get hold of their affections, and make them put their hearts into their work.

—From Horce Subsecivce (“leisure hours”), by J. Brown, M.D. (1810-82).

1.    Mr. Opie (d-'pe), eminent English painter. From a humble position he rose to be Professor of

Painting in the Royal Academy, London.

2.    Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-92), an English portrait painter of renown. He was the first President of the Royal Academy.

3.    Etty. distinguished English artist.

4.    Royal Academy, famous School of Art in London.

5.    Sense Of muscular resistance, muscular sensibility ; the sense by which we obtain knowledge of the condition of our muscles and to what extent they are contracted, also of the position of the various parts of our bodies, and of the resistance offered by external conditions.

■Tennyson.


Tho’ world on world in myriads roll Round us, each with different powers, And other forms of life than ours, What know we greater than the soul?

THE SKYLARK.1

Blithe, joyous.

A-e^ri-al, partaking of the nature of air ; airy ; bluish.

Ver-nal, of or pertaining to the Spring.

Hail to thee, blithe spirit!

Bird thou never wert,

That from Heaven, or near it, Pourest thy full heartIn profuse strains of unpremeditated art.

Higher still, and higher

From the earth thou springest, Like a cloud of fire ;3

The blue deep thou wingest,

And singing, still4 dost soar, and soaring ever singest.

In the golden lightning Of the sunken sun,

O’er which clouds are brightening, Thou dost float and run,

Like an unbodied joy,5 whose race is just begun.

The pale purple even Melts around thy flight;

Like a star of Heaven,

In the broad daylight Thou art unseen, but yet I hear thy shrill delight.

What thou art, we know not;

What is most like thee ?

From rainbow clouds there flow not Drops so bright to see,

As from thy presence showers a rain of melody.

Like a poet hidden

In the light of thought,

Singing hymns6 unbidden,

Till the world is wrought To sympathy with hopes and fears it heeded not.

Like a high-born maiden In a palace tower,

Soothing her love-laden Soul in secret hour

With music sweet as love, which overflows her bower.


Sprite, spirit.

Hy-me-ne-al, of or pertaining to marriage.

Vaunt, boast.

Fraught, charged; filled.

Like a glow-worm golden In a dell of dew,

Scattering unbeholden Its aerial hue

Among the flowers and grass, which screen it from the view.

Sound of vernal showers On the twinkling grass,

Rain-awakened flowers,

All that ever was

Joyous, and clear, and fresh, thy music doth surpass.

Teach me, sprite or bird,

What sweet thoughts are thine,

I have never heard Praise of love or wine

That panted forth a flood of rapture so divine.

Chorus hymeneal,

Or triumphal chant,

Matched with thine would be all But an empty vaunt—

A thing wherein we feel there is some hidden want.

We look before and after,

And pine for what is not;

Our sincerest laughter

With some pain is fraught;

Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought.

Yet if we could scorn

Hate, and pride, and fear ;

If we were things born Not to shed a tear,

I know not how thy joy we ever could come near.

Better than all measures7 Of delightful sound,

Bet ter than all treasures That in books are found,

Thy skill to poet were, thou scorner of the ground 1


Teach me half the gladness That thy brain must know,

Such harmonious madness8 From my lips would flow,

The world should listen then, as I am listening now.

—Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822).

1. The Skylark. For information concerning the bird, see p. 77, The School Paper—Class IV for this month.

2.    Pourest thy full heart, pourest out the feelings that fill thy heart.

3.    Like a cloud Of fire, the image does not apply to the skylark’s actual appearance, but to its continuous motion in upward circles, like the wi.'irl upward of flames burning in the open air, when large masses of flame seem to break away from the fire, and ascend in a cloud which disappears as it rises.

4.    Still, continually.

5.    An unbodied joy, a delighted spirit; a soul happy in freedom from earthly burdens, whose

heavenly existence (“ race ”) has just begun.

6.    Hymns, songs of praise (its original sense).

7.    Measures, expression of thought measured in musical beats.

8.    Harmonious madness, poetic rapture that takes shape in harmonious verse. Plato said that no one could be a great poet “ without some mixture of madness.”

N.B.—These notes have been adapted from Chosen English, by Adele Ellis, B.A.

GLEANINGS.

The Tour of the Australian Eleven of 1899.

1.    Early in September, the Australian Eleven brought its tour in England to an end with a brilliant victory over a strong team representing the South of England. Of the 35 matches played, the Australians were defeated in three only, and thus gained the distinction of losing fewer games than any other Australian Eleven that has visited England. The time allowed for each match was three days, and, for lack of time, unfortunately, no fewer than 16 matches were drawn. If they had been played out, it is certain that many of them would have resulted in victory for the Australians.

2.    Of the batsmen, the South Australian Darling (who was captain of the team) stands first, with an average of 41 runs for 56 innings.

Of the bowlers, the Victorian Trumble has the best record. He took 141 wickets at a cost of 18 runs a wicket.

3.    Critics in the English newspapers pronounce the tour to have been an unqualified success in every way,—batting, bowling, and fielding ; and some of them say that no better team has visited England since 1882. The main characteristic of the players is held to have been their great determination, which enabled them to save, and sometimes win, matches in which they were faced with an uphill fight. Their consistency was a fine point in the play ; and the Eleven was fortunate in possessing an all-round excellence.

A Noted Newfoundland Dog.

A noted Newfoundland dog named Sultan lately died in France. It is recorded of him that, on two occasions, he sprang upon men who were about to break into his master’s house, and prevented them from doing so, that he saved a child from drowning, and that he was the means of hindering a man from killing himself. Quite recently, he prevented a castle from being robbed, and was poisoned, it is supposed, by those who attempted the robbery. For years, he wore a collar presented to him by the Society for the Protection of Animals.

Volcanic Action.

Since the beginning of this century, no less than 52 islands have risen out of the sea owing to volcanic action. Nineteen have disappeared, but ten are now inhabited.

1899.]    CLASSES Y. AND VI.


CRYSTAL PALACE GROUND, SYDENHAM, LONDON: W. G. GRACE BATTING, TRUMBLE BOWLING

(Photograph kindly lent by the proprietors of The Australasian.)

CO


MILTON’S SONNET, “ ON HIS BLINDNESS.”

Among the answers to correspondents in The Australasian of the 22nd of July appeared the following valuable explanatory notes in connexion with an allusion likely to be misunderstood in the first few lines of Milton’s sonnet, “On his Blindness.” (The sonnet was printed on the first page of the June number of The School Papei—Glasses V. and VI.):—“Milton compares himself to the servant who had received only one talent, and who ‘digged in the earth and hid his lord’s money.’ (St. Matthew, XXV.) The ‘one talent,’ in the case of Milton, was the gift of writing poetry. It was his early and settled conviction that poetry was his vocation. Throughout the Civil War he had been pamphleteer, not poet, having written, between 1640 and 1648, only nine sonnets and a few Latin pieces. Then, for the next ten years, he had been, as Latin secretary, in the employment of the Commonwealth, and had written no poetry, with the exception of eight sonnets and a few Latin scraps. It was in 1652 that he became totally blind. About half of his working life was then over, the date at which he took his M.A. degree at Cambridge being 1632, and the date of his death 1674. The words ‘ which is death to hide ’ become, in ordinary prose arrangement, ‘ to hide which is death,’ and they obviously mean that the leaving of one’s true powers unemployed is equivalent to mental and spiritual death. ‘ Though my soul more bent ’ is not a phras£ but a sentence, ‘though my soul (is) more bent,’ that is, determined, ‘therewith,’ (with my poetical gift) ‘ to serve my Maker.’ The ‘ bent ’ or determination became action after the Restoration, the composition of ‘ Paradise Lost ’ being completed in 1665.”

It may also be added that the principal clause (or sentence) in the first eight lines is “I fondly ask”; that “when I consider” is an adverbial clause (or subordinate sentence) depending upon it; that “ that” in line 3 is an adjective ; and that “ how ” is understood before it, the clause ‘ ‘ that one talent .    .    . useless ” being in copulative

coordination with “ how my light is spent.”

WHY 1900 WILL NOT BE A LEAP-YEAR,

The year is 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes long ; 11 minutes are taken every year to make the year 365£ days long; and every fourth year we have an extra day. This was Julius Caesar’s arrangement. Where do these 11 minutes come from ? They come from the future, and are paid by omitting a leap-year every hundred years. But, if a leap-year is omitted regularly every hundredth year, in the course of 400 years it is found that the 11 minutes taken each year will not only have been paid back, but that a whole day will have been taken up. So Pope Gregory XIII., who improved Csesar’s calendar in 1582, decreed that every centurial year divisible by 80 should be a leap-year after all. So we borrow 11 minutes each year, more than paying our borrowings back by omitting three leap-years in three centurial years, and square matters by having a leap-year in the fourth centurial year. Pope Gregory’s arrangement is so exact, and the borrowing and paying back balance so nicely, that we borrow more than we pay back to the extent of only one day in 3,866 years.

NOTICE.

1.    In the Geographical List issued some months ago, Delagoa Bay is placed under the heading “ British Africa.” This is a mistake : it is south-east of Portuguese East Africa, not far north of the boundary of Zululand. At the time that the list was being compiled, the report was current that the territory in the neighbourhood of Delagoa Bay had been bought by the British Government. This ultimately proved not to be the case, and Delagoa Bay still remains in the hands of Portugal.

2.    Under the heading “United States—Peninsulas” occurs California. This is a mistake : Lower California, the name of the peninsula, is a part of Mexico. California is one of the states of the United States of America.

In connexion with the “Penny Day in State Schools,” 1898, in aid of the Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, the holding of which was suggested by the Board of Advice, Hawthorn, the Hospital authorities, in appreciation of their services, have made all the members of the Board life-governors.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 14.] MELBOURNE. [November, 1899.

TIME.

Wane, decrease. (Old English, wanian.)

Wax, increase. (Old English, weaxan.)

“Before my breath, like blazing flax, Man and his marvels pass away; And changing empires wane and wax, Are founded, flourish, and decay.

“Redeem mine hours—the space is brief, While in my glass the sand-grains shiver,

And measureless thy joy or grief, When Time and thou shall part for ever ! ”


Carle, man ; fellow. (Old English, carl.) Al-ter^nate, succeeding by turns. (Adjectival form used adverbially.)

“ Why sitt’st thou by that ruin’d hall, Thou aged carle so stern and gray?

Dost thou its former pride recall,

Or ponder how it passed away ? ”

“Know’st thou not me?” the Deep Voice cried,

“ So long enjoy’d, so oft misused— Alternate, in thy fickle pride,

Desired, neglected, and accused ?


—From The Antiquary, a romance by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

SIR WALTER RALEIGH’S FIRST MEETING WITH QUEEN ELIZABETH.

RaiRler-y, banter ; good-natured chaffing. Dud-geon, anger; temper.

Dun, person who comes to press for payment of a debt.

Con-temp-tu-ous-ly, with scorn or disdain.

Mit-i ga-ted, lessened; eased.

Vi-vac-i-ty, liveliness.

Com-pli-ment, words of respect and praise. Car-tel {car-Ul or car-tSl'), letter of defiance or challenge.

“ I refused him admittance as flatly, Blount, as you would refuse a penny to a blind beggar ; as obstinately, Tracy, as thou didst ever deny

access to a dun.”

“ Why didst thou trust him to go to the gate ? ” said Blount to Tracy.

“ It suited his years better than mine,” answered Tracy; “ but he has undone us all now thoroughly. My lord may live or die, he will never have a look of favour from her Majesty again.”

3.    “ Nor the means of making fortunes for his followers,” said the young gallant, smiling contemptuously;—“ there lies the sore point that will brook no handling.”

“ And who is to take the blame of opposing the Queen’s orders?” said Tracy; “ for, undeniably, Doctor Masters came with her Grace’s positive commands to cure the Earl.”

“ I who have done the wrong will bear the blame,” said Walter.

4.    Morning was well advanced, when Tressilian came down to the hall with the joyful intelligence that the Earl had awakened of himself, that he found his internal complaints much mitigated, and spoke with a cheerfulness, and looked round with a vivacity, which of themselves showed a material and favourable change had taken place.

5.    When the message of the Queen was communicated to the Earl of Sussex, he at first smiled at the repulse which the physician had received from his zealous young follower, but, instantly recollecting himself, he commanded Blount, his master of the horse, to take boat, and go down the river to the palace of Greenwich, taking young Walter and Tracy with him, and make a suitable compliment, expressing his grateful thanks to his sovereign, and mentioning the cause why he had not been enabled to profit by the assistance of the wise and learned Doctor Masters.

6.    “ A plague on it,” said Blount, as he descended the stairs, “ had he sent me with a cartel to Leicester, I think I should have done his errand indifferently well. But to go to our gracious sovereign, before whom all words must be lackered over either with gilding or with sugar, is such a confectionery matter5 as clean baffles my poor old English brain. Come with me, Tracy, and come you, too, Master Walter Wittypate, thou art the cause of our having all this ado. Let us see if thy neat brain, that frames so many flashy fire-works, can help out a plain fellow at need with some of thy shrewd devices.”

7.    They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the broad Thames, upon which the sun now shone forth in all its splendour.

“ There are two things scarce matched in the universe,” said Walter to Blount—“ the sun in heaven, and the Thames on the earth.”

8.    “ The one will light us to Greenwich well enough,” said Blount, “ and the other would take us there a little faster if it were ebb tide. It is no errand of my seeking, and I would excuse both the sun and the Thames the trouble of carrying me where I have no great mind to go, and where I expect but dog's wages for my trouble ;—and, by my honour,” he added, looking out from the head of the boat, “ it seems to me as if our message were a sort of labour in vain; for, see, the Queen’s barge lies at the stairs.”

(Tb be continued.)

—From Kenilworth, a romance, by Sir Waltek Scott.

1.    Earl’s health, the health of the Earl of Sussex, who was dangerously ill.

2.    Tracy, one of the Earl’s retainers.

3.    Greenwich {Orin-ij), town on the Thames, near London. Queen Elizabeth’s palace was at

Greenwich. The mansion of the Earl of Sussex, at Say’s Court, Deptford (<i&dAfurd), was a short distance higher up the river.    \

4.    Blount, master of the horse to the Earl of Sussex.

5.    Confectionery matter, subject requiring plausible or sweet words, or delicate handling. '

THE NAUTILUS.

Naut-i-lus, shellfish which was supposed to be furnished with a membrane that served as a sail. (Gr. nautilos, a sailor.)

Frag-ile (fr&j-il), easily broken; .delicate.


Por-ce-lain, fine, translucent kind of earthenware, made first in China and Japan, but now also in Europe and America.

Mem-bran-OUS, consisting of thin, skin-like

tissue.

1. The shell of the nautilus is extremely beautiful; but, beyond this, there is little truth in the pretty fables that used to be told about it. The story, very commonly accepted, was that the nautilus, on coming to the surface, raised two arms and spread them out as sails, at the same time applying six legs as paddles. And thus it floated over the surface of the calm waters. Whenever it was stopped in its course, or feared danger from above, it instantly furled its sails, caught in all its oars, turned its shell mouth downwards (like a boat keel upwards), and at once dropped to the bottom like a stone.

2. Another animal, called the argonaut (ar'-go-naught), that is, sailor in the Argo,”—a ship that went on a famous voyage of adventure, according to the old

P _| cAi_i    THE PAPER NAUTILUS.

IjjTCG £ tl 9 c "    1, Swimming’ towards the point a; 2, Walking; 3, Contracted within

shell Very similar to    the shell, which is partly embraced by the arms.

the shell of the true nautilus. Thus it has frequently been confounded with the nautilus, and, indeed, is very generally known as the paper nautilus—its shell being as thin as paper, and exceedingly fragile ; although, while the animal is living, it is elastic and yielding. Besides, two of its arms are much expanded at their extremities; they are not held up for sails, however, but are stretched back over the shell, clasping it tightly, and covering the larger portion of it. In fact, it is these arms that build up the shell, repair it when injured, and mould the substance of it into shape. The argonaut has a curious way of very different from that ascribed to the It gathers its six arms in front of its mouth, like a long beak, so as not to resist the water very much. Then it passes the water which it breathes over its gills, into a pretty long tube, the mouth of which is directed towards the head of the animal; and, by violently ejecting this water, it forces itself to move backwards.

swimming, nautilus.


3. There are four species of true nautilus. The best-known and most abundant species is the chambered or pearly nautilus. The shell is thicker than the argonaut’s, and very strong. Externally, it is like porcelain, white, and streaked with reddish chestnut. Internally, it is divided by partitions pearly nautilus. (The shell in section.) jn^0 numerous compartments or chambers. These do not exist from the first, but are added on, one after another, as the nautilus grows larger. The animal does not occupy all the chambers, but only the outermost one. Still they are all connected together by a central membranous tube, the use of which is not certainly known.

THE CHAMBERED NAUTILUS.

Si-ren, one of three fabled sea nymphs, said to frequent an island near the coast of Italy, and to sing with such sweetness that they lured mariners to destruction.

t-rised, showing a prismatic or rainbow-like play of colours.


Crypt, vault, wholly or partly underground.

(Here used in a figurative sense.)

Lus-trous, bright; shining.

Tri-ton, fabled sea demigod, and the trumpeter of Neptune. (He is often represented as having a trumpet made of a shell.)


This is the ship of pearl, which, poets feign,

Sails the unshadowed main,—

The venturous bark that flings On the sweet summer wind its purpled wings In gulfs enchanted, where the siren sings,

And coral reefs lie bare,

Where the cold sea-maids rise to sun their streaming hair.

Its webs of living gauze no more unfurl; Wrecked is the ship of pearl,

And every chambered cell Where its dim dreaming life was wont to dwell, As the frail tenant shaped his growing shell, Before thee lies revealed,—

Its irised ceiling rent, its sunless crypt unsealed !

Year after year beheld the silent toil That spread its lustrous coil ;

Still, as the spiral grew,

He left the past year’s dwelling for the new,

Stole with soft step its shining archway through,

Built up its idle door,

Stretched in his last-found home, and knew the old no more.

Thanks for the heavenly message brought by thee,

Child of the wandering sea,

Cast from her lap forlorn !

From thy dead lips a clearer note is born Than ever Triton blew from wreathed horn 1 While on mine ear it rings,

Through the deep caves of thought I hear a voice that sings :—•

Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul,

As the swift seasons roll !

Leave thy low-vaulted past !

Let each new temple, nobler than the last,

Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast,

Till thou at length art free,

Leaving thine outgrown shell by life’s unresting sea !

—From The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, by Oliver Wendell Holmes, an American writer.

CHARACTER OP AN EDUCATED GENTLEMAN.

Un-em-bar-rassed, not obstructed ; not confused.

In-i-ti-a-tive, introductory step or movement.

In-sin£U-ates, hints ; suggests by remote allusion.

PhiBo-SOph-ic-al, characterising a philosopher ; rational ; wise ; temperate. 4

Prin-ci-ples, general or fundamental truths. Ir-rep^a-ra-ble, not capable of being remedied. Des-ti-ny, fate; doom.

Con-tro-ver-sy, discussion ; debate.

Dis-cour-te-sy (dis-kur-te-sy, or dis-kdr-te-sy), rudeness of behaviour or language ; ill manners.

conversation, and never wearisome. He makes light of favonrs while he does them, and seems to be receiving when he is conferring. He never speaks of himself except when compelled, never defends himself by a mere retort ; he has no ears for slander or gossip, is scrupulous in imputing motives to those who interfere with him, and interprets everything for the best. He is never mean or little in his disputes, never takes unfair advantage, never mistakes personalities or sharp sayings for arguments, or insinuates evil which he dare not say out.

3.    From a long-sighted prudence, he observes the maxim of the ancient sage, that we should ever conduct ourselves towards our enemy as if he were one day to be our friend. He has too much good sense to be affronted at insult, he is too busy to remember injuries, and too indolent to bear malice. He is patient, forbearing, and resigned, on philosophical principles ; he submits to pain, because it is inevitable ; to bereavement, because it is irreparable ; and to death, because it is his destiny.

4.    If he engages in controversy of any kind, his disciplined intellect preserves him from the blundering discourtesy of better, though less educated, minds, who, like blunt weapons, tear and hack instead of cutting clean, who mistake the point in argument, waste their strength on trifles, misconceive their adversary, and leave the question more involved than they find it. He may be right or wrong in his opinion, but he is too clear-headed to be unjust; he is as simple as he is forcible, and as brief as he is decisive. Nowhere shall we find greater candour, consideration, indulgence : he throws himself into the minds of his opponents, he accounts for their mistakes. He knows the weakness of human reason as well as its strength, its province, and its limits.

—Dr. Newman (1805-97), an English theologian and author.

THE SOUTH SEAS.

No. 2.—SUVA.

Ju-di^cious-ly, with good judgment ; wisely.

Val-e-dic-to-ry, bidding farewell.

Vol-un-teered, offered without being asked to do so.

Sup-pie-ment, add to.

Con-stab-U-lary, collective body of policemen or constables in a country.

Ma-nœu-vres, military evolutions or movements. 5

Ap-ro-pos' (ap-ro-pd'), suitably to the time, place, or subject. (Fr. d, to; propos, purpose.) Sa-tir-iC-al-ly, in an ironical, jeering, or cutting manner.

Def-er-ence, regard; yielding of judgment to the wishes of another.

Com-mute' change a punishment to one of a

less degree of severity.

2.    On landing, I was warmly welcomed by Mr. Duncan, the Warden

FIJIAN NATIVE WITH LARGE BUNCH OF BANANAS.


of Suva and the Chairman of the School Board, who obtained comfortable quarters for me at the Fiji Club. I soon found that the brightness and cheeriness did not pertain alone to the physical aspect of the place; the white    -

residents generally, in expectation of a splendid harvest, gave the impression that their worldly condition was one of happiness and prosperity. There had been no hurricanes, and the season had been favourable for the growth of their tropical productions, such as the sugar cane, cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, and banana.

A distinct improvement was observable in the town, several new buildings having been erected, while the magnificen t trees and shrubs, which have been judiciously planted for several miles along the Beach Avenue, appeared to have made phenomenal growth since my last visit, and thus lent an additional charm to the landscape.

3.    Along this avenue were to be seen hundreds of the coloured population—Fijians, Samoans, Solomon Islanders, and Indians,—some arrayed in spotless white, others clad in showy finery. The majority of the natives were wending their way to their accustomed place of worship, which they attend with scrupulous regularity. As professed Christians they take an active part in the church devotions, and not a few are skilful in preaching and extempore prayer.

4.    In connexion with this subject, a remarkable incident took place during my visit. Several hundred enthusiastic natives attended a valedictory meeting to thirteen Fijians, who with their wives were about to take their departure for New Guinea and New Britain.

These men, notwithstanding the difficulties and dangers in the way, had volunteered their services as missionaries to supplement the mission staff already stationed in those islands. The event impressed me as a forcible illustration of the results of missionary enterprise under the fostering influence of British rule.

ARMED NATIVE CONSTABULARY AT BAYONET EXERCISE.

5.    Next to being a minister, the Fijian dearly loves to be a member of “the force.” The Armed Native Constabulary is an important body in Fiji, consisting of about a couple of hundred well-drilled and splendidly set-up Fijians, who act as constables, and form a nucleus for a standing army. I saw a parade of these men, and was surprised at the skill and precision shown by them in the various manœuvres. It is not out of place to mention here that the Fijians pride themselves on their superb carriage when standing or walking, and regard the white race as defective in this respect. Apropos of this an amusing story is told, that some years ago a body of marines from an American man-of-war was landed for drill practice, and that, on a chief being asked his opinion about the performance, he satirically remarked that “ they might be great warriors, but they waddled like ducks.” Partly owing to the successful establishment of this armed native force, and partly owing to the recent outbreak of hostilities at Samoa, a military fever has spread amongst the whites, and companies, officered by some of the principal residents, have been formed both at Suva and Levuka. Both the white and the native forces are under the command of Colonel Francis.

6.    One of the new buildings at Suva is the Cottage Home for Old-age Pensioners, which was built by private subscription aided by a. grant from the Government. The inmates are supported by a section of the residents, who thus obviate the necessity for any poor law.

Several small rivers, which afford excellent resorts for picnic parties, find an outlet into Suva Harbour. The chief of these is the Tamavua River, from whose head tributaries the water supply of the town is obtained. Through the kindness of the Hon. W. Sutherland,

, -r '


SOURCE OF THE TAMAVUA RIVER.

I had an opportunity of seeing the beautiful scenery along this river, some idea of which can be gathered from the accompanying illustration.

Taro.    Yams.

PRESENTATION OF FOOD TO A GREAT CHIEF.

7.    In the neighbourhood of Suva are also some native villages. I visited one of these named Suva Vau (New Suva). The tribe that now inhabits this village formerly occupied the present position of Suva, and had to find a new home when it was determined to make that site the seat of Government.

At the village of Suva Vau I met the chief of the tribe, Ratu Ambrose, who had once been in Melbourne at the invitation of Messrs. McEwan and Co., the wholesale merchants of Elizabeth-street, at one one time large traders in Fiji. He spoke English with fluency, and had a vivid recollection of the people whom he met, and of the places of interest which he saw, when in Melbourne.

8.    Several villages like Suva Vau form a district presided over by a higher chief called a Buli (mbuli); and these districts are grouped in a similar manner into a province under the control of a great chief called a Roko. This Roko is responsible to the Government for the efficient administration of his province, receiving a salary from the Crown for so doing. The Rokos are, as a rule, tall, well-proportioned in figure, and have handsome features. They are superior in every way to the ordinary tribesman, and are treated with the utmost deference, respect, and loyalty by their people. In addition to their salary, tribute is sometimes paid to them by the tribes, in the form of personal and domestic supplies. The illustration shows a chief receiving his household supply of yams and taro, two of the staple foodstuffs produced in the country.

9.    Most of the officials and the business people of Suva live on the high lands surrounding the town. One of the prettiest quarters is that above the Tamavua River. Here is situated the homestead of the Hon. W. L. Allardyce, the present Assistant Colonial Secretary of Fiji. I was invited there to lunch, and met, amongst others, Kadavu (kandavu) Levu, a grandson of old King Cakobau (thakombau), who is not only a very good cricketer himself, but is an ardent admirer of the Australian Eleven. After luncheon, we strolled through the spacious gardens, where typical specimens of many tropical fruit-bearing trees are to be seen.

10.    As a rule, the inhabitants of Fiji are very law-abiding, but,

strange to say, at a recent sitting of the Criminal Court, no less than seven prisoners were sentenced to death. The majority of these were Indians, who commit crime in a spirit of revenge, and philosophically await the dread penalty of the law, hoping that their spirits will pass to their original dwelling places in far-off Hindustan. Five of these prisoners were executed, but the sentences of the other two were commuted; and these two thought they had a grievance because they were not also summarily dealt with, preferring death to hard labour and penal servitude.    —F. C. Eddy.

Life is a leaf of paper white,

Whereon each one of us may write His word or two—and then comes night;

Though thou have time

But for a line, be that sublime;

, , | i Not failure, but low aim, is crime.    —Lowell.

DIRGE.

Dirge, hymn, or song, to be sung at a funeral. Slan-der, false statement intended to injure a person.

Cen-sure, judgment, either favourable or unfavourable (mostly used in the latter sense). (Lat. censura, severe judgment.)


Ex-or-ci-ser, one who was supposed to have the power to call up the spirits of those who were dead.

For-bearf keep away from.

Con-sum-ma-tion, end of earthly life. (Lat.

con, with ; summa, the summit, completion.) Re-nownedi famous; celebrated


Fear no morel the heat o’ the sun,

Nor the furious winter’s rages ;

Thou thy worldly task hast done, Home art gone, and ta’en thy wages : Golden2 lads, and girls, all must,

As chimney-sweepers, 3 come to dust. 4

Fear no more the frown of the great ;

Thou art past the tyrant’s stroke; 5 Care no more to clothe and eat; 6 To thee the reed is as the oak : 1 The sceptre, learning, physic, must All follow this, 8 and come to dust.


Fear no more the lightning-flash,

Nor the all-dreaded thunder-stone ; 9 Fear not slander, censure rash ;

Thou hast finish’d joy and moan :

All lovers young, all lovers must Consign to thee, 10 and come to dust.

No exorciser harm thee !

Nor no witchcraft charm H thee 1 Ghost unlaid l2 forbear thee ! Nothing ill 13 come near thee !

Quiet consummation have ;

And renownèd be thy grave ! 14

—Shakspere’s Cymbeline, Act IV., Scene 2.

1- Fear no more, thou wilt now fear no more (because thou art dead).

2.    Golden, happy ; bright and cheerful.

3.    Chimney-sweepers. “As miserable as a chimney-sweep is an old proverb. Hence, whether our life is a happy or a miserable one, we must all die.

4.    Come to dust. Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return .’’—Genesis iii, 19.

5.    Tyrant’s stroke, the power of a bad master to injure thee.

6.    Care no more, thou wilt have no more anxiety.

7.    To thee the reed is as the oak. Power and influence, as shown by the oak, or a lowly position in life, as shown by the reed, are both the same to a dead man.

8.    The sceptre . . . this. The king, the learned man, and the doctor, must die like this dead man, over whom the dirge is being sung.

9.    Thunder-stone, the thunder-bolt, which was supposed to fall from the thunder-cloud after the flash of lightning, and kill those on whom it fell.

10.    Consign to thee, submit to death.

11.    Witchcraft charm. The reference is to the supposed power of witches to trouble the dead in their graves. This was believed in by many in the time of Shakspere (1564-1616).

12.    Unlaid. Exercisers were supposed to have the power to prevent the spirits (ghosts) of men from walking about on the earth. When they exerted their power for this purpose, they were said “ to lay the ghost.”

13.    Ill, evil; causing harm.

14.    Renowned he thy grave. May thy grave long be spoken of as that of a good man, worthy to be kept in remembrance.

THE EARTH VEIL.

Con-ceive; imagine ; suppose.    I Av-en-ues, broad walks bordered on each side

by trees.

1.    “To dress it and to keep it.” That, then, was to be our work. Alas ! what work have we set upon ourselves instead I How have we ravished the garden instead of kept it—feeding our war-horses with its flowers, and splintering its trees into spear-shafts !

2.    “ And at the East a flaming sword.” Is its flame quenchless ? and are those gates that keep the way indeed passable no more ? or is it not rather that we no more desire to enter ? For what can we conceive of that first Eden which we might not yet win back, if we chose ? It was a place full of flowers. Well, the flowers are always striving to grow wherever we suffer them ; and the fairer, the closer. There may, indeed, have been a Fall of Flowers, as a Fall of Man; but most

assuredly creatures such as we are can now fancy nothing lovelier than roses and lilies, which would grow for us side by side, leaf overlapping leaf, till the Earth was white and red with them, if we cared to have it so. And Paradise was full of pleasant shades and fruitful avenues. Well, what hinders us from covering as much of the world as we like with pleasant shade, and pure blossom, and goodly fruit ? Who forbids its valleys to be covered over with corn till they laugh and sing? Who prevents its dark forests, ghostly and uninhabitable, from being changed into infinite orchards ?

3. But Paradise was a place of peace, we say, and all the animals were gentle servants to us. Well, the world would yet be a place of peace if we were all peacemakers; and gentle service should we have of its creatures if we gave them gentle mastery. But, so long as we make sport of slaying bird and beast, and make battlefield of our meadows instead of pasture—so long, truly, the Flaming Sword will still turn every way, and the gates of Eden remain barred close enough, till we have sheathed the sharper flame of our own passions, and broken down the closer gates of our own hearts.

—John Ruskin, a celebrated art critic and author. He is eighty years old.

THE ORIGIN OF ROAST PIG.

Re-trib-U-tO-ry, pertaining to what is given in repayment or compensation; commonly, punishment for evil or wrong.

Di-a-lOgue, conversation between two or more persons.

Si-mul-ta-ne-ous, happening at the same time

Dy-nas-ty (dl-nas-ty or dtn-as-ty), succession of kings of the same line or family.


Mast, fruit of the oak and beech, or other forest trees.

An-te-di-lu-vi-an, of or relating to the period before the deluge in Noah’s time ; antiquated.

Con-Ster-na£tion, alarm; fright.

Ten-e-ment, house; dwelling.

Pre-mon-i-tO-ry, giving previous warning or notice.

1. The manuscript goes on to say, that the art of roasting, or rather broiling (which I take to be the elder brother) was accidentally discovered in the manner following.

The swine-herd, Ho-ti, having gone out into the woods one morning, as his manner was, to collect mast for his hogs, left his cottage in the care of his eldest son Bo-bo, a great lubberly boy, who, being fond of playing with fire, as younkers of his age commonly are, let some sparks escape into a bundle of straw, which, kindling quickly, spread the conflagration over every part of their poor mansion, till it was reduced to ashes. Together with the cottage (a sorry, antediluvian make-shift of a building, yon may think it), what was of much more importance, a fine litter of young pigs, no less than nine in number, perished.

2.    Bo-bo was in the utmost consternation, as yon may think, not so much for the sake of the tenement, which his father and he could easily build up again with a few dry branches, and the labour of an hour or two, at any time, as for the loss of the pigs.

3.    While he was thinking what he should say to his father, and wringing his hands over the smoking remnants of one of those untimely sufferers, an odour assailed his nostrils, unlike any scent which he had before experienced. A premonitory moistening at the same time overflowed his nether lip. He knew not what to think. He next stooped down to feel the- pig, if there were ¿my signs of life in it. He burnt his fingers, and to cool them he applied them in his booby fashion to his mouth. Some of the crumbs of the scorched skin had come away with his fingers, and, for the first time in his life (in the world’s life indeed, for before him no man had known it), he tasted— crackling ! Again he felt and fumbled at the pig. It did not burn him so much now; still he licked his fingers from a sort of habit.

4.    The truth at length broke into his slow understanding, that it was the pig that smelt so, and the pig that tasted so delicious ; and, surrendering himself up to the new-born pleasure, he fell to tearing up whole handfuls of the scorched skin with the flesh next it, and was cramming it down his throat in his beastly fashion, when his sire, armed with retributory cudgel, entered, and, finding how affairs stood, began to rain blows upon the young rogue’s shoulders, as thick as hail-stones, which Bo-bo heeded not any more than if they had been flies. His father might lay on, but he could not beat him from his pig till he had fairly made an end of it, when, becoming a little more sensible of his situation, something like the following dialogue ensued :—

5.    “ You graceless whelp, what have you got there devouring ? Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog’s tricks, but you must be eating fire, and I know not what;—what have you got there, I say ? ”

“ 0 Father, the pig, the pig, do come and taste how nice the burnt pig eats.”

6.    Bo-bo soon raked out another pig, and, fairly rending it asunder, thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Iio-ti, still shouting out, “ Eat, eat, eat the burnt pig, Father, only taste,”—cramming all the while as if he would choke.

7.    The crackling scorched his fingers as it had done his son’s, and, applying the same remedy to them, he, in his turn, tasted some of its flavour, which, make what sour mouths he would for a pretence, proved not altogether displeasing to him. In conclusion (for the manuscript here is a little tedious), both father and son fairly sat down to the mess, and never left off till they had despatched all that remained of the litter.

8.    Bo-bo was strictly enjoined not to let the secret escape. Nevertheless, strange stories got about. It was observed that Ho-ti’s cottage was burnt down now more frequently than ever. Nothing but fires from this time forward. Some would break out in broad day, others in the night-time.

9.    At length they were watched, the terrible mystery discovered, and father and son summoned to take their trial at Pekin. Evidence was given, the obnoxious food itself produced in court, and verdict about to be pronounced, when the foreman of the jury begged that some of the burnt pig might be handed into the box. He handled it, and they all handled it, and, burning their fingers as Bo-bo and his father had done before them, and nature prompting to each of them the same remedy, against the face of all the facts, and the clearest charge which judge had ever given,—to the surprise of the whole court, townsfolk, strangers, reporters, and all present,—without leaving the box, or any manner of consultation whatever, they brought in a simultaneous verdict of Not Guilty.

10.    The judge, when the court was dismissed, went privily, and bought up all the pigs that could be had for love or money. In a few days, his Lordship’s town house was observed to be on fire. The thing took wings, and now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction, and fuel and pigs grew enormously dear all over the district.

11.    Thus this custom of firing houses continued, till, in process of time, says my manuscript, a sage arose, who made a discovery that the flesh of swine, or indeed of any other animal, might be cooked (burnt, as they called it) without the necessity of consuming a whole house to dress it. Then first began the rude form of gridiron. Roasting by the string, or spit, came in a century or two later, I forget in whose dynasty. By such slow degrees, concludes the manuscript, do the most useful, and seemingly the most obvious, arts make their way among mankind.

—Charles Lamb (1775-1834), a famous English essayist.

FOOT RACING.

1.    In connexion with their Sports Demonstration, held on the 7th of October, in Melbourne, the Council of the Amateur Athletic Association included a 220 yards race for boys attending Victorian State schools. There were 19 entries, and, after a keen contest, W. O'Shea of Tallarook was declared the winner, and received the championship medal.

2.    There was also a Schools’ Championship Race, open to representatives from all the secondary schools of Victoria. This was won by W. Uthwatt of the Ballarat College.

3.    “ The movement for bringing the State schools of the colony together in contests of skill and endurance,” writes ‘ Old Boy’ in The Australasian, “ is a splendid one ; and I hope ere long to see a meeting of the State school children similar to that held annually in Sydney.”

GREATER BRITAIN EXHIBITION.

Executive Committee for the Greater Britain and Paris Exhibitions.

Exhibition Building, Melbourne, Oct. 14, 1899.

Sir,

I bave the honour, by direction of the Commission, to inform you that the President, the Hon. J. W. Taverner, reported at their last meeting that the exhibit of your Department at the Greater Britain Exhibition created the greatest interest, and was one of the leading features of the Victorian Court.

So much so was this the case that the President gave instructions, at the close of the Exhibition, for the exhibit to he handed over to Mr. J. M. Sinclair, who desires to show the exhibit as a part of the Victorian display which it is intended shall be made in future at the leading agricultural shows of Great Britain.

The President will esteem it a favour if you will kindly express to the officers of your Department who were instrumental in forming the exhibit, the high appreciation which was awarded to the result of their labours.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

The Honourable    J E. Sherrard,

The Minister of Education.    Secretary.

GLEANINGS.

THE SIZE OF JOHANNESBURG.

In the article entitled “In South Africa: Durban to Capetown,” which appeared in the August number of The School Paper—Glasses V. and VI., the statement concerning the size of Johannesburg in comparison with Ballarat, &c., is misleading. Its population, according to the latest estimate available, was, within a radius of three miles, about 105,000; while, within the city, or municipal boundary, as the case may be, that of Ballarat is 41,000 ; of Bendigo, 27,000; of Kalgoorlie, 20,000; and of Coolgar die, 13,000.

The population of the Transvaal consists of about 350,000 whites and double that number of natives. Pretoria, its capital, has a population of 10.000.

The first voyage round the world was made by the-Vittoria, a ship which formed part of the expedition that sailed under Magellan in 1519.

ENGLAND TO HER COLONIES.

O ye by wandering tempest sown ’Neath every alien star,

Forget not whence the breath was blown That wafted you afar !

For ye are still her ancient seed On younger soil let fall—

Children of Britain’s island-breed,

To whom the Mother in her need

Perchance may one day call.    —William Watson.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 15.] MELBOURNE.    [Decembek, 1899.

NEW YEAR SONG.

Feud, quarrel.

Civ-ic, political; public.

Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky, The flying cloud, the frosty light: The year is dying in the night;

Ring out, wild bells, and let him die.

Ring out the old, ring in the new ; Ring, happy bells, across the snow ; The year is going, let him go ;

Ring out the false, ring in the true.

Ring out the grief that saps the mind, For those that here we see no more; Ring out the feud of rich and poor, Ring in redress to all mankind.

Ring out a slowly dying cause,

And ancient forms of party strife ; Ring in the nobler modes of life, With sweeter manners, purer laws.


Scan-dal, slander; disgraceful act. Val-iant, brave.

Ring out the want, the care, the sin,

The faithless coldness of the times ; Ring out, ring out my mournful rhymes, But ring the fuller minstrel in.

Ring out false pride in place and blood, The civic scandal and the spite ;

Ring in the love of truth and right, Ring in the common love of good.

Ring out old shapes of foul disease ;

Ring out the narrowing lust of gold ; Ring out the thousand wars of old; Ring in the thousand years of peace.6

Ring in the valiant man and free,

The larger heart, the kindlier hand ; Ring out the darkness of the land, Ring in the Christ that is to be.


—From In Memoriam, by Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92).

1. Thousand years Of peace, the millennium referred to in the twentieth chapter of Revelation.

CHRISTMAS DAY.

[A picture of how the morning of Christmas Day was spent in rural England, and in the home of an English squire, in the early years of this century.]

Sertaphs, angels.

Gal-ler-y, passage; corridor; also, kind of platform.

Quer-u-lous, plaintive; expressing complaint. Has-sock, thick mat for kneeling on.

Co-e-val, of the same age with.

Ven-er-a-ble, that fills one with awe or reverence.

Mu-ral, on the walls.

Sig-nal-ised, distinguished.

Er-U-dite, very learned.

An-ni-vers-a-ry, annual return of the day on which any notable event took place. In£ex-press-i-ble, indescribable ; not capable of being expressed.

Be-nig-ni-ty, kindness.

Phil- an-thro-py, love of mankind.

outside of the door, and a whispering consultation. Presently a choir of small voices chanted forth an old Christmas carol.

2.    I rose softly, slipped on my clothes, opened the door suddenly, and beheld one of the most beautiful little fairy groups that a painter could imagine. It consisted of a boy and two girls, the eldest not more than six, and lovely as seraphs. They were going the rounds of the house, and singing at every chamber door ; but my sudden appearance frightened them into mute bashfulness. They remained for a moment playing on their lips with their fingers, and, now and then, stealing a shy glance from under their eyebrows, until, as if by one impulse, they scampered away, and. as they turned an angle of the-gallery, I heard them laughing in triumph at their escape.

3.    Everything conspired to produce kind and happy feelings in this stronghold of old-fashioned hospitality. The window of mjr chamber looked out upon what in summer would have been a beautiful landscape. There was a sloping lawn, a fine stream winding at the foot of it, and a tract of park beyond, with noble clumps of trees, and herds of deer. At a distance was a neat hamlet, with the smoke from the cottage chimneys hanging over it; and a church with its dark spire in strong relief against the clear, cold sky.

4.    The house was surrounded with evergreens, according to the English custom. The rays of a bright morning sun had a dazzling effect among the glittering foliage. A robin, perched upon the top of a mountain ash that hung its clusters of red berries just before my window, was basking himself in the sunshine, and piping a few querulous notes; and a peacock was displaying all the glories of his train on the terrace walk below.

5.    I had scarcely dressed myself, when a servant appeared to invite-me to family prayers. He showed me the way to a small chapel in the-old wing of the house, where I found the principal part of the family already assembled in a kind of gallery, furnished with cushions, hassocks,, and large prayer-books ; the servants were seated on benches below.

6.    After breakfast, I walked about the grounds with Frank Brace-bridge. While we were talking, we heard the distant toll of the village bell, and I was told that the squire was a little particular in having his household at church on a Christmas morning, considering it a day of pouring out of thanks and rejoicing; for, as oldTusser1 observed—

“ At Christmas be merry, and thankful withal,

And feast thy poor neighbours, the great with the small.”

7.    As the morning, though frosty, was remarkably fine and clear, the most of the family walked to the church, which was a very old building of gray stone, and stood near a village about half a mile from the park gate. Adjoining it was a low, snug parsonage, which seemed coeval with the church.

8.    The interior of the church was venerable but simple ; on the walls were several mural monuments of the Bracebridges, and, just, beside the altar, was a tomb of ancient workmanship, on which lay the-effigy of a warrior in armour, with his legs crossed, a sign of his having;

been a crusader.7 I was told it was one of the family who had signalised himself in the Holy Land, and the same whose picture hung over the fireplace in the hall.

9.    The parson gave us a most erudite sermon on the rites and ceremonies of Christmas, and the propriety of observing it not merely as a day of thanksgiving, but of rejoicing ; and concluded by urging his hearers, in the most solemn and affecting manner, to stand to the traditional customs of their fathers, and feast and make merry on this joyful anniversary of the church.

10.    I have seldom known a sermon attended apparently with more immediate effects ; for, on leaving the church, the congregation seemed one and all possessed with the gaiety of spirit so earnestly enjoined by their pastor. The elder folks gathered in knots in the churchyard, greeting and shaking hands ; and the children ran about, crying “ Ule ! Ule! ”8 and repeating some uncouth rhymes,9 which the parson, who had joined us, informed me had been handed down from days of yore. The villagers doffed their hats to the squire as he passed, giving him the good wishes of the season with every appearance of heartfelt sincerity, and were invited by him to the hall, to take something to keep out the cold of the weather ; and I heard blessings uttered by several of the poor, which convinced me that, in the midst of his enjoyments, the worthy old cavalier had not forgotten the true Christmas virtue of charity.

11.    On our way homeward, his heart seemed overflowed with generous and happy feelings. As we passed over a rising ground which commanded something of a prospect, the sounds of rustic merriment now and then reached our ears : the squire paused for a few moments, and looked around with an air of inexpressible benignity.

12.    The beauty of the day was of itself sufficient to inspire philanthropy. There was something truly cheering in the triumph of warmth and verdure over the frosty thraldom of winter ; it was, as the squire observed, an emblem of Christmas hospitality, breaking through the chills of ceremony and selfishness, and thawing every heart into a flow. He pointed with pleasure to the indications of good cheer reeking from the chimneys of the comfortable farmhouses and low, thatched cottages. “I love,” said he, “to see this day well kept by rich and poor ; it is a great thing to have one day in the year, at least, when you are sure of being welcome wherever you go, and of having, as it were, the world all thrown open to you.”

—From the Sketch Book, by Washington Irving (1783-1859),

1.    Tusser. Thomas Tusser was a man of many vocations. He was born about 1527, and died in 1580. His best known work is A Hundred Good Points of Husbandry.

THE SOUTH SEAS.

No. 3.—LEVUKA.

Af-fa-ble, receiving others kindly, and conversing wioh them in a free and friendly manner. U-n.iq.ue {u-neek/), unmatched ; unequalled. Ce'ded, yielded ; given up.

Col-lo-qui-al-ly, in common or familiar conversation.

Di-lem-ma, difficult choice or position. Pro-spec-tive, expected ; relating to the future. Cog-no-men, name; strictly, surname.


Phy-sique (fi-seeknatural constitution, or physical structure, of a person.

Mek-e, native dance.

Ka-va, beverage made by the Polynesians from the root of the angona Gong pepper-plant).

Sal-U-ka, dried roll of tobacco with a portion of banana leaf as a wrapper.

Chap-er-on, attend in public places as a guide and protector.


1. After my work was completed at Suva, my next business was to go to Levuka, which is situated about 70 miles away on the small island of Ovalau. Formerly, the only regular passenger communication between Suva and Levuka was by means of the ocean-going

PORTION OF LEVUKA AFTER THE HURRICANE OF 1895.


steamers which visit both ports ; but, for some months, a little steamer called the Adi Raroya (Audi Raronya) has been trading between the two places, taking a course which keeps within the main reef the whole way. The latter route receives good patronage, as it ensures a smooth passage, and enables the travellers to have a good view of the country. For some portion of the journey, the steamer proceeds along the Rewa River, and thence into a narrower stream, which was so shallow on the day we passed through that progress was much impeded owing to her grounding on several occasions.

2. The delta formed by the various mouths of the Rewa is extremely fertile, and is particularly suitable for the growth of the sugar-cane, which is largely cultivated both by the whites and the natives.

There were some intermediate calling-places before we reached our first day’s destination at Navuloa. One of these was at the Catholic Mission, where I paid an incidental visit of inspection to the schools, and where I found the Marist Fathers in charge affable, courteous, and eager to give all possible information.

3.    At Navuloa the steamer was met by an eight-oared boat’s crew, who rowed some of the passengers, including myself, to the Training College, where we were welcomed and hospitably entertained by the Rev. W. Lindsay, the principal Wesleyan Missionary in the Fiji group. This institution is set apart for students selected from the various parochial districts throughout the islands to undergo a course of training to fit them for the positions of native preachers and teachers. The course extends over a period of three years, and includes instruction in arithmetic, drawing, and penmanship, in addition to a thorough study of the Bible translated into Fijian.

4.    The students to the number of 80 were assembled in the meetinghouse for our benefit, and they presented a unique appearance with their frizzy hair, comely limbs shining like bronze, and their bodies clothed in spotless shirt and sulu. If they are dressed in similar garb from day to day, the laundry arrangements must be fairly extensive.

5.    The stay at Navuloa would have been most enjoyable had it not been for the sandflies and mosquitoes which abound there. For these pests Navuloa has no rival in Fiji, and this assertion means a good deal. The lot of the missionary and his family is not altogether be envied.

Next morning, at 6 a.m., the steamer got under way, and arrived about 11 o’clock in the forenoon at the port of Levuka.

6.    Levuka is one of the most charming sea-side towns it has been my good fortune to see. Precipitous hills covered with luxuriant vegetation rise up almost directly from the water’s edge ; and, on the sides of these hills, nestle snugly scores of white cottages, which command a fine view of the harbour, and of the horseshoe coral reef with its glittering, curling surf. The bay is crowded with small craft, for Levuka is a central port of discharge, and this is the busy season. Just now, there is a steady disregard of the eight hours system, work going on unceasingly from sunrise to sunset, and even later. Such busy times argue well for the prosperity of the place.

7.    Levuka is the oldest town in Fiji, the white traders being enabled, owing to the friendly disposition of the chief, to establish a small settlement in 1835—the same year as Melbourne was founded.

On the 30th September, 1874, when the Fiji Islands were formally ceded to Great Britain by King Cakobau (thak'-om-bau) and his chiefs, Levuka became the capital, and remained the seat of government till it was displaced by Suva, one reason given for the change being that the harbour of Levuka was not sufficiently protected from the hurricanes, known locally as “ blows,” which occur during the hot and wet season of the year. Happily the hurricanes do not occur often, for, when they

do come, they cause dreadful destruction to all kinds of property. In addition to the tremendous rush of wind from all quarters, there is a deluge of rain, from which floods arise and add to the general devastation. The last “blow ” occurred in 1895.

8.    A mountain stream called Totoga ( Totonga) runs from the heights above through the centre of the town, and along its course forms a pool of icy water twenty feet in circumference and four or five feet in depth, which makes a much appreciated bathing place in this tropical climate. At a short distance up the Totoga Valley is situated the Levuka Public School.

9.    Connected with this school is a romantic South Sea story. Some

FAAMU SAMI IN EUROPEAN COSTUME.

years ago Mr. Jones, being then as now the head master, admitted a little Samoan girl, who was brought to him by her foster father,1 colloquially

WAITOVU,

called “Johnny.” As neither man nor girl could speak English, the master was in a dilemma as to what to call his prospective pupil. At last, evidently considering that his own name was as good as any other, and as it sounded something like “Johnny,” he entered the name of the girl on the rolls as “ Mary Jones,” and under that cognomen she passed creditably through the various standards. It turned out subsequently that “Mary Jones” was in reality a Samoan princess of high rank, called Faamu Sami, daughter of King Malietoa, and full sister to King Tanu, over whose appointment occurred the recent civil war in Samoa.

10.    Faamu Sami has now developed into a handsome girl of fine physique, and she is highly respected and popular among all sections at Levuka. At an interview, I found her a charming and intelligent companion, fond of European society and ways. She invited me to a meke, at which she was the central figure, surrounded by a number of other dusky maidens, all prettily and quaintly attired. The princess appeared in a silk bodice and a heirloom mat richly ornamented with rare feathers, and, on her head, her regal head dress. Various dances were executed in graceful and dignified fashion to the accompaniment of a rhythmical but somewhat monotonous chant. During the evening, in accordance with the usual custom, all present had to partake of kava and to smoke a saluka. Good manners demand that each guest must drain without stopping a good-sized cocoa-nut bowl of kava, a concoction which tastes like soapsuds flavoured with a little ground ginger. I gulped the kava down, and managed a few puffs of the saluka, which gave me indigestion for at least three days.

11.    The School Board deputed one of its members, Captain Wilson, the harbour-master and a pioneer of the South Seas, to chaperon me during my stay at Levuka; and, through his kindness and under his guidance, I was afforded an excellent chance of seeing

the various show-places. One pleasant trip was to Yuma Bay, where, after landing, we walked along the beautiful beach through an avenue of cocoa-nut palms for about a mile, and thence up a steep ascent, and then climbed on hands and knees around a rocky headland to the pool of

SAMOAN LADY IN DANCING COSTUME.

Waitovu. Situated in a shady dell at the foot of a waterfall twenty or thirty feet in height, and surrounded by steep mountain spurs covered with richest foliage, the pool of Waitovu, fifty feet long, twenty feet broad, and several fathoms in depth, is, with its cave of refuge for the bather to the rear of the waterfall, an immense swimming-bath of ideal and surpassing beauty.

—F. C. Eddy.

1. Foster father, man who takes the place of a father in caring for a child.

VITAi LAMPADA.1

There’s a breathless hush in the Close 2 to-night—

Ten to make and the match to win,—

A bumping pitch, and a blinding light,

An hour to play, and the last man in.

And it’s not for the sake of a ribboned coat,

Or the selfish hope of a season’s fame,

But his Captain’s hand on his shoulder smote,

‘ ‘ Play up ! play up 1 and play the game ! ”

The sand of the desert is sodden red,—

Red with the wreck of a square that broke;—

The Gatling’s 3 jammed, and the colonel dead,

And the regiment blind with dust and smoke.

The river of death has brimmed his banks,

And England’s far, and Honour a name,

But the voice of a schoolboy 4 rallies the ranks,

‘ ‘ Play up ! play up ! and play the game 1 ”

This is the word that year by year,

While in her place the School 5 is set,

Every one of her sons must hear,

And none that hears it dare forget.

This they all with a joyful mind

Bear through life like a torch in flame,

And falling fling to the host behind—

“ Play up ! play up ! and play the game ! ”

—From Admirals All and Other Verses, by Henry Newbolt, a living poet.

1. Vitai Lampada (They hand on) the torch of life, that is their guiding principle of conduct. The phrase te used by the L u.in poet Lucretius. Vital is an old form of the genitive case of vita, life ; lampada, the Greek form of the accusative case of lampas, a lamp or torch. The reference in Lucretius is to runners in a torch race, who, as soon as they have run their allotted distance, hand on the torch toother runners; so men, when they have run their allotted race and die, hand on the torch of life to the men who

follow them.-2. Close, enclosure ; piece of enclosed land, particularly that about a cathedral or abbey.

-3. Gatling, a machine gun, consisting of a cluster of barrels, which, being revolved by a crank, are

automatically loaded and fired.-4. Schoolboy, an officer not much older than a schoolboy.-5. School.

The reference may be general ; but the poet’s school, Clifton College, is most probably referred to.

THE BOERS.

Un-tram-melled, not hampered or impeded ; free.

Nom-ad, roving; moving from place to place for subsistence.

E-quan-im-i-ty, patience ; evenness of mind. Su-ze-rain-ty, paramount authority ; the authority of a superior to whom fealty is due.

Dis-sen-sions, strife; quarrels.

UBti-ma-tum, final terms offered by two nations in a dispute.

Ad-dict-ed to, given to; fond of. A-Chieve-ments, great deeds; feats.

Guiana, for the sum of £6,000,000. Events have proved the wisdom of acquiring so commanding a position on one of England’s great commercial routes to the East.

3.    Even before the collapse of the Dutch East India Company, various discontented settlers had removed further into the interior, where they would be untrammelled by any irksome conditions ; and they became the “Boers” (boors) of modern times—“a half-nomad people of sullen and unsociable temperament, living rudely and contentedly on the vast, arid holdings where their sheep and cattle are pastured.” The Dutch were by no means satisfied with the rule of their new masters. The abolition of slavery throughout the British colonies (1833) was particularly distasteful, and their irritation was not unnatural, considering that the slave-owners received but one and a quarter millions sterling as compensation, instead of three millions, the estimated value of the liberated slaves. Other grievances in addition proved too much for Dutch equanimity, and the dissatisfaction culminated in a wholesale exodus of Dutchmen.

4.    In 1836 began the great “trek” of Dutch farmers which resulted in the formation of the Orange Free State, and, in later years, the foundation of the Transvaal or South African Republic.

5.    The Transvaal dates its political independence from a convention (known as the “Sand River Convention,”) held in 1852, which recognised the independence of the Boers beyond the Yaal River. In 1877, however, the Transvaal was proclaimed British territory, which was followed by the Boer War of 1881,3 which left the Boers independent so far as internal affairs were concerned, but, under the suzerainty of the British Empire, unable to conclude any treaty with foreign states without submitting it for approval to the British Government.

6.    In 1885 the discovery of gold was the means of bringing about a complete change of conditions. Europeans poured into the goldfields, until the Boer inhabitants were completely outnumbered. The Boers called these new settlers “ Uitlanders ” (oo'et-land-ers), or “ Outlanders,” and their jealous suspicion of the newcomers has given rise to continual dissensions.

7.    The gold-mines in the neighbourhood of Johannesburg alone produce about one-quarter of the whole gold output of the world. J ohannesburg is really one of the wonders of the nineteenth century. Though it sprang up like a mushroom, it is a wealthy city with

105,000 inhabitants, about half of whom are whites.

8.    The Boers themselves would not have discovered or worked mineral deposits of any kind—pastoral pursuits alone have any attractions for them,—and they have obstinately and unjustly refused to acknowledge the rights of the new settlers, who have so largely increased the wealth of the state, and who pay the greater part of the whole taxation.

9.    Seething discontent led to what is known as the “Jameson Raid,” at the close of the year 1895. This was really the outcome of a plot to seize Johannesburg, and to compel the Boers to redress the

wrongs of the Outlanders. The troops, to the number of about five hundred men, under Dr. Jameson and certain military officers, entered the Transvaal, but, owing to various misunderstandings, received no assistance from the Outlanders. The invading force was met at Krugersdorp by the Boers, and forced by superior numbers to surrender. The British Government disavowed any knowledge of the proceedings, and the raiders were punished in various ways.

10. Since then, matters have gone from bad to worse, and culminated on the 9th of October last in President Kruger’s forwarding to the British Government an ultimatum that was equivalent to a declaration of war, and following it up a few days later with the invasion of Natal.

Reasonable concessions on the part of the Boers would have solved all difficulties. The position was that some 80,000 armed and, to a large extent, uneducated Boers4 were depriving about 150,000 disarmed and helpless British subjects of the political, religious, and civil rights which elsewhere in South Africa the British flag confers on all races regardless of creed or colour.

—Adapted from The Practical Teacher.

1.    Peace Of Amiens (am-e-ong). During- the great struggle between most of the European nations, and Prance, which began in 1793, and ended with the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, a treaty of peace was signed at Amiens in 1802. The peace was of short duration, for, as soon as it suited him, Napoleon found a reason for breaking it.

2.    Peace Of 1814. Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig (Germany) in 1814, and the allied army having followed him into Prance and entered Paris, he abdicated, and was sent to Elba. During the same year, the First Treaty of Paris was signed, and a congress met at Vienna to settle the affairs of Europe.

3.    Boer war Of 1881. In 1876, the Boers found themselves unable to hold out against the Bapedi, and the English, fearing the inevitable trouble that would ensue if the natives overcame the Dutch, went to their aid, defeated the natives, and, in 1877, annexed the Transvaal. The desire for freedom led the Boers to revolt in December, 1880, and the English forces met with repulse at Laing’s Nek (Pass) and were defeated at Majuba Hill, where General Colley was killed. The country was then in 1881 given up to the Boers, Great Britain retaining the suzerainty only.

4.    There is no agreement among the estimates of the population of the Transvaal.

THE DEPARTURE OP THE VICTORIAN TROOPS FOR

SOUTH AFRICA.

En-thu^si-as^tic, marked by strong excitement of feeling for a cause.

Vol-un-ta^ri-ly, of one’s own free-will. 10

Ir£re-sist-i-ble, overpowering.

Ep-OCh, fixed point of time, established in history by the occurrence of a great event.

CLASSES Y. AND VI.

DETACHMENT OF METROPOLITAN CADETS.

3.    “ You will be followed in your impressive and imposing march by thousands of your comrades in arms. It is because our Victorian contingent represents untold numbers of brave men in every part of the Empire, ready to take their part in its defence, that so great a significance attaches to the incidents of this day. You are about to receive—-as you well know—the enthusiastic cheers of your fellow-citizens.

4.    “ The people of this colony are justly proud of you. They are proud that they can put such soldiers into the field. You are worthy to stand shoulder to shoulder with that band of heroes who, day by day, in those stubborn conflicts in South Africa, are adding glorious pages to a long and splendid history. Could I give you greater praise ?

5.    “I am here to-day, not only to express the admiration of yonr fellow-citizens, but in yet warmer terms, if that were possible, to express the same feeling on behalf of the people of the old country. In the words of the Queen’s message, in voluntarily offering to send troops to share the perils and the glories of the Imperial forces in South Africa, these colonies have made a striking manifestation of loyalty and patriotism. Many times before, forces ■ raised in the colonies have stood shoulder to shoulder with those of the mother country. Never before has a colonial force represented patriotic devotion as it is represented by the gallant band of soldiers who are about to sail in the Medic. It was not through apprehension for the security of Australia, not through the influence of the governors or ministers of the Crown, or a few men in positions of power and wealth and responsibility—it was under the irresistible impulse of popular feeling that the resolve was taken to offer to Her Majesty the services of her citizen soldiers, dwelling beneath the Southern Cross. On the shores of South Africa you will wheel into line with a Canadian contingent.

6.    “ All this marks an epoch—I would rather say a turning-point in British history. It speaks the firm resolve of the people of an empire on which the sun never sets to stand together, and, in the hour of stress and strain, to rally round the old flag. It is a noble and a wise resolve. It makes us all from this time forward absolutely secure against foreign aggression.

Come the three corners of the world in arms,

And we shall shock them. Nought shall make us rue,

If England to herself do rest but true.’1

“And now it only remains for me, in the Queen’s name, and in her own words, to wish you God speed and a safe return.”

7.    The readers of The School Paper will be glad to know that the cadets were given a prominent part in the proceedings, and filled it with credit. On the evening of the 27th, they, along with the 250 members of the Victorian contingent and a number of prominent citizens, were the guests of the Mayor of Melbourne. In connexion with the march of the military forces through Melbourne, they acted as a guard of honour, lining the streets along part of the route.

1. Come . . . true. These are the last lines of Shakspere’s King John.

THE VICTOR’S MESSAGE.

Xm-pis, oodies of native (Zulu, &c.) warriors in

South Africa.

Bush-men, race of South African nomads, living principally in the desert. They are dwarfs. Cote (/cot) or Got (k6t), shelter or enclosure for small animals, as for sheep or pigeons.


Lan-cer, one of a mounted body of men armed with lances.

Hus-sar (huz^zar, the “u” as in full), one of the light cavalry of European armies.

Kloof, cleft; gully.

“London, Nov. 8.—Very satisfactory news has been received at Maritzburg from Ladysmith that several engagements have taken place with the enemy, in which the British forces were successful. The news was conveyed by means of messages sent by carrier pigeons, and addressed to Sir Redvers Buller, who was supposed by Sir George White to be at Maritzburg.”    —Cablegram.

“Twere a risky ride to the south to-day, for the scouts will be hard to shun, But how shall I tell them at Maritzburg 1 that the hard-fought day is won ? ” He looked on his captains plumed and spurred, then he lifted a glance above, And he bound the message firm and fast ’neath the wing of a homing dove. 2

Ready to ride on a hope forlorn, the lancer and light hussar,

Reining their eager chargers in, looked up to the heights afar;

And three times circled the snow-white bird, in the azure-blue clear-seen,

Ere she owned the line and southward sped on the service of the Queen.

Far on the earth below she heard the. sullen guns that pealed,

She saw through fathoms of crystal air the corpse-strewn battle-field ;

Till the ring of the rifles fainter grew, and the din of the distant fight,

As she set her wings in a long, strong stroke, for a hundred miles of flight.

Over the hills that crown the course of the Flagstone Spruit 3 she fled.

Out on a lonely ridge she saw the graves of the English dead ;

Where, ere the riddled remnant raised the white flag sad and slow,

They emptied their lone last cartridges in the faces of the foe.

And then beneath her outspread wings, away on an eastern post,

She eyed the vengeance swift and dread that was wreaked on the hostile host ; Discerning the ridge of Grobler’s Kloof,4 and the lists 5 of the fatal plain,

With the earth still torn by the charging hoofs and piled with the newly slain.

Behind were the roaring Creuzot guns,c the crash and the glint and glare,

Like specks of dust were the frenzied hosts, like motes in the midday air ;

To the west more near drew the Drakenberg,7 and she saw as she sped towards home, The falls of the great Tugela’s 8 tide like a far-off ribbon of foam.

She saw the dark, deep forests, and the groves with creepers coiled,

Where the scattered Amazizi lurk whom the Zulu impis spoiled ;

And the stunted Bushmen tip their shafts, and the gaunt hysenas creep Over the long forgotten graves, where the dusky warriors sleep.

But southward still, to Colenso’s 9 bridge, on tireless wing she hied,

Beneath her gleamed Tugela’s wave; she crossed his broadening tide,

And holding still on the clear-seen course, to Estcourt fast she fled,

Where the shallow Bushman River purls and babbles in pebbly bed.

Sweeping above the ironwoods, o’er the hills she hath swiftly come,

But silent are all the saw-mills now, the ring of the axe is dumb ;

Across the great Umgeni Falls, like a flake of foam she hath passed,

And hath folded her wings on the well-known cote in Maritzburg, at last.

They have lifted the pinion, resting now from the journey over and done,

With tears of joy they have read the tale of a glorious victory won;

And the sons of Britain o’er all the world, who close to her proudly cling,

Have thrilled at the tale and the tidings glad that were brought by that homing wing.

- Oriel, in The Argus.

1. Maritzburg (mar^its-burg) short for Pietermaritzburg, the capital of Natal, is situated in moderately hilly country, 50 miles from the coast. It was named after two Dutch brothers who were amongst the farst white settlers in the country.

2.    Homing dove. It is the practice to write the message to be sent by a homer pigeon in cypher on a small piece of paper or ocher material, and to place it in a quill, and fasten it under the tail feathers of the bird, or wrap it round its leg, covering it to prevent its being pecked to pieces.

3.    Flagstone Spr lit, rivulet or creek, a few miles south-west of Ladysmith (Natal), in the neighbourhood of which, on the 30th of October last, two battalions of British troops and a battery of Mountain Artillery (between fifteen hundred and sixteen hundred men) surrendered to the Boers.

4.    Grobler’s Kloof, a gully, a few miles south-east of Ladysmith. The Boers were defeated here, losing, it is reported, two or three thousand men.

5.    Lists, scene of the encounter; originally scene of a tournament. In the brittle of Grobler’s Kloof, the Boers were driven by infantry from the hills to comparatively level country, where a force of British cavalry was in readiness, and charged them with dreadful effect.

6.    Creuzot (Creu-zo0 guns, large cannon for siege purposes, made at Creuzot, a large iron-manufacturing town, somewhat to the east of the nfddle of France. It was reported that the Boers have, in the neighbourhood of Ladysmith, two Schneider guns made at Creuzot.

7.    Drakenberg. The Neinwveld Range runs east and west through the central part of Cape Colony. On the east, it makes a great bend to the north, and, under various i ames, runs parallel to the coast as far as the Limpopo River. As the Drakenberg Mountains, it divides Basuto Land from Griqua Land East, and, farther north, Basuto Land and the Orange Free State from Natal. In the Transvaal, the range is known as the Quathlamba Mountains.

8.    Tugela, river in Natal, flows east, and then south-east from the Drakenberg Mountains into the Indian Ocean.

9.    Colenso, railway town on the Tugela River.

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.

1.    “ When does the twentieth century begin ? ”

Mr. Dyson, Assistant Royal Astronomer, decides as follows :—

“The question as to when the twentieth century begins is not, in the true sense, an astronomical one. It is not determined by the position of the planets or anything of that kind, but is merely a question of usage. It depends upon what constituted the first year of the present era.

2.    “ Undoubtedly they began by calling the first year ‘the year one,’ even though it was not a month old. If they did so, then, of course it required a complete hundred years to finish the first cycle. The second century, therefore, dated from 1st January, 101. The succeeding centuries following the same order, the twentieth century would have its beginning on 1st January, 1901.

3.    “ Undoubtedly it would have been more convenient for matters of calculation had the ancients begun with the year 0, and thus the cycles would have all begun in figures ending in 0.

4.    “ There is another question as to the time of day the new century begins. All astronomical days begin at noon. Calendar days begin at midnight, so that usage again decides that the twentieth century will begin as soon as the clocks have struck 12 on the night of 31st December, 1900.”

MELBOURNE HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN.

A deputation from the Committee of the Melbourne Hospital for Sick Children recently waited on the Minister of Education, and brought under his notice its intention to hold a bazaar in Melbourne during September, 1900, in aid of the funds of the institution, on which there is a debt of £13,000. The suggestion that the State School children of the colony should contribute towards a special stall met with his hearty approval.

Mr. Peacock trusts that teachers will exert themselves to make the movement a marked success. When the preliminary arrangements have been completed, the Secretary of the Bazaar Committee will communicate with the head teachers of schools.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

The Sohoqih Fim

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 16.] MELBOURNE.    [February, 1900.

TO THE COLONIES.

In-nu-mer-a-ble, countless; numberless. Pre-dom-i-nance, superiority; ascendency. Es-per-ance, hope.


Re-mote; faraway; distant.

Com-pa-tri-OtS, people of the same country and having similar interests and feelings.


Brothers beyond the Atlantic’s loud expanse ;1 And you that rear the innumerable fleece Far southward ’mid the ocean named of peace ;11 12 Britons that past the Indian wave advance Our name and spirit and world-predominance ;13 And you our kin that reap the earth’s increase Where crawls that long-backed mountain till it cease Crown’d with the headland of bright esperance :—14 Remote compatriots, wheresoe’er ye dwell,

By your prompt voices ringing clear and true We know that with our England all is well :

Young is she yet, her world-task but begun !

By you we know her safe, and know by you Her veins are million, but her heart is one.

—William Watson, a living English poet.

1.    Canadians.

2.    Australians.

S. British in India (Anglo-Indians), Further India, and China. i. British in South Africa.

A CALL-SOUNDING COMPETITION.

Con-tin-gent, quota of troops.

AdfjUrtant, regimental staff officer who assists the colonel in matters of detail.

Ap-pre-hen-sive, fearful of what may he coming.

Com-pet-i-tor, one who seeks what another seeks; rival.

Re-veil-le (re-vale-yah), the beat of drum, or bugle blast, about break of day, to give notice that it is time for the soldiers to rise.

Con-cen-tra-ted (con-cen-tra-ted or con-cen-tra-ted), gathered into one body, mass, or force.

the curtain of the barrack window, looked a mother, apprehensive of failure, yet equally apprehensive of success. It was a matter of tears whichever way it went.    .

3. The umpire called for “The Last Post,” one of the most difficult of calls, and one of the prettiest. The sergeant-ma jor’s son, who was

Bugler Bottle.

Bugler Brenchley.

THE BUGLERS OF THE FIRST VICTORIAN CONTINGENT.

(Block kindly lent by the proprietors of The Australasian.)


first in line, began the contest. The lad was visibly agitated, and his opening notes were bubbly, though the finishing flourishes were perfect. His taller competitors surpassed him in the opening round.

4. “ The Reveille,” ordered the colonel.

The little fellow was calmer now and more confident, and the notes of the early morning call, to the accompaniment of which the

British soldier on service opens his eyes every day, were sounded with exceptional clearness and sweetness.

“Take out and stow hammocks;

Take bedding for airing—”

or, if you like, as Kipling has it:—

“My name is O’Kelly, I’ve heard the revelly,

From Birr1 to Bareilly,2 from Leeds3 to Lahore.4

The others are not quite up to No. 1, yet the honours are fairly even.

5.    The doctor advanced, and, opening the mouth of each candidate in turn, looked in critically. Not satisfied, he adjusted his glasses, and entered upon a tour of inspection of the teeth.

“ There haven’t been any bush fires through their mouths,” whispered a non-com.5 in attendance; and, to do the lads justice, they were all singularly free from those black stumps which had proved fatal to the chance of so many of the elder men the previous day.

6.    “ Sound 4 The Assemble,’ ” called the colonel, and the little fellow began the third round. This time he blew as he had never blown before. The clear notes of the call echoed through the empty barrack-square, and seemed to cling about the roof-tops, rising superior to the “ clang, clang ” of the tram-car bells as they passed to and fro outside. No. 2 was thrown on his mettle by this performance, but there was a nervous tremor in his opening that marred the effect, and his eyes strained visibly as he reached the higher register. No. 3, also a smart soldierly lad, was more self-possessed, and once more the shrill notes awakened the echoes:—

“ Assemble now, my men,

And ga-ther in, and ga-ther in;

Assemble now, my men.”

And the chosen men of the contingent must have fitted their own words to the music as they lolled about the square, thinking of the days not far distant when they would hear these notes in real earnest.

7.    The umpire was still unsatisfied, for the honours were pretty evenly divided so far, and a choice was difficult to make. The three lads stood motionless and expressionless, except that each kept an eye concentrated on the face of the colonel, eager to anticipate his decision.

8.    u The Dinner Call,” demanded the umpire. This was to be the last round—the deciding blow—and the boys braced themselves for a final effort, in tone and volume. The issue was a big one—Africa, service, glory, a soldier’s grave, perhaps !

9.    That final call was worth going a long way to hear. Each of the boys put his very soul into it, and every note came clear and strong. There were no split notes, no water gurgles in the long “ G’s,” no failure of wind in the upward sweeps, no stuttering hesitation anywhere, as this, the liveliest of all military calls, proceeded :—

“ Officers’ wives have puddings and pies,

Soldiers’ wives have skillie.” 6

10.    The choice was no longer in doubt. Nos. 1 and 3 were picked, and No. 2 stood ont. There was a weeping face at the window, but the sergeant-major was delighted, and turned away briskly to conduct a parade elsewhere.

11.    “ May I go in the ranks, sir ? ” pleaded the vanquished No. 2, as he stood forward, with a lump in his throat, and saluted. He was determined to be in it somehow.

“ Has the doctor passed you ? ”

“ Yes, sir.”

“ All right in musketry ? ”

“Yes, sir.”

“Report yourself to Major Eddy,”.

“ Yes, sir.”

The Argus (Melbourne).

1.    Birr, town in Kings County, Ireland.

2.    Bareilly (ba-ray-lee), district in British India.

3.    Leeds, town on the Aire River, in thé west of York County, England.

4.    Lahore, district and city in the Punjab, north-west of India.

5.    Non-com., short form of non-com'-bat-ant, person connected with an army, who does not make it his business to fight, as any one of the medical officers and their assistants, chaplains, and others.

6.    Skillie, for skilligalee, kind of thin, weak broth or oatmeal porridge ; also, a drink made of oatmeal, sugar, and water, sometimes used in the English navy or army.

THE SAILING OF THE LONG-SHIPS.1

OCTOBER, 1899.2

They saw the cables loosened, they saw the gangways cleared,

They heard the women weeping, they heard the men that cheered ; Far off, far off, the tumult faded and died away,

And all along the sea-wind came singing up the Bay.3

“I came by Cape St. Vincent,4 I came by Trafalgar,5 I swept from Torres Vedras 6 to golden Vigo Bar I saw the beacons blazing that fired the world with light 8 When down their ancient highway your fathers passed to fight.

“O race of tireless fighters, flushed with a youth renewed,

Right well the wars of freedom befit the Sea-kings’9 brood ;

Yet, as ye go, forget not the fame of yonder shore,

The fame ye owe your fathers and the old time before.

“Long-suffering were the Sea-kings, they were not swift to kill,

But, when the sands had fallen, they waited no man’s will;

Though all the world forbade them, they counted not nor cared,

They weighed not help or hindrance, they did the thing they dared.

“The Sea-kings loved not boasting, they cursed not him that cursed, They honoured all men duly, and him that faced them first ;

They strove and knew not hatred, they smote and toiled to save, They tended whom they vanquished, they praised the fallen brave.

“ Their name’s on Torres Vedras, their fame’s on Vigo Bar,

Far-flashed to Cape St. Vincent it burns from Trafalgar;

Mark as ye go10 the beacons that woke the world with light When down their ancient highway your fathers passed to fight.”

—Henry Newbold in The Spectator (London).

1.    Long-ships, battle ships; ships employed in warfare. In the Latin language (used by the ancient Romans), the name for a ship of war was navis longa, a long ship. The term “long-ships” is, therefore, hardly correct for the transports or troop-ships used on the occasion to which the poet is referring.

2.    October, 1899. The poet follows in imagination the fleet that conveyed the first British army of 50,000 sent to South Africa to fight the Boers.

3.    Bay, Bay of Biscay.

4.    Cape Of St. Vincent. It was off this cape that Admiral Jervis and Commodore Nelson defeated the Spanish fleet in 1797. The “ sea-wind” would pass Trafalgar before it reached Cape St. Vincent.

5.    Trafalgar (traf-al-gaT), cape, near which was the scene of Nelson’s victory over the fleets of France and Spain in 1805. Nelson was shot and died during the battle.

6.    Torres Vedras. In 1808, England sent troops to Portugal to assist her against the designs of Napoleon. In 1810, that monarch decided to make a great effort to drive Wellington and the army he commanded out of the Peninsula. Wellington’s army was too small to take the field against the French under Marshal Massena, and he therefore fell back on Lisbon, and caused three lines of earthworks to be constructed across the peninsula that lies between the Tagus and the sea. These were the lines of Torres Vedras ; and the French were so persuaded of their strength, and of the reception they would receive if they attempted to storm them, that they retired without striking a blow.

7.    Vigo (vee-go) Bar, north-west of Spain. In 1589, the English under Drake took Vigo.

8.    Beacons blazing that fired the world with light. In former times, news of a victory was spread through the country by means of signal-fires placed on the tops of hills. The poet’s use is metaphorical. He refers to the great deeds that mark the spots, radiating glory as beacons do light.

9.    Sea-kings. The Norwegian pirates or sea-rovers, who used to make raids upon the coast of the British Isles and north-western Europe are often called Sea-kings. Normandy was acquired from Charles the Simple, King of the West Franks, in 912, by one of these named Rolff. Here, however, the poet refers to the distinguished admirals, captains, and sailors of Elizabeth’s reign, such as Howard, Drake, Hawkins, Frobisher, Raleigh, Gilbert, and others, who fought the Spaniards.

10.    Mark as ye go. In point of fact, the course of the fleet would be two or three hundred miles from the coast of Spain and Portugal.

THE POUNDING OF NATAL.1

Mas^sa-cre <[mas-sa-ker), the killing of a number of people under cruel circumstances, or contrary to the usages of civilised society.

Kraal, village; collection of huts within a stockade.

Em-i-grants, those who leave one country to settle in another.

Des-patch-es or dis-patch-es, important official letter or letters sent from one public officer to another.

Es-sayi verb, attempt; try.

refused, and, in 1842, the British resumed possession of Natal. For the Boers had come into conflict with a native tribe whose country lay very near the colonial border ; and the Governor dreaded lest the emigrants, if left to themselves, would kindle the flame of war on the very edge of Cape Colony, and the dreadful scenes of Zulnland be repeated nearer home. When the British troops arrived to occupy the land, the Boers resolved to resist, and a skirmish took place in which the British lost heavily. Then the Dutchmen blockaded the garrison in their little fort at Port Natal. There was no way of retreat or escape. In a week or two, the provisions would be exhausted, and surrender would have to follow unless help came from without. No help could come to the hemmed-in British troops but from Cape Colony ; and the difficulty was how to acquaint their friends so far away with the news of their desperate plight. There was no way of sending despatches by sea ; and, on the landward side, there stretched, between Port Natal and the nearest British post, six hundred miles of unknown wilderness.

4.    To essay such a journey needed a resolute heart indeed, but an English colonist, Richard King by name, dared to attempt it. In the darkness of a winter night, he started on horseback, leading another horse. Day after day he rode wearily on. Pinched by hunger, aching with fatigue, through what seemed like countless leagues of thorny bush, across the two hundred streams that hurry through that land from their lofty sources in the Drakensberg to the sea, the gallant rider still kept on his toilsome path, urged forward by the memory of the anxious hearts he had left in the fort behind him, longing for the help he alone could bring.

5.    Success crowned the bold horseman’s attempt. On the tenth day after leaving Natal, King rode into the streets of Grahamstown,and told his message. No time was lost in sending reinforcements from Capetown and Algoa Bay, and, on the night of 24th June, 1842, the starving red-coats in Port Natal watched, with gladdening eyes, the soaring rockets out at sea, that told of help at last. When morning dawned, and showed the frigate Southampton in the bay, her decks crowded with troops, the Boers raised the siege and soon dispersed. Then peace was made. Unwillingly, the Boer farmers gave up the land they had fought for ; and Natal was proclaimed British territory in May, 1843.

—Daily Mail, London {Adapted).

1.    Natal. The coast of the British colony of Natal was named Natal Coast by Vasco da Gama in 1497, because it was discovered by him on Christmas Day (the day of the Nativity). The colony is named from the harbour, which was called Port Natal. The population of Natal is about half a million, the great majority being Zulus and Kaffirs. Its area is about 20,000 square miles—somewhat less than a fourth of that of Victoria.

2.    Maritz. When the Boers cast about for a name for the capital of the Republic of Natalia, they hit upon the idea of immortalising the murdered Pieter Retief and Andreas Maritz in the word Pietermaritzburg. (The derivation of this word given in The School Paper—Classes V. and VI., December, 1899, was not complete.)

3.    Tugela River, in Natal. It flows east, and then south-east, from the Drakensberg Mountains Into the Indian Ocean.

C:. Grahamstown, south-east of Cape Colony.

THE OLD BOER RIFLEMAN.

Com-mand-O, body of burghers (Boer citizens) called out on military duty. To commandeer is to call out men, or seize horses, goods, &c., for military service.

Veld or Veldt (velt), open plain.

Spruit, stream.


Kop-je (kop-yee, or, commonly, copy), or Kop, or Koppie, hill, often rugged and strewn with boulders. (je is a diminutive affix.)

Trek, verb, leave a country in waggons to settle in a region unoccupied by white men; noun, exodus; emigration.


“ WITH DEATH’S PROPHETIC EAR.” l

Lay my rifle here beside me, set my Bible on my breast,

For a moment let the warning bugles cease;

As the century is closing, I am going to my rest,

Lord, lettest Thou Thy servant go in peace.

But, loud through all, the bugles ring a cadence in mine ear, And on the winds my hopes of peace are strowed—

Those winds that waft the voices that already I can hear Of the rooi-baatje 2 singing on the road.

“the rooi-baatje singing on the road.”

(From the Transvaal War Atlas (Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons) : an excellent and cheap atlas, geography, and history combined.)


Yes, the red-coats are returning, I can hear the steady tramp,

After twenty years of waiting, lulled to sleep,

Since rank and file at Potchefstroom 3 we hemmed them in their camp, And cut them up at Bronkerspruit 3 like sheep.

They shelled us at Ingogo,3 but we galloped into range,

And we shot the British gunners where they showed ;

I guessed they would return to us, I knew the chance must change—-Hark ! the rooi-baatje singing on the road !

But now from snow-swept Canada, from India’s torrid plains,

From lone Australian outposts, hither led,

Obeying their commando, as they heard the bugle’s strains,

The men in brown have joined the men in red.

They come to find the colours at Majuba 3 left and lost,

They come to pay us back the debt they owed ;

And I hear new voices lifted, and I see strange colours tossed,

’Mid the rooi-baatje singing on the road.

The old, old faiths must falter, and the old, old creeds must fail—

I hear it in that distant murmur low—

The old, old order changes, and ’tis vain for us to rail,

The great world does not want us : we must go.

And veldt, and spruit, and kopje to the stranger will belong,

No more to trek before him we shall load ;

Too well, too well, I know it, for I hear it in the song Of the rooi-baatje singing on the road.

—Oriel in The Argus (Melbourne).

1.    This poem was written before the outbreak of the Boer War. “ With death’s prophetic ear.” These words are from a stanza in Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage. The Duchess of Richmond gave a ball in Brussels, and that very night—the 15th of June, 1815—the British troops had to march to meet the French under Napoleon. The Duke of Brunswick, who was present at the ball, was filled with gloomy forebodings, and would take no part in the festivities. He was killed next day at Quatre Bras (Jcatr brah), when leading the advanced guard of Wellington’s army.

2.    Rooi-baatje (pronounce the “j” as y), red-coats. (The Boers’ name for an Englishman is rooinek, redneck. Baatje is Dutch for waistcoat, jacket.) The British soldiers in South Africa now wear khaki (or kharkee) uniforms.

3.    Potchefstroom, Bronkerspruit, Ingogo, Majuba. The Boer War of 1880-81 (See The School Paper—Classes V. and VI., December, ’99) commenced in December, of 1880, and lasted less than three months. Small detachments of British troops were besieged in several towns. The garrison of Potchefstroom (in the south of the Transvaal) surrendered after a two days’ siege. Colonel Anstruther and a party of 230 men were surprised, and many of them killed at Bronkhorst Spruit (or Bronkerspruit), about 40 miles from Pretoria, the capital of the Transvaal. The Boers invaded Natal, and took up a position on Laing’s Nek, four miles inside the border, in the north-west. Sir George Colley, with a small force, attacked them, but was driven back. In February, he fought a drawn battle on Ingogo Heights. On the 28th of that month, he scaled Majuba Hill, overlooking the Boer camp. Next morning at daybreak, the Boers began to climb the hill. In the end, panic seized the British, and the result was a terrible disaster. General Colley was among the slain.

THE CHARGE AT ELANDS LAAGTE.1

Pla-teau' (pla-toe'), level, elevated area of land; table-land.

Khar-kee or Kha-ki( here means uniforms mad e of a material of a yellowish-drab colour, called by that name.

In-ter-sect-ed, divided into parts.

Shrap-nel, projectile for a cannon, consisting of a shell filled with bullets and a small bursting charge to scatter them at any given point while in flight.

Cas-U-al-ties, accidents ; misfortunes ; in military usage, loss caused by death and wounds. 15 16

Rhythm, measured beat; movement in musical time.

Das-tard-ly, cowardly; base.

Ruse, trick; stratagem.

Fu-tile {few-till or few-tile), useless; vain; worthless.

Laager, camp provided with a defensive enclosure, such as trenches, brushwood, or, as often, waggons lashed together.

Ca^dence, modulation of sound.

Skirled, played in a shrill tone.

and living seemed sandwiched together amongst the boulders. Then their officers urged them to fresh exertions. Again the sky line darkened with lines of men bent double. Again they seemed to melt away : still they were fed from below. And then all were over; but not all, for 50 stout fellows lay prostrate in the clefts of the rain-washed stones.

3.    And, when the dip was passed, what a task lay before them! They were called to face 600 yards of rough, rock-strewn open—intersected at intervals with barbed wire fences. At the end rose a kopje, which commanded the plateau from end to end, as a butt would command a rifle range. No one could be seen, but all could feel that that final kopje was alive with small-bore rifles. Stumbling forward among the stones, blundering over the bodies of their comrades as they fell before them, the men pressed on. It had ceased to be a moment for regimental commanders. Even sections could barely keep together. It was the brute courage of the individual alone that carried them on. Men stopped, lay under stones and fired, were shot as they lay or rose from cover to rush another dozen yards. Men and officers were slaughtered in batches at the fences. But here, in places, the rain of bullets had done the work of wire cutters.

4.    More than half way was won; and yet, though the summit of the kopje seemed one continued burst of shrapnel, the fire from it in no wise slackened. It seemed that the men had done all that could be done. Colonel Dick Cunyngham2 was shot in two places, half the officers of the Gordon Highlanders were down. The level crest seemed strewn with countless casualties. The critical moment had arrived. It was to be victory now or never.

5.    Colonel Ian (yan) Hamilton ordered a bugler to sound the “Charge.” Out rang the bugle, such buglers as were unhurt took up the note; Drum-Major Lawrence, of the Gordon Highlanders, rushed out into the open and headed the line, playing the fateful call. The sound of the Devonshire bugles came up from the valley bottom, and the persistent rhythm of their firing gave heart to the flank attack. Waves of glittering bayonets danced forward in the twilight. Twenty determined Boers still held the final kopje. Again the bugles sounded the “advance;” then the “cease fire” rang out.3 There was a lull in the firing; men stopped and stood up clear of cover. In a moment the Boers (boors) re-opened, and swept away a dozen brave men.

6.    Bat the dastardly ruse was a last and futile effort to save the day. Lieutenant Field, at the head of his company of the Devonshire Regiment, was into the battery with the bayonet; the men who had served the guns till the steel was six feet away from them were shot or bayoneted. Devons, Manchesters, Highlanders,4 and Light Horsemen met, and dashed for the laager in the dip below.

7.    It was a wild three minutes; men were shouting “Majuba!”Then in honest cadence the “cease fire” sounded, the pipes of the Gordons skirled the regimental quick-step, and we saw a sight which

thrilled us all, the white flag6 fluttering from a Mauser carbine7 held by a bearded Boer.

—The Correspondent of The Times (London).

1.    Elands Laagte (?¿lon(rj)* law-tey), literally, the valley of the eland (a kind of antelope), hill in Natal, which was the scene of a British victory over the Boers on the 21st of October, 1899.

2.    Colonel Cimyngham. This officer was killed during the Boer assault on Ladysmith on the 6th of January, 1900.

3.    “ Cease fire rang out- This was a trick of the Boers to mislead the British.

4.    Devons, Manchesters, Highlanders, regiments named after the places where they were raised or enrolled.

5.    Majuba, hill which was the scene of a British defeat by the Boers in 1S81.

6.    White flag, the sign of surrender. The flag of truce is white.

7.    Mauser (mato-ser) carbine, weapon—magazine rifle—with which the Boers are armed.

THE VICTORIA CROSS.1

Im-rni-nent, near at hand ; impending. Leal, true ; faithful ; loyal.

Maimed, crippled ; disabled.


Al-lah, name of the Supreme Being, in use among the Arabs and Mohammedans generally. Freighted (/rated, the “ a ” as in alt), loaded. Meed, reward.

[VrcT 'RiA Cross, 7th Hi ssars, Major Charles Crawkord Fraser.—" For conspicuous and cool gallantry on 31st of December, 1858, in having volunteered, at great personal risk, and under a sharp fire of musketry, to swim to the rescue of Captain Stisted and some men of the 7th Hussars, who were in imminent danger of being drowned in the River Raptee,* while in pursuit of the rebels. Major Fraser succeeded in this gallant service, although at the time partially disabled, not having recovered from a severe wound received while leading a squadron in a previous action.”—The London Gazette.]

Gleaming eyes and dusky faces,

Brazen guns, depressed for slaughter, Track of blood in furrowed places, There the jungle, here the water ; Eager troop and opening section,

Crash of grape and hiss of ball ; Trumpets at a chief’s direction Sounding the recall.


“Turn again, we shall not heed them, Gallant steed, so leal and true ;

Others in the rear may lead them,

We have something yet to do. Through the wounded, through the

dying.

Clear the press and stem the rout;

In that stream a comrade’s lying,

We must have him out !

Chargers bold and riders bolder,

None dare stem that torrent’s force. Breaking over girth and shoulder, Sweeping downward man and horse.

In its bend the stream runs deeper ;

Foes about him, friends afar, Sheltering where the bank is steeper Clings the maimed hussar.

Off with buckle, belt, and sabre 1 Heedless of a crippled limb,

Scorning peril, stripped for labour,

In he dashes, sink or swim ;

Now he’s whirling round the eddy,

Now he battles in its roar,

Now, with lengthened stroke and steady, Nears the other shore.

Dusky faces peering grimmer,

Fiery flashes from the wood,

Watery splashes round the swimmer Where the bullet rips the flood.


Now to reach him foothold gaining, Now to drag him safely back, Through an angry volley, raining Death along the track !

Dusky faces blankly staring On a prey thus lost and won ; Muttered curses, fiercely swearing,

“ Allah ! allah ! bravely done ! ” While the hero, like a galley,

Nobly freighted, stems the tide, While a score of troopers rally On the other side.

Tramp of horse and death-shot pealing, Wolfish howl and British cheer, Cannot drown the whisper, stealing Grateful on the rescuer’s ear.


“ Wounded, helpless, sick, dismounted, Charlie Fraser, well I knew,

Come the worst, I might have counted Faithfully on you ! ”

Thus the double danger spurned he, Bold to slay and bold to save,

Thus the meed of honour earned he, Doubled for the doubly brave.

Badge of succour, badge of daring,

Gold and bronze, by which ’tis dross, Next the swimmer’s medal, wearing His VICTORIA CROSS.

—G. J. Whyte-Melville.


1.    Victoria Cross, a decoration instituted by the Queen, and conferred for some signal act of valour or devotion performed in the presence of the enemy. It was first bestowed in 1857, at the close of the Crimean war. The cross, which is Maltese in shape, is made of bronze. The ribbon is blue for the navy, and red for the army. On the clasp are two branches of laurel, and below is a V, from which the cross hangs. (See illustration for the other details.) The recipients also receive a pension of £10 per annum, and have the privilege of writing “ V.C.” after their name.

2.    River Raptee, in the north of India.

SIR WALTER RALEIGH’S FIRST MEETING WITH QUEEN ELIZABETH —continued.


1. It was even so. The royal barge, manned by the Queen’s watermen richly attired in the regal liveries, and having the banner of England displayed, did indeed lie at the great stairs which ascended from the river to the palace, and, along with it, two or three other boats for transporting such part of her retinue as were not in immediate attendance on the royal person.


best put back Earl what we


L'iv^er-ies, dresses worn by servants. Ret-in-ue, attendants ; followers.

Jer-kins, jackets.

Hal-berd, weapon, partly axe and partly spear.


“ This bodes us no good,” said Blount. “We were again, and tell the have seen.”

“ Tell the Earl what we have seen!” said Walter; “why, what have we seen but a boat, and men with scarlet jerkins, and halberds in their hands ? Let us do his errand, and tell him what the Queen says in reply.”

2. So saying, he caused the boat to be pulled towards a landing-place at some distance from the principal


Ush-ers, door-keepers; men whose duty it is to walk before persons of rank.

Cav-a-lier; gay soldier; originally, a horseman. Re-sent-ment, feeling of anger.

COX-COmb, fool; vain fellow.


SIR WALTER SCOTT (1771-1832).


one, which it would not, at that moment, have been thought respectful to approach, and jumped on shore, followed, though with reluctance, by his cautious and timid companions. As they approached the gate of the palace, one of the sergeant porters told them they could not at present enter, as Her Majesty was in the act of coming forth.

3.    At this moment, the gate opened, and ushers began to issue forth in array, preceded and flanked by the band of Gentlemen Pensioners.1 After this, amid a crowd of lords and ladies, yet so disposed around her that she could see and be seen on all sides, came Elizabeth herself, then in the prime of womanhood, and in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty, and who would in the lowest rank of life have been truly judged a noble figure, joined to a striking and commanding countenance.

4.    The young cavalier had probably never yet approached so near the person of his sovereign, and he pressed forward, as far as the line of warders permitted, in order to avail himself of the present opportunity. His companion, on the contrary, kept pulling him backwards, till Walter shook him off impatiently, letting his rich cloak drop carelessly from one shoulder, a natural action, which served, however, to display to the best advantage his well-proportioned person.

5.    Unbonneting at the same time, he fixed his eager gaze on the Queen’s approach, with a mixture of respectful curiosity and modest yet ardent admiration, which suited so well his fine features, that the warders, struck with his rich attire and noble countenance, suffered him to approach the ground over which the Queen was to pass, somewhat closer than was permitted to ordinary spectators.

6.    Elizabeth fixed her keen glance on the youth as she approached the place where he stood, with a look in which surprise at his boldness seemed to be unmingled with resentment, while a trifling accident happened which attracted her attention towards him yet more strongly.

7.    The night had been rainy, and, just where the young gentleman stood, a small quantity of mud interrupted the Queen’s passage. As she hesitated, the gallant, throwing his cloak from his shoulders, laid it on the miry spot, so as to insure her passing over it dryshod.

8.    Elizabeth looked at the young man, who accompanied this act of devoted courtesy with a profound reverence and a blush that overspread his whole countenance. The Queen was confused, and blushed in her turn, nodded her head, hastily passed on, and embarked without saying a word.

“Come along, Sir Coxcomb,” said Blount; “your gay coat will need the brush to-day, I wot.”2

“ This cloak,” said the youth, taking it up and folding it, “ shall never be brushed while in my possession.”

“ And that will not be long, if you learn not a little more economy.”

9.    Their discourse was here interrupted. “ I am sent,” said one of the band of Pensioners, after looking at them attentively, “ to a gentleman who hath no cloak, ora muddy one. You, sir, I think,” addressing the young cavalier, “are the man; you will please to follow me.” .

10. So saying, he walked away, followed by Walter, leaving the others behind, Blount’s eyes almost starting from his head with the excess of his astonishment. And, shaking his head with a mysterious air, he walked to his own boat, and returned to Dej3tford.

—From Kenilworth, a romance, by Sir Walter Scott.

{To he continued.')

1.    Gentlemen Pensioners, a body first formed by Henry VIII. It consisted of forty gentlemen, and its duty was to act as a guard for the king or queen on certain occasions.

2.    Wot, 1st (and 3rd) pers., sing, number, pres, tense, of A. S. witan, to know.

TEARS.

Lach-ry-mal. pertaining to, or secreting, tears. Se-cretesi separates from the blood.

Or-i-fice, opening ; mouth, as of a tube. In-ces-sant-ly, unceasingly; continually. E-mc/tion, excitement of the feelings.


Sa-line; salty.

Con-Stit-U-entS, components; elements. Al-ka-line, having the properties of soda. Cor-ne-a, transparent part of the coat of the eyeball which covers the iris and pupil.


1.    Our eyes are always wet with tears, not only when we weep, but always.

1 and 2 represent the cartilages of the lids, the skin of which has been removed ; 3, lachrymal canals; 4, lachrymal sac; 5, lachrymal puncta or entrances to canals ; 8, nasal duct; 9, lachrymal gland ; 10, lachrymal ducts.


At the outer corner of every eye is what is called the lachrymal gland, which nestles under the overhanging bone of the forehead. This organ secretes the fluid which flows over the eyeball to the inner corner, and there it disappears through a little orifice, whence it is in turn conducted to the nostril. That is why we require so many handkerchiefs when we have a cold.

2.    Now comes the question.

How do the tears find their way to the nose ? Examine your eye in the mirror, and you will find a small elevation upon the lower eyelid, near the nose.

Place your finger upon the lower eyelid just below this small elevation, so as to turn it outward. There you will see two holes, each like a pin prick, and there you have found the passages which conduct the tears into the nostrils.

3.    These little orifices, for various causes, frequently become obstructed, in which case you are bound to weep incessantly until relief is afforded you by the removal of the obstruction.

The overflow of tears which follows some great grief is created by the lachrymal gland under pressure of emotion.

4.    Why are tears salt? Well, our tears are distilled from the very springs of our inmost vitality, for they are separated from the arterial blood freshly circulated from the heart ; and, as this contains about six or seven parts in one thousand of saline constituents, so tears contain one-third per cent, of chloride of sodium, besides a very small proportion of other salts, ninety-eight per cent, being water.

5. The office of this alkaline fluid is to clear, clean, and moisten the cornea, which, having no blood vessels, would, of course, wither and dry up without this moisture, and we should become blind.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE FÊTE FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN.

1.    On the 12th of December last, a garden fête was given by Lord

and Lady Brassey at Government House to the sixth-class children of the State, the Church of England, the Roman Catholic, and the Jewish schools within the metropolitan area. Four thousand scholars assembled, the line stretching for half a mile along St. Kilda-road. Headed by the bands of the Cadet Force, they paraded in front of the main entrance to Government House. The strains of the National Anthem heralded the approach of His Excellency the Governor, accompanied by Lady Brassey.    •

2.    Lord Brassey, in addressing the gathering, said—“ Girls and boys of our State schools, for the fifth time, and I regret to say the last time, during my term of office, I, with Lady Brassey, welcome you most warmly to Government House. Many of the incidents of the career of the Governor of this colony are sources of great interest and pleasure, but there is nothing we do during the whole course of the year which gives us more sincere happiness and satisfaction than the entertainment which we have the privilege of offering to the girls and boys of our State schools. The Government endeavours in every way to advance the moral and social welfare of the colony; and there is no work which tends more towards this end than a sound system of popular education. Our desire is to give every encouragement to that good work, and to encourage the teachers in their duties. In as far as it is possible by such an entertainment as we offer this afternoon to encourage the girls and boys to profit by this education, we endeavour to help the Government in this good work. The circumstances are decidedly unfavourable to speaking, and, in any case, I do not intend to make a speech. So, in conclusion, I will merely say again, that Lady Brassey and myself have the greatest pleasure in welcoming you here this afternoon. Wherever we may be in the future, we shall always wish you, and those who may come after you in the State schools, successful careers. May you live good lives and prosper. Anything we have done in the past has been done most gladly, and anything we can do for the colony in the future will be done in the same spirit.”

3.    The Premier, Mr. McLean, at the invitation of His Excellency, then added a few words. He expressed his pleasure at the splendid evidence before them of the educational system of the colony. On behalf of the Government, he would say it was one of its highest aspirations, as it should be of any Government, to promote the instruction of the young, and thus fit them for the duties they were expected

1900.]    CLASSES V. AND VI.


IN FRONT OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

(Photograph kindly lent by the proprietors of The Leader.)

to perform in life. He thanked Lord Brassey for the magnificent entertainment provided for the children, and said that he believed he was expressing the feelings of every one when he said that he deeply regretted the impending departure of His Excellency. He wished Lord and Lady Brassey every prosperity, and expressed the earnest hope that they would return to the colony at some future time.

4.    The children having given three resounding cheers for His Excellency and the Premier, commenced tlieir attack upon the provisions, or turned to various sports and entertainments.

The general arrangements for the marshalling and management of the children were carried out by Major F. C. Eddy, assisted by Messrs. Moloney, Halkyard, Lewis, and Carter.

5.    In connection with this fête, the following letter has been received: —

Government House,

r    Melbourne, 13th January, 1900.

Dear Major Eddy,    ’

Will you express, on His Excellency’s and my behalf, to the teachers of the State and other primary schools, our great admiration for the wonderful way in which they organised the classes at our annual school picnic ? Everything went off without a hitch, and it did them the highest credit.

Good-bye, and many thanks for all the teachers’ trouble.

NOTICES.

1.    Dr. Gressweil wishes it to be notified that the date for competitors to hand to their head teachers tlieir essays on Hydatid Disease has been changed from the 20th of February (as announced in The School Papet—Classes V. and VI., September ’99) to the 20th of March, 1900. The delay in awarding the prizes for the essays already sent in has been unavoidable.

2.    For the majority of the photographs from which the illustrations were taken, that appeared in connexion with the article entitled The South Seas, No. 3—Levuka in the December number of The School Paper—Classes V. and VI., we desire to thank Mr. D. Garner Jones, head teacher of the Levuka Public School, to whom we were indebted for them.

3.    The Supplementary Roll of State Schools, of State School Teachers, and of Reclassification of State Schools, issued on the 20th of December, 1899, in accordance with section 80 of the Public Service Act 1890, was prepared and signed by only two members of the Committee of Classifiers, the third being absent on leave.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. VICTORIA.

’The Sohoor Fafek

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Yol. IL, No. 17.] MELBOURNE.    [March, 1900.

TO ARMS!

Mailed, provided with defensive armour. (Mail is a flexible fabric made of metal rings interlaced.)

Myr-i-ad, immense number ; strictly, ten thousand, from Greek murías, ten thousand.

Mart, market.

Byre, house for cows.

Men-ace, threat; show of an intention to inflict evil.

I.

Now let the cry, “ To arms ! To arms ! ” Go ringing round the world ;

And swift a wave-wide empire swarms Round battleflag unfurled !

Wherever glitters Britain’s might,

Or Britain’s banner flies,

Leaped up mailed myriads with the light

Of manhood in their eyes ;

Calling upon farmstead, mart, and strand, “We come ! And we ! And we ! That British steel may hold the land, And British keels the sea ! ”

II.

From English hamlet, Irish hill,

Welsh hearths, and Scottish byres, They throng to show that they are still

Sons worthy of their sires :

That what these did, we still can do, That what they were, we are,

Whose fathers fought at Waterloo. 1 And died at Trafalgar ! Shoulder to shoulder see them stand, Wherever menace be,

To guard the lordship of the land And trident of the sea.


Tri-dent, kind of sceptre with three prongs,— the common attribute, or symbol of power, of Neptune, who, in Roman mythology, was the god of the sea. The figure Britannia, the symbol of Great Britain, is represented holding trident.

Scep-tre, staff or baton borne by a sovereign; sovereignty.

Yeo-men, here, men in general; strictly, men,

next in order to the gentry.

III.

Nor in the parent isle alone

Spring squadrons from the ground ; Canadian shore and Austral zone With kindred cry resound :

“ From shimmering plain,17 18 and snow-fed stream,19

Across the deep we come,

Seeing the British bayonets gleam, Hearing the British drum.

Foot in the stirrup, hilt in hand,

Free men, to keep men free,

All, all will help to hold the land,

While England guards the sea! ”

.    IVT.

Comrades in arms, from every shore Where thundereth the main,

On to the front they press and pour To face the rifles’ rain ;

To force the foe from covert crag,

And chase them till they fall,

Then plant for ever England’s flag Upon the rebel wall!

What ! Wrench the sceptre from her hand,

And bid her bow the knee !

Not while her yeomen guard the land, And her ironclads the sea !


—Alfred Austin, Poet-laureate, in The Daily Telegraph.

1.    Waterloo, village of Belgium, nine miles south-east of Brussels. It was the scene of Napoleon’s ■utter defeat by Wellington and Bllicher, on the 18th of June, 1815.

THE TRANSVAAL REPUBLIC BEFORE THE WAR.

Ex-pend-i-ture, disbursement ; laying out, as of money.

Con-trib-utes, furnishes or supplies in part.

Ul-ti-ma-tum, final conditions or terms offered by either of two nations in a dispute.


Ap-prox-i-mate-ly, nearly.

Con-trol/ govern; regulate.

Mi-nor-i-ty, smaller number; — opposed to majority.

Fi -nan-ces (fi-nan-'ces), income of a state; public money.


1. In area, the South African Republic, or the Transvaal, is equal to England and Scotland combined. It is rich in gold, coal, iron,

and cattle, and has, on the whole, an agreeable climate.

2. Pretoria, a pretty little town, is the seat of government. A railway, 349 miles long, connects it with the capital of Portuguese East Africa, Lorenzo Marquez, on Delagoa Bay. Johannesburg, twenty years ago a collection of a few scattered huts, has now (before the outbreak of the Boer-British War) become the second largest town in South Africa, with a population of 110,000. Its rapid rise is due to the proximity of the gold-fields discovered in 1885. Johannesburg is connected by rail with Pretoria, which is about 45 miles north of it, with Durban, 483 miles to the south-east (the port of the British colony of Natal), and with Cape Town, distant 1,014 miles.

3. The population (black and white) of the Transvaal is small compared with its area, numbering approximately 800,000. Of these, about 70,000 are Boers, or'

Dutch farmers, who control the affairs and finances of the whole republic. The Uitlanders (oo'it-land-ers), or Outlanders, as they are often called, outnumber the BoerS by two to one. These Cape Colony—1,700,000.    The Transvaal—800,000.

Uitlanders are a mixed popu- POPULATION. (Each dot represents 100,000.) lation, consisting, for the

most part, of British, Americans, Poles, and Germans, who have been attracted by the rich deposits of gold. Their grievances against the Boer Government are many. They pay by far the greater amount of the taxes, yet they are debarred from having a voice in the spending of it. It appears unfair that the minority, consisting of Boers (who are said to detest the English), should have control of the finances of the republic.

4. The following comparison of the populations of the Transvaal under Boer rule and Cape Colony under British rule, and of the taxes they pay, will prove of interest.

Cape Colony—    The Transvaal—

£2,600,000.    £3,500,000.

EXPENDITURE.


Cape Colony.    The Transvaal.

EXPENDITURE PER HEAD.


Whilst the inhabitants of the Transvaal number only 800,000 against the 1,700,000 inhabitants of Cape Colony, the expenditure of the Transvaal is approximately £3,500,000 against £2,600,000 spent by Cape Colony. In other words, the inhabitants of the Transvaal pay £3,500,000 in taxes, whereas Cape Colony taxes her inhabitants to the extent of only £2,600,000. The expenditure works out to £1 10s. for each inhabitant of Cape Colony, and £4 10s. for each inhabitant of the Transvaal. In making the comparison, it must also be remembered that Cape Colony is more than twice the size of the Transvaal.

5. In the output of gold, the Transvaal takes a high place, for, of

THE WORLD’S OUTPUT OF GOLD—

THE TRANSVAAL’S SHARE IS ONE-FIFTH.

the total amount produced by the whole world, the Transvaal contri-

THE TRANSVAAL’S IMPORTS.    buteS one-fifth.

The Boer ultimatum forced the British Government into war. To the United Kingdom, besides the loss of life, the suffering, and the expenditure of money the war will entail, it also means a loss in trade of at least £17,000,000 annually—the amount of England’s exports to the Transvaal in 1897. As an exporter to the republic, the United States ranks next to England, with goods to the value of three millioL pounds, followed by Germany, with one million pounds’ worth.

—Adapted from an article in The Teachers' Aid,

WHAT I LIVE FOR.

As-signed; allotted; appointed.

Em-u-late, strive to equal or excel.

I live for those that love me;

For those I know are true;

For the heaven that smiles above me, And awaits my spirit, too ;

For all human ties that bind me;

For the task by God assigned me; For the bright hopes left behind me; And the good that I can do.

I live to learn their story

Who’ve suffered for my sake;

To emulate their glory

And follow in their wake—

Bards, patriots, martyrs, sages,

The noble of all ages,

Whose deeds crowd history’s pages, And Time’s great volume make.


Di-vine; godlike; heavenly.

Fic-tion, feigned or invented story.

I live to hold communion W ith all that is divine;

To feel there is a union

’Twixt Nature’s heart and mine; To profit by affliction;

Reap truth from fields of fiction; Grow wiser from conviction;

And fulfil each grand design.

I live to hail that season,

By gifted minds foretold,

W hen men shall live by reason, And not alone by gold;

When man to man united,

And every wrong thing righted, The whole world shall be lighted As Eden was of old.


I live for those that love me ;

For those that know me true;

For the heaven that smiles above me,

And awaits my spirit, too;

For the cause that lacks assistance;

For the wrong that needs resistance;

For the future in the distance;

And the good that I can do.

—George Linnaeus Banks.

LORD ROBERTS.

Poign-ant, sharp; piercing.

Ver-sa-tile, turning with ease from one thing to another; many-sided.

Con-tem-po-ra-ries, those that live at the same time with another.

Per-son-al-i-ty, that which constitutes distinction of person; individuality.

Sub-al-tem, ranking as a junior officer. Priv-i-lege, peculiar benefit or advantage. Im-plic-it-ly, with unreserved confidence. Cur-rent, generally received; common. En-thu-si-asm, strong excitement of feeling on behalf of a cause or subject

life fall of noble deeds, than in thus obeying the call of his Sovereign and country, at a moment when a poignant private sorrow20 added heavy argument to what might otherwise have been pleaded to excuse his service.

, ......:

■■ ■■

FIELD-MARSHAL LORD ROBERTS, commanding the Imperial Forces in South Africa. (This block was kindly lent by the proprietor of Melbourne Punch.)

the political atmosphere, and cheered the national mind with the promise of great measures and of resolute strokes. In addition to countless other qualities of the perfect warrior, he possesses that which Napoleon4 demanded from his generals—good luck. Perhaps that is only another name for the foresight, vigilance, invention, and resource which fortune is wont to follow; but the briefest glance at the services of Lord Roberts shows a triumphant career, which in itself explains— apart from his personal gifts—the intense faith placed in him by the army at large, by his contemporaries.

3.    To those who, like myself, have the honour and pleasure of his friendship, it will be well known that the splendid martial record of the field-marshal accounts but partially for his boundless popularity with the troops. The deeper secret lies in his personality, where the strongest virtues of the soldier blend with the simplest and most sterling qualities of the faultless gentleman and faithful comrade. I shall never forget a happy morning which I passed in his company riding round the walls of Delhi, at the siege of which, in 1857, he had assisted as a subaltern in the artillery. Sir Frederick Roberts, as he was then called, commanded in 1885 the Northern Division of the army of Delhi;5 and, after breakfast in the head-quarters tent, I had the privilege of visiting with him the chief spots of interest in the memorable siege.

4.    I learned two lessons that day in a long and pleasant conversation with our renowned soldier. One was never to trust military history again too implicitly, for, part by part, and point by point, Sir Frederick showed me how mistaken were most current narratives, and how different from accepted versions the real cause of conflict had been. And the other thing I learned was to wonder no longer at the passionate enthusiasm of attachment felt by the soldier for his favourite general. There is nothing he is afraid of on earth or sea—except a black cat, which Lord Roberts cannot abide.

—Sir Edwin Arnold, in The Daily Telegraph (London).

1 Veteran soldier. Lord Roberts is sixty-seven years old. His exploits in Afghanistan won for him In 1892 the title of Baron Roberts of Kandahar.

2.    Private sorrow. In the reverse suffered by General Buffer at Coienso, early in December last, Lieutenant Roberts, the only son of Lord Roberts, was killed.

3.    Lord Kitchener is fifty years old. lie was twenty-one when he entered the army. His services in the battle of Omdurman and in reconquering the Soudan won for him the thanks of both Houses of Parliament, a grant of £30,000, and his elevation to the peerage as Baron Kitchener of Khartoum.

4.    Napoleon, born 1769, at Ajaccio in Corsica, made Emperor of the French (1804), defeated at Waterloo (1815), and died at St. Helena (1821).

5.    Delhi (del'-hee), town in India, on the Jumna, a tributary of the Ganges. During the Indian Mutiny (1857-8), the town was occupied by the rebels ; but, after a siege that lasted about three months, it was taken by Sir John Lawrence.

A FRENCH MOTTO.

Noblesse oblir/e, nobility (of rank or character) imposes obligations, that is, we are bound by the obligations of our education, our refinement, our advantages, to be kind, courageous, and generous.

HYMN BEFORE ACTION.

Le-gion, army; military force; strictly, body of infantry and cavalry, consisting- of different numbers at different periods,—from about 4,000 * to 6,000 men.

Je-ho^vah, Scripture name of the Supreme Being, by which He was revealed to the Jews as their Sovereign.

The earth is full of anger,

The seas are dark with wrath,

The nations in their harness Go up against our path:

Ere yet we loose the legions,

Ere yet we draw the blade,

.Jehovah of the Thunders,

Lord God of Battles, aid !

High lust, and froward bearing,

Proud heart, rebellious brow,

Deaf ear, and soul uncaring,

We seek Thy mercy now !

The sinner that forswore Thee,

The fool that passed Thee by,

Our times are known before Thee— Lord, grant us strength to die !


Lust, eagerness to possess ; covetousness.

Fro-ward, wayward; obstinate; ungovernable.

Van-guard? troops that march in the front of an army; the van.

For those 1 that kneel beside us At altars not Thine own,

Who lack the lights that guide us,

Lord, let their faith atone.

If wrong we did to call them,

By honour bound they came;

Let not Thy wrath befall them,

But deal to us the blame.

From panic, pride, and terror,

Revenge that knows no rein,

Light haste, and lawless error,

Protect us yet again.

Cloak Thou our undeserving,

Make firm the shuddering breath,

In silence and unswerving To taste Thy lesser death.


E’en now their vanguard gathers,

E’en now we face the fray ;—

As Thou didst help our fathers,

Help Thou our host to-day !

Fulfilled of signs and wonders,

In life, in death, made clear,—

Jehovah of the Thunders,

Lord God of Battles, hear !

—Rudyard Kipling, a living English poet, born 1865.

1. For those, representatives of conquered heathen tribes, particularly those of India. There are many Hindoo (Sepoy) regiments carrying the Queen’s colours. These troops are not being employed -against the Boers, though they have often fought against the Afghans and others.

BRITISH VERSUS BOERS: AN ARTILLERY DUEL.

€hal-lenge, act of a sentry in demanding the countersign from any one who appears at or ne r his post.

Lieu-ten-ant (lef-ten-ant), officer who supplies the place- of a superior in his absence; commissioned officer in the army next below a captain.

Shrap-nel, shrapnel shells, collectively. (Shrapnel shell (named alter its inventor, Colonel Shrapnel), a projectile for a cannon, consisting of a shell filled with bullets and a small bursting charge to scatter them at any given point while in flight.)


Lim-bered brought to a position partly by means of the limbers. (Limber, the detachable fore part of a gun carriage, consisting of two wheels, an axle, and a shaft to whichlhe horses (or mules) are attached. On top is an ammunition box upon which the artillery-men sit.)

Rep-e-ti-tiOU, act of repeating ; a doing again.

Di-Vine? Cjnjecbure; guess.

Ma nceu-vre (ina-noo-ver), change in position with reference to getting advantage in attack or defence.

1. We rode along through open country direct for Cole’s Kop,following up the column that had already gone on. It seems that the advance guard of this column, pushing along in the dark the night before, came right under the big hill marked as Gibraltar Kopje (copy). The first thing that they knew was the challenge, in good English, by a Boer picket, W’ho are you ? ” Then there was a scurry of hoofs into darkness. A voice shouted out some sentences in Dutch, and a volley came from Gibraltar Kopje that whistled round our guns like hail. Two gunners were killed, two or three horses were shot dead, and one gunner’s helmet was shot through without any injury to the man. This caused a rapid withdrawal of the guns and of the cavalry to Cole’s Kop.

2.    It was broad daylight when Lieutenants Osborne, Heron, and myself arrived on the scene. We saw a splendid artillery duel going on. Our guns, under Cole’s Kop, were blazing away as fast as they could be served, and the summit of the Boer position was white with the smoke of our bursting shells. The Boers answered with their 15-pounder shrapnel shell, that sends a hail of bullets tearing along the ground when it bursts. As we rode across the long flat between Porter’s Hill and Cole’s Kop, we could see, far ahead of us, our gunners working like mad in the dust caused by the bursting of the shrapnel falling near them. From a long distance off, it seemed as if every shell went right among them, but, as a matter of fact, the Boer shooting was nothing like as accurate as ours. The line of guns kept its position, with a black mass of cavalry waiting behind the big hill.

3.    Suddenly, the Boer fire slackened, and our cavalry dashed up from behind Cole’s Kop. Half our guns were limbered up, and on

KOPJES !N NATAL.

[(a) The road from Estcourt to Colenso (25 miles), (b) The road from Estcourt to Weenen (32 miles). The bridge is over the Little Bushman’s River, a tributary of the Bushman’s River, which .flows into the Tugela (too-gayilah). ]

they went at full speed, skirting the foot of Cole’s Kop, and working round towards Gibraltar Kopje. It was one of the finest sights one could wish to see. The steady swing of cavalry in the front and in the rear of the guns was magnificent, while, in the centre of the columns, the guns bumped and rocked madly over stones and deep water channels, now and again crashing into the waterway. Up they went on the other side at full speed, while the gunners clung to their seats, and the drivers plied their whips to keep the pace going.

4. We then saw, at the top of the hill at the end of the Boer position nearest to us, the flicker of five or six small flashes of light ; and there burst out the most appalling sound one could imagine. The angry clatter of the quick-firing gun and of the Maxim-Nordenfeltgun was like a quick succession of small thunderclaps. When we saw the dust fly up as the shells burst just behind our guns, we realised what Kipling3 means by a “hail of Nordenfelt.” When the shells burst, they tore up the ground like a storm of iron hail. The Boers have plenty of these guns, both here and at Modder River,4 and every one who has heard them admits that the noise of their discharge is the most terrifying incident of the battle-field. It seems such a terrible thing, this constant repetition of explosion, and the storm of small shell that follows.

■ 5. Men who will joke when they hear ordinary shell coming their way turn white when they hear the awful clatter of the “ thunderbolt gun,” as it is called by the troops. It throws a succession of shells, each weighing 1 lb., and bursting into iron fragments on landing. We watched our guns and cavalry holding their way headlong to the last foot of Cole’s Kop, while the shrapnel and the Nordenfelt shell tore up the ground just over them or just short of them. Every time the thunderbolt gun spoke, we watched in suspense while the shell flew across ; and, every time, we gave sighs of relief as we saw the dust rise clear of the flying guns and horsemen.

6.    We could not divine what the object of the rush was, but, evidently, it gave the Boers much uneasiness from the desperate way in which they worked their guns. All of a sudden, we saw the reason of the manœuvre. From the far side of Cole’s Kop, there emerged from the outlying hills a stream of our infantry, about 500 men, and these all began to run as fast as they could towards Gibraltar Kopje, from which the Boer riflemen were now shooting with great energy. It takes a lot of lead to kill a man. Our guns, cavalry, infantry, and mounted rifles all advanced under heavy rifle fire, but not a man fell. The guns that we had left behind Cole’s Kop kept up their fire on the Boer position, but it was a shot from one of Colonel Porter’s guns that silenced the clamouring Maxim-Nordenfelt. A shell went whizzing from one of our guns and landed right on the Boer piece, causing a general distribution of the gunners, and we heard no more of the thunderbolt gun. The mounted infantry threw themselves from their horses, and, with the infantry, they charged up the steep rocky sides of Gibraltar Kopje.

7.    The Boers fled at once from that end of the kopje, and, in five minutes, our infantry had seized the positions they had left, and the whole of our force was under the shelter of the hillside ; while the Berkshires and the mounted infantry, perched among the rocks at the top, opened a vigorous fire on the enemy at the other end of the hill. Our guns went out into the plain, and opened fire

on the Boer position. The Boer guns were not long in getting the new range, and the shrapnel and the Eordenfelt shell flew across from gun to gun. Two of our artillery horses fell dead in their harness in the rear of the guns, then a gunner dropped, and was swiftly carried to the rear. Then another followed.

8. All the while, from the top of the kopje 200 feet above the guns, our infantry and mounted infantry kept up a rattling fire, which the Boers returned from the far end of the hill. Our troops were lying hidden among the rocks ; and, as both sides used smokeless powder, there was nothing to be seen on the Boer end of the hill, but plenty to listen to, as rifles cracked, and bullets flew overhead, or flattened themselves against the stones behind which our men lay. A lieutenant of the Berkshires stood up, either in a spirit of bravado, or to encourage his men, and was at once shot dead. The stretcher men clambered up the steep rocks and fetched his body down. While this rifle firing was going on, the guns kept up the artillery duel; but one after another of the Boer guns ceased to reply, and, before long, we got no answer from them at all. Still our guns had to keep at work to prevent them shifting their disabled pieces ; and, every now and again, a shell was thrown into the hills at the north to prevent the Boers working round that way.

—Abridged from an article by A. B. Paterson, in The Argus (Melbourne).

1.    Cole’s Kop, hill near Colesberg, a town in the north-east of Cape Colony, not far from the Orange River, the southern boundary of the Orange Free State, which joined with the South African Republic (the Transvaal) in declaring war against the British Empire. Since this account was written, it has been occupied and strongly fortified by the Boers.

2.    Maxim-Nordenfelt, a kind of machine gun. Machine gun, a breech-loading gun (or group of such guns), mounted on a carriage or other holder, and having a reservoir containing cartridges, which are loaded into the gun and fired in rapid succession, sometimes in volleys, by machinery operated by turning a crank.

3.    Kipling, well-known novelist and poet.

4.    Modder River. The Modder River is a tributary of the Riet (reef), which flows through the Orange Free State and Griqua Land West into the Vaal River, a tributary of the Orange. At the Modder River, early in December last, Lord Methuen’s troops won a victory over the Boers.

SIE WALTEE EALEIGH’S PIEST MEETING WITH QUEEN ELIZABETH—continued.

1. The young cavalier was, in the meanwhile, guided to the water-aide by the Pensioner, who ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen’s barge. The two rowers soon brought the little skiff under the stern of the Queen’s boat, where she sat beneath an awning, attended by two or three ladies and the nobles of her household.


€av-a-lier( gay, sprightly, military man ; a gallant ; military man serving on horseback.

WRer-ry, long, narrow, light boat.

Liege-man, vassal ; faithful subject.

Ro-man-ces, stories of love and war ; extravagant stories.

Pur-port, meaning ; import.

Def-er-ence, submission in opinion ; respect.

Treason, disloyalty ; the offence of attempting to overthrow the government of the state to which the offender owes allegiance, or of betraying the state into the hands of a foreign power.


Jus-ti-fi-ca^tion, defence ; vindication ; words to show that one has done right.

Var-let, low fellow ; scoundrel; rascal. Em-pir-ic, quack doctor.

Coun-sel, advice; opinion.

Hon-our a-B'e, not base; regarded with esteem ; estimable.

Pen-ance, punishment.

Pen-it-ence, sorrow for doing wrong.

Po-tion, medicine for drinking.


2.    At length, one of the attendants, by the Queen's order apparently,, made a sign for the wherry to come alongside, and the young man was desired to step from his own skiff into the Queen’s barge, which he performed with graceful agility at the fore part of the boat, and was brought aft to the Queen’s presence, the wherry at the same time dropping* into the rear. The muddied cloak still hung upon his arm, and formed the natural topic with which the Queen introduced the conversation.

3.    “ You have this day spoiled a gay mantle in our service, young man. We thank you for your service, though the manner of offering it was unusual, and something bold.”

“ In a sovereign’s need,” answered the youth, “ it is each liegeman’s duty to be bold.”

“ That was well said, my lord,” said the Queen, turning to a grave person who sat by her. “Well, young man, your gallantry shall not go unrewarded. Go to the wardrobe-keeper, and he shall have orders to supply the suit which you have cast away in our service.”

4.    “ May it please your Grace,” said Walter, hesitating, “it is not

for so humble a servant of your Majesty to measure out your bounties ^ but, if it became me to choose-”

“ Thou wouldst have gold, I warrant me,” said the Queen interrupting him ; “ fie, young man ! I take shame to say, that, in our capital, such and so various are the means of thriftless folly, that to give gold to youth is giving fuel to fire, and furnishing them with the means of self-destruction.”

Walter modestly assured her that gold was still less in his wish than the raiment her Majesty had before offered.

5.    “ How, boy ! ” said the Queen, “ neither gold nor garment t What is it thou wouldst have of me, then ? ”

“ Only permission, madam—if it is not asking too high an honour —permission to wear the cloak which did you this trifling service.”

“ Permission to wear thine own cloak, thou silly boy P ” said the Queen.

“ It is no longer mine,” said Walter: “when your Majesty’s foot touched it, it became a fit mantle for a prince, but far too rich a one for its former owner.”

“ Heard you ever the like, my lords ? The youth’s head is turned with reading romances—what art thou ?”

6.    “ A gentleman of the household of the Earl of Sussex, so please

your Grace, sent hither with his master of horse, upon a message to your Majesty.”    _    _

In a moment, the gracious expression which Elizabeth’s face had hitherto maintained, gave way to an expression of haughtiness and severity.    #

“ My Lord of Sussex,” she said, “ has taught us how to regard his messages, by the value he places upon ours. We sent but this morning the physician-in-ordinary of our chamber, and that at no usual time. When he demanded admittance in our name, it was stubbornly refused. For this slight of kindness, we will receive, at

present at least, no excuse; and some such we suppose to have been the purport of my Lord of Sussex’s message.”

7. This was said in a tone, and with a gesture, which made Lord Sussex’s friends who were within hearing tremble. Walter trembled not; but, with great deference and humility, as the Queen’s passion gave him an ■opportunity, he replied, “So please your most gracious Majesty,

I was charged with no apology from the Earl of Sussex.”

8.    “With what were you then charged, sir ? ” said the Queen;

“ was it with a justification, or with a defiance P ”

“ Madam,” said the young man, “ my Lord of Sussex knew the offence approached unto treason, and could think of nothing save of securing the offender, and placing him in your Majesty’s hands, and at your mercy. The noble Earl was fast asleep when your most gracious message reached him, a potion having been administered to that purpose by his physician ; and his Lordship knew not of the ungracious repulse your Majesty’s royal and most comfortable message had received, until after he awoke this morning.”

9.    “And which of his domestics, then, presumed to reject my message without even admitting my own physician to the presence of him whom I sent him to attend ? ” said the Queen, much surprised.

“ The offender, madam, is before you,” replied Walter, bowing very low ; “ the full and sole blame is mine.”

“ What ! was it thou ? thou, thyself, that repelled my physician from Say’s Court ? What could occasion such boldness in one who ■seems devoted to his sovereign ? ”

10.    “Madam,” said the youth, “we say in our country that the physician is for the time the liege sovereign of his patient. Now, my noble master was then under dominion of a leech, by whose advice he had greatly profited, who had issued his commands that his patient should not that night be disturbed on the very peril of his life.”

“ Thy master has trusted some false varlet of an empiric,” said the 'Queen.

“I know not, madam, but by the fact that he is—this very morning—awakened, much refreshed, from the only sleep he has had for many hours.”

11.    The Queen answered hastily, and without affecting to disguise her satisfaction, “ By my word, I am glad he is better. But thou wert overbold to deny the access of my Doctor Masters. Know’st thou not that Holy Writ saith, In the multitude of counsel there is safety ’ ? ”

“ Ay, madam,” said Walter, “ but I have heard learned men say, the safety spoken of is for the physicians, not for the patient.”

12.    “ By my faith, child, thou hast pushed me home,” said the Queen, laughing; “ for my Hebrew learning does not come quite at a call. But, young man, what is thy name and birth ? ”

“ Raleigh is my name, most gracious Queen, the youngest son of a large but honourable family of Devonshire.”

“ Raleigh ? ” said Elizabeth, after a moment’s recollection, u have we not heard of your service in Ireland ? ”

“I have been so fortunate as to do some service21 there, madam,” replied Raleigh, “ scarce, however, of consequence sufficient to reach your Grace’s ears.”

“ They hear farther than you think of,” said the Queen, graciously. “ You are very young to have fought so well, and to speak so well. But you must not escape your penance for turning back Masters—the poor man hath caught cold on the river. So hark ye, Master Raleigh, see thou fail not to wear thy muddy cloak, in token of penitence, till our pleasure be farther known.”

—From Kenilworth, a romance by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

1, Some service. During the reign of Elizabeth, resistance to English rule was almost continuous in one part of Ireland or another. The most noteworthy event was the defeat of the English in 1598, at Blackwateg, by Hugh O’Neil, Earl of Tyrone. Tyrone’s rebellion was put down by Lord Mountjoy in 1602.

ACROSS THE BRIDGE.

Ap-par-ent-ly, clearly ; evidently. But-tress-es, supports ; in buildings, a projecting mass of masonry or timber. E-vent-U-al-ly, finally ; ultimately.

Lau-rel, evergreen shrub. It was used by the ancient Greeks to crown the victors in certain games and other competitions.

Ig-no-ble, base; mean.

to the pit of disgrace, where self-respect is lost, and conscience dies, and from where no other bridge arises to lift yon into the wide plain of freedom where the hills of honour stand in quiet greatness.

4.    The Bridge of Obedience is rough, and often seems the wrong way—leading from sunlight to gloom, from pleasure to pain, from success to failure. But sunlight, pleasure, and success are false when found on the near side of the Bridge of Obedience to God’s plain commands, to the voice of conscience, to every true, noble instinct within us, to obey which alone can give us peace of mind.

5.    The Bridge of Effort is steep and slippery, and it rises straight away from the flower-strewn ground of ease, but it leads at once to strength of character, to bracing of intellect, and eventually to success. This side of the Bridge of Effort lie the corpses of many a good intention, many a noble resolve. While beyond—the laurel leaves of a wider, stronger life are weaving a crown for the brow of God’s earnest workers.

6.    The Bridge of Patience stretches on and on, rising gradually above the storms and torrents, the failures, the roughness, and troubles of life, and it carries us away into the quiet land of rest for heart and mind and conscience, where the dark memories of weak passion, ignoble resentment, or unworthy rebellion can never come to haunt us.

—P. K. in Great Thoughts.

THE COOKERY CENTRE, EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,

VICTORIA,

In April, 1899, a cookery centre was established in Carlton. Sixty pupils were enrolled—48 girls over fourteen years of age, who had been for a year at least in the Sixth class; and twelve pupil-teachers, who were to be trained as cookery instructors. The pupils were divided into five groups of twelve, and the members of each group attended on the same day of the week for 24 weeks, when an examination was made of their progress and skill. The pupil-teachers’ class was held on Saturday. At the examination, the pupils were expected to be proficient in the practice and theory of primary cookery, the cleaning of the kitchen and utensils, laying the dinner cloth, and the care of table appointments.

The examiner, Monsieur Camille Loyer, reported as follows :—

“Having examined the teachers and scholars in the cooking classes, I have pleasure in reporting favourably on same. I was surprised and gratified at the excellent progress made, and find it difficult to discriminate where all have shown such aptitude for the culinary art, which has been so neglected in the past. I trust that the system of cookery classes will be carried through successfully in our schools, so that all pupils may have an opportunity of learning the invaluable art of good wholesome cooking.

“ I have much pleasure in allotting the prizes as follows:—Kate O’Callaghan, for best practical work ; Blanche Rye, for her high knowledge of methods ; Rose Tempany, for general all-round knowledge of cooking and its principles ; Florence Gerstman, for best paper in theory ; Isabel Arnold, for best cooked potatoes.”

The following is a list in order of merit of the pupils who presented themselves for examination and passed :—

Florence Gerstman, School No. 1402, Errol-street, North Melbourne ; Rose Tempany, School No. 1567, Richmond ; Nellie Gatherer, School No. 1406, Yarra Park ; Isabella Dale, School No. 2605, Rathdown-street, Carlton; Violet Hallinbowrey, School No. 2605, Rathdown-street, Carlton; Elsie Stevens, School No. 1567, Richmond ; Dora Thompson, School No. 391, Spring-street, Melbourne ; May Patullo, School No. 112, Faraday-street, Carlton ; K. O’Callaghan, School No. 112, Faraday-street, Carlton ;

Cassie Masson, School No. 1406, Yarra Park ; Elsie Levy, School No. 1895, Cambridgestreet, Collingwood ; Emma Youlden, School No. 1406, Yarra Park; Ada Holmes, School No. 1490, North Fitzroy ; Edith Dorman, School No. 1895, Cambridge-street, Collingwood; Jessie Adamson, School No. 1895, Cambridge-street, Collingwood ; Blanche Rye, School No. 112, Faraday-street, Carlton ; Isabel Arnold, School No. 112, Faraday-street, Carlton ; Eleanor Cullen, School No. 1689, King-street, West Melbourne ; Ethel McLeish, School No. 1402, Errol-street, North Melbourne ; Jennie Tilley, School No. 2605, Rathdown-street, Carlton ; G. Neville, School No. 1406, Yarra Park ; Emma Chambers, School No. 1689, King-street, West Melbourne ; Annie Edwards, School No. 1689, King-street, West Melbourne ; Daisy Hart, School No. 1402, Errol-street, North Melbourne; E. Eddy, School No. 1406, Yarra Park ; Adeline McDonald, School No. 1567, Richmond ; Susan Brocklebank, School No, 1567, Richmond; Kate O’Brien, School No. 391, Spring-street, Melbourne; Annie Hoggan, School No. 1252, Lee-street, Carlton ; Lily Pretty, School No. 1252, Lee-street, Carlton; Isabel Smith, School No. 112, Faraday-street, Carlton ; Mary McNab, School No. 1490, North Fitzroy ; Florence Perkins, School No. 1252, Lee-street, Carlton ; Ruby Parkins, School No 1567, Richmond ; Margaret Brennan, School No. 2605, Rathdown-street, Carlton ; Mary Spence, School No. 1689, King-street, West Melbourne; Daisy Cayless, School No. 1402, Errol-street, North Melbourne ; Alice Weate, School No. 1490, North Fitzroy ; Mary Buchanan, School No. 1689, King-street, West Melbourne ; Lily Perlstein, School No. 391, Spring-street, Melbourne; Hilda Bentley, School No. 112, Faraday-street, Carlton ; Agnes Robertson, School No. 1402, Errol-street, North Melbourne; Victoria Bowman, School No. 1402, Errol-street, North Melbourne; Lily Forde, School No. 1490, North Fitzroy ; Georgina McKenzie, School No. 2605, Rathdown-street, Carlton.

The following extracts are from the report of the lecturer and organiser, Mrs. A. Fawcett Story :—

“The behaviour, zeal, and diligence of the girls have left nothing to be desired, but there have been more failures in attendance than there should have been.

“ The course of instruction has been definitely laid down after careful consideration, and will be found to contain all the essentials of elementary cookery arranged under the following headings:—1. Roasting and baking; 2. Frying and grilling;

3. Soups and stews; 4. Pastry making; 5. Puddings; 6. Vegetables; 7. Fish cookery ; 8. Cold meat cookery ; 9. Invalid cookery ; 10. Cookery for breakfast and tea ; 11. Bread, scones, and cakes ; 12. Cheap dishes.

“ While every dish made is (in ordinarily prosperous times) well within the reach of the families to which State-school children belong, modifications are given, where-ever possible, by which it can be made to cost less money ; but, in choosing the dishes for the course, the purpose has been kept well within view of laying a good foundation upon which those girls who have natural taste and aptitude for cookery can build, until they are fitted to follow a calling which affords excellent remuneration for by no means arduous work. A trained cook can always command respect and consideration, as well as good pay, wherever she may find herself. In futherance of this object, dishes made of the simplest materials are prepared by the same methods as they would be if the materials were of the most costly kind; definite laws are given, with reasons , for every process. One step is made to lead to another, and the intelligence of the . pupils is awakened and drawn upon by every piece of work they do in the cookery school. Economy in its proper sense, and thrift without which no good cooking can be, are continually taught and exercised, perfect cleanliness is exhibited and enforced, and the girls soon delight in it, and take pride in their white tables and bright stoves and tttensils ; indeed, one of the most interesting moments of the day is after dinner, when the little cooks are working away with a will to restore the condition of order and cleanliness which they found in the morning. When we remember that, before many years are over, they will most of them have homes of their own, it is a pleasant thought that they are here gaining the necessary knowledge to enable them to make them the bright, happy, prosperous abodes they should be.”

NOTICE.

Essays on Hydatid Disease.

The date for competitors to hand to their head teachers their essays on Hydatid Disease has been altered from the 20th of March to the 23rd of April, 1900.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. IL, No. 18.] MELBOURNE.    [April, 1900.

THE REVEILLE.

Re-veil-le (r^-vdl-yay, the first “a” as in arm; in the British service, commonly, re-vel-ley), the beat of drum, or bugle call, at break of day, to give notice that it is time for the soldiers to rise.

Coun-sel, advice.

Sub-ju ga tion, state of being- compelled to submit to the government of another.


Yan-kee, nickname for a native of New England (states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, U.S.A.); by extension, an inhabitant of the Northern as distinguished from one of the Southern States ; applied sometimes to any inhabitant of the United States of America.

Rec-re-ant, mean-spirited, cowardly man.


Hark ! I hear the tramp of thousands,

And of armed men the hum :

Lo ! a nation’s hosts have gathered Round the quick, alarming drum,

Saying, “Come,

Freemen, come !

Ere your heritage be wasted,” said the quick, alarming drum.

“ Let me of my heart take counsel:

War is not of life the sum ;

Who shall stay and reap the harvest i When the autumn days shall come ? ”

But the drum Echoed, “ Come !

Death shall reap the braver harvest,” said the solemn-sounding drum.

‘ ‘ But, when won the coming battle,

What of profit springs therefrom ?

What if conquest, subjugation,

• Even greater ills become ? ”

But the drum Answered, ‘ ‘ Come !

You must do the sum to prove it,” said the Yankee-answering drum.

“What if, ’mid the cannon’s thunder,

' Whistling shot, and bursting bomb,

"When my brothers fall around me,

Should my heart grow cold and numb ? ”

But the drum Answered, “Come!

Better there in death united, than in life a recreant,—come !”

Thus they answered, hoping, fearing,

Some in faith, and doubting some,

Till a trumpet-voice proclaiming,

Said, “ My chosen people, come ! ”

Then the drum,

Lo ! was dumb,

Price Id.


For the great heart of the nation, throbbing, answered, “Lord, we come ! ” —Bret Harte (a living American poet and novelist, born 1839).

AFTER THE BATTLE OF ELANDS LAAGTEA

Urnit, body of soldiers considered for any purpose as a single whole. The units sent from Australia each numbered one hundred and twenty-five men. A battalion is an infantry unit. The war strength of a British battalion is 1,010 men of all ranks. .


Boul-ders or bowl-ders, large stones worn smooth, or rounded, by the action of water.

Im-por-tu-nate, troublesomely urgent; pestering.

Prone, prostrate ; flat; especially, lying with the face down.

(The following vivid description is abridged from an article by the late G. W. Steevens. This eminent war correspondent was shut up in Ladysmith with Sir George White’s forces, and died there from enteric fever.)

1.    Abruptly we realised that it was night. A mob of unassorted

soldiers stood on the rock-sown, man-sown hillside, victorious and helpless. Out of every quarter of the blackness leaped rough voices. “ G Company ! ” “ Devons here ! ” “ Imperial Light Horse ! ” “ Over here ! ” “ Over where ? ” Then a trip and a heavy stumble. “ Doctor wanted here ! Help for a wounded officer ! ”    “ This is the Gordon

Highlanders—what’s left of them.”

2.    Here and there, an inkier blackness moving showed a unit that had begun to find itself again. But, for half an hour, the hillside

was still a maze—a maze of bodies of men wandering they knew not whither, crossing and re-crossing, circling, stopping, and returning on their stumbles, slipping on smooth rock faces, breaking shins on rough boulders, treading with hobnailed boots on wounded fingers. At length, underfoot twinkled lights,, and a strong, clear voice floated up on to the confusion : “ All wounded men are to be brought down to the Boer camp between the two hills.”

3. Towards the lights and the Boer camp, we turned down the face of a jumbled, stumbling-block. A wary kick forward, a feel below—firm rock. Stop —and the firm rock spun, and the leg shot into an ankle-wrenching hole. Scramble out, and feel again ; here is a flat face—forward! And then a tug that jerks you on to vour back again: you forgot you had a horse to lead, and he does not like the look of this bit. Climb back again, and take him by the head ; still he will not budge. Try again to the right. Bang goes your knee into a boulder. Circle cannily round the horse to the left; here, at last, is something like a slope. Forward horse—so—gently! Hurrah! Two minutes gone—a yard descended. By the time we stumbled down that precipice, there had already passed a week of nights—and it was not yet 8 o’clock.

4. At the bottom were half a dozen tents, a couple of lanterns, and a dozen wagons—huge, heavy veldt ships lumbered up with cargo.

It was at least possible to tie a horse up, and turn round in the sliding mud to see what next. What next! Little enough question of that! Off the break-neck hillside still dropped hoarse, importunate cries. “Wounded man here! Doctor wanted!” “ Three of them here—a stretcher ! ”    “ A stretcher there ! Is there no stretcher ? ” There

was not one stretcher within voice shot.

5. Already, the men were bringing down the first of their wounded. Slung in a blanket came a captain, his wet hair matted over his forehead, brow and teeth set, lips twitching as they put him down, gripping his whole soul to keep it from crying out. He turned with the beginning of a smile that would not finish : “ Would you mind straightening out my arm ? ” The arm was bandaged above the elbow, and the forearm was hooked under him. A man bent over—and, suddenly, it was dark. “ Here, bring back that lantern I ” But the lantern was staggering up hill again to fetch the next. “ Oh, do straighten out my arm,” wailed the voice from the ground. “ And cover me up. I’m perishing with cold.” “Here are matches!” “And here ; I’ve got a bit of candle.” “ Where ? ”    “ Oh, do straighten out

my arm ! ”    “ Here, hold out your hand.” “ Got it; ” and the light

flickered up again round the broken figure, and the arm was laid straight. As the touch came on to the clammy fingers, it met something wet and red, and the prone body quivered all over. “ What,” said the weak voice—the smile struggled to come out again, but dropped back even sooner than before—“have they got my finger too ?” Then they covered up the body with a blanket wringing wet, and left it to soak and shiver.

For hours, every man with hands and legs toiled up and down, up and down, that ladder of pain.

1. Elands Laagte. See The School Paper—Classes V. and VI., February, 1900.

THE CARE OF THE WOUNDED.

A-bridg-ment, shortened form.

Bri-gade,' body of troops, whether cavalry, infantry, or mixed, consisting of two or more regiments, under the command of a brigadiergeneral.

Zone, band or area encircling anything.

Aug-ment-ed, increased.

BOV-'rU, form of beef tea, and the substance itself from which it is made.

I-den-ti-fi-ca-tion, act of proving to be the same.

Dis-crim-i-na-ted, distinguished; set apart as different.


U-nan-i-mous, being of one mind ; agreeing in opinion.

Mor-tu-a-ry, for receiving the dead.

Ef-fi-cien-cy, quality of producing a desired effect.

De-spond-en-cy, loss of hope; dejection of mind.

Pre-dom-i-nant, ruling; prevailing.

Met-tle, spirit, especially, of honour, courage, and fortitude.

Mit-i-ga-tion, lessening; abatement.


(The following is an abridgment of an article in The Lancet by the eminent surgeon, ¡Sir William MacCormac, who served for a time in South Africa.)

1. We arrived at Chieveley1 Station on December the 15th, about half-past 1 p.m. The cannonading in the direction of Colenso had ceased about 1 o’clock. We found the station occupied by a hospital

train, and. every one available helping to


A BRIGADE IN ACTION.


provide comforts freight


lillllf! usutas mini i mum


mum


If SIIMI


Collecting

station.


ÛDÛÛÛÛDÔÛB


2nd line of

assistance.


for the it carried. There were 119 wounded in the train. They had been taken on board, direct from the field, the train having run into the actual scene of action. This train carried, the first results .of the battle, and it was a very distressing sight. The wounded filled the carriages just as they had come from the field ; every wound had fieen dressed, and had been dressed extremely well, under fire.

2. Having obtained the necessary information and permission, we walked to the field hospitals of the 4th, 5th, and 6th Brigades, situated about three miles from Chieveley, under the crest of a hillock about 400 yards outside the fire zone. The state of these hospitals at the time of oar visit (halfpast 4 p.in.) is almost beyond description. Each of the three operating tents contained two operating tables ; and, as a patient was off the table, took his place. Awaiting their turn, the wounded were lying outside in rows, which were being continually augmented by the civilian


Regimental stretchers, 8 per battalion.


Bearer company, 2 sections, 8 stretchers each.


10 ambulances, in which wounded are ' moved to the rear.


Dressing station, where operations can be perfo.med.


Field Hospital, 100 beds.


fast as taken another


How the wounded are brought from the scene of battle to the hospital ship.


hearers coming in from the field. As each wounded man reached the hospital, he was served with a cup of hot bovril, large cans of which were boiling outside the tents.

3.    The way in which the wounded had been dressed upon the field, and each man ticketed with the nature of his wound, his name, and regiment, was excellent, and was very useful for identification. This also saved much time at the field hospitals, because the seriously wounded could be at once discriminated from the more trivial cases. The latter went away at once to the tents; and the former were re-dressed, and operated upon, when necessary, by the four officers of each of the field hospitals and the three surgeons of each of the bearer companies. The praise of the regimental officers and men in respect to the way in which the Royal Army Medical Corps had done its duty under heavy fire was unanimous and unstinted. An officer of the Devons, wounded in the foot, told me that he managed to get to a hut near the bank of the river, which was being used as a dressing station. This hut was continually under heavy fire, and he described the behaviour of the medical officers as magnificent.

4.    The spectacle at the field hospital was most painful. Ambulance wagon after wagon, and stretcher squad after stretcher squad, came in while I was there, pouring in the wounded, some of whom had died on the way, and could unfortunately only be taken to the mortuary tents. The work performed in the operating tents was, in my opinion, of great efficiency, the operations being deliberately carried out with skill and despatch under the very trying circumstances of intense heat, hurry, and excitement all round. The officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps stationed at these hospitals had started their surgical work about 3 a.m., and, when I visited them in the evening, they were still hard at it, having had no food meanwhile, and no time for rest; and the work went on for hours afterwards. Altogether, some 800 patients passed through the field hospitals during the day. The men showed the utmost pluck and endurance ; there was not the smallest despondency, the predominant feeling being anxiety to return and fight again. This was very splendid of them after such a day as they had experienced, and makes one feel very proud of their fine mettle.

5.    The hospital trains rapidly took them away. Each train carries on an average 100 cases, and is equipped with every requirement; so I am certain that all that human foresight could accomplish was done for the mitigation of the sufferings of the wounded.

1. Chieveley, small town in Natal, a few miles south of Colenso, on the Tugela River. On the 15th of December last,’the British forces under General Buller suffered a severe reverse at Colenso, when endeavouring to force the Boer lines, and raise the siege of Ladysmith.

N.B.—The diagram on the preceding page has been reproduced from Pearson's Mayazine.

Life is short, and we have never too much time for gladdening the hearts of those who are travelling the same dark journey with us. Oh, be swiit to love, make haste to be kind.—Amiel.

BEFORE SEDAN.1

Em-i-nence, high rank ; elevated condition    Trem-U-l0US, trembling,

among men.

Here, in this leafy place, Quiet he lies,

Cold, with his sightless face Turned to the skies ; ’Tis but another dead,

AH you can say is said.


Hardly the worst of us

Here could have smiled ! Only the tremulous

Words of a child ;— Prattle, that has for stops J ust a few ruddy drops.


Carry his body hence,—

Kings must have slaves ; Kings climb to eminence

Over men’s graves ;

So this man’s eye is dim ;— Throw the earth over him.


What was the white you touched, There at his side ?

Paper his hand had clutched Tight ere he died ;— Message or wish, may be -Smooth the folds out and see.


Look. She is sad to miss, Morning and night, His—her dead father’s—kiss : Tries to be bright, Good to mamma, and sweet. That is all. “Marguerite.”


Ah, if beside the dead

Slumbered the pain ! Ah, if the hearts that bled Slept with the slain ! If the grief died ;—But no ;— Death will not have it so.


—Austin Dobson, a living English poet, born 1840.

1. Before Sedan. In 1870, war broke out in Europe, owing to a dispute between the Emperor of France and the King of Prussia about the succession to the throne of Spain. The French Emperor (Napoleon III.) set opt to invade Germany, but was met on the borders by the German army, and, after a series of defeats, was forced to surrender with a large army at Sedan, and dethroned. As the French still held out, the Germans overran the country, and laid siege to Paris, which capitulated in .January, 1871. After the fall of Napoleon, France again became a republic. She lost the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, which were claimed by Germany, whose various kingdoms and states were united under King William of Prussia, who took the title of German Emperor.

GENERAL SIR REDVERS BULLER, V.C.

En-Sign, formerly, a commissioned officer of the army, who carried the ensign or flag of a company or regiment. (In the British army, the rank of ensign was abolished in 1871.)

Em-phat:ic-al-ly, forcibly; with emphasis.

In-dom-i-ta-ble, not to be subdued.

Nav -vies, labourers on public works, as in building railways, making roads, etc. 22 23

Tac-it-urn, habitually silent; not given to converse.

As-sa-gai (as£sa-gav), spear used by tribes in South Africa as a missile or for stabbing.

Ma-jor-gen-er-al, officer of the army holding a rank next above that of brigadier-general (commander of a brigade), and next below that of lieutenant-general, and who usually commands a division or corps.

was out one morning in the park cutting wood, and the axe slipped, and cut him severely across the knee. The doctor took a serious view of the wound, and strongly advised amputation.

3. “ Take my leg off ? ” said young Puller, with a gasp of horror at the thought of losing, not only his limb, but his military career. “ Ho,” he continued emphatically; “ I would rather die with two legs than go through life with one.”

‘./H 'A. 4< ' Vi

t r:: A’m-.    .1%


■■ m-.

GENERAL BULLER ON HIS CHARGER.

His father and the doctor yielded to his decision. The wound was sewn up, and, thanks to good nursing and his indomitable spirit, the injured leg was perfectly restored to use.


rt


v f_


4.    At the age of twenty-one, Ensign Buller went out with his regiment to China, and quickly proved his mettle. He was present at the storming of the Taku forts, and returned home with a medal for conspicuous bravery.

5.    His next campaign was ten years afterwards, in connexion with the Red River Expedition, led by Lord (then Sir Garnet) Wolseley, against the rebels of Canada. Captain Buller led a battalion of the 60th Rifles through the western wilds of Manitoba ; and, during that march, the officers, as well as the men, had to work like navvies, dragging boats through swamps and clearing the bush.

6.    Sir Garnet noted the intrepid soldier, keen of eye, taciturn, and resourceful, and, ever since, has selected “ Buller ” when there was hard work to be done. Three years after his return from Canada, Captain Buller went on Lord Wolseley’s staff to the Ashantee War, and was promoted to be major.

7.    It was in the Kaffir and Zulu Wars of 1878-9 that he came to the front as a soldier of exceptional resource and daring. Lord Wolseley was then Governor of Natal, and organised a force for the protection of the colonists. During the retreat from Inhlobane Mountain, Colonel Buller rescued Captain D’Arcy (who was retiring on foot) from

a crowd of the pursuing enemy, and carried him to a place of safety. . Under precisely similar circumstances, he immediately afterwards saved the life of Lieutenant Everett. And. returning once more to the thick of the fight, he plucked a trooper from almost the very hands of a mass of exultant Zulus, took up the dismounted man into his own saddle, and galloped off under a shower of assagais. For these superb actions, Colonel Buller received the Victoria Cross, and returned home after the battle of Ulundi, which victoriously closed the Zulu campaign, covered with glory.

8.    In the Boer War of 1881, he was chief of the staff to Sir Evelyn Wood ; and the knowledge he then gained must be serving him in good stead at the present crisis.

The scene of his exploits next changes to Egypt. He took part in the victory of Tel-el-Kebir in 1881. A year later, he was again in Egypt, fighting “ Fuzzi-wnzzi ” (the soldiers’ name for the Dervishes), with the same fiery zeal that he had expended on the Kaffirs and Zulus. Promoted to the rank of Major-General, he served in the Sudan campaign as chief of the staff to Lord Wolseley.

9.    After this, military duties in England occupied him, till, towards the end of last year, he proceeded to South Africa as General of Her Majesty’s Forces there.

10.    General Buller has been described as exclusively a soldier, grim, fierce, and courageous. His family and intimate friends, however, know him as a genial host, delighting in hospitality, a lover of literature, an enthusiastic art collector, a man who delights in having pretty things about him, and who is extremely kind and indulgent to the weak.

—Adapted from an article by Sakah A. Tooley in The Lady’s Realm.

THE SOUTH SEAS.

PART 4.—THE COCOA-NUT PALM AND ITS PRODUCTS.

Ar-chi-pel-a-go, group of islands; any sea or broad sheet of water interspersed with many islands.    ,

Cy-lin-driC-al, having the form of a cylinder— a body of a roller-like form, of which the longitudinal section is oblong, and the cross section is circular.

Ed-i-ble, fit to be eaten as food.

Prop-a-ga-tion, act of increasing or spreading.

Ger-mi-na-tion, beginning of vegetation or growth in a seed or plant.


De-te-ri-o-rates,' becomes inferior in quality or value.

Ste-a-rine or ste-a-rin, one of the constituents of fats, characterised by its solidity.

Lu^bri-cant, here, substance to make the skin and joints supple.

A-ro-ma, agreeable odour.

Con-fec-tion, sweetmeat; preparation of fruits or roots, etc., with sugar.

Trench-er, large wooden plate or platter.

Or^gy, drunken revelry.


1.    Copra, the dried kernel of the cocoa-nut, is, next to sugar, the principal article of export from Fiji, which forms no exception to other South Sea Islands in the vigorous and prolific growth of its cocoa-nut palms.

2.    The cocoa-nut palm (Cocos Nucífera, or, in the Fijian language, Niu Dina) is one of the most beautiful, and, at the same time, one of the most valuable and useful of tropical trees. It will grow anywhere within the Tropics ; hut its favourite localities are the East and West Indies, and the South Sea Archipelago. It is always one of the first of the larger trees to establish itself on the low-lying islands of the South Pacific, as soon as there is sufficient soil above high-water mark, the hardy nuts that fall down on the sea-shore being freely distributed by the ocean currents. The coast line of most of the islands of Fiji is bounded by a thick, but more or less broken, belt of cocoa-nut palms, the most favourable situation for the full development of the tree being the white, sandy, coralline beach near the sea.

3.    Salt, or the influence of the sea breezes, appears to be an essential in supporting the growth and maintaining the vigour of the tree, as it does not succeed well inland. In this respect it appears to be an exception to other trees of any value. Where the soil is favourable, the producing powers of the cocoa-nut tree are wonderful. The trees are in full bearing when about ten years old, and each will produce from 80 to 100 nuts annually for fifty years, and even longer, and some trees are fairly fruitful up to 100 years. After severe hurricanes, however, an arrest of development usually occurs for about three years.

4.    The seed nut begins to grow a few months after it is planted, and, at the end of two years, a butt or stem appears, which hardens as the leaves fall off. The tree continues to grow until, according to the locality, the nature of the soil, the rainfall, and the particular species, it reaches a height varying from 20 to 80 feet. The trunk, from 1 to 2 feet in thickness, is unbranched, cylindrical in shape, and is ringed by the marks of the leaves which were formerly attached to it. At the summit, there is a crown consisting of from 15 to 20 large, feathery leaves, which gracefully curve downwards, and are eight to twelve feet in length.

5. The flowers of the cocoa-nut palm are small and white, and the fruit does not mature for several months after the blossoms have fallen.


FIJIAN CLIMBING COCOA-NUT TREE. REMOVING THE HUSKS.


The nut is covered with a tough, fibrous husk, and is lined with a soft, white, edible substance, which contains a liquid commonly called cocoa-nut milk. This white substance is the ordinary article of commerce on sale in our fruit and grocers’ shops. The milk has a remarkable combination of acidity and sweetness, and makes a cooling, stimulating, and delightfully refreshing beverage. It is obtained by removing the outer husk, and by piercing the two little holes which are to be found at the top of the nut.

6.    Taste differs very much as to the stage of maturity when the milk is fit to drink, and the various stages are ascertained by the natives in the following way:—They climb up the tree on all fours (a movement they can perform with dexterity, grace, and ease) to the feathery crown, and, seating themselves on one of the branches, are enabled, by carefully tapping the nuts, and noting the sound produced, to ascertain the particular stage of development.

7.    In addition to being the outlet for the milk, the holes or eyes in the nut play a most important part in the propagation of new plants. When the nut is kept for some time after ripening, a soft, sweet, spongy mass is formed within the shell, and this substance gradually absorbs the milk. In a little while, germination takes place, and soon, a hard, leafy shoot appears through one of the eyes, and pierces its way out of the external, fibrous husk. If then planted, the husk and shell of the nut gradually decompose, the young plant rears its head above ground, the roots strike deeper, the leaves unfold themselves, the stem ascends, until, at last, there appears to the vision a beautiful and lofty tree—the pride and ornament of the tropical isles.

8.    The trees are generally planted from 25 to 30 feet apart in rows; and, in an acre plantation, there will be from 50 to 60 trees, from which the average yearly yield is about half a ton of copra. As no crop gives less trouble, and, as the fruit is in season all the year round, the cultivation of plantations of cocoa-nuts is a favourite pursuit in Fiji, and is carried out on a thorough and systematic plan.

9.    The process of the manufacture of copra is extremely simple. There are three ways of drying the kernel, namely, in the shade, in the sun. and by artificial heat.

The first method is considered the most preferable, as the evaporation of the watery matter is gradual; whereas, under both of the other processes, the water is evaporated too quickly and not always effectually, and, consequently, the copra deteriorates.

10.    Copra contains about 70 per cent, of a fixed oil1 called cocoa-nut oil, which forms an important ingredient in the manufacture of some kinds of candles and soap. This oil is liquid at 75° Fahr., but, under that degree of temperature, it assumes a semi-solid form, white and stearine-like in appearance. Its odour is remarkably pungent, yet withal not altogether disagreeable. The Fijians use the oil as a lubricant, and the constant anointing gives their bodies and limbs a glistening appearance and a powerful aroma. Indeed, in their towns and villages, the smell pervades the atmosphere. The oil is also used as an unguent in medicines.

11. The wood of the trunk of the tree is extremely durable, and is almost bullet-proof. It is used largely in making small canoes and for building-material. On account of its durability, and, as it takes

HEAD OF COCOA-NUT TREE, SHOWING LEAVES AND FRUIT.


an excellent polish, superior articles of furniture are also made from it.

12.    From the sap of the tree, if it is allowed to ferment, a strong spirituous liquor is distilled, known in many of the Pacific Islands as Tokelau2 toddy, a wine-glassful of which is said to be sufficient to intoxicate a man. Travellers relate that one effect of this toddy is to make the native particularly quarrelsome, and that a convivial evening, after frequent libations of this drink, invariably results in a frenzied orgy.

13.    The leaves of the trees are much used for plaiting into mats, screens, and baskets, and, when

dried, form an excellent thatch for the native houses.

The ripe nuts are used as a confection, and, when grated, for flavouring various articles of food.

14. Coir, a valuable product, is made from the pericarp or husk. The    husk is    first    removed    by    means    of sharp-pointed sticks stuck in

the    ground,    and    is    then    placed    in    a    large    lank, to which steam is

applied for a day or so. Then it is passed through powerful machines until it is reduced to coir fibre, which is manufactured into door-mats, brushes, rope, and matting. There is a large and increasing trade in copra, sacks of nuts, and fibre, between Fiji and the Australasian Colonies.

15. The nut itself is made into drinking goblets and various kinds of ornaments. It lias been well said by the poet Herbert—

The Indians’ nnt alone Is clothing, meat and trencher, drink and can,

Boat, cable, sail, and needle all in one.

—F. C. Eddy.

1.    Fixed oil, non-volatile substance, which leaves a permanent greasy stain, and which cannot be distilled unchanged ; distinguished from a volatile or essential oil.

2.    Tokelau (tock'-e-lou) or Union, islands in the Pacific Ocean, a few degrees south of the Equator, between the Ellice Islands and the Marquesas.

NEEDLESS PEAR OF LIGHTNING.1

Hu-mid^i-ty, moisture; dampness.

Rid^i-CUle, derision ; raillery ; banter.

Mo-men^tum, impetus; quantity of motion in a moving body, being always proportioned to the quantity of matter multiplied into the velocity.

Con-duct-or, lightning-rod ; substance capable of being a medium for the transmission of certain forces, especially heat or electricity.

Fso -la-ted (i-so-la-ted or is-o-la-ted), detached; separated from others.


Su-per-fl-cial, of or pertaining to thé superficies or surface.

Dis-si-pa-ted, scattered ; dispersed and caused to disappear.

An-i-ma-tion, state of being animated or alive. (Suspended animation, temporary suspension of the vital functions, as in persons nearly drowned.)

So-mat-ic, pertaining to the body as a whole.

(By somatic death is implied the absolute cessation of the functions of the brain, the circulatory’, and the respiratory organs.)


1.    The keen suffering which many undergo just in advance of, or during, a thunderstorm is of a dual nature. The sense of impending danger alarms and terrifies, but there is also a depression of spirits which is physical and real, brought about by some as yet unknown relation between the nervous system and the conditions of atmospheric pressure, and the humidity of the air. The suffering due to depression and partial exhaustion requires, from those who are strong, sympathy rather than ridicule. The suffering due to alarm and fright, however, is unnecessary. It is largely the work of the imagination. To a nervous nature, there is something appalling in the wicked, spiteful gleam of the lightning and the crash and tumult of thunder. But such a one should remember that the flash is almost always far distant, and that thunder can do no more damage than the low notes of an organ. Counting all the deaths from all the storms during the year, we find that the chance of being killed by lightning is less than one in a hundred thousand.

2.    The risk in the city may be said to be five times less than in the country. Dwellers in city houses may be startled by peals of thunder, but, owing to the great spread of galvanized iron roofing2 and fair ground connexions, there is very little danger. In the country, if buildings are adequately protected, and the momentum of the flash provided for, the occupants may feel secure. A conductor, well grounded, is necessary for isolated and exposed buildings. ^ Barns, especially when filled with green crops, should have lightning conductors.

' 3. The question is often asked, “ Do trees protect ?” The answer is that the degree of protection varies with the kind of tree and its distance from a water-course. The character of the wood, the area of leafage, the extent and depth of root, determines the liability to a stroke.

4.    Another question which is often asked is whether there is danger aboard a large steamship during a thunderstorm. There are few safer places. Sufficient metal with proper superficial area is interposed in the path of the lightning, and its electrical energy converted into harmless heat and rapidly dissipated.

5.    Accidents occur chiefly because the victims ignorantly place themselves in the line of greatest strain,3 and thus form part of the path of discharge. For this reason, it is not wise to stand under trees, near flag-poles or masts, in doorways, under porches, close to fireplaces, or near barns. Those who are not exposed in any of these ways may feel reasonably safe.

6.    It should be remembered, in the event of accident, that lightning does not always kill. It more often results in suspended animation than in somatic death. Therefore, in case of accident, try to restore animation, keep the body warm, and send for a doctor without delay.

.    —Alexander McCabe, in The Century.

1.    Lightning. Lightning occurs in three distinct forms, namely, as forked (the zigzag flash), sheet, and ball. In the case of forked lightning, the path taken is that of least resistance, and is clearly seen to be made up of straight lines and sharp turns. Sheet lightning is probably due to the illumination of the cloud where the flash occurs ; or it is merely the reflexion on a cloud of a distant discharge. Ball lightning is of rare occurrence: in this form, globes of fire travel slowly, or even remain stationary, and then explode with sudden violence.

2.    Galvanized, iron roofing. Galvanized iron, formerly, iron coated with zinc by electric deposition; now. more commonly, iron coated with zinc by plunging it into a bath of melted zinc, after its surface has been cleaned by friction with the aid of dilute acid.

3.    Line Of greatest Strain. Path along which the discharge or flash of lightning is most likely

to go.

THE ORANGE FREE STATE.

Im-mi-grants, people who come to a country for the purpose of permanent residence.

In-de-pend ent, not subject to control by others.

Ex-eC-U-tive, pertaining to the execution of the laws or the conduct of affairs.

Volks-raad (follcs-rard), the Legislative Assemblies of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. 24 25

Mo not-o-nous, without change or variety. Oc-curredi taken place.

A-nal-O-gOUS, similar; like.

Shale, a fine-grained, sedimentary rock, of a thin, laminated (in thin layers), and often friable structure.

Mountains from Natal, the Orange River from Cape Colony, and the Caledon River (a tributary of the Orange River) from Basutoland.

Its area is slightly more than 50,000 square miles (about five-ninths that of Victoria), while the population amounts to somewhat more than 200,000, of which about 80,000 are whites.

3.    The scenery of the Orange Free State is not attractive, being very monotonous. The northern portion of the country, enclosed by the Drakensberg Mountains and the Vaal River, is level, as also are the western districts. The south-eastern portion is undulating, and, in parts, hilly.

4.    The principal industry is the rearing of stock, especially sheep and cattle, and, in smaller numbers, goats, horses, and ostriches. The mineral wealth is considerable, but has not yet occasioned such a rush of miners as has occurred in neighbouring parts of South Africa. Diamonds are found in the south-west in beds analogous to the Kimberley1 shales, and coal principally in the north. Other minerals are gold and iron. The chief exports are wool, hides, diamonds, and ostrich feathers. Much of the exportable produce of the eastern part of the country is conveyed by a railway from Harrismith, which passes over the Drakensberg Mountains at Van Reenen’s Pass, and joins the Natal main line near Ladysmith. The main trunk line of the CapePretoria Railway passes through Bloemfontein (bloom-fon- tane), the capital of the state.

5.    All the towns are small. The capital itself has a population of only about 4,000 whites and 3,000 natives. The other towns next in importance are Harrismith and Winburg in the north, and Fauresmith and Smithfield in the south.

1. Kimberley, town in Griqualand West (a portion of Cape Colony), just beyond the western border of the Orange Free State, about 100 miles west of Bloemfontein, and about 200 miles south of Mafeking. By rail, it is 647 miles north from Cape Town. Its settled industry is diamond-mining.

NOTICES.

CORRECTIONS.

1.    In the March number of The School Paper—Classes V. and VI., substitute the Avorcl “ from for “ upon ” in line 9 of the first verse of the poem To Arms ! ”

2.    In the February number of the same Paper, substitute for the explanation of “non-com.” on p. 68 the following : —“ A subordinate officer not appointed by a commission from the chief executive or supreme authority of the State ; but by the Secretary of War, or by the commanding officer of the regiment. The title includes staff-clerks, all sergeants, corporals, and bombardiers. ” Kipling asserts in one of his poems that “the backbone of the army is the non-commissioned man.”

EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS.—MUSIC.

The usual half-yearly examinations for the licence to teach and the certificate of competency will be held on Saturday, the oth of May, 1900.

The examinations are conducted by the Department, in conjunction with the Musical Society of Victoria.

. James Bagge, Secretary.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

The SoHQQit fmi.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 19.] MELBOURNE.    [May, 1900.

AUSTRALIA’S MOTHER.26

A1 -ly' (&l-lie0, one united to another by treaty or league,—usually applied to sovereigns or states. Austral, southern; with the initial capital, Australasian.


Glaive or glave, sword;—used poetically and loosely ; in a strict sense, a weapon of ancient times, consisting of a kind of sword fixed at the end of a pole.

(“ England stands alone : without an ally.”)

“ She stands alone : ally nor friend hath she,”

Said Europe of our England, her who bore Freedom’s own captains—Warrior-Queen who wore The glaive of conquest but to make men free.

Then out from Summer’s home came o’er the sea,

By many a coral isle and scented shore,

An old-world cry Europe had heard of yore From Dover cliffs : Ready, aye, ready, we ! ”

And England smiled : ‘ ‘ Europe forgot my boys—

Forgot how tall, in yonder golden zone ’Neath Austral skies, my youngest boys had grown (Bearing brave swords and bayonets now for toys)—

Forgot, ’mid threatening thunders—mainly noise—

The sons with whom old England ‘ stands alone.’ ”

—Theodore Watts in The Athenceum.

1 This was written some years ago, at the time of an international crisis. The quoted words in brackets suggested the sonnet, and are a translation from an influential Continental paper.

THE RELIEF OF KIMBERLEY: PAYING THE PRICE.

An-tic-i-pa-tion, expectation; impression of what is to happen.

A-chieve-ment, feat; something accomplished by valour, boldness, or praiseworthy exertion.

Re-lievedf freed from distress, or the like ; here, from a state of siege.

Or-gan-ized, arranged for action or work.

Al-lot-ted, granted; assigned as a share.

Judg-ment, discernment; intelligence; faculty of deciding rightly.

Un-ten-a-ble, incapable of being held against the enemy.    .

Cas£U-al-ties, numerical loss caused by death, wounds, capture, discharge, or desertion.

De-files; in a strict sense, long, narrow passes between hills and rocks.

bestow. At the same time, there was nominated as chief of the staff, Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, than whom u many generals have been better loved, but few have been better trusted.” In less than a week, these two officers were on their way to the seat of war.

2. Landing at Cape Town early in January, Lord Roberts made no movement for about a fortnight. Towards the end of the month, however, when news came that he had gone to the front in the direction of Kimberley,5 public anticipation was raised almost to fever heat. The wonderful achievement of the march to Kandahar6 in 1880 was

MAJOR-GENERAL FRENCH.


recalled to mind. It was remembered, too, that in the Sudan,7 Lord Kitchener had shown himself “ marble to sit still and lightning to smite.” With two such men directing operations, something must happen !

3. Days passed. The press censorship8 was very strict, and there was absolutely no news. Then an electric thrill ran through the British Empire: Kimberley was relieved on the 16th of February, by a flying-col umn of cavalry and horse artillery, fifteen or sixteen thousand strong, under General French.During the waiting period, this force had been quietly organized, and then rapidly despatched round the flank of the Boer army. General French, in four days, marched ninety miles over the veldt, fighting two small engagements on the way. After four months’ siege, Kimberley was free once more. Hurrah ! hurrah ! hurrah ! As at Lucknow,10 so at Kimberley— “ cheers without, and cheers within, and cheers on every side.”

4. But, when the first thrill of satisfaction had passed, there was amongst us a slight feeling of disappointment. Kimberley had been

relieved, but-Australians had not helped. Soon we learned, not

that Australians had helped, but that they had paid the price of the relief in the blood of some of their bravest.

In order to form General French’s flying column, the forces before

Kendsburg11 had been much weakened. The vigilant enemy soon discovered this, and, having hurried up reinforcements, pressed the British so closely that they had to fall back. To our first contingent,12 now all mounted, and the Wiltshires,13—a small number of infantry— was allotted the post of honour, the guarding of the retreat.

5. Among the kopjes round Maeder’s Farm and elsewhere about seven miles out, they were attacked by overwhelming numbers of Boers. The rifles cracked all along the front; overhead whizzed and screamed the bullets from the deadly Yickers-Maxim.14 The fire was just as heavy as can well be imagined ; and our men, a correspondent writes, “ turned their faces to it like heroes.” Boldly and bravely, encouraging and directing his men, Major Eddy moved among them. It was his first experience under fire, and he was quite equal to the test. From

BEFORE THE WAR: MARKET SQUARE, KIMBERLEY.

point to point, he fought his men with skill and judgment. But the position was quite untenable under the circumstances ; and Major Eddy had just given the order for the final retirement when he fell shot through the head, and died instantly.

Some time before, he might have got his own men, mounted as they were, away safely. But, to do so, he must have abandoned the Wiltshires. “ No, no,” he had answered when the movement was suggested; “the Wiltshires are in a tight place, and we must pull them out.”

6.    Five officers and many privates killed and .wounded, or prisoners with the Boers,—Phis was Australia’s share in the relief of Kimberley. Many years ago, Major Eddy was a State-school teacher; not so very long ago, many of his men were State-school boys—and there, on the South African veldt, they remembered—

“They’d to keep the oath they gave the Queen,

And, being in it, they’d got to fight. ”

Many times during the present war have we been made proud by the gallant deeds of British soldiers ; but, when we read of what our own men did on the 12th of February last, we feel a deeper thrill, as we think that “We too come of the Blood.”

7.    After the return of the Victorians to camp, Colonel Hoad, who was much affected, addressed them as follows :—“ Thank God you are safe—you who are left! Men, do you know what you have been doing ? You, 250 men all told, have been fighting against 4,000 for these three days 1 It is one of the gallant deeds in British history. Your casualties are a sad blow to us all, though small in comparison. Officers and men, I heartily congratulate you.”

8.    At no distant day, a monument will be erected in Melbourne to commemorate the brave deeds done by our fellow-countrymen for Queen and Empire. We have honoured those heroes of peace—Burke and Wills.15 We have raised a statue to remind us of the unselfish, typical Englishman—Gordon of Khartum.16 Fitting companion for these will be a memorial to the men who, counting honour better than life, fell while nobly doing their duty. And so, for all time, men may know how those men, that gallant band of brothers, gave their lives that their comrades in arms might be saved. As the poet-laureate says, they sped

“To storm the steeps and defiles of death,

But never to turn them back.”

A. Hanson, Vere-street State School, Collingwood.

1.    "Black Week.” On the 9th of December, at Stormberg in the north-east of Cape Colony, General Gatacre had been led by a treacherous guide into a Boer ambuscade. On the llt.h, at Magersfon-tein in the north of Cape Colony, Lord Methuen’s force had been compelled to fall back, the Highland Brigade, in particular, having lost heavily. On the 15th, at Colenso in Natal, General Buller had been repulsed in an attempt to cross the Tugela River. The week in which this series of reverses took place has been named “ Black Week.” ,

2.    Colenso, small village, 193 miles from Durban, the port of Natal. Near it, a fine railway bridge used to cross the Tugela.

3.    Lord Roberts Of Kandahar, the son of General Sir Abraham Roberts, was born at Cawnpore, India, in 1832. He entered the Bengal Artillery in 185 L, and was, in 1885, appointed commander-in-chief of the British army in India Lord Roberts is a small man, with penetrating, steel-blue eyes, and is known throughout the British Empire as “ Bobs.”

4.    Lord Kitchener Of Khartum or Khartoum was born in 1850, and entered the Royal Engineers in 1871. Since 1883, he has been employed with the Egyptian army, of which he was the Sirdar (sir-dar') or commander-in-chief till towards the end of last year, when he was ordered to proceed to South Africa as chief of Lord Roberts’s staff. Last year, he completely shattered the Dervish power at the battle of Omdurman (a town in Upper Nubia, a part of The Eastern or Egyptian Sudan).

5.    Kimberley. See The School PaperClass IV., for last month, and also for this month.

6.    Kandahar, the “Key of India,” is the largest town in Southern Afghanistan, and is a place of some commercial importance, being on the main route between India and Persia.

Following Cavagnari’s murder at Cabul in 1878, Major-General Roberts was given command of the force sent to avenge it. He defeated the Afghans in battle after battle ; but, when he had made himself master of Cabul, news reached him that General Burrows had been defeated by an overwhelming army, and compelled to retreat to Kandahar. In August, 1880, Roberts set out from Cabul with 10,000 soldiers to the relief. He made a magnificent march of over three hundred miles through the heart of Afghanistan, traversing extremely rugged country, peopled by a turbulent race. In three weeks, he arrived in Kandahar, engaged the Afghan army, and routed it completely.

7.    Sudan or Soudan, in its widest application, includes the entire region between the Sahara on the north and the Guinea Coast and rhe northern watershed of the Congo on the south, thus extending right across the continent, from the Atlantic on the west to the Red Sea and Abyssinia on the east, a distance of considerably over 3,000 miles. The whole of this vast region has, within recent years, been partitioned off between the European Powers.

8.    Press censorship. The press censor (a military officer) supervises all news sent by war correspondents.

9.    Major-General French, who now commands the cavalry under Lord Roberts, was born in 1852. At Elands Laagte, he showed marked ability ; in the Colesberg District (north-east of Cape Colony), he completely out-manoeuvred the Boers; but his crowning triumphs were the dash to Kimberley and the heading off of Cronje.

10.    Lucknow, in the north of India, on the Goomtee, a tributary of the Ganges. It is memorable for the defence of the British Residency during the Sepoy insurrection in 1857-58.

11.    Rendsburg, railway station, in the north-east of Cape Colony.

12.    Contingent, share; quota. The first Victorian contingent of soldiers sailed from Melbourne in the Medic on the 28th of November, 1899.

^    13. Wiltshires, regiment recruited in the county of Wilts, or Wiltshire, in the south of England.

For regiments, territorial designations are now employed, not numbers as formerly.

14.    Vickers-Maxim, kind of machine-gun used by the Boers.

15.    Burke and Wills, explorers who left Melbourne in 1860 with a party and a large equipment, to cross the continent. They succeeded in reaching the Gulf of Carpentaria; but, in returning, both dLd near Cooper’s Creek in 1861.

16.    Gordon Of Khartum, a heroic general who perished at Khartum in January, 1885. See The School Paper—Classes V. and VI., October, 1898.

THE SOLITARY REAPER.

Mel-an-chol-y, sad ; doleful.

Chaunt (old form of chant), sing.

Behold her, single in the field,

Yon solitary Highland Lass ! Reaping and singing by herself :

Stop here, or gently pass !

Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain :

O listen ! for the vale profound Is overflowing with the sound.

No nightingale did ever chaunt

More welcome notes to weary bands Of travellers in some shady haunt, Among Arabian sands :

A voice so thrilling ne’er was heard In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird, Breaking the silence of the seas Among the farthest Hebrides.1


Plain-tive, mournful; sad.

Theme, subject of the (song).

Will no one tell me what she sings?

Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow For old, unhappy, far-off things,

And battles long ago :

Or is it some more humble lay,

Familiar matter of to-day?

Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain, That has been, and may be again !

Whate’er the theme, the maiden sang As if her song could have no ending ; I saw her singing at her work,

And o’er the sickle bending ;—

I listen’d, motionless and still;

And, as I mounted up the hill,

The music in my heart I bore Long after it was heard no more.

—William Wordsworth2 (1770-1850).


1.    Hebrides, islands west of Scotland. They number 160, and are divided by a channel called the Minch into two groups—the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides.

2.    Wordsworth’s poetry is great because of the extraordinary power with which Wordsworth feels the joy offered to us in nature, the joy offered to us in the simple primary affections and duties ; and, because of the extraordinary power with which, in case after case, he shows us his joy, and renders it so as to make us share it.—Matthew Arnold.

WHAT IT FEELS LIKE TO BE BOMBARDED.

Ir-re-sist-i-bly, in a resistless or overpowering | Prov-i-den tial, effected by divine direction or manner.    ' superintendence.

1. What does it feel like to be bombarded?

At first, and especially first thing in the morning, it is quite an uncomfortable sensation. You know that gunners are looking for you through telescopes ; that every spot is commanded by one big gun,

and most by a dozen. You hear the squeal of the shells all above, the crash and pop all about, and wonder when your turn will come. Perhaps one falls quite near you, swooping irresistibly onward. You

come to watch for shells, to listen to the deafening rattle of the big guns, the shrilling whistle of the small, to guess at their pace and their direction. You see now a house smashed in, a heap of chips and

rubble; now you see a splinter kicking up a fountain of clinking stone-shivers; presently you meet a wounded man on a stretcher. This is your dangerous time. If you have nothing else to do, and especially, if you listen and calculate, you are done; you get shells on the brain, think and talk of nothing else, and finish by going into a hole in the ground, and hiring better men than yourself to bring you down your meals. Whenever you put your head out of the hole, you have a nose-breadth escape. If a hundredth part of the providential deliverances told in Ladysmith were true, it was a miracle that anybody in the place was alive after the first quarter of an hour. A day of this, and you are a nerveless semi-corpse, twitching at a fly-buzz, a misery to yourself and a scorn to your neighbours.

2. If, on the other hand, you go about your ordinary business, confidence revives immediately. You see what a prodigious weight of metal can be thrown into a small space, and yet leave plenty of room for everybody else. You realise that a shell which makes a great noise may yet be hundreds of yards away. You learn to distinguish between a gun’s report and an overturned water-tank’s. You perceive that the most awful noise of all is the throat-ripping cough of your own guns firing over your head at an enemy four miles away. So you leave the matter to Providence, and, by the middle of the morning, do not even turn your head to see where the bang came from.

—Gr. W. Steevens, who died at Ladysmith from enteric (typhoid) fever.

THE TOMBS OF NELSON AND WELLINGTON.

Mau-SO-le^um, magnificent tomb.

Sar-coph-a-gus, stone coffin.

Dome, roof having a rounded form, hemispherical or nearly so.

Peers, companions; associates ; in a strict sense, equals in rank.

Crypt, vault under a church.

Verier, person who takes care of the interior of a church building.

Ar-dent, zealous ; fiery ; eager,

In-stinc-tive, produced without deliberation spontaneous.

In-ev-it-a-bly, certainly; unavoidably.

Im-ma-ture, not arrived at perfection; imperfect.

Com-pos-ite, made up of distinct parts or elements.

circular vault, where the lights that burn low seem half to reveal, and half to leave enshrouded, these massive couches of their “ long repose.” 2. Thence to the western front, all the crypt is given to the men of Waterloo.3 The central area is railed off by a high and handsome iron screen, through which the dim gas-jets show the tombs like a circle of solemn altars. There is a jingle of keys, and a verger admits us to

wander in, and


■■ ■ *__\


WELLINGTON’8 TOMB.

Not once or twice in our rough island-story,

The path of duty was the way to glory.—Tennyson.


to stand a while, where, at the centre, lies in huge solidity the granite bed of Wellington. Here, half a century ago, with memorable honours, they laid the aged of the comma n-Near him, also in granite, sleeps    Sir

Thomas Picton, so long before him in dying, yet so close in his resting-place. It was Picton who fought through the Peninsula with him, as his trusted friend and officer, and who concealed the torments of ribs all broken and blackened et Quatre Bras,4 lest he should be debarred from a share in the bigger fight. It was he who led forth the left


away

form

great

der.


centre to its famous bayonet charge, and fell, with a bullet through his brain. Here, for these three generations, has lain that ardent heart, amid many honest men of parts and courage, who fought for


their country, and now, at rest from warring, slumber round their famous chief.

3.    A glance or two at the famous funeral car of the Iron Duke holds my fancy for no great time. It lies in state, but in obscurity in the crypt, under the western porch. It is most elaborate, most costly, and it was made of metal entirely melted down from captured French cannon. But it is a poor, theatrical display compared with the ashes of the heroes ; and I always, by instinctive preference, wandered back and lingered long in those two circles, so mournful and yet so full of triumph.

4.    If our empire rests on justice as one of its pillars, it also rests on might as the other. Yet a few centuries, and advancing nations will probably be able to rely on the one, with but little help from the other. That epoch is only dawning; and, in the meantime, the nation that outstrips its day and generation, and prematurely turns its swords into pruning hooks,5 must inevitably lie, like the toothless old lion, to be worried by every jackal.6 In a world so immature as ours, it is folly to imagine that a nation will receive respect or fair consideration if it fails to be both resolute and strong. Our empire must still for a few ages rest in part on that pillar of might; and here are the two main shafts of that composite pillar;—these rings of warriors by land and sea, the heroes of Waterloo and Trafalgar.

—Extract from one of a series of articles entitled “At the Heart of the Empire,” by Alexander Sutherland, in The Argus.

1.    Heart of our empire, London.

2.    Trafalgar. Off Cape Trafalgar, in 1805, Nelson, in command of the British fleet, won a splendid victory over the French and Spanish fleets, and completely destroyed the naval power of France. Nelson was mortally wounded in the battle.

3.    Waterloo. On the 18th June, 1815, Napoleon, in command of a French army of 80,000 men, was utterly defeated at Waterloo, a village 9 miles from Brussels, by Wellington (the Iron Duke), who commanded the Allies, and was assisted towards the close of the day’s fighting by a Prussian force under Bliicher.

4.    Quatre Bras Qcatr brah', four arms), village in Belgium 10 miles south of Waterloo. Here, on the 16th June,—two days before the battle of Waterloo,—Marshal Ney made an unsuccessful attack on a body of British troops.

5.    Turns its swords into pruning-hooks, a reference to the time of universal peace, prophesied by Isaiah.

6.    Worried by every jackal, a reference to one of HSsop’s fables.

NELSON AND WELLINGTON.

Rav^en-ing, greedily devouring ; rapacious.

Ju-bi-lant, exulting; triumphant.

Cra-ven, cowardly.

Who is he1 that cometh like an honour’d guest,

With banner and with music, with soldier and with priest,

With a nation weeping, and breaking on my rest?

Mighty seaman,2 this is he

Was great by land as thou by sea.


Guile, deceit; treachery.

Ac-claim, acclamation ; loud applause.

Civ-ic, relating to a city or citizen.

Thine island loves thee well, thou famous man,

The greatest sailor since our world began. Now, to the roll of muffled drums,

To thee the greatest soldier comes;

For this is he

Was great by land as thou by sea;

His foes were thine; he kept us free ;


0 give him welcome, this is he Worthy of our gorgeous rites,

And worthy to be laid by thee;

For this is England’s greatest son,

He that gain’d a hundred fights,

Nor ever lost an English gun;

This is he that far away Against the myriads of AssayeClash’d with his fiery few and won;

And, underneath another sun,

Warring on a later day,

Round affrighted Lisbon drew The treble works,4 the vast designs Of his labour’d rampart-lines,

Where he greatly stood at bay,

Whence he issued forth anew.

And ever great and greater grew, Beating from the wasted vines Back to France her banded swarms,

Back to France with countless blows,

Till o’er the hills her eagles5 flew Past the Pyrenean pines,

Follow’d up in valley and glen With blare of bugle, clamour of men, Roll of cannon, and clash of arms,

And England pouring on her foes.

Such a war had such a close.

Again6 their ravening eagle rose In anger, wheel’d on Europe-shadowing wings,

And barking for the thrones of kings; Till one that sought but Duty’s iron crown

On that loud sabbath7 shook the spoiler down;


A day of onsets of despair!

Dash’d on every rocky square Their surging charges foam’d themselves away:

Last, the Prussian trumpet blew;

Thro’ the long-tormented air Heaven flash’d a sudden jubilant ray, And down we swept and charged and overthrew.

So great a soldier taught us there What long-enduring hearts could do In that world’s-earthquake, Waterloo! Mighty seaman, tender and true,

And pure as he from taint of craven guile,

0 saviour of the silver-coasted isle,

O shaker of the Baltic and the Nile,8 If aught of things that here befall Touch a spirit among things divine,

If love of country move thee there at all,

Be glad, beca,use his bones are laid by thine!

And thro’ the centuries let a people’s voice

In full acclaim,

A people’s voice,

The proof and echo of all human fame, A people’s voice, when they rejoice At civic revel and pomp and game, Attest their great commander’s claim With honour, honour, honour, honour to him,

Eternal honour to his name.


—Extract from Ode on the Death of the Dulce of Wellington,

by Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1819-92).

1.    He, the Duke of Wellington, who died in 1852, and was buried with great state in St. Paul’s Cathedral. He was born in 1769. The poet-laureate of the time (Alfred Tennyson) wrote a commemorative ode on the event.

2.    Mighty seaman, Horatio, Viscount Nelson of the Nile. He was born in 1758, and died during the battle of Trafalgar, having received a mortal wound in the breast

3.    Assaye. In 1803, Arthur Wellesley (afterwards the Duke of Wellington), whose brother was, at the time, Governor-General of India, utterly defeated at Assaye (a small town near the middle of India), a large army of Mahrattas, trained and led by French officers.

4.    Treble works, three lines of fortifications, known as the lines of Torres Vedras, which Wellington formed round Lisbon in 1810, during the Peninsula War.

5.    Her eagles. The eagle was the standard of the French army in this war.

6.    Again. After the battle of Leipzig (1813), and the occupation of Paris by the Allies (1814), Napoleon fell into the hands of the conquerors, and was sent to the island of Elba, and Louis XVIII. was placed on the throne of France. In March, 1815, Napoleon escaped from Elba, and landed in France. His old followers flocked round him, and he was soon at the head of 100,000 men. Louis fled, and the Allies again took up arms. Napoleon hurried into Belgium to attack them, and then followed the battles of Quatre Bras, Ligny, and Waterloo.

7.    That loud sabbatb. The battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, the i8th of June, 1815.

8.    Baltic and the Nile, victories won by Nelson, the former over the Danes in 1801, the latter over the French in 1798.

Conscience.

What stronger breastplate than a heart untainted ? Thrice is he armed, that hath his quarrel just;

And he but naked, though locked up in steel,

Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted.

—Shakespeare.

GRASS.


nutted, furrowed ; channelled.

Flac-cid, drooping; soft and weak.

De-spised; looked down upon with disfavour or contempt; scorned.

Gen-tian (jen-shan), plant, the bitter root of which is used in medicine.


Nar-ciss-US, plant with handsome flowers having a cup-shaped crown, comprising the daffodils and jonquils of several kinds.

Sym-fool-ic-al-ly, as by a symbol or visible sign of an idea.

Va^i-e-ga-ted, having marks or patches of various colours.


1.    Gather a single blade of grass, and examine for a minute, quietly, its narrow, sword-shaped strip of fluted green. Nothing, as it seems there, of notable goodness or beauty. A very little strength, and a very little tallness, and a few, delicate, long lines meeting in a point, not a perfect point either, but blunt and unfinished, by no means a creditable or apparently much-cared-for example of Nature’s workmanship, made, as it seems, only to be trodden on to-day, and to-morrow to be cast into the oven; and a little pale and hollow stalk, feeble and flaccid, leading down to the dull, brown fibres of roots. And yet, think of it well, and judge whether, of all the gorgeous flowers that beam in summer air, and of all strong and goodly trees, pleasant to the eyes or good for food—stately palm and pine, strong ash and oak, scented citron, burdened vine,—there be any by man so deeply loved, by God so highly graced, as that narrow point of feeble green.

2.    Consider what we owe merely to the meadow grass, to the covering of the dark ground by that glorious enamel, by the companies of those soft, and countless, and peaceful spears. The fields ! Follow but forth for a little time the thoughts of all that we ought to recognise in those words. All spring and summer is in them—the walks by silent, scented paths—the rests in noonday heat—the joy of herds and flocks—the power of all shepherd life and meditation—the life of sunlight upon the world, falling in emerald streaks, and falling in soft blue shadows, where else it would have struck upon the dark mould or scorching dust—pastures beside the pacing brooks—soft banks and knolls of lowly hills—thymy slopes of down overlooked by the blue line of lifted sea—crisp lawns all dim with early dew, or smooth in evening warmth of barred sunshine, dinted by happy feet, and softening in their fall the sound of loving voices—all these are summed in those simple words, and these are not all.

3.    We may not measure to the full the depth of this heavenly gift in our own land, though still, as we think of it longer, the infinite of that meadow sweetness, Shakespeare’s peculiar joy, would open on us more and more, yet we have it but in part. Go out, in the spring time, among the meadows that slope from the shores of the Swiss lakes to the root of their lower mountains. There, mingled with the taller gentians and the white narcissus, the grass grows deep and free; and, as you follow the winding mountain-paths, beneath arching boughs all veiled and dim with blossom — paths that for ever droop and rise over the green banks and mounds sweeping down in scented undulation, steep to the blue water, studded here and there with new-mown heaps, filling all the air with fainter sweetness,—look

up towards the higher hills, where the waves of everlasting green roll silently into their long inlets among the shadows of the pines ; and you may, perhaps, at last know the meaning of those quiet words of the 147th Psalm, “ He maketh grass to grow upon the mountains.”

4. There are also several lessons symbolically connected with this subject which we must not allow to escape us. Observe, the peculiar characters of the grass, which adapt it especially for the service of man. are its apparent humility and cheerfulness. Its humility, in that it seems created only for lowest service—appointed to be trodden on and fed upon. Its cheerfulness, in that it seems to exult under all kinds of violence and suffering. You roll it, and it is stronger the next day; you mow it, and it multiplies its shoots as if it were grateful ; you tread upon it, and it only sends up richer perfume. Spring comes, and it rejoices with all the earth — glowing with variegated flame of flowers—waving in soft depth of fruitful strength. Winter comes, and though it will not mock its fellow-plants by growing then, it will not pine and mourn and turn colourless or leafless as they. It is always green, and is only the brighter and

gayer for the hoar-frost. —pr0m Modern Painters, by John Ruskin

(born 1819, died recently).

SCAVENGERS IN LUNGS. 27 28

they do an immense amount of work. About ten times per second, they move swiftly forward, and then slowly back again. In this way, they cause a constant flow of the fluid to take place in an outward direction; and, with the fluid, come the particles of smoke, dust, and other things that we are always breathing in. When you cough and expectorate, you simply eject the matter these ceaselessly active scavengers have brought up from the remotest depths of the lungs.

3. In bronchitis, it is found that the little hairs are paralysed; hence your lungs get choked, and you must get a bottle of medicine from the doctor to stimulate the scavengers. If you can’t succeed in stimulating them, they die. Apparently, each cell moves its own cilia independently of the brain or nervous system, for they have been seen waving vigorously in animals two days dead.

LEARN TO BREATHE PROPERLY.

Sed-en-ta-ry, requiring much sitting.


Phy-sique' (fi-zeeic'), the natural constitution, or physical structure, of a person.


1. Few people breathe properly, and this is specially the case with persons of sedentary occupation,—clerks, shop assistants, and the like.

Left Lung and Air Tubes.

1. Larynx^ 2. Trachea. 3. Right Bron-

Bronchial Tubes. 6. Left Lun


2.    Deep breathing ensures the proper filling of the lungs with air, and quickens and expands all the minute cells, particularly those in the upper regions of the lungs, which are most neglected, and which, consequently, often become the resort of the germs of consumption.

3.    Persons who are obliged to lead

an indoor life, and whose occupation compels a stooping posture, should accustom themselves to rise from their seats at    intervals,    throw    back    their

shoulders, and inhale the air deeply, holding the breath for a few seconds.

4.    When in the open air, they should acquire the habit of taking deep, regular breaths, remembering always that the nose is the proper channel for the passage of air, the mouth being kept

____ _ ^    closed. This exercise will not only

chus. 4. Bronchia? Tube. 5.bultimate strengthen the lungs and render them

rnncViiq 1 Tnhoo    A T nfl T.nnr»    r* ,,    V    .    -

better fitted to resist disease, but will improve the physique generally.— Cassell's Saturday Journal.

The American War of Independence, or, as it is sometimes called, the Revolutionary War, from its outbreak at Lexington, on the 19th of April, 1775, to the disbanding of the army on the 19th of April, 1783, lasted just eight years to a day.

THE PIED PIPER OF HAMELIN.

Nod-dy, stupid fellow.

Cor-por-a-tion, town council.

Er-mine (er-mln) white fur of the ermine, used to line the gowns of judges and other high officials.

Con-ster-na-tion, fright.

Coun-cil, meeting; deliberation; consultation. Guil der, German coin of the period: now, a Dutch silver coin worth twenty stivers, about Is. 9d.

Newt, small, lizard-like animal.

Pied, of different colours; variegated like a pie or magpie.

Cheque, check ; having different colours like a chequer (or chess) hoard.

Vest-ure, coat; dress.

Fan-gled, here, fashioned.

Cham (Karri) or Khan, sovereign of Tartary.

Hamelin 1 town’s in Brunswick,2 By famous Hanover city ;

The river Weser, deep and wide,

Washes its wall on the southern side ;

A pleasanter spot you never spied :

But, when begins my ditty,

Almost five hundred years ago,

To see the townsfolk suffer so From vermin, was a pity.

Rats !

They fought the dogs, and killed the cats, And bit the babies in the cradles,

And ate the cheeses out of the vats,

And licked the soup from the cooks’ own ladles,

Split open the kegs of salted sprats, Made nests inside men’s Sunday hats, And even spoiled the women’s chats,

By drowning their speaking With shrieking and squeaking In fifty different sharps and flats.

At last, the people in a body To the town hall came flocking :

“ ’Tis clear,” cried they, “our mayor’s a noddy !

And as for our corporation—shocking To think we buy gowns lined with ermine For dolts that can’t or won’t determine What’s best to rid us of our vermin ! Rouse up, sirs ! Give your brains a racking

To find the remedy we’re lacking,

Or, sure as fate, we’ll send you packing!” At this the mayor and corporation Quaked with a mighty consternation.

An hour they sat in council;

At length, the mayor broke silence : “For a guilder I’d my ermine gown sell; I wish I were a mile hence !


Ni-zarn( title of Indian princes who were-viceroys of the Mogul emperor.

Vam-pire bats, large hats which are said to settle upon, and suck the blood of, persons when they are asleep.

A-dept' person fully skilled in anything ; a proficient.

Com-men-ta-ry, brief, hastily-written account of events.

Con-serve, adj., containing jams, pickles, and the like.

Dry-salt-er-y, storehouse for salted and dried meats, and everything used for making jams, sauces, and pickles.

Nun-cheon, luncheon; light meal. (This word has become obsolete, or dropped out of use.) PmBcheon, cask containing, sometimes 84, sometimes 120, gallons.

It’s easy to bid one rack one’s brain—

I’m sure my poor head aches again,

I’ve scratched it so, and all in vain.

Oh, for a trap, a trap, a trap ! ”

Just as he said this, what should hap,

At the chamber door, but a gentle tap. “Bless us ! ” cried the mayor, “what’s that ?

Only a scraping of shoes on the mat! Anything like the sound of a rat Makes my heart go pit-a-pat! ”

“Come in!” the mayor cried, looking

bigger ;

And in did come the strangest figure.

His queer long coat, from heel to head, Was half of yellow and half of red ;

And he himself was tall and thin,

With sharp blue eyes, each like a pin, And light loose hair, yet swarthy skin, No tuft on cheek, nor beard on chin,

But lips where smiles went out and in ; There was no guessing his kith and kin.And nobody could enough admire The tall man and his quaint attire.

He advanced to the council table :

And, “Please, your honours,” said he, “ I’m able,

By means of a secret charm, to draw All creatures living beneath the sun,

That creep, or swim, or fly, or run,

After me so as you never saw !

And I chiefly use my charm On creatures that do people harm —

The mole, the toad, the newt, the viper : And people call me the Pied Piper.”

(And here they noticed round his neck A scarf of red and yellow stripe,

To match his coat of the self-same cheque;


And at the scarf’s end hung a pipe ;

And his fingers, they noticed, were ever straying,

As if impatient to be playing Upon his pipe, as low it dangled Over his vesture so old-fangled.)

“ Yet,” said he, “ poor piper as I am,

In Tartary 41 freed the Cham,

Last June, from his huge swarm of gnats;

I eased in Asia the Nizam

Of a monstrous brood of vampire-bats ;

And, as for what your brain bewilders,

If I can rid your town of rats,

Will you give me a thousand guilders?” “One! fifty thousand!” was the exclamation

Of the astonished mayor and corporation.

Into the street the piper stept,

Smiling first a little smile,

As if he knew what magic slept In his quiet pipe the while ;

Then, like a musical adept,

To blow the pipe his lips he wrinkled, And green and blue his sharp eyes twinkled,

Like a candle-flame where salt is sprinkled ;

And, ere three shrill notes the pipe had uttered,

You heard as if an army muttered ;

And the muttering grew to a grumbling ; And the grumbling grew to a mighty rumbling;

And, out of the houses, the rats came tumbling:

Great rats, small rats, lean rats, brawny rats,

Brown rats, black rats, gray rats, tawny rats,

(To be


Grave old plodders, gay young friskers, Fathers, mothers, uncles, cousins, Cocking tails, and pricking whiskers, Families by tens and dozens ;

Brothers, sisters, husbands, wives, Followed the piper for their lives.

From street to street he piped, advancing.

And step for step they followed dancing. Until they came to the river Weser, Wherein all plunged and perished—

Save one, who, stout as Julius Caesar,5 Swam across, and lived to carry To rat-land home his commentary,

Which was : “ At the first shrill notes of the pipe,

I heard a sound as of scraping tripe,

And putting apples, wondrous ripe,

Into a cider-press’s gripe,

And a moving away of pickle-tub boards, And a leaving ajar of conserve cupboards, And a drawing the corks of train-oil-flasks,

And a breaking the hoops of butter-

casks ;

And it seemed as if a voice Called out, ‘ Oh, rats, rejoice !

The world is grown to one vast drysaltery !

So munch on, crunch on, take your nuncheon,

Breakfast, dinner, supper, luncheon ! ’ And, just as a bulky sugar-puncheon,

All ready staved, like a great sun shone Glorious, scarce an inch before me,

Just as methought it said, ‘ Come, bore me ! ’

I found the Weser rolling o’er me.”

—Robert Browning (1812-89).

continued.)


1.    Hamelin, small, ancient town about 25 miles south-west of Hanover. Hanover, the capital of the former kingdom of that name, stands in the midst of the plain of Northern Germany, on an affluent of the Weser.

2.    Brunswick, a small inland territory, completely enclosed by the Prussian dominions.

3.    Kith and kin, kindred more or less remote.

4.    Tartary, name given in the Middle Ages to the whole of Central Asia and Eastern Europe.

5.    Julius Caesar (B.C. lOOto B.C. 44), one of the greatest of generals. His Commentaries” give a brief account of the wars in which he was engaged.

GLEANINGS.

LOSING OR GAINING A DAY

1. The civil day begins and ends at midnight, but, for convenience of explanation, let us assume (as is the practice of astronomers) that the day begins at noon, and ends at the following noon. It is clear that the interval of time between two successive noons will be, for us, 24 hours (a day as measured by one complete rotation of the Earth) only when we remain on the same meridian. For, if at noon on the beginning of Monday we move, say, over a space of 15 degrees toward the east, it is obvious that when the sun again stands at noon, for us, only 23 hours will have elapsed since we shall have accomplished one twenty-fourth of his journey for him; that is, Tuesday will begin, for us, one hour too soon. Similarly, if we repeat this eastward movement, Wednesday will begin two hours too soon ; and so on until, when our starting point is reached, we shall, in count of days, be just 24 hours ahead in our reckoning. The result will be that, instead of ending the journey in 24 days (as we seem to do) and on a Wednesday, we shall actually complete it in 23 days and on a Tuesday. On the other hand, if we move westward in this way the reverse will happen. Our days, as measured from noon to noon, will be 25 hours long, and we shall actually complete the trip in 25 days and on Thursday.

2. The confusion of dates is wholly due to the system of keeping local time. Each meridian of the Earth has its own midnight and noon, and there are thus as many local dates as there are meridians — an infinite number. When Monday, for example, begins at any point, it is Monday, for that point, all over the Earth for 24 hours; but, at each successive point to the west, Monday will begin a little later, so that there will be an infinite series of local Mondays extending around the Earth and overlapping one another. From this, there results everywhere a duplication of dates, which can be illustrated in several ways. Suppose that we take four places situated 90 degrees of longitude apart —say, Greenwich, Punakha in Bhotan (India), Salia in the Fiji Islands, and Flores in Guatemala (Central America). Now, when it is midnight of Monday at Greenwich, it is noon at Salia, but noon of what day ? Since Punakha lies to the east of Greenwich, when it is Monday midnight at the latter place, it will be 6 a.m. on Tuesday at the former; and, since Salia lies to the east of Punakha, the clock there will stand at noon of Tuesday. On the other hand, since Flores lies west of Greenwich, the local time there must be 6 p.m. on Monday, and consequently the time at Salia, which lies west of Flores, must be noon on Monday.

—Benjamin E. Smith, in The Century Magazine.

OBSERVATION.

A Russian proverb says of a man who does not observe things : “ He goes through the forest, and sees no firewood.”

The mind sees as well as the eye. Where unthinking gazers observe nothing, men of intelligent vision see into the root of the matter put before their eyes, attentively noting differences, making comparisons, and seeing exactly what the things mean. In this way, the telescope was invented by Galileo; and the invention proved the beginning of the modern science of astronomy. Brunei took his first lesson in forming the Thames Tunnel from the tiny ship-worm. Fie saw how the little creature bored through the wood with its well-armed head, first in one direction, and then in another, till the archway was complete ; and, by exactly copying the work on a large scale, he was at length enabled to accomplish a great engineering work.

The School of War.

Ere thy son

Follow the war, tell him it is a school Where all the principles tending to honour Are taught, if truly followed.

To dare boldly

In a fair cause and for the country’s safety,

To run upon the cannon’s mouth undaunted,

To obey his leaders, and shun mutinies,

To bear with patience the winter’s cold And summer’s scorching heat,—

Are the essential parts make up a soldier.

—Philip Massinger (English dramatist, 1583-1640).

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne,

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 20.] MELBOURNE.    [.Junk, 1900.

SANTA FILOMENA.1

Wrought, done ; worked.    An-nals, history; relation of events in order of

Cor£ri-dor, gallery or passage leading to several    time, each event being recorded under the year

apartments of a house.    in which it happened.

Whene’er a noble deed is wrought, Whene’er is spoken a noble thought, Our hearts in glad surprise,

To higher levels fise.

The tidal wave of deeper souls Into our inmost being rolls,

And lifts us unawares Out of all meaner cares.

Honour to those whose words or deeds Thus help us in our daily needs,

And, by their overflow,

Raise us from what is low!

Thus thought I, as by night I read Of the great army of the dead,

The trenches cold and damp,

The starved and frozen camp,—2

The wounded from the battle-plain,

In dreary hospitals of pain,

The cheerless corridors,

The cold and stony floors.


Lo ! in that house of misery A lady with a lamp29 I see

Pass through the glimmering gloom, And flit from room to room.

And slow, as in a dream of bliss,

The speechless sufferer turns to kiss Her shadow, as it falls Upon the darkening walls.

As if a door in heaven should be Open’d and then closed suddenly,

The vision came and went,

The light shone and was spent.

On England’s annals, through the long Hereafter of her speech and song,

That light its rays shall cast From portals of the past.

A lady with a lamp shall stand In the great history of the land,

A noble type of good,

Heroic womanhood.


Nor ever shall be wanting here The palm, the lily, and the spear,

The symbols that of yore Saint Eilomena bore.

—H. W. Longfellow (1S07-S2).

1.    Santa Filomena or Philomena was the daughter of a Greek prince, who, on her refusal (o marry Diocletian (Roman Emperor a.d. 245-313), was condemned to death as a Christian. A chapel in Pisa (Italy) is dedicated to her ; and a picture over the altar represents her as floating down from Heaven, attended by two angels, bearing the lily, the palm, and a javelin. The foreground shows sick people healed by her intercession.

2.    The starved camp. At the beginning of the Crimean War, the British commissariat service was very bad.

Scav-en-ger, person whose employment it is to clean the streets of a city.

Bron-Chi-tis, inflammation of the bronchial tubes of the lungs, or of any part of them.

Par-a-lysed, rendered ineffective; deprived ot the power of voluntary motion.

Ap-par-ent-ly, seemingly.


Mech^an-ism, arrangement or relations of the parts of anything as adapted to produce an effect.

CilH-a-ted, endowed with vibratory motion.

Ep-i-the-li-um, superficial layer of cells lining the alimentary (food) canal and all its appendages.


AN ARMY CORPS AT THE FRONT.

Ma-nceu-vre (ma-noo'-ver), military or naval evolution, movement, or change of position.

Dis-ci-pline, training to act in accordance wiuh established rules; drill.

Ad-min-is-tra-tiOH, direction ; management.

Ve-M-Cle, means of conveyance upon land.

Pon-tooni portable float, used in building bridges quickly for the passage of troops.

Park, in military usage, space occupied by animals, wagons, pontoons, and materials of all kinds ; also, the objects themselves.


Mu-ni-ticns, military stores of all kinds.

Mo-bile (mo-blll), moving with great freedom.

Hav-er-sack, bag or case, usually of stout cloth.,, in which a soldier carries his rations when on a march distinguished from knipsack, in which he carries his necessaries, such as clothing, &c.

AxU-OHl, self-evident and necessary truth; here, established principle in some art or science, which, though not a necessary truth, is univei-sally received.


1. A modern army in the field may be of any size from 50,000 (or less) to 500,000 men, but it has long been settled by military science that only a certain number, more or less fixed and limited, can be united for purposes of manœuvre, discipline, and administration. This “ unit,” as it is called, an expression applied to any one item in a general series, is an army corps. There are other smaller units, such as a squadron of cavalry (160 sabres), a battery of artillery (170 men and 6 guns), a battalion of infantry (about 1,000 men); and these,.

CAMP OF ONE-THIRD OF AN ARMY CORPS. (SEVEN MEN SLEEP IN A TENT.)


when joined together in certain proportions, become brigade units and divisional units, which larger bodies again, when combined, constitute the greatest unit of all—an army corps.

2.    With the British, an army corps consists of 1,207 officers and

35,000 men of all ranks, with 102 guns, 27 machine guns (Maxims),. 10,147 horses, and 1,400 wheeled vehicles. This grand total, split up into its component parts, gives three infantry divisions (each of eight battalions) ; one regiment of cavalry (530 sabres) to be divided among the three divisions, one squadron to each; one brigade division of field artillery, or three batteries of eighteen guns; and there are eight more batteries of forty-eight guns, called the corps artillery, which the corps commander has at his entire disposal, besides another regiment of cavalry. In addition to these, the Royal Engineers provide pontoon train, telegraph section, balloon section, railway company, field company, and field park for entrenching purposes.

3.    Last, but not least, comes “ supply ”—the munitions of “ war and “ mouth,” as they are called, on which the fighting line depends for ammunition and food. The reserves of the first are always kept within reach in handy, mobile sections, so that they can quickly replenish the troops engaged in front; the second is a no less essential

service, for an army lights on its food, and troops, British troops especially, are of little valne when starving.

AN ARMY CORPS.

3rd Division.


2nd Division.


1st Division.


6th Brigade.

5th Brigade.    4th Brigade. 3rd Brigade. 2nd Brigade.

Twenty-four Battalions of Infantry with Maxims.

1st Brigade.

IS1

Squadrons of Cavalry.    Squadrons of Cavalry.

A A it ill it A A A A A A AAAAAA ihArtArtA AAA AAA AAAAAA iiiMAAA A A A A A A A AAAAAAs 1 ---------■»    C J    c....... i JSSSL


SI


©

1^1 30 31 32

come into collision with the enemy. It may be stated as a military axiom that an army can never march in battle array. The breadth of front would be far too extensive, ten or twelve miles perhaps, and joint action between the divisions would be out of the question. Again, the whole corps can seldom move in one single line, for its total length, from the cavalry scouts at the head to the last transport at the extreme rear, would be twenty-six miles, and such an arrangement would cause constant delays while the checks in the front were being cleared.

7. The army generally will march by as many roads as possible, each column with a broad head, and each, as it advances, must keep touch with the others on its right and left. The appearance of such a march, seen from above, would be that of a series of separate serpentine bodies of men creeping across the country, all in the same direction.

—Abridged from an article by Major Arthur Griffiths, in Pearson's Magazine.

MAJOR-GENERAL LORD KITCHENER OF KHARTUM.1

column of an army in the rear, and rations for men besides which, the ployed, are always in their haversacks, three feeds in their supply column, corps moves for-park, and this car-food for all hands, of ground taken no stint, by a whole cause surprise. The six brigades of invisions), will be little more than depth per division, arms and details, and a half.

2. Bearer Companies. 3. Field Hospitals. Columns.    5. Batteries.


CORPS TROOPS.

Regiment of Cavalry with Maxim.

iti A A A it it A A it| A A ill

A A A A A A A AAA ill A A A A A A A ih iA «*• i<i ill |I| A A A A A A AAA AAA


Infant ry' Battalion with Maxin

Im-pe-ri-OUS-ly, in a commanding, lordly manner.

Mous-tache' or Mus-taclie' part of the beard that grows on the upper lip.

Di-vinel detect; conjecture.

Ir-rel-e-vant, not bearing upon ; foreign.

Cam-paigni connected series of military operations forming a distinct stage in a war.

Khe-dive' (kay-deev'), governor or viceroy; title given in 1867 by the Sultan of Turkey to the ruler of Egypt.

En-tllU-si-asm, lively manifestation of joy or zeal.

Im-pe-ri-al, of or pertaining to an empire, or to an emperor or empress.

Com-ple-ment, that which completes ; that which is required to complete a symmetrical whole.

Or-gan-i-sa-tion, arrangement in a systematic way for use or action.

Guar-an-tee, security.

him, as well as of Egypt. He came to the task with a professional and intellectual outfit possessed by none of his comrades. In addition to his military knowledge, he had acquired a thorough acquaintance

MAJOR-GENERAL LORD KITCHENER OF KHARTUM.

with Arabic,4 and this went far to secure him rapid advancement, as few other British officers possessed it.

5. After much hard work and varied experience, he was, in 1890, appointed Commander, or Sirdar, of the Egyptian Army. By 1898, he had fought three campaigns, and re-conquered the Sudan.

6.    Perhaps it is safe to say that no prouder moment was ever experienced by any man than by Kitchener, when, after the decisive battle of Omdurman, on the 2nd of September, 1898, he, at last, stood on the steps of the ruined palace where Gordon had sealed his devotion to his country with his blood—stood there surrounded by representatives of his avenging host—British, Egyptian, and Sudanese,—and gave the order for the hoisting of the Union Jack and the Khedive’s flag on the ruined wall.

7.    Little wonder that, on his return to England, he was received with an immense outburst of popular enthusiasm; he was presented with a grant of £25,000 for his own use, apart from the £100,000 and more that the public readily subscribed at his suggestion for the purpose of founding a Gordon Memorial College at Khartum, to which the railway would soon be extended.

8.    Towards the end of last year, when occupied in the energetic governorship of the Sudan, he received a telegram from Lord Wolselevasking him to accept the post of Chief of the Staff to Lord Roberts of Kandahar, who had been called upon to assume supreme command of the Imperial forces in South Africa in succession to Sir Redvers Buller.

9.    This combination of men to form the new “ brain of the army ” in the field was hailed with a sense of relief and satisfaction by the whole Empire, seeing that in every respect they formed the complement of one another—Roberts with his unrivalled experience in war, Kitchener with his matchless gift of organisation,—and thus offered a guarantee of our ultimate triumph in the war.

—Adapted ip part from Our Greatest Living Soldiers, by Charles Lowe.

1. Khartoum, or, better, Khartum, town in Upper Nubia, at the junction of the White Nile and the Blue Nile. General Gordon was killed here in January, 1885, and the Sudan fell entirely under the dominion of the Mahdi. Hia successor the Khalifa (kha-lee-fah) was overthrown at Omdurman.

Atbara, river rising in Abyssinia, and flowing mbo the Nile. In 1898, the British and Egyptian troops under Sir Herbert Kitchener destroyed the Khalifa’s advanced guard at the Atbara.

3.    Woolwich, the great military arsenal of England, on the south side of the Thames, below London.

4.    Arabic (ar-a-bic), language of the Arabians. It is very widely diffused, being the language in

which all the Mohammedans must read the Koran, and is spoken as the common tongue in Arabia, Syria, and Northern Africa.    _

5.    Omdurman, fortified town, late capital of the Mahdi and his successor, on the opposite side of the Nile to Khartum.

6.    Lord Wolseley, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army. He is sixty-seven years old, and still vigorous, though at the age of 20, in his first battle, he was so severely wounded as to be invalided home.

THE PIED PIPER OF

Poke, bag.

Thrifty, sparing; frugal.

Prime, first, chief, or best part.

Pot-tage, thick soup.

Ca-liph, title of the successors of Mohammed, now used by the sultans of Turkey.

Scor-pi-on, kind of stinging insect.

You should have heard the Hameli.n people

Ringing the bells till they rocked the steeple.

HAMELIN —continued,

Sti-ver, twentieth part of a guilder, about i penny in value.

Rib-aid, ill-behaved, low fellow.

Pie-bald, of various colours.

En-rap-tured, delighted.

Won-drous, wonderful; strange; marvellous. Por-tal, way of entrance or oxit; door.

“Go,” cried the mayor, “and get long poles,

Poke out the nests, and block up the holes! Consult with carpenters and builders,

And leave in our town not even a trace Of the rats !” when, suddenly, up the face Of the piper perked in the market-place, With a “ First, if you please, my thousand guilders.”

A thousand guilders ! The mayor looked blue;

So did the corporation too.

To pay this sum to a wandering fellow With a gipsy1 coat of red and yellow ! “Beside,” quoth the mayor, with a knowing wink,

“ Our business was done at the river’s brink ;

We saw with our eyes the vermin sink, And what’s dead can’t come to life, I think.

So, friend, we’re not the folks to shrink From the duty of giving you something for drink,

And a matter of money to put in your poke ;

But, as for the guilders, what we spoke Of them, as you very well know, was in joke.    >

Beside, our losses have made us thrifty. A thousand guilders ! Come, take fifty !”

Thè piper’s face fell, and he cried :

“ No trifling ! I can’t wait. Beside, I’ve promised to visit by dinner-time Bagdat,33 and accept the prime Of the head-cook’s pottage, all he’s rich in,    _

For having left, in the caliph’s kitchen, Of a nest of scorpions no survivor.

With him I proved no bargain-driver. With you, don’t think I’ll bate a stiver ! 3 And folks who put me in a passion May find me pipe to another fashion.”

“How,” cried the mayor, “d’ye think i’ll brook

Being worse treated than a cook ?

Insulted by a lazy ribald

With idle pipe and vesture piebald ?

Yiou threaten us, fellow ? Ho your worst; Blow your pipe there till you burst ! ”

Once more he stept into the street,

And to his lips again Laid his long pipe of smooth, straight cane ;

And, ere he blew three notes (such sweet, Soft notes as yet musician’s cunning Never gave the enraptured air),

There was a rustling that seemed like a bustling

Of merry crowds justling and pitching and hustling ;

Small feet were pattering, wooden shoes clattering,

Little hands clapping, and little tongues chattering,

And, like fowls in a farmyard when barley is scattering,

Out came the children running ;

And all the little boys and girls, * With rosy cheeks, and flaxen curls,

And sparkling eyes, and teeth like pearls, Tripping and skipping, ran merrily after The wonderful music with shouting and laughter.

The mayor was dumb, and the council stood

As if they were changed into blocks of wood,

Unable to move a step, or cry To the children merrily skipping by; And could only follow with the eye That joyous crowd at the piper’s back. And now the mayor was on the rack,34 And the wretched council’s bosoms beat, As the piper turned from the High Street

To where the Weser rolled its waters Right in the way of their sons and daughters.

However, he turned from south to west, And to Koppelberg Hill his steps • addressed,

And after him the children pressed; Great was the joy in every breast.

“ He never can cross that mighty top ! He’s forced to let the piping drop,

And we shall see our children stop ! ” When, lo, as they reached the mountainside,

A wondrous portal opened wide,

As if a cavern was suddenly hollowed ; And the piper advanced, and the children followed ;

And, when all were in to the very last, The door in the mountain-side shut fast.

Did I say all? No! One was lame,

And could not dance the whole of the way ;

And, in after years, if you would blame His sadness, he was used to say,

‘ ‘ It’s dull in our town since my playmates left !

I can’t forget that I’m bereft Of all the pleasant sights t hey see, Which the piper also promised me :

For he led us, he said, to a joyous land,

Joining the town and just at hand, Where waters gushed, and fruit-trees grew,

And flowers put forth a fairer hue,

And everything was strange and new : And, just as I became assured My lame foot would be speedily cured,

The music stopped, and I stood still, And found myself outside the hill, Left alone against my will,

To go on limping as before,

And never hear of that country more.”

—Robert Browning (1812-89).

1.    Gipsy, like that worn by a Gipsy, one of a wandering’ race, of dark complexion, coming originally from India. (The word Gipsy is a corruption of Egyptian. The Gipsies were once supposed to come from Egypt.)

2.    Bagdat or Bagdad, populous town on the river Tigris, in the south of Mesopotamia, a part of Turkey-in-Asia.

3.    Bate a Stiver, take less than the smallest amount that could be mentioned.

4.    On the rack, in a state of torment. The rack used to be employed as an engine of torture. It consisted of a large frame, upon which the person’s body was gradually stretched, until, sometimes, the joints were dislocated.

RHODESIA.

Pro-tect-or-ate, authority assumed by a superior power over an inferior one, whereby the former protects the latter from invasion, and shares in the management of its affairs; territory inhabited by a people under the protection of a superior power.

Ad-min-is-tered, managed; conducted; directed.

Char-ter, instrument in writing from the sovereign of a country, bestowing certain rights and privileges.

Kraal, in South Africa, collection of huts within a stockade; village.

Ath-let/iC, pertaining to athletes (persons who contend in exercises requiring agility and strength). 35 33 36 34

Gro-tesque; wildly or strangely formed.

Pla-teau' (pla-toe'), tabledand.

Ce^re-als, grasses cultivated for their edible seeds or grain, as wheat, oats, and barley ; the several kinds of grain.

In£dis-pen-sa-ble, absolutely necessary or required.

Mis^sion-a-ries, persons sent on a mission ; especially, as here, persons sent to propagate the Christian religion.

Tset-se (t)set-see), venomous African fly, whose bite is very poisonous, and even fatal, to horses and cattle, but harmless to man.

Ma-la-ri-al, pertaining to malaria or miasma, that is, an unhealthy exhalation from certain soils, as marshy lands.

of 5,000, or thereabouts, with hotels, boarding-houses, athletic clubs, a public library, several churches, and with the Bulawayo ChronicleMatabele Times, and The Rhodesian Weekly to record the doings of its inhabitants and the country round about.

5. Two hundred and seventy-two miles north-east of Bulawayo is Salisbury, the capital of lthodesia. A railway to replace the old coach road between the two towns is in the course of construction.

Salisbury will also shortly he connected with Beira (bay-'e-rah) on the coast by a railway, the interesting country through which it is to run having been proved to lie in the midst of a number of rich gold-fields, standing in the natural highway from Beira to the Lower Zambesi.

6. Other important townships in Rhodesia are Gwelo and Umtali. The former is 110 miles north-east of Bulawayo, and is a place with a great future, as it will probably be used as a coal siding on the proposed Cape to Cairo (high-'row') railway. It is the centre of

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE CECIL JOHN RHODES. supply fa large

number of neighbouring gold-fields. The latter is the eastern gate of Rhodesia.

7.    Many parts of the country are very beautiful, the most striking feature of the landscape being the upright granite kopjes, which suddenly emerge from the soil in grotesque columns. In addition to gold, discoveries of silver, copper, lead, and tin have been made. Much of the country consists of an elevated plateau, capable of growing cereals.

8.    The future prosperity of Rhodesia does not, therefore, depend on gold alone, but, as was the case in Australia and California, that metal is invaluable, and indeed indispensable, in attracting a white

population, and in creating a demand for supplies, which must, sooner or later, be met by the cultivation of the soil, and the rearing of cattle and sheep.

9. The climate, for the most part, is healthy. In Matabeleland (the southern portion of Southern Rhodesia), for example, Englishmen have lived for twenty years without needing homeward journeys for health. Missionaries and traders have reared families there, robust in health, but lacking, alas ! in education. There are, however, extensive tracts of undrained swamps and low river-valleys, where the tsetse fly, so fatal to cattle, abounds, and malarial fever is prevalent.

N.B.—See the article entitled “From Cape Town to Salisbury by Rail and Coach,” in this month’s number of The School Paper—Class IV.

THE AIR WE BREATHE.

Pon-der-ous, very heavy ; weighty.

Un-COn-SCiOUS, insensible; having no consciousness or power of mental perception.

Sep-a-rate, divided from another or others.


Va-por-OUS, in the form, or of the nature, of vapour, a substance in the gaseous state, the condition of which is ordinarily that of a liquid or solid.

Gas-8-OUS, in the form, or of the nature, of gas.

1.    On the ocean-bottom, near our shores, creep crabs and other creatures, busy and content in the getting of their livelihood. And, in like manner, we, at the bottom of our far larger and deeper ocean, not of water but of air, creep also, whether contentedly or discontentedly, getting our livelihood also. There is indeed a marked difference between us and the crabs, since a crab may come out from ocean-water and be none the worse; while we, if we get beyond touch of air, cannot live. But many other inhabitants of the sea resemble us in this. A fish taken from the sea dies, as surely as does a man taken from the air.

2.    As regards extent, all the oceans of water throughout the whole world cannot be compared with the vast ocean of air, which is folded like a mantle round the body of our earth. The water-ocean covers only a part, though a large part, of the world. The air-ocean covers the whole of the world. The water-ocean is probably nowhere more than about seven or eight miles deep. The air-ocean is believed to reach to a height of hundreds of miles above the earth’s surface,—in other words, it is an ocean hundreds of miles deep, with mankind living at the bottom of it.

3.    In childhood there is naturally a belief that air is everywhere, and some of us may remember the sense of puzzled surprise on being first told that this is not the case. Air is earthly, not universal. It belongs to our earth ; it is not spread throughout the great Universe that contains our earth. Other worlds, in many instances, have their atmospheres, like or unlike to ours. But our air is distinctly ours alone, not anybody else’s,—supposing that other worlds have beings upon them.

4.    Although the atmosphere reaches to a considerable height above the earth’s surface, it is not the same altogether high up as down here.

With each mile of greater distance from the ground, it becomes thinner and thinner, rarer and rarer. Down here, it is packed densely together, by the ponderous weight of miles and miles of air overhead, all pressing downward upon the lower layers. Up above, the weight is far less, and the particles of air spring more widely apart, so that much fewer of them float in a given quantity of air than nearer to earth’s surface.

5.    That is what we mean when we speak of air being “ rare ” or “rarefied.” A less amount of it fills a given space. If you could take a cubic yard of air from close to the ground, and another cubic yard from three or four miles up, and another cubic yard from seven or eight miles up, you would find an astonishing difference in texture between the three,—supposing that you could compare them.

6.    One way of making this comparison would be by breathing the three specimens of air—though rather more than a cubic yard would be needed for a fair trial. The air taken from near the ground would be found all right. The air taken from three or four miles uj) would be thin, and would make your heart beat very fast, causing you to pant. The air taken from seven or eight miles up would make you gasp for breath and suffer much, and, if you had to go on breathing it, you would probably soon become unconscious. Air taken from a few miles higher still would not keep you in life.

7.    And the reason for this difference simply is that the amount of air in the same space is so very much less. For remember,—air is not nothing. It is a definite something. It consists of distinct, separate particles or tiny portions. If you could by any possibility manage to count the number of particles in a cubic yard of air, as existing in each of these three portions, you would find a great difference between the results of the three reckonings. There would be a very much greater number of air-particles in the air from close to earth’s surface; a very much smaller number of them in the air from a height of three or four miles ; and, by comparison, a few indeed in the air from a distance of seven or eight miles from the ground.

8.    Sometimes, one may hear it said, “ What is in there ? Oh, nothing,—only air.” But the presence of air alone does not mean emptiness. Air is as definitely a “ substance ” as water or iron.

9.    Water may be solid and hard, or it may be liquid and flowing, or it may be vaporous and invisible. So may iron. So, too, may the air that we breathe. Some substances are solid with a small amount of cold to make them so. Though we do not always speak of them in our common talk as “ frozen,” yet frozen they are. Iron, as we usually know it, as we see it in our fireplaces, in our engines, is frozen iron— iron-ice. To make iron liquid, great heat is needed ; and to make it gaseous, far greater heat still. But water, as we commonly know it, is liquid ; and it can be rendered either solid, with a moderate amount of cold, or gaseous, with a moderate amount of heat. Air, on the contrary, is gaseous as we commonly know it, and great cold is required to make it liquid ; while to render it solid, the cold needed is so intense that, for a very long while, it was supposed that air never could or would be made solid. That was looked upon as one of the impossible things, never to be accomplished. Lately, it has been accomplished, and it is one of the triumphs of modern scientific research.

—Agnes Giberne, in The Home Messenger.

(To be continued.)

ADVANCE AUSTRALIA!

(These lines were written on the occasion of the departure of the contingent of troops from New South Wales to the Sudan, after Gordon’s death in January, 1885. They are not inapplicable at the present time.)


—Andrew LanG (a living English poet, story-teller, and essayist, born 184.4).


Sons of the giant ocean isle,

In sport our friendly foes for long ; Well, England loves you, and we smile When you out-match us many a while, So fleet you are, so keen and strong.

You, like that fairy people set Of old in their enchanted sea,

Far off from men, might well forget An elder nation’s toil and fret,

Might heed not aught but game and glee.


But what your fathers were you are In lands the fathers never knew; ’Neath skies of alien sign and star,

You rally to the English war ;

Your hearts are English, kind and true.

And now, when first on England falls The shadow of a darkening fate,

You hear the mother ere she calls,

You leave your ocean-girded walls,

And face her foemen in the gate.


WORK IN THE WORLD.

Pro-fes^sion, occupation, if not mechanical,    Con-tra-ry, opposite; adverse.

oneSelfral’ °r th® liU6t0    ^ <ieV°teS    Unffm-por-'tant, of no consequence. 37 38 39

enough to judge for yourself yet, but just look about you in the place you find yourself in, and try to make things a little better and honester there. You’ll find plenty to keep your hand in at Oxford, or wherever else you go. And don’t be led away to think this part of the world important, and that unimportant. Every corner of the world is important. No man knows whether this part or that is most so, but every man may do some honest work in his own corner.”

—From Tom Brown’s School Days.

1. Oxford, town at the junction of the rivers Cherwell and Thames, the seat of an old and famous University.

THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES.

Afo-O-rig-i-nal, one of the aborigines or earliest known inhabitants of a country.

Fos-sil, adj., contained in rocks. (A fossil is the remains of an animal or plant found in stratified rocks.)

Bronze, alloy of copper and tin.

Mar-SU-pi-al, having a pouch for carrying the young.

Re-pel-lent, able or tending to check the advance of or repulse ; obnoxious.

In-ves-ti-ga-tor, one who searches diligently into a subject.


Al-lied; akin ; related.

Or-gan-i-S sl-tion, arrangement in a systematic way for u,e or action.

Fau-na, animals of any given area or epoch.

Mam-mal, one of the Mammalia, class of animals that suckle their young.

I-SO-la^tion (eye-so-lay-shun or is-o-lay-shun), state of being separated from others.

Prim-i-tive, of or pertaining to the beginning or origin, or to early times.

Com-pe-ti-tion, strife for superiority ; struggle.

1.    At the present time, the Australian aborigines are, with but little doubt, the most nearly allied of all living people, both in their method of life and in the organisation of their society, to our own long past ancestors. They still remain in the stone age, using just the same chipped flints and ground axe-heads as did the earliest men of whom we have any records.

2.    Just as our Australian fauna, with its pouched and egg-laying mammals, has, thanks to its isolation in an island continent, been preserved, and reveals to us now-a-days a series of early primitive forms which have survived because they were shut off from the competition of the higher forms, so, in just the same way, amongst men the Australian aboriginal is a relic of a type of mankind once widely scattered over the world.

3.    Fossil remains show us clearly that Europe, Africa, Asia, and America were once inhabited by animals allied to our marsupials before the present group of higher mammals made their appearance. So, in just the same way, the earliest appearance of man is indicated in the old world by rudely chipped flints, and then by more carefully ground axes, which in their turn gave way to bronze and iron. Just as, in the old world, the fossil remains of animals reveal to us the former existence there of marsupial forms which find their living representatives in our Australian fauna, so their rude implements show the existence of early men whose representatives are probably the existing aborigines of Australia. Just as the marsupials were enabled, by their isolation, to persist in Australia because they did not come into competition with more highly developed forms, so the stone-age men were able to persist because they did not come in contact with men who had passed from the stone into the iron age. Just also as, at the present time, the kangaroo and the wallaby are giving way to the rabbit and the sheep, so the stone-axe man and wooden-spear man give way to the man with the iron tomahawk and the rifle.

4.    There can be little doubt that, if we wish to gain as close an insight as we may into the early organisation of mankind, the one chance which we have of doing so is to study the Australian aboriginal while yet he remains amongst us. His customs and habits may be very different from ours, indeed, in certain ways, they may be repellent to us; but, to fully understand not only our own ways and customs, but those of peoples such as the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Latins, it is essential for us to understand more or less clearly those of savage people from whom we and they have descended.

5.    In a new, young country such as Australia, there is naturally a strong tendency towards the study of things which can be rapidly turned to practical advantage, but it should not be forgotten that we have come into possession of a country—the only one in the world— rich in forms of life, including man himself, which, from the lowest to the highest, link the present with the past. If we allow them to pass away as they are doing, and that with startling rapidity, without our gaining such knowledge of them as we now and for the last time have the chance of doing, then we are losing an opportunity such as will never come again. This, perhaps, is most true in regard to the Australian aborigines, and now -it can only be a matter of a very few years indeed before it will be absolutely impossible to gain any valuable information with regard to them.

6.    The Tasmanian, who was, without doubt, the most primitive of mankind, we actually allowed to become extinct without finding out, we may say, a single fact with regard to his social organisations or his sacred customs. We know that he had only rudely chipped flints and the simplest form of weapons, but of his organisation and beliefs we know absolutely nothing ; yet he stood a stage nearer to primitive man than any existing race.

7.    On the Australian continent, thanks mainly to the work of two Victorian investigators—Messrs. Howitt and Fison—we are not in such a woeful state of ignorance. It is to these two workers, and others who have been stimulated by them, that we owe the greater part of our knowledge of the more important points—that is, those associated with the organisations and sacred customs—of the Australian aboriginal.

—Excerpt from an article in Alma Mater by Professor Baldwin Spencer.

DEMONSTRATIONS OF SWIMMING BY STATE SCHOOL

PUPILS.

1. The second demonstration of the swimming clubs of the State schools of Melbourne and suburbs was given in the South Melbourne Baths, on the 9th of March. Although the weather was somewhat unfavourable for tlie swimmers and their numerous patrons, the demonstration was a success. There were thirteen contests, and they all passed off without a hitch.

2. The race for the Championship Gold Medal, presented by the Secretary of Education, was won by Master A. Hodges, of State School, No. 1094, Geelong. The same school won the Teams Race, and thereby secured the honour of Champion School Club ” for the season. The Albert Park School came second in this race; and the second and third places in the Championship Race were also filled by its representatives.

3. The second annual exhibition of swimming by the pupils of the Williamstown Central State School was held at the local baths on the 10th of March, in the presence of a large number of spectators. The arrangements were admirable, and the afternoon’s proceedings were a complete success.

4. The annual swimming matches arranged principally for the children attending the schools in Benalla (on the Broken River) took place at the end of the season. The day was an enjoyable one ; there was quite a crowd of people present; and the arrangements were thoroughly satisfactory.

GLEANINGS.

ROMAN AND ARABIC NUMERALS.

Notice how much easier it is this year, when giving the date, to write 1900 in Roman numerals than it is to write it in Arabic numerals. For 1899, it took no less than nine letters, “MDCCCXCIX.” For 1888, it took exactly thirteen letters, “ MDCCCLXXXVIII. ”—the most for any year of the whole Christian era thus far. This year, 1900, it drops down to three figures, “ MCM.” And 101 years hence it will go down to two figures only, “ MM.”

“ WORK WHILE IT IS CALLED TO-DAY.”

Rise ! for the day is passing,

And you lie dreaming on;

The others have buckled their armour,

And forth to the fight have gone;

A place in the ranks awaits you,

Each man has some part to play;

The past and the future are looking In the face of the stern to-day.

—Adelaide A. Procter. (1825-64).

NOTICE.

The attention of pupil teachers who are candidates for the second-class certificate is drawn to the requirements under Regulation Y. (6), with special reference to the Theory and Practice of Teaching.

liy Authority: Hobt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

The SQHDDt Fafek.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 21.] MELBOURNE.    [July, 1900.

’0 AIX.2

Croup, place behind the saddle.

Buff-coat/ strong, military coat.

Hol-'ster (hole'-ster), leather pistol-case hung on the saddle.

Bur-gess-es, magistrates ; also, citizens or freemen of a borough.

Jack-boots/ high boots that serve to defend the

legs.

Peer, equal, and he;


HOW THEY BROUGHT THE GOOD NEWS FROM GHENT1 1

Pos-tern, back door or gate ; small gate in the | wall of a fortified place.

Pique, peak (of a saddle).

In-tel-li-gence, understanding; sense.

As-kance/ sideways.

Spume-flakes; foam-flecks.

Aye (a), ever ; always. {Aye and anon, now and then; often.)

I sprang^ to the stirrup, and Joris.

I galloped, Dirck galloped, we galloped all three :

“Good speed ! cried the watch as the gate-bolts undrew;

“ Speed ! ” echoed the wall to us galloping through ;

Behind shut the postern, the lights sank to rest,

And into the midnight we galloped abreast.

Not a word to each other; we kept the great pace Neck by neck, stride by stride, never changing our place ;

I turned in my saddle, and made its girths tight,

Then shortened each stirrup, and set the pique right,

Rebuckled the cheek-strap, chained slacker the bit,

Nor galloped less steadily Roland a whit.

’ Twas moonset at starting ; but, while we drew near Lokeren,4 the cocks crew, and twilight dawned clear ;

At Boom,5 a great yellow star came out to see ;

At Diiffeld,6 ’twas morning as plain as could be ;

And, from Mechlin? church steeple, we heard the half-chime,

So Joris broke silence with, “Yet there is time ! ”

At Aerschot,8 up leaped of a sudden the sun,

And against him the cattle stood black every one,

To stare through the mist at us galloping past;

And I saw my stout galloper, Roland, at last,

With resolute shoulders, each butting away The haze, as some bluff river headland its spray ;

And his low head and crest, just one sharp ear bent back For my voice, and the other pricked out on his track ;

And one eye’s black intelligence—ever that glance O’er its white edge at me, his own master, askance !

And his thick, heavy spume-flakes which aye and anon His fierce lips shook upwards in galloping on.

By Hasselt,9 Dirck groaned ; and cried Joris, “ Stay spur !

Your roosiO galloped bravely, the fault’s not in her,

We’ll remember at Aix for one heard the quick wheeze Of her chest, saw the stretched neck, and staggering knees,

And sunk tail, and horrible heave of her flank,

As down on her haunches she shuddered and sank.

Price Id.

So we were left galloping, Joris and I,

Past Loozll an(j past Tongres,12 no cloud in the sky ;

The broad sun abovp laughed a pitiless laugh,

’Neath our feet broke the brittle, bright stubble like chaff,

Till over by Dalhemis a dome-spire sprang white,

And, “ Gallop,” gasped Joris, “ for Aix is in sight ! ”

How they’ll greet us ! ” And, all in a moment, his roan Rolled neck and croup over, lay dead as a stone ;

And there was my Roland to bear the full weight Of the news which alone could save Aix from her fate,

With his nostrils like pits full of blood to the brim,

And with circles of red for his eye-sockets’ rim.

Then I cast loose my buff-coat, each holster let fall,

Shook off both my jack-boots, let go belt and all;

Stood up in the stirrup, leaned, patted his ear,

Called my Roland his pet-name, my horse without peer ;

Clapped my hands, laughed and sang, any noise, bad or good,

Till at length into Aix Roland galloped and stood.

And all I remember is, friends flocking round

As I sat with his head ’twixt my knees on the ground ;

And no voice was but praising this Roland of mine As I poured down his throat our last measure of wine,

Which (the burgesses voted by common consent)

Was no more than his due who brought good news from Ghent.

—Robert Browning (1812-89).

1.    Ghent (gent), chief town in East Flanders, Belgium.

2.    Aix (dks, the “ a ” as in fate), for Aix la Chapelle (aks lah sha-pell'), town in Rhenish Prussia, near the Belgian frontier ; called in German Aachen.

3.    I sprang. In answer to an inquirer, the poet wrote :There is no sort of historical foundation for the poem. I wrot.e it under the bulwark of a vessel off the African coast, after I had been at sea long enough to appreciate even the fancy of a gallop on the back of a certain good horse, York, then in my stables at home.”

4.    Lokeren (lo-ke-ren, but here, apparently, lo-ke-ren), twelve miles north-east of Ghent.

5.    Boom, sixteen miles east of Lokeren.

6.    Duffeld (dif-feld), six miles east of Boom.

7.    Mechlin (mek-lin), five miles south of Duffeld. They did not pass through this town, their road lying from Duffeld to Aerschot.

8.    Aerschot (air-skot), sixteen miles south-east of Duffeld.

9. Hasselt (hds-selt, the a as in far), twenty-two miles east by south of Aerschot.

10.    ROOS (rods), horse.

11.    LOOZ (loze, rhyming with rose), nine miles east of Hasselt.

12.    Tongres (ton'gr, the “6” as in note), four miles east of Looz.

13.    Dalhem, thirteen miles east by south of Tongres.

MAFEKING RELIEVED.

U-biq-ui-tOUS, being in all places at the same time.

Stra-teg-iC (stra-tSj-ic), pertaining to strategy,. or the science of projecting campaigns and directing great military movements.

Ex-i-gen cy, need ; pressure ; distress.

Fo-cused, directed to a point; centred ; concentrated.

Con-cen-tra-ted (con-cen-tra-ted or con-cen-tra-ted), gathered into one body, mass, or force;, combined.

Con-scious-ness, knowledge ; feeling. Riv-et-ed, made immovable ; fixed Cri-sis, decisive moment; turning point.

De-lir i-um, madness ; strong excitement.

Pas sion-ate, vehement ; warm.

Pri-va-tion, need ; destitution.

Those words really relieved ten thousand Mafekings all over the British Empire. The Boer siege that cooped up in fever, famine, pestilence, and daily peril, the few hundreds of suffering people who placed all their earthly trust in the brave and ubiquitous Baden-Powell, acted also as a moral siege in the bosoms of millions of people who had read of, and yearned over, the agonies of that heroic garrison.

2. For months past, that little village in South Africa, without any strategic importance in itself, of no consequence in the ultimate issue of the war, has drawn to itself the anxious gaze of half the civilised world. And why? Solely because of that one touch of nature3 which

MAJOR-GENERAL BADEN-POWELL.


makes all mankind kin. There, the cruel exigencies of war focused themselves in their cruellest form. There, the Boer leaders concentrated many of their best fighting men, and employed trains of their most effective artillery, for the purpose of conquering a few hundreds of devoted Britons, who nailed their colours to the mast with the proud vaunt of “ No surrender ! ”

3. It was the consciousness of all this, which has gone out over the world, that has riveted men’s eyes on Mafe-king with that intensity of interest that the dramatist compels in the crisis of a great tragedy. There they were, brave men, heroic souls, struggling with adversity. Not theirs was such courage as demanded twenty minutes of mad delirium in a charge like that of Lord Cardigan’s cavalry at Balaclava.4 Not theirs the pride, pomp, and circumstance of “glorious war.” A far rarer fortitude was demanded of them. It was the endurance which can

Gaze on death with an unflinching eye; Can scorn its terrors, and can coolly die.

There was needed the heroism that could face famine and pestilence as readily as the bullet of the Boer ; and which could go on from day to day, from week to week, and from month to month, unknowing of the end, and unheeding of everything but that splendid tenacity which can dare and endure all except to yield.

5. There are still living many who can recall the agonies of Lucknow and Delhi5—names embalmed in the most heroic pages of British valour. Mafeking will henceforth rank with these historic places; and, wherever the story is told, as it will be told again and again at every fireside where the English tongue is spoken, the name of Baden-Powell will evoke a thrill of pride and a passionate admiration for qualities which are the noblest that our nature can boast. If the whole garrison and residents of that war-stricken town have successfully braved' the extremes of privation, it has been due to the pre-eminent qualities of daring, resource, and loyalty to their race-traditions.

—Adapted from The Age of 21st May, 1900.

1.    Saturday last. Mafeking (mah-fee-king) was relieved on the 18th of May by a c-olumn, under Colonel Mahon, marching northwards from Kimberley, in cooperation with Colonel Plumer’s force that moved southward from Lobatsi.

2.    “ Mafeking may be described as a modest collection of houses, grouped round the broad market-square which is so prominent a feature of South African towns. Upon this parade-like square, morning market is held before breakfast, and farmers—British, Dutch, and native—bring in loads of vegetables, fruit, timber, grain, forage, and other produce from the surrounding country. Some few of the houses are built of stone, others of corrugated iron lined with timber. A few hundred yards behind the English quarter lies the old native town of Mafeking, a collection of grass-thatched, mud-walled, circular huts, which shelter some 5,000 people of the Barolong tribe.”—H. A. Bryden, in The Pall Mall Gazette.

3.    One touch Of nature. The reference is to a line in one of Shakspere’s plays, but the application here made, namely, to sympathy with the weaker party in a struggle, is entirely different from that which the dramatist gives to the words. The passage runs thus:—

“ One touch of nature makes the whole world kin,

That all, with one consent, praise new-born gawds,1 Though they are made and moulded of things past,

And give to dust that is a little gilt

More laud 2 than gilt3 o’er-dusted.” —Troilus and Cressida, Act III., Scene 3.

1. Gawds (or gauds), pieces of finery. 2. Laud, praise. 3. Gilt, gold.

4.    Lord Cardigan’s cavalry at Balaclava. Lord Cardigan was the commander of the Light

Brigade, 670 sabres strong, that, on the 25th of October, 1854, at Balaclava, charged the batteries of a Russian army in position. As no attempt had been made to support them with infantry, when their impetus was spent, these unfortunate heroes had to cut their way back through the enemy, and return foiled to the British lines. They lost 113 killed and 154 wounded.

5.    Lucknow and Delhi. Lucknow is a town in India, on the Goomtee, a tributary of the Ganges. During the Indian Mutiny (1857-8), it was besieged by the rebels, but was bravely relieved by Havelock and Outram in 1857. Delhi is also a town in India, on the Jumna, a tributary of the Ganges. It was occupied by the rebels during the Mutiny, but was taken by Sir John Laurence, after a few months’ siege.

A NEW VERSION OP “AULD LANG SYNE.”

On the 18th of April, at Bloemfontein, the war correspondents gave a concert in aid of the Widows and Orphans’ Funds of London and Bloemfontein In the programme was a poem by Mr. Rudyard Kipling, written to the air of £; Auld Lang Syne. ” The following are two verses from it:—


“We welcome to our hearts to-night Our kinsmen from afar ;

Brothers in an empire’s fight,

And comrades of our war.

For Auld Lang Syne, my lads,

And the fights of Auld Lang Syne, We drink our cup of fellowship To the fights of Auld Lang Syne.


“The shamrock, thistle, leek, and rose, With heath and wattle twine,

And maple from Canadian snows,

For the sake of Auld Lang Syne.

For Auld Lang Syne take hands From London to the Line ;

Good luck to those that toiled with us Since the days of Auld Lang Syne.”


THE RETURN OF INVALIDED SOLDIERS TO AUSTRALIA.

1. Some of our Australian men invalided from the war arrived in Melbourne yesterday, and are to he formally welcomed hack to-day.


In-va-lid-ed (in-m-leed-ed), given leave of absence from duty on account of ill-healih. Re-al-ised, accomplished ; converted from the imaginary into the actual.

Tes-ti-mo-ny, evidence ; proof of some fact.


Bi-as, bent of prepossession towards an object or view, not leaving the mind indifferent. Co-lon-i-als, members or inhabitants of a colony.

Maimed, injured ; crippled.


CAPT. R. W. SALMON.

(Photo, by Mr. Fraser, Ballarat.)

VICTORIAN OFFICERS WHO DIED IN


MAJOR G. A. EDDY.

(Photo, by Messrs. T. Humphrey & Co.)


SURGEON-CAPT W. F. HOPKINS. (Photo, by Messrs. T. Humphrey & Co.)

DEFENCE OF OUR EMPIRE.


For all the grand old Island spirit Which Britain’’s chiv’lrous sons inherit Was roused, and as one heart, one head, We rallied round the flag.

—Anon.


.    .    . Men whose faith and truth

On War’s red touchstone rang true metal, Who ventur’d life and love and youth For the great prize of death in battle.

—Lowell.


It is a thoughtful act of the Premier of Victoria, Mr. McLean, to entertain them one and all at Parliament House. Our fellow-Victorians had a grand farewell when they left our shores only a few months back ; and still more do the hearts of the people go out to them to-day.

2.    Much has happened since they left. For one thing, we can say this, that, high as our hopes ran of the character our men would earn in active service, those hopes have been more than realised. Testimony as to the bravery and the intelligence of the Australians has come to us not only from Australian correspondents, who might be suspected of bias, but also from the English papers, which are full of the story of the mental alertness and physical courage of the “ Colonials.” It was said by some, when our men left, that they would be kept in the rear, would be employed to protect communications, and so on ; but, as a matter of fact, we see them leading the advance, placed in the very front of the battle.

3.    We have every right to be proud of our contingents. The whole force can never come back to us. Some of them, such as Colonel "Umphelby and Major Eddy, fill soldiers’ graves—

Where sleep the brave who sink to rest,

With all their country’s wishes blessed.”

They fell in action. Others, such as Captain Salmon and Surgeon-Captain Hopkins, have perished from sickness engendered by the hardships of the campaign—

“ Who, being girt and armed for the fight,

Yielded their arms, but to no mortal foe.”

4.    Of those left, we shall have men maimed in the fray—and such are those who are to be honoured to-day. Since they said good-bye to us, they have seen and they have done great things. All of them have passed through the Valley of the Shadow of Death,1 and they have done so in the cause of national duty, without flinching. They are to be heartily thanked for their services, for the manner in which they have upheld the national reputation ; and they are to be sincerely congratulated apon their return to life in a community that can never afford to forget the noble part they played on its behalf in battle.

—Adapted from The Argus of the 25th May, 1900.

1. Valley Of tile Shadow Of Death. The reference is to the valley through which Christian, a leading character in Bunyan’s Pilgrim's Progress, had to pass on his way to the Celestial City.

SOMEBODY’S DARLING.

Ward, dormitory; room in which there are several beds.

Mould, shape.

Bap-tized' in, covered in

Into a ward of the whitewashed halls, Where the dead, and the dying, lay— Wounded by bayonets, shells, and balls— Somebody’s Darling1 was borne one day.


Grace, divine love or pardon ; the mercy of God, as distinguished from His justice.

En-shrinedf loved, and kept in memory. Yearn-ing, longing very much.

Somebody’s Darling ! so young and so brave, Wearing still, on his pale, sweet face, Soon to be hid by the dust of the grave,

The lingering light of his boyhood’s grace.


Kiss him once, for Somebody’s sake, Murmur a prayer, soft and low ;

One bright curl from the cluster take— They were Somebody’s pride, you know.

Somebody’s hand hath rested there :

Was it a mother’s, soft and white’ And have the lips of a sister fair

Been baptized in those waves of light?


Matted and damp are the curls of gold Kissing the snow of that fair, young brow;

Pale are the lips of delicate mould— Somebody’s Darling is dying now. Back from the beautiful, blue-veined face, Brush every wandering, silken thread; Cross his hands as a sign of grace— Somebody’s Darling is still, and dead.


God knows best. He has Somebody’s love;

Somebody’s heart enshrined him there^; Somebody wafted his name above, * Night and morn, on the wings of prayer.

Somebody wept when he marched away, Looking so handsome, brave, and grand; Somebody’s kiss on his forehead lay ; Somebody clung to his parting hand.


Somebody’s watching and waiting for hi m, Yearning to hold him again to her heart ;

There he lies, with the blue eyes dim, And the smiling, child-like lips, apart. Tenderly bury the fair young dead, Pausing to drop on his grave a tear ; Carve on the wooden slab at his head—

Somebody’s Darling lies buried here!

—Mrs. Lacoste, an American writer.

1. Somebody’s Darling. In the poem, a story is told of an incident that occurred in the American Civil War (1861-5). A young soldier had been brought from the battlefield to the hospital, mortally wounded. No one knew who he was, nor was there a scrap of writing to be found upon him by which he could be identified. The inscription placed upon his grave was, “ Somebody’s Darling lies buried here.”

THE AIR WE BREATHE —continued.

Con-scious, aware ; sensible.

Bi-cy-cling, riding a bicycle.

In-di-vid-U al-i-ty, that quality which distinguishes one person or thing from another.

Ox-y-gen, colourless, tasteless, odourless, gaseous element, occurring in the free state in the atmosphere.

Hy£dro-gen, colourless, tasteless, odourless, gaseous element. It is the lightest known substance, being fourteen and a half times lighter than air, and over 11,000 times lighter than water. 40 41

Ar-gOU, substance regarded as an element, contained in the atmosphere. It was but recently discovered.

Char-ac-ter-is-tics, distinguishing properties or qualities.

Un-mis-tak-a-ble, obvious; evident.

Am-mo-ni-a, gaseous compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, with a pungent smell and taste.

Ni-tro-gen, colourless, tasteless, odourless, gaseous element. It is chemically very inert in the free state, but it goes to form many important compounds.

3.    It is, of course, impossible for anybody to say precisely how far the atmosphere extends above the ground. Nobody can ever get up high enough to find out. In balloons, men have risen to a height of six miles or more ; but this seems to be about the outside limit. Beyond that, the air becomes so thin, so rare, that human beings cannot breathe it. Yet, no doubt, the air reaches very much higher than this, becoming ever thinner and thinner. Even if we could get to the outmost skirts of the atmosphere, we should find it difficult to say whereabouts the air ceased to exist. It may decrease and decrease, till, at last, one air-particle may be a mile apart from its nearest neighbour. Could that be called “ air,” in even the vaguest sense ?

4.    So much for the extent of the atmosphere as a whole, and for its differing thickness, or “ density,” above and below. Now a few words about its actual make.

5.    This air, in which we live, and which we perpetually breathe, is a mixture of various gases—a mixture, not a compound. The difference between the two is great. In a mixture of two or more substances, the said substances lie or float side by side, each keeping its own character unaltered. In a compound, the substances combine together to form a totally fresh substance, each parting for the time with its own individuality.

6.    For example, think of water. Water, as we have seen, is usually known in three forms. Sometimes it is solid, and we call it ice. Sometimes it is liquid, and we call it water. Sometimes it is vaporous, and we call it either vapour or steam, according to its degree of heat. But, in all three cases, it has the same nature, the same make. It is water throughout.

7.    And water is composed of two gases. Those gases are called oxygen and hydrogen. Vast quantities of oxygen and of hydrogen are in the world as gases, floating about invisible. When they unite chemically with other substances, we know of their presence under different names. It is only when they are chemically united in certain proportions, that is, a particular amount of oxygen with a particular amount of hydrogen, that they can become visible to us as water. And no mere mixture of the two gases will suffice to bring about this result. Oxygen and hydrogen may, and often do, float side by side, as distinct gases ; and they then are not water. They are simply two gases. When they combine into one, producing water, they cease for the time to be separate gases.

8.    True, the water can be broken up again into the gases out of which it was formed. But then the water ceases to exist as such, and the gases of which it was composed become again separate oxygen and hydrogen.

9.    No such changes of structure are found in the mixture which we know as “ atmospheric air.” Four chief gases go to its make, but they are not chemically combined. They are merely mixed together, each gas keeping its own characteristics, each gas remaining still its own unmistakable self.

10.    Of these four gases, by far the largest amount is present of one called nitrogen. There is a good deal less of another called oxygen—the same which helps to form water ; and still less of another called argon. There is by comparison a very small quantity of a fourth —which yet, as a whole, is enormous in amount—called carbonic acid.

11.    In addition to these four gases, which go mainly to the making of the air that we breathe, a considerable amount of floating vapour of water is ever in the atmosphere, and a goodly supply of dust. The former, so long as it is strictly “ vapour,” cannot he seen ; hut of the latter we get occasional glimpses in rays of sunlight. Certain other gases also are found in the air, especially ammonia, but these are in such minute quantities as hardly to claim our attention.

(To be continued.)

—Agnes Gibeene, in The Home Messenger {Adapted).

JOHANNESBURG.

Mar^vel-lOUS, astonishing ; wonderful.

Com-mu-ni-ty, body of people having common rights, privileges, or interests, living in the same place under the same laws and regulations.

Nu-Cle-US, central or material portion. Pas-tor-al, grazing. 42

Orn-ni bus-es, long, four-wheeled carriages, having seats for many people.

Jin-rik-i-shaws, small, two-wheeled vehicles, drawn by one or two men. (Jap. jin, man -+-riki, power + sha, carriage )

Pre^mi-lim, sum in advance of, or in addition to, the nominal or par value of anything.


can convert a desert into a thriving and prosperous city. In the short space of thirteen years, the “ golden city ” of South Africa has become the busiest and most influential city of half a continent.

2. In September, 1886, Johannesburg consisted of a few straggling huts, and these had just been built owing to a discovery of gold in the

neighbourhood. In December of the same year, the nucleus of the present city was laid out. The site chosen was on the southern slope of the Witwatersrand (commonly called the Rand) Range, one of the bleakest and highest spots in the Transvaal, where land for agricultural or pastoral purposes was of so little value that, less than ten years ago, farms changed hands for the value of a team of oxen. In 1887, one business site in Pritchard-street was sold for £40,000.

3.    The town extends over an area of six square miles, and there are more than 126 miles of roads and streets. Many suburbs have been formed, and these can be reached by tramcars, omnibuses, cabs, and those comfortable conveyances, jinrikishaws.

4.    Enormous sums have been expended on buildings; and the many stately piles of offices and stores which adorn the town are the

JOHANNESBURG IN 1886. (From the Transvaal War Atlas.)

more remarkable when it is borne in mind that the cost of every pound weight of timber, iron, and imported building materials generally, has been increased considerably by transport and by customs duties. To visitors from other parts of South Africa, the shops of Johannesburg are a revelation of wonder and beauty. Among the features of the town must be mentioned the Market Square, a quarter of a mile long, which is the largest in South Africa. In the middle stand the new Market Buildings; and, at the upper end, the Government Offices, with post and telegraph offices.

5. Johannesburg is one of the most costly places of residence in the world—brick-lined, galvanized-iron cottages, of four or five rooms, costing from £10 to £15 per month, and garden ground being at a premium. Vegetables and meat are high in price, but by no means

LOWER PRITCHARD STREET, JOHANNESBURG, IN 1889.


1900.]    CLASSES Y. AND YI.    155


high in quality. A great drawback to the town is the enormous number of small public-houses, of which one exists to almost every hundred of the population.

6.    The climate is not good, as the variations in temperature are sudden and extreme. The frequent dust storms cause much annoyance, and combine with want of water and proper drainage to cause the death-rate1 to be high.

7.    The reefs run east and west of the town for a distance of nearly 130 miles ; and the undulating country is dotted in all directions with battery houses and other buildings connected with the working of the mines. In the year 1898, South Africa came first on the list of gold-producing countries, with an estimated output of 28 per cent, of the total production of the world.2

8.    In July, 1899, the population of the district of which the city is the centre was about 80,000 whites and 140,000 natives.

1.    Death-rate, the relation or ratio of the number of deaths to the population.

2.    World. In 1898, the yield from the Johannesburg’ gold-fields was 4,295,608 oz.; from the Western Australian, 1,050,183 oz. ; and from the Victorian, 837,528 oz.

THE POWER OF MUSIC.

Pat -ines, gold plates used in churches, on which * to serve the tloly Sacrament.

Still, always.

Ciier-U-bim (Hebrew plural of cherub), symbolical winged figures associated with the mercy seat of the Jewish Ark and Temple.


Wan-ton, unrestrained; sportive.

Mu-tu-al, done by two or more persons or things at the same time ; common ; strictly, reciprocally given or received.

Feign, pretend.

Spoils, acts of rapine or pillage.


Lorenzo. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank ! Here will we sit and let the sounds of music Creep in our ears : soft stillness, and the night,

Become the touches of sweet harmony.

Sit, Jessica. Look how the floor of heaven Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold :

There’s not the smallest orb which thou behold’st But in his motion like an angel sings,

Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubim 1 ;

Such harmony is in immortal souls ;

But, whilst this muddy vesture of decay Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it.

Come ho, and wake Diana 2 with a hymn!

Jessica. I am never merry when I hear sweet music. Lorenzo. The reason is, your spirits are attentive :

For do but note a wild and wanton herd,

Or race of youthful and unhandled colts,

Fetching mad bounds, bellowing and neighing loud,

Which is the hot condition of their blood;

If they but hear perchance a trumpet sound,

Or any air of music touch their ears,

You shall perceive them make a mutual stand,

Their savage eyes turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music: therefore, the poet Did feign that Orpheus8 drew trees, stones, and floods: Since nought so stockish, hard, and full of rage,

But music for the time doth change his 4 nature.

The man that hath no music in himself,

Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,

Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils ;

The motions of his spirit are dull as night,

And his affections dark as Erebus :5

Let no such man be trusted. Mark the music.

—Shakspere, Merchant of Venice, Act v., Scene i.

1.    Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubim Shakspere refers elsewhere to Plato’s doctrine of the music of the spheres.” It was an ancient belief that the planets in their motion through the heavens gave forth accordant sounds.

2.    Diana, goddess of hunting, &c. ; referred to here as identical with the goddess of the moon.

3.    Orpheus, the famous mystic Greek minstrel who followed his wife down to the Lower World, and tried by his songs to soften Pluto, the stern god of those regions, and so bring her back to earth again.

4.    His. The possessive form if8 is modern, being rarely found in the writings of Shakspere and Milton, and not at all in the original King James’s version of the Bible (1611).

5.    ErehUS (er^e-bus), the god of darkness. The word also typifies the Lower World in classical mythology.

THE SPY’S ESCAPE.1

Sub-al-tem, one ranking as a junior officer; one below the rank of captain.

Con-fer-ence, serious conversation or discussion.

Coronet, lowest grade of commissioned officer in a British cavalry troop. He carried the standard. The office was abolished in 1871.

Drom-e-da-ry, Arabian camel having one hump on the back, as distinct from the Bccctrian camel, which has two humps.

Dra-gOOns,' mounted soldiers ; cavalry men. 43 44 45 46 47

Im-pet-U-OUS, hasty and violent. Im-pa^tienee, restless eagerness.

Im-mi-nence, threatening, as of something about to happen.

In-Stinc-tive-ly, without requiring to think.

Ped^lar, one who travels about selling articles and goods.

In-cred-i-ble, surpassing belief.

Sten-to-ri-an, very loud.

From this height, he had seen all the events of the day as they occurred. He had watched, with a heating heart, the departure of the troops, and with difficulty had curbed his impatience until the obscurity of night should render his moving free from danger. He had not, however, completed a fourth of his way to his own residence, when his quick ear distinguished the tread of the approaching horse.

6.    Trusting to the increasing darkness, he determined to persevere. By crouching and moving quickly along the surface of the ground, he hoped yet to escape unseen. Perceiving by the voices that the enemy he most feared had passed, he yielded to his impatience, and stood erect in order to make greater progress. The moment his body arose above the shadow of the ground, it was seen, and the chase commenced.

7.    For a single instant, Birch was helpless, his blood curdling in his veins at the imminence of the danger. Bnt it was only for a moment. Casting his pack where he stood, and instinctively tightening the belt he wore, the pedlar betook himself to flight. He knew that, by bringing himself in a line with his pursuers and a wood, his form would be lost to sight. This he soon effected; and he was straining every nerve to gain the wood itself, when several horsemen rode past him but a short distance on his left, and cut him off from his place of refuge.

8.    The pedlar threw himself on the ground as they came near him, and was passed unseen. But delay now became too dangerous for him to remain in that position. He accordingly arose, and, still keeping in the shadow of the wood, along the skirts of which he heard voices crying to each other to be watchful, he ran with incredible speed in a parallel line, but in an opposite direction, to the march of the dragoons.

9.    The confusion of the chase had been heard by the whole of the rnen, though none distinctly understood the order of Lawton but those who followed. The remainder were lost in doubt as to the duty that was required of them ; and the aforesaid cornet was making eager inquiries of the trooper near him on the subject, when a man, at a short distance in his rear, crossed the road at a single bound. At the same instant, the stentorian voice of Lawton rang through the valley, shouting—“ Harvey Birch !—take him, dead or alive ! ”

10.    Fifty pistols lighted the scene, and the bullets whistled in every direction round the head of the devoted pedlar. A feeling of despair seized his heart, and in the bitterness of that moment he exclaimed—-“ Hunted like a beast of the forest! ”

(To be continued.)

From The Spy, by James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851).

1. The Spy’s Escape. The Spy is a tale of the times of the American War of Independence (3775-88), ai d its hero Harve.\ Birch, is a revolutionary patriot, who was “ willing to risk his life, and to subject his character to temporary suspicion, for the service of his country.” The rugged, homely worth of Harvey Birch, the many stirring adventures which are narrated, and the truthful home scenes described, place this story in the foremost rank of American fiction.

MOSSES.

Li-Chen (lie-ken or llch^en), one of a class of flowerless plants, having no distinction of leaf and stem, usually of a scaly, expanded, frondlike form.

BOSS, stud ; knob ; central portion of a shield.

Por-phy-ry, kind of rock, through which crystals, as of feldspar or quartz, are disseminated. There are red, purple, and green varieties.

Tra-cer-ies, decorative patterns.

Ar^bor-es-cent, resembling a tree.


Chap-let, garland or wreath to be worn on the head.

Blanch, grow or become white.

Tap-es-tries, in a strict sense, fabrics, usually of worsted, worked upon a warp of linen, the designs being usually more or less pictorial; also, different kinds of embroidery.

I-ris-dyed,' having colours like those of the rainbow.


1.    Lichen, and mosses (though these last in their luxuriance are deep and rich as herbage, yet both for the most part humblest of the green things that live),—how of these ? Meek creatures ! the first mercy of the earth, veiling with hushed softness its dintless rocks; creatures full of pity, covering with strange and tender honour the scarred disgrace of ruin,—laying quiet finger on the trembling stones, to teach them rest.

2.    No words, that I know of, will say what these mosses are. None are delicate enough, none perfect enough, none rich enough. How is one to tell of the rounded bosses of furred and beaming green,—the starred divisions of rubied bloom, fine-filmed, as if the Rock Spirits could spin porphyry as we do glass,—the traceries of intricate silver, and fringes of amber, lustrous, arborescent, burnished through every fibre into fitful brightness, yet all subdued and pensive, and framed for simplest, sweetest offices of grace ? They will not be gathered, like the flowers, for chaplet or love-token; but of these the wild bird will make its nest, and the wearied child his pillow.

3.    And, as the earth’s first mercy, so they are its last gift to us. When all other service is vain, from plant and tree, the soft mosses and gray lichen take up their watch by the head-stone. The woods, the blossoms, the gift-bearing grasses, have done their parts for a time, but these do service for ever. Trees for the builder’s yard, flowers for the bride’s chamber, corn for the granary, moss for the grave.

4.    Yet as in one sense the humblest, in another they are the most honoured of the earth-children. Unfading, as motionless, the worm frets them not, and the autumn wastes not. Strong in lowliness, they neither blanch in heat nor pine in frost. To them, slow-fingered, constant-hearted, is entrusted the weaving of the dark, eternal tapestries of the hills; to them, slow-pencilled, iris-dyed, the tender framing of their endless imagery.

5.    Sharing the stillness of the unimpassioned rock, they share also its endurance ; and, while the winds of departing spring scatter the white hawthorn blossom like drifted snow, and summer dims on the parched meadow the drooping of its cowslip-gold,—far above, among the mountains, the silver lichen-spots rest, star-like, on the stone ; and the gathering orange stain upon the edge of yonder western peak reflects the sunsets of a thousand years.

—From Modern Painters, by John Ruskin.

(This and many other choice extracts are contained in The Ruskin Reader.)

OUR CADETS.

On Mafeking Day—the 23rd of May,—cadets of the 2nd, 7th, and 8th battalions, to the number of about a thousand, took part in the procession of military forces through the streets of Melbourne.

In reference to this event, the officers commanding the above battalions, Majors Gamble and Eddy, have received the following letter, which will be read with interest and pleasure by all who turned out on that memorable day, and, no doubt, by many who wish that they had had the opportunity of doing so: —

.    “ Education Office, Melbourne,

30th May, 1900.

“ The Officers in Command,

State School Cadets, Mafeking Day.

“ I desire to express my appreciation of the way in which the cadets were paraded on the occasion of the demonstration at Parliament House on the 23rd inst. The discipline and general turn out were excellent, and evidenced the skill and authority with which the lads had been trained. Thoroughly good work is plainly being done in preparing the youth of the colony to take their share of the responsibility of guarding their ‘ hearths and homes,’ and I heartily congratulate all concerned on the splendid results.

“ I am,

“ Your most obedient servant,

“C. CARTY SALMON, Minister of Public Instruction.’'

GLEANINGS.

The Birth of “Rule, Britannia.”

The war song, “Rule Britannia,” forms the conclusion of a masque (afterwards converted into an opera), which was written by the poet Thomson as part of an entertainment given by Frederick, Prince of Wales (son of George II. and father of George III ) in 1740. The magnificent tune, of which the famous German musical composer, Wagner, said that the first eight notes typify the British character, was composed by Dr. Arne, a gifted English melodist, who lived from 1710 to 1778.

The original words of the first verse were as follow :—

“ When Britain first at Heav’n’s command Arose from out the azure main,

This was the charter, the charter of the land,

And guardian angels sung this strain •

Rule, Britannia, Britannia rule the waves ;

Britons never, never, never will be slaves. ”

The alteration of “rule” to “ rules ” and of “will” tc the emphatic “ shall ” in our present version is noteworthy. The modern form of the past tense of “ sing ” has also displaced the old form.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain Government Printei Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

FOR CLASSES V. AND VI.

Vol. II., No. 22.] MELBOURNE.    [August, 1900.

WOOD AND STEEL.

Main, the high sea; the ocean.

Can-vas, strong cloth made of hemp, flax, or cotton.

Variant (val-yant), brave ; heroic.


Pa-trol-ling, going the rounds along a chain of sentinels.

Con-ning-tow-er, shot-proof pilot house of a war vessel; place where the sailing-master is stationed.


Old names that live in story,

New names on many lips,

The old and new one glory—

The fame of British ships !

The Victory and Powerful, 1 White sail and drifting smoke ; The Temeraire and Terrible,New steel and ancient oak.

When England rode to battle on Neptune’s open plain,

With Howard, Drake, and Frobisher3 to sweep the troubled main,

When good Queen Bess ruled England, with eighty ship a-sail The strength of Spain was broken, and strewn upon the gale.

When England rode to battle and Nelson served the King,

Still went she forth in ships o’ wood with canvas fluttering,

And with the valiant Victory and fighting Temeraire

Swept through the Frenchman’s double line and stripped his glory bare.

With rent and ragged rigging, with smashed and splintered mast,

Her wooden sides ripped open, she gripped the foeman fast,

And, through the swirl of waters, and through the lashing gale,

Brought back the prize to old SpitheacD in days o’ wood and sail.

Now goes she swift and sudden, and knits the separate zones,

With mail of steel patrolling the vasty world she owns,

With Powerful and Terrible, with Blenheim and with Blake5—

Lo ! England guards the ancient way of Nelson and of Drake.

When War heaps high his furnace and England tries the steel,

God prove it honest metal from conning-tower to keel,

God grant in Armageddon6 we strike the ancient stroke—

’Neath England’s steel alive and true the British heart of oak.

—Harold Begbie, in The Morning Post (London).

1.    “Victory” and “Powerful.” The Victory was Nelson’s flag-ship, on which he was killed at Trafalgar (1805). The Powerful was the battle-ship from which a contingent of the Naval Brigade proceeded to Ladysmith with their big 47 guns (the diameter of the bore is 47 inches), just before the Boers closed round the town. The men and their guns did splendid service.

2.    The “Temeraire” and “Terrible” The former was a noteworthy vessel in Nelson’s time ; the latter is an immense battle-ship recently launched.

3.    Howard, Drake, and Frobisher. These were distinguished seamen in the time of Queen Elizabeth. Howard died in 1624 ; Drake, in 1596 ; and Frobisher, in 1594. In England’s great victory over Spain’s “Invincible Armada ” (1688), Howard was Lord High Admiral of the fleet; and Drake and Frobisher each commanded a section of it. Drake was on board the Revenge ; Frobisher on board the Triumph.

4.    Spithead, roadstead south of England, between Portsea Island and the Isle of Wight.

5.    The “ Blenheim ” and “ Blake ” are existing ships,—the former named after Marlborough’s famous victory over the French in 1704, and the latter after a famous admiral, who died when within sight

Price Id.

of England on his return from the Canary Islands after fighting the Spaniards, in 1657. Compare Campbell’s lines—

“ Where Blake and mighty Nelson fell,

Your manly hearts shall glow.”

6. Armageddon, place where, as prophesied in The Revelation of St. John the Divine, the nations of the earth are to be one day gathered to battle. Kipling, in A Song of the English, has the following splendid lines

“ So long as the Blood endures,

I' shall know that your good is mine : ye2 shall feel that my strength is yours:

In the day of Armageddon, at the last great fight of all,

That Our House stand together, and the pillars do not fall.”

1. 1, England.    2. Ye, the Colonies.

THE GOULBURN WEIR.1

Ir-ri-ga-tion, adj., used for causing water to flow over land, for nourishing plants.

Dis-sim-i-larU-ty, unlikeness.    •

Pro-Stan-the-ras, commonly called dogwood.

Mo-not-o-nous, without change or variety; wearisome.

Ver-ti-cal-ly, in an upright direction.

Di-ag-O-nal-ly, in a slanting direction.

In-SU-per-a-ble, incapable of being surmounted.

Cof-fer-dam/ water-tight inclosure in a river, &c., from which the water may be pumped.

Per-ma-nent-ly, in a lasting manner.


In-ci-den-tal, accompanying ; additional. An-tlC-i-pa-ted, foreseen.

Tur-bine (tur-bin), kind of water-wheel, com*

monly horizontal.

Sep-a-rate-ly, apart from another or others. Arc-lamp/ form of lamp, in which a brilliant light is produced by the passage of electricity between carbon points.

Pre-cip-i-ta-ting, dashing headlong ; pressing with violence.

Tur-bid, muddy ; thick.

Com-par-a-tive -ly, according to estimate made by comparison ; relatively.


1.    As the Goulburn Weir is the most important engineering undertaking of its kind in Australia, if not in the ¡Southern Hemisphere, a short account of the weir and its construction, and of the irrigation channels connected with it, should be interesting to Victorians.

2.    Measured along the course of the stream, the Goulburn—the largest of Victorian rivers—is over 1,000 miles long. There is a striking dissimilarity between the upper and lower portions of its course. From its source in the Dividing Range at Wood’s Point to Seymour, it is a beautiful mountain stream, clear and fresh, receiving on both banks tributary streams. Among these are the Jamieson, Howqua, Delatite, Big, Acheron, and Yea rivers—all pretty streams, fringed with wattles, prostantheras and other mountain shrubs. From Seymour to its junction with the Murray not far from Eclmca, the Goulburn flows through a flat, monotonous, but rich tract of alluvial country. The rapid destruction of the timber, even on the road-sides strange to say, is rendering the monotony all the more impressive. Through these alluvial plains, the river has carved out a dee]) bed for itself; in summer, it flows for miles thirty and forty feet below the level of its banks. The term Goulburn Valley has been restricted, not very properly, to the lower part of the course. Given a plentiful supply of water, the Goulburn Valley can produce in abundance almost anything. Unfortunately, the rainfall is very fickle and often very scanty

3.    To provide a sure supply of water was the reason for building the Goulburn Weir. It is situated about half way between the towns of Murchison and Nagambie. The weir is simply a wall built right across the river, damming the water back on its upper side. The level of the water is thus raised nearly forty feet above summer level, and a large and deep lake, known as LakeNagainbie, has been formed.

LAKE NAGAMBIE


4. Before the construction of the weir could be undertaken, several borings were made to ascertain the character of the rock. It was found to be a soft shale of the Upper Silurian formation,2 consisting of “alternating beds of sandstone, slate, and pipeclay, standingon edge almost vertically, and having a strike diagonally across the river from south-east to north-west.” The weir is of masonry below and metal floodgates above. The body of the masonry is Portland cement concrete faced with blocks of granite. The

THE GOULBURN WEIR, SITUATED BETWEEN MURCHISON AND NAGAMBIE.


164    THE SCHOOL PAPER.    [August,


MAIN IRRIGATION CHANNEL FROM THE GOULBURN WEIR.


1900.]    CLASSES V. AND VI.    165


flood-gates, of which there are twenty-one, are of iron ; they can be raised or lowered to regulate the flow of the water into the irrigation channel or down the river.

5.    To build a wall across a running stream is no easy task, and to any one not an engineer seems to present insuperable difficulties. The procedure is thus described by Mr. Stuart Murray, Chief Engineer of Water Supply :—“ Advantage was taken of the low state of the river in summer to construct a coffer-dam in the channel adjacent to the west bank. This was pumped out, the ground excavated to the rock, and a section of the lower part of the weir built, containing the two western tunnels. The coffer-dam was then drawn, and part of the river water allowed to pass through. Next, that portion of the foundation extending from the eastern end to almost as far as the structure is in the solid ground was constructed in excavation. A second coffer-dam was extended from this westward, and the two eastern tunnels were built in the same manner as the western two had been. Then the portion containing the two central tunnels was constructed within a coffer-dam, closed up against the faces of the two sections stretching out from the banks. These tunnels are closed by massive cast-iron gates, which were permanently shut down on the completion of the work.

6.    “ After the foundations were got in, and the summer river flowing through the six open tunnels, the masonry of the superstructure offered no special difficulty, none other than such as are incidental to every work of this class. As was anticipated, on several occasions the river floods rose so high as to overtop everything; but they did no damage, matters having been so arranged that the minimum of obstruction was presented to the current, and that there was nothing to be carried away.”

7.    There are three turbines set in the weir, which can be worked separately or in conjunction. These turbines can be used to provide force for raising and lowering the flood-gates. An electric lighting plant of five large arc-lamps has its illuminating power provided by another turbine. These electric lights are very useful in flood time, when floating timber might collect against the weir in the night, and do much damage.

8.    A pathway, supported over the flood-gates by cast-iron columns, runs right across the weir. This pathway is perfectly safe, but many lady visitors hesitate to cross over it; and, certainly, to stand in the middle when the huge volume of a Goulburn flood is precipitating itself over the weir, with a roar that can be heard two or three miles away, is a nerve-shaking process. A feeling of insecurity creeps over one, and one cannot help fearing that, at any moment, the rushing, turbid waters below may sweep the weir itself away.

9.    The sight at flood time is certainly awe-inspiring ; but the summer scene is considered by most visitors as much prettier. Then, a thin stream of pale-green water glides smoothly over the top of the weir, and continues unbroken till, some twelve or fifteen feet down, it dashes against the granite steps. From there to the bed of the river, thirty feet lower, is a mass of snow-white spray.

10.    Above the weir, and stretching beyond the town of Nagambie, six miles distant, is Lake Nagambie—a fine sheet of water. In the deep and comparatively still waters of this lake, huge Murray cod make their home. It is quite common for fish of from fifteen to twenty pounds weight to be captured. I have heard of one being caught in the lake that turned the scale at fifty-six pounds.

11.    From the western side of the weir, the main irrigation channel starts. This channel, which is 110 feet wide, feeds the irrigation channels of the Rodney Trust. Mr. Hector, C.E.,3 the engineer of the Trust, tells me that there are already over 500 miles of channels. In driving through the fortunate Rodney Shire, every mile or less brings one to a bridge over a water channel. There are few acres of land here that cannot be irrigated; but, by the majority of the farmers, full advantage is not yet taken of the plentiful water supply. In the summer months, the delightful green of the irrigated areas forms a striking contrast to the dusty-brown of the non-irrigated. The fruitgrowers of Ardmona and Lancaster use far more water in proportion to the size of their properties than the farmers. A large portion of the fruit supply of Melbourne comes from those districts. Apricots, peaches, and grapes thrive splendidly, while apples and pears are largely grown. A “ cannery ” has lately been established at Toolamba, whence some tons of preserves are annually sent away.

12.    The smaller channels are crossed at numerous points by small weirs called regulators, by means of which the flow of water in them is regulated. At St. Germains, after traversing some sixty or seventy miles, the slack-water from these channels returns to the Goulburn, from which it was taken.

13.    Some idea of the magnitude of the work, which was constructed under the immediate supervision of Mr. Henderson, O.E., may be gained from the quantities of the materials used. The principal items were 15,000 cubic yards of cement concrete, 2,600 cubic yards of coursed granite masonry, 600 tons of iron and steel, over 10 tons of gun-metal and brass, and 1,800 cubic feet of timber. Excavations also had to be made to the extent of 120,000 cubic yards.

The weir itself cost £106,262, while another £116,000 was paid as compensation for submerged land, roads, bridges, &c. The western channel and the works connected with it cost nearly £190,000.

—W. F. G.

1.    The information for this article has been largely drawn from a work compiled by Mr. Stuart Murray, Chief Engineer of Water Supply.

2.    Silurian (sigh lu-ri-an) formation, name given to a great succession of strata. The Silurian rocks in Britain have been divided into upper, middle, and lower Silurian. It is the prevailing basal rock in Victoria.

3.    C.E., civil engineer,—a person skilled in the science of civil engineering. Civil engineering has to do with the planning, laying out, and constructing roads, railways, water-works, lighthouses, and Other such works.

THE SPY’S ESCAPE —continued.

Ped-lar, one who travels about selling articles and goods.

Ig-no-min-i-ous, dishonourable; degrading. Ex-e -CU-tion, putting to death as a legal penalty. Strat-a-gem, trick for deceiving the enemy ; plan to deceive.

ROW-elS, small wheels forming part of a spur. E-mer-gen-cy, sudden occasion ; crisis. PrOX-im-i-ty, nearness.


Dis-com-fit-ed, defeated.

Se-duc-tive, leading to evil.

Sub-al-tern, one ranking as a junior officer;

one below the rank of a captain.

Com-plied/ consented.

Con-do-lence, grief for another in distress. Ser-geant (sar-jent), non-commissioned officer next in rank above a corporal.

In-cen-di-a-ry, one who sets property on fire.


1.    The pedlar felt life and its accompaniments to he a burden, and was about to yield himself to his enemies. Nature, however, prevailed. If taken, there was great reason to apprehend that he would not be honoured with the forms of a trial, but that, most probably, the morning sun would witness his ignominious execution; for he had already been condemned to death, and only escaped that fate by stratagem. These considerations, with the approaching footsteps of his pursuers, roused him to new exertions. He fled again before them.

2.    A fragment of a wall, that had withstood the ravages made by war in the adjoining fences of wood, fortunately crossed his path. He hardly had time to throw his exhausted limbs over this barrier, before twenty of his enemies reached its opposite side.

Their horses refused to take the leap in the dark; and, amid the confusion of the rearing chargers and the shouts of their riders, Birch was enabled to gain a sight of the base of the hill on whose summit was a place of perfect security.

3.    The heart of the pedlar now beat high with hope, when the voice of Captain Lawton again rang in his ears, shouting to his men to make room. The order was obeyed, and the fearless trooper rode at the wall at the top of his horse’s speed, plunged the rowels in his charger, and flew over the obstacle in safety. The triumphant hurrahs of the men, and the thundering tread of the horse, too plainly assured the pedlar of the emergency of his danger. He was nearly exhausted, and his fate no longer seemed doubtful.

4.    “ Stop, or die! ” was uttered above his head, and in fearful proximity to his ears.

Harvey stole a glance over his shoulder, and saw, within a bound of him, the man he most dreaded. By the light of the stars, he beheld the uplifted arm and the threatening sabre. Fear, exhaustion, and despair seized his heart, and the intended victim fell at the feet of the dragoon. The horse of Lawton struck the prostrate pedlar, and both steed and rider came violently to the earth.

5.    As quick as thought, Birch was on his feet again, with the sword of the discomfited dragoon in his hand. Vengeance seems but too natural to human passions. There are few of us who have not felt the seductive pleasure of making our injuries recoil on their authors ; and yet there are some who know how much sweeter it is to return good for evil.

6.    All the wrongs of the pedlar shone on his brain with a dazzling brightness. For a moment, the demon within him prevailed, and Birch brandished the powerful weapon in the air; in the next, it fell harmless on the reviving but helpless trooper. The pedlar vanished up the side of the friendly rock.

“ Help Captain Lawton there ! ” cried Mason, as he rode np, followed by a dozen of his men; “ and some of you dismount with me, and search these rocks; the villain lies here concealed.”

7.    “ Hold ! ” roared the discomfited Captain, raising himself with difficulty to his feet ; “ if one of you dismount, he dies. Tom, my good fellow, you will help me to straddle Roanoke again.”

The astonished subaltern complied in silence, while the wondering dragoons remained as fixed in their saddles as if they composed part of the animals they rode.

“ You are much hurt, I fear,” said Mason, with something of condolence in his manner, as they re-entered the highway.

8.    “ Something so, I do believe,” replied the Captain, catching his breath, and speaking with difficulty ; “ I wish our bonesetter was at hand to examine into the state of my ribs.” .

“ Captain Lawton,” said the orderly of his troop, riding to the side of his commanding officer, “ we are now passing the house of the pedlar spy ; is it your pleasure that we burn it ? ”

“ No ! ” roared the Captain, in a voice that startled the disappointed sergeant; “ are you an incendiary ? would you burn a house in cold blood ? Let a spark approach, and the hand that carries it will never light another.”

—From The Spy, by James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851).

ADVICE TO A YOUNG MAN GOING OUT INTO THE WORLD.

Cen-sure, opinion.

Judg-ment, decision; opinion.

Hus band-ry, economy ; hard-earned savings. Taxed, censured ; found fault with.


Un^pro-por^tioned, unsuitable ; not in harmony with the occasion.

Vul-gar, common; unduly familiar.

Op-posed', here, op-po^sed, opposer; opponent.


POLONIUS TO HIS SON LAERTES, i

Give thy thoughts no tongue,

Nor any unproportion’d thought his 2 act.

Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.

Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 3 Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel ;

But do not dull thy palm 4 with entertainment Of each new-hatch’d, unfledged comrade. Beware Of entrance to a quarrel, but, being in,

Bear’t that the opposed may beware of thee.

Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice ;

Take each man’s censure, but reserve thy judgment. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,

But not express’d in fancy ; rich, not gaudy ;

For the apparel oft proclaims the man.

Neither a borrower nor a lender be ;

For loan oft loses both itself and friend,

And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.

This above all: to thine own self be true, ■>

And it must follow, as the night the day,

Thou canst not then be false to any man.

—Shakspere’s Hamlet, Act I., Scene 3.

TIIE COUNTESS OF ROUSILLON TO HER SON BERTRAM.

Be thou blest, Bertram. Love all, trust a few,

Ho wrong to none : be able for thine enemy Rather in power than use; and keep thy friend Under thy own life’s key ; be check’d for silence,

But ne’er tax’d for speech.

—Shakspere’s All’s Well that Ends Well, Act I., Scene 1.

1.    Polonius to Ms son Laertes. The precepts of Polonius may be thus summed up “ Don’t go too far; avoid excess; don’t commit yourself.” Polonius was a pompous, shrewd, worldly-wise, and successful courtier.

2.    His for its-a word that had hardly come into use in Shakspere’s time (1564-1616).

3.    And their adoption tried. The proper construction would he, and whose adoption thou hast tried.

4.    Dull thy palm, make thy friendliness too common.

5 To thine own self be true. This, in its highest sense, means Be true to your own ideal—a noble sentiment. Some critics, however, who think that Shakspere intended Polonius to be always either commonplace or ridiculous, contend that it may be interpreted as Look after yourself first, and you will find that honesty is the best policy.

THE TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY LINE.

Route, road; course which is travelled.

A-Chieve-ment, something’ accomplished by praiseworthy exertion.

Nav-i-ga-ble, deep enough and wide enough to afford passage to vessels.

Tun- dras, vast bract nearly 4,000 miles in length, in Northern Siberia, bordering on the Polar Sea. (It is alternately an irreclaimable swamp and a frozen sea.) 48 49

In-ex-haust-i-ble, unfailing; incapable of being used up.

Steppe (step), open, treeless plain in the south of Russia and in the south of Siberia.

Ce-re-als, grasses cultivated for their edible seed or grain; the grain itself, wheat, oats, barley, &c.

In-dig-e-nous, native ; growing naturally in a country.

more, a share of the world’s traffic went west when the Canadian Pacific Trans-Continental line was opened. When the journey from England via Canada to Japan was accomplished in 28 days, it seemed that the limit had been reached, since the German dream of an overland route via the Balkan States, Asia Minor, and Mesopotamia1 must, and will, remain for a long time a dream. Germany and Austria, the outposts of Europe towards the East, were assured that the Anglo-Asiatic and Anglo-Australian posts must go via Brindisi and Suez, or else through Canada, and neither the opening of direct railway communication with the Balkan ports, Constantinople, and Salonika,49 nor the latest eastern route via Constanzcould effect a change. The countries through which the traffic should naturally pass seemed to be left out in the cold.

3.    Through the enterprise of Russia, which is, after nine years’ labour, within measurable distance of completing a railway across Siberia at a cost of millions of pounds (£80,000,000 is the rough estimate), a great deal of the world’s post and passenger traffic eastward will be diverted from the present routes.

4.    The direction of the greater part of this line corresponds roughly with the 55th parallel of latitude. The western point of departure is Tchelabinsk, a small town situated in the heart of the Ural Mountains.

5.    At the opening in April of the present year’s navigation4 in Siberia, full communication between the European continent and Vla-divostock was assured—one part by railway, the other by steamer.

The route is from

Tchelabinsk to    view of the suez canal.

Streffinsk by rail-    (From The Children's Hour, South Australia.)

way, 2,762 miles, including the passage of Lake Baikal5 by steamer, cutting, in winter time, its way through the ice, and able to transport a whole train ; then from Stretensk to Khabarovka by steamer along the Shilka and the Amur, 1,443 miles ; and, afterwards, from Khabarovka to Vladivostock by railway, 479 miles.

6.    At the present time, the passage between London and Vladivostock through Siberia is reduced from the six weeks formerly required by way of the Suez Canal to three and a half weeks. The journey will take far less time than this, when the branch line, making the circnit

of Lake Baikal, and the line through Manchuria, are finished, and the permanent way throughout is strengthened to admit of a fairly high rate of speed. When these tasks are completed, the Atlantic shore of Europe and the Pacific shore of Asia will be in communication with each other by a railway, the total length of which will be about 8,500 miles.

7. The Trans-Siberian railway runs across the upper waters of the great rivers, just about where they begin to be easily navigable. This will enable the navigation of the Obi, Yenesei, and Lena to be taken advantage of for the extension of commerce throughout their entire length. Putting aside the enormous Arctic tundras, useful only to the hunter, and the central forest-belt, with its inexhaustible supply of timber, American experts report that the southern or steppe region contains

400,000 square miles of land suitable for the cultivation of cereals. Wheat is in-| digenous to Siberia. In the 1 south of Siberia, through | which the railway runs, the

1    climate is mild compared ^ with the rigorous conditions ^ of the atmosphere farther g north, and it is here that

2    the chief gold-fields are w found. All along the route,

rank luxuriance that can be hardly equalled in any other country of the globe. Siberia is the original home of the whole grass-eating stock ;


grass is seen growing in a

•countless herds of animals in superb condition are to be seen roaming over these magnificent flowering steppes.

1.    Mesopotamia, country in the south of Turkey-in-Asia. Mesopotamia proper lies between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris.

2.    Salonica (sa-lo-nee-kah), in ancient days, Thessalonica, south of Turkey-in-Europe. It is at the head of a gulf in the north-west of the ASgean Sea, and is a place of considerable trade.

3.    Constanz (kon-stants), town in the south of Germany.

4.    At the opening of the present year’s navigation. For several months in the year, the Obi,

Yenesei (yen'-ee-say'-ee), Lena, and other rivers of Siberia are frozen over.

5.    Lake Baikal is the largest fresh-water lake in Asia. It has an area of 13,430 square miles, is as long as England, and is nearly a mile deep in parts. On every side, it is hemmed in by lofty mountains •covered with thick forests.

THE AIR WE BREATHE —continued.

Di-lu/ted (dl-lu-ted), reduced in strength. Pos-i-tive, having the power of direct action or influence.

Neg-a-tive, consisting in the absence of something.


Me-chan^i-cal-ly, as if by a machine, without special intention or reflection.

In-ces-sant-ly, unceasingly ; continually. Com-plex-ion, colour or hue of the skin, especially of the face.

1.    The three chief gases of which our earthly atmosphere is a mixture are nitrogen, oxygen, and carbonic acid gas. Very different, however, is the proportion of each of those three in the whole mixture ; and very different are the offices which they serve.

2.    Suppose that we have for examination a large mass of air. detached from the rest, and that we could divide that mass into five equal parts, keeping the different gases separate. The result would be that close upon four of those parts would be nitrogen (including a small quantity of argon,1 which resembles it closely) ; that nearly one part would be oxygen; and that a tiny remnant would be carbonic acid.2

3.    Yet, though the nitrogen ranks so high in point of amount, oxygen ranks by far the highest in point of importance. Oxygen is the very life of living creatures upon earth. Without oxygen in the air, no animal, no human being, could exist one quarter of an hour. When we talk of “breathing the air,” we might almost as well say “ breathing the oxygen that is condition after burning phos-

in the air.”    phorusin a bell-jar, a, con-

4.    Not that oxygen would do for us alone. TAINING AlR'3

It is too powerful, too stimulating. It has to be largely diluted with the duller nitrogen—-just as a strong medicine often has to be diluted with water, to fit it for the patient.

5.    Even the dull nitrogen gas has its positive as well as its negative uses. It goes to the making of muscle and of blood, and we could not get along without it. But, upon oxygen, our very life depends, from minute to minute, through all the years of our existence upon earth.

6.    When air is good, and when our lungs are in a healthy condition, we do not think much about the work of breathing. It is not necessary that we should. Breathing is performed mechanically, without thought on our part. It is only when air is bad, or when our breathing organs fail to fulfil smoothly their appointed task, that we pay attention to the matter.

7.    Yet how incessantly the work is carried on ! Hay and night, in sleep or in wakefulness, whether we toil or play, read or walk, rest or exert ourselves, the operation of breathing never ceases. Minute by minute, it still continues. Regularly, we draw in air, we pour forth air. If we try to stop, to “ hold our breath ” as it is called, we soon find how difficult, nay, except for a very brief space, how impossible it is.

8.    Each time that a man breathes—and in good health he does it about eighteen times a minute—he does two things. He draws in somewhere about three-quarters of a pint of air. He pours out about the same quantity.

9.    But the air which comes out is not the same air which has just gone in. That which was taken in may have been very cold and very dry. That which immediately after is sent out is sure to be warm and damp. That which was taken in contained plenty of oxygen and very little carbonic acid. That which immediately after is sent out contains very much less oxygen, and a large supply of carbonic acid.

10.    Each breath of air that a man draws in has a work to do. It does not come out again directly. It passes into the lungs, and there it comes into touch with streams of blood, pouring through tiny vessels, with walls so thin and fragile as to be no bar at all to the contact of the blood with the air. And the work that the air has to do is to steal away from the blood all the load of dangerous carbonic acid gas which it has gathered up in its journeyings through the man’s body, and to give it in exchange good fresh supplies of pure oxygen. When the air has done this, it is breathed out again into the atmosphere, heavily laden with carbonic acid, while new streams of pure air from outside come to take its place in the lungs. That is always going on—night and day, summer and winter, as long as a man’s life lasts.

11.    Sometimes, the air which a man breathes is not fresh and pure, and holds too little oxygen, too much carbonic acid. Then he cannot keep in good health. Then he grows pale and puny, and suffers from headache and weakness. These are the earliest effects of what we call “ breathing bad air.” Bad air may mean simply air that contains an insufficient supply of pure, life-giving oxygen gas.

12.    If oxygen can be described as “ life-giving,” carbonic acid gas may almost be described as “death-dealing.” Not that carbonic acid gas is of necessity a direct poison. It used to be supposed that this was the case, and that a an who died of breathing what is known in mines as “ choke-damp ”—only another name for carbonic acid gas— had been poisoned by the bad air. Now he is believed to die, not so much of a surplus of carbonic acid as of too little oxygen. Either way he does die; and, where too little oxygen exists, its place is pretty sure to be occupied by a superabundance of carbonic acid.

13.    This ought to show us clearly how much need there is for ample supplies of fresh air in our homes. When a man breathes, as just shown, he is always taking in large supplies of oxygen, and always pouring out large supplies of carbonic acid. Now, of course, if he is long in a confined space, with shut doors and windows, it stands to reason that the air of that room loses minute by minute more of its oxygen, and gains minute by minute more carbonic acid. That is, and always must be, a serious matter for health. And the smaller the room, the more rapidly does the air of it grow bad.

14. In visiting little houses and cottages, one cannot but notice often the pale and sickly appearance of the people within, especially of the children. This not always arises from poverty or poor food. Yery often, it seems to be simply from close air. The rooms are kept entirely shut up the whole long day, for the sake of warmth, no fresh air being allowed to enter, while many people spend hours together, doing their utmost to exchange the mass of oxygen air present for carbonic acid gas. Is it any wonder that pale faces and sickly complexions are the consequence ? When the weather is too cold for open windows, it should at least be carefully managed that two or three times a day a goodly stream of outside, oxygen-laden air flows through the room. Without this, health can hardly be looked for in such circumstances.

(To be continued.)

—Agnes Giberne, in The Home Messenger (Adapted).

1.    Argon. Air contains about 1 per cent, of this gas.

2.    Ca bonic acid. The amount of carbonic acid gas (or carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere varies between 3 and 6 parts in 10,000 according to the locality where, and time when, the gas is collected. The average is -04 per cent.

3.    Apparatus, &C. The oxygen—about one-fifth part—has been used up, having combined with the phosphorus in burning. The water has risen and taken its place, and the compound of oxygen and phosphorus has been dissolved in the water. The remainder of the contents of the jar consists of nitrogen, with a little argon, carbonic acid gas, and aqueous vapour. (See Inorganic Chemistry, by Roscoe andLunt.)

THE AGED STRANGER.

United States of America, 1861-5.)

“ He fell in battle, — I see, alas !

Thou’dst smooth these tidings o’er,— Nay, speak the truth, whatever it be, Though it rend my bosom’s core.

“ How fell he,—with his face to the foe, Upholding the flag he bore ?

O, say not that my boy disgraced The uniform that he wore ! ”

“ I cannot tell,” said the aged man, “And should have remarked before, That I was with Grant,—in Illinois,2— Some three years before the war.”

Then the farmer spake him never a word,

But beat with his fist full sore I    That agbd man, who had worked for

Grant

Some three years before the war.


(An incident of the War of Secession,

“ I was with Grant,” 1 the stranger said;

Said the farmer, Say no more,

But rest thee here at my cottage porch,

For thy feet are weary and sore.”

“ I was with Grant,” the stranger said ;

Said the farmer, “ Say no more,

I prithee sit at my frugal board,

And eat of my humble store.

“ How fares my boy,—my soldier boy Of the old Ninth Army Corps ?

I warrant he bore him gallantly

In the smoke and the battle’s roar ! ”

“ I know him not,” said the agfed man,

“ And, as I remarked before,

I was with Grant “ Nay, nay, know,”

Said the farmer, ‘ ‘ say no more ;

—Bret Harte (a living American poet and novelist, born 1839).

1.    Grant (1822-85). A famous general on the Northern or Federal side during the War of Secession. He was also President of the United States.

2.    Il’inois (U-lX-noi' or U-ll-noiz'), state, near the middle of the United States of America.

OUR JUNIOR CADET FORCE.

The Annual Classes of Instruction for the officers of the Junior Cadet Force were held at Victoria Barracks, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 4th, 5th, and 6th of last month. The attendance totalled 85—the largest number during the last ten years. The officers from every district in the colony attended. The work, all of a practical nature—officers using rifles the same as if they were men in the ranks —was as follows :—

Wednesday—Manual and firing exercise, and company drill.

Thursday—Sword drill, firing exercise, and company drill.

Friday—Sword drill, company and battalion drill.

The classes, under the supervision of Lient.-Col. Henry and Captain Somerset, were instructed by Garrison Sergt.-Major Brenchley. Very marked improvement was shown on the work of previous years.

On the Thursday evening, the officers were entertained at dinner by Sir Frederick Sargood, at Rippon Lea. There were about one hundred present. Among the guests were the Hon. Donald Melville (Minister of Defence), Hon. Jno. Davies (Solicitor-General), Major-General Downes (Commandant of the Forces), Mr. Bagge (Secretary for Education), and Captain Collins (Secretary for Defence). Mr. Leschen, who is in command of the South Australian Cadets, was also present. A most enjoyable evening was spent. Before departing, General Downes expressed the thanks of all present to their never-failing friend and host in a very happy speech. Three cheers were given most heartily for Sir Frederick and Lady Sargood. In reply, Sir Frederick Sargood said that he was only too delighted to have them under his roof, and was glad to know the Cadet Force was largely increasing in strength.

On the Friday evening, a smoke-night was held at the Port Phillip Club Hotel. The attendance was large, and included Sir Frederick Sargood, the Minister of Defence, the Solicitor-General, and the heads of several Departments. Colonel Henry presided; and an excellent programme was given. The only toasts, in addition to “ The Queen,” were those of Sir Frederick Sargood and the “ Visitors.” Both were enthusiastically received. Sir Frederick Sargood said that every day he was prouder that he had, as the first Minister of Defence, initiated the cadet movement. It was now a fact. Soldier-boys were in all classes of homes in Victoria, and he hoped the Government would see its way to spend more money on the extension of the movement. Mr. Melville and Mr. Davies, in replying, agreed that any sum spent on the Cadet Force would be amply repaid in the future, and that the Ministry would do its best to foster the movement.

It must be gratifying to all those interested in our soldier-boys to know that it is thought that at least two-thirds of the members of the Victorian contingents now in South Africa have passed through the cadet ranks.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

1

There was, as usual, a crowd of folk about the door, but none that Rip recollected. The very character of the people seemed changed. There was a busy, bustling, disputatious tone about it, instead of the accustomed phlegm and drowsy tranquillity. In place of Nicholas Vedder, with his broad face, double chin, and fair long pipe, uttering Price Id.

2

When Sir Keith Macleod (mak-loud') got down to the stone pier, John and Duncan Cameron were in the boat. Johnny Wickes was standing at the door of the store-house.

“Would you like to go for a sail, Johnny?” Macleod said curtly.

“ Oh yes, sir,” said the boy eagerly ; for he had long ago lost his dread of the sea.

“ Get in, then, and get up to the bow.”

So Johnny Wickes went cautiously down the few slippery stone steps, half tumbled into the bottom of the great open boat, and then scrambled up to the bow.

“ W here will you be going, sir ? ” said one ot the men, when Macleod had jumped into the stern, and taken the tiller.

Price Id.

3

   On my second journey to officially inspect the Government schools of Fiji, I chose a different route, which enabled me to spend a couple of days at Noumea, and to have a passing view of New Caledonia and its dependencies.

2.    New Caledonia, so called because of some resemblance in contour to Scotland, is an island about 225 miles long and 45 miles broad. Its location is in the South Pacific Ocean, just within the Tropics, lying midway between the east coast of Queensland and the Fiji group. Its distance from Sydney is 1,100 miles.

3.    The island was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774, and was formally annexed as a penal settlement by the French in 1853. Included in the French possessions are some smaller islands, the chief of which are the Isle of Pines and the Loyalty Islands.

4.    The colony is of interest to us, not only because of its proximity to the continent of Australia, whose shores its convict escapees usually' make for, but more especially because, in the event of war between Great Britain and France, it would become an important naval and military base.

5.    As the Australasian United Steamship Navigation Company has a regular service from Sydney to Fiji via New Caledonia, I took my passage in one of its steamers called the Birksgate, a seaworthy vessel, but rather antiquated as to its passenger appointments.

6.    In addition to being heavily laden with general cargo, the steamer had 52 horses forward, and on the top and near the main hatchway were several tons of Victorian cabbages. The odour from the horses and

4

   It is almost a definition of a gentleman, to say he is one who never inflicts pain. This description is both refined, and, as far as it goes, accurate; for certainly he may he represented as one who, while he abounds in services and civilities to others, aims (so to say) at others obtaining without his giving, at oflering without obtruding, and at being felt without being seen. He is mainly occupied in merely removing the obstacles which hinder the free and unembarrassed action of those about him; and he concurs with their movements rather than takes the initiative himself. His benefits may be considered as parallel to what are called comforts or conveniences in arrangements of a personal nature : like an easy chair or a good fire, which do their part in dispelling cold and fatigue, though nature provides both means of rest and animal heat without them. The true gentleman, in like manner, carefully avoids whatever may cause a jar or jolt in the minds of those with whom he is cast;—all clashing of opinion, or collision of feeling, all restraint, or suspicion, or gloom, or resentment; his great concern being to make every one at their ease and at home.

2.    He has his eyes on all his company ; he is tender towards the bashful, gentle towards the distant, and merciful towards the absurd; he can recollect to whom he is speaking; he guards against unseasonable allusions or topics which may irritate ; he is seldom prominent in

5

Three days after leaving New Caledonia, the Birksgate arrived at Suva, the capital of Fiji. It was early on Sunday morning, and the town presented a peaceful, bright, and picturesque appearance in the, midst of its tropical vegetation. All the foliage was looking at its best, as there had been an abundant rainfall, the heaviest for some years past. Only the week before, 13*5 inches of rain had fallen in seven and a-half hours during one night.

6

When I woke the next morning, it seemed as if all the events of the preceding evening had been a dream, and nothing but the identity of the ancient chamber convinced me of their reality. While I lay musing on my pillow, I heard the sound of little feet pattering

Price Id.    .

7

   Crusader. One who went to the Crusades or Wars of the Cross, which were undertaken by the Christian nations of Western Europe to free Palestine (the Holy Land) from the Saracens (Turks). The first expedition set out in 1096, the seventh and last in 1270. There were one or more minor expeditions, which, by some writers, are classed as Crusades. Every crusader had a cross on his dress.

8

   Ule Yule, Christmas.

9

   Uncouth rhymes. One of these runs thus:

"Ule 1 Ule!

Three puddings in a pule.

Crack nuts and cry ‘ Ule.’ ”

10

   Each of the seven colonies of Australasia has sent its contingent of troops to South Africa to help the mother land in the war against the Boers. The departure of the Victorians and Tasmanians from Melbourne on the 28th of October was made the occasion for an immense public display of loyalty and national feeling.

2.    After having inspected the troops at the Barracks before they began their march, His Excellency Lord Brassey said :—

“ Officers and men of the Victorian Contingent—You are about to march through the streets of Melbourne. It is the first stage in an expedition which has stirred patriotic sentiment in these colonies as it has never been stirred before.

11

   “ Two buglers are wanted for the contingent, sir,” reported the

adjutant, “ and three have qualified.”    .

“ Parade them,” said the colonel.

Whereupon three stripling lads in uniform stepped into line, sainted, and stood to attention.

12

   Colonel Hoad was the umpire, and with him was Colonel

13

Fetherston. A few yards away stood the garrison sergeant-major, the father of one of the boys, the smallest of the three ; and, from behind

14

Price Id.

15

   Just as the Imperial Light Horse reached the foot of the ridge, the storm, which had been threatening so long, hurst, and, in a few moments, everyone was drenched to the skin. The shower was sharp and short, hut, by the time it was over, the Gordon Highlanders were among the stones that covered the crest of the ridge. Dropping shots were falling about them, a couple of men were hit, another shot dead, and then the supports were into the firing line, and filling up the gaps in the line of the Manchester Regiment and the Light Horse.

16

   There was a short plateau to cross, then a saving dip, with a climb to the main plateau again. Cheerily the men responded to their officers, and wave after wave of kilts and kharkee swept up to the sky line. Here they wavered and dropped, for, of the first sections, only one in four could pass. A moment they were checked—dead, wounded,

17

   Trafalgar, cape, south-west of Spain. Here, on the 21st of October, 1805, the British fleet under Nelson gained a victory over the combined fleets of Prance and Spain. Nelson fell in the battle.

18

   Shimmering plain. The reference is to Australia.

19

   Sn0W-fed Stream. The reference is to the Dominion of Canada

Price Id.

20

It is notable how the mere nomination of this experienced

21

   There are four bridges which every boy setting out on the road of life with the hope of becoming a man, in the true sense of the word, must be always ready to cross.

2.    These bridges are Truth, Obedience, Effort, and Patience. The first needs courage to take you across it, the second faith, the third determination, the fourth strength. These four qualities go to make up a true man.

Over the first bridge lies honour ; over the second peace ; over the third success ; and over the fourth rest.

3.    The Bridge of Truth lies often over such perilous places that we fear to trust ourselves to its apparently slender structure. But it is firm, safe, secure. The foundation of its buttresses is a rock. Climb over—it takes you to the high level of honour and freedom. Avoid it —vour path lies through the lowland of shame, which shelves down

22

   The career of the distinguished general, who, after months of persistent struggle against almost insurmountable difficulties, succeeded on the last day of February in raising the siege of Ladysmith, is well worth reviewing.

Descended from a line of West Country ancestors that goes back to William the Conqueror, he belongs to that class of Cornwall ana Devon men whose deeds of daring and enterprise live in the pages of Kingsley’s “ Westward Ho ! ” He was born in 1839, and was reared in a beautiful home, in accordance with the best traditions of the old English gentry—to “ fear God and honour the King.”

23

   At the early age of seventeen, he entered the army as an ensign in the 60th, the King’s Own Rifles. But, before he actually joined, he met with an accident, which very nearly lost him the career upon which he had set his heart, and the country a valuable soldier. He

24

   Like the South African Republic or the Transvaal (the double “a” as “a” in far), the Orange Free State owes its origin to the northward movement of the Boers, which followed on the abolition of slavery in Cape Colony in 1833. It received also many immigrants from Natal, when that colony was brought under British rule in 1843. The country, however, was proclaimed British territory in 1848 ; but, in 1854, the Boers were permitted to form an independent government. The head of the executive is a president elected for five years, and there is a popular assembly named the Yolksraad.

25

   Except on the west, the boundaries of the Orange Free State are formed by natural features, such as the Yaal River, which divides it from the Transvaal or South African Republic, the Drakensberg

26

“Black Week,”26 1899. Sir William Gatacre had been trapped at Stormberg, Lord Methuen foiled at Magersfontein, Sir Redvers Buller baffled at Colenso.2 “ Ruin, dismay, and disaster ; capture,

loss, and-” no, not despair, hut a deeper determination on the

part of the British Government to bring the war to a successful issue. For this purpose, they appointed as commander-in-chief of the forces in South Africa, the veteran general, Lord Roberts of Kandahar,3 who bears nearly every cross, star, and medal that Her Majesty has to

Price Id.

27

   One of the most wonderful pieces of mechanism in the body is the contrivance for clearing out dust and other injurious things from the lungs. Anatomists call it ciliated epithelium.

It is the skin which lines the tubes of the lungs, the lower part of the windpipe, the nose, and the little tube that connects the ear with ihe back of the mouth. This skin, instead of being made up of flat layers like the skin of the hands, face, &c., is composed of little cells shaped like carrots, and placed side by side, with their thick ends uppermost. Projecting from these thick ends are little hairs, or cilia, from 20 to 30 being attached to each cell.    ciliated mucous mkmbranb

28

   There are hundreds of millions of them ; LlNINQ Trachka and a,r TuiiE8-and they are always in wave-like motion, just 3. ciliated F.pitheiiaiceils. 4. cir-like corn moved by the wind. Although they £nrb^dnubLcouTrmare only l-30,0U0th of an inch long, and so b«-ane-

fine that they can scarcely be seen bv the most powerful microscope,

29

   Lady With a lamp, Florence Nightingale. She was born of English parentage, at Florence, in 1823, and is still living, though an invalid. When a young woman, she visited many of the military hospitals of Europe, and studied the chief nursing systems. During the Crimean War (1854-6), she volunteered to lead a band of nurses to Scutari (north-west of Asia Minor, where a hospital for the wounded was established). Her offer was accepted. She rendered invaluable service to the sick and wounded, but her own health broke down under the strain.

The poem was published in America when people’s minds were full of the Crimean War.

Price Id.

30

   The supply corps is never far carries two days’ and one for horses; men, if actively em-provided with food and horses with hags. Behind the when the army ward, is the supply ries three days’

31

   The expanse up, when there is army corps, will front, occupied by fantry (three di-7,680 yards, or a four miles, and the allowing for all will be just a mile

1. Reserve Ammunition.

4. Supply

32

   Let us see next what happens when the camp is broken up, and the army corps is ordered to move forward, expecting ere long to

33

   Rhodesia (taking the name in its general, not its official, sense) extends to the Central African lakes of Nyassa and Tanganyika, and is divided into two portions by the great river Zambesi. It has been described as “the pick of Central Africa on both sides of the Zambesi.”

34

   In 1893, the forces of the Company came into conflict with Lobengula (lo-ben'-gu-la), the great Matabele chief. After his defeat, his chief kraal, Bulawayo (“the place of the killing”), situated on the north-west of the Matoppo Hills, became the site of a town which has rapidly grown in size and importance. It occupies an excellent site on the watershed between the Zambesi and Limpopo, and is now a town, for the most part of bricks and mortar, with a white population

35

   North of the Transvaal and the Bechuanaland Protectorate lies a vast British territory, which is of special interest to Australians at the present time, as a large part of the troops that have left these shores for South Africa will be operating within its borders. It is administered by a company—the “British South African Company”— which was granted a royal charter in October, 1889, for the purpose cf opening up trade and civilising the country. As it came into British possession mainly by the energy and judgment of the Right Honourable Cecil J. Rhodes, it has been named Rhodesia.

36

   Formerly, the part of it south of the Zambesi was under the rule of the Matabele. For fifty years, this warlike race enslaved the peaceful and industrious Mashonas, who were the original inhabitants of the country.

37

   “I want to be at work in the world,” said Tom, “and not dawdling away three years at Oxford.”1

“What do you mean by ‘at work in the world’?” said the master, pausing, with his lips close to his saucerful of tea, and peering at Tom over it.

38

   “ Well, I mean real work ; one’s profession, whatever one will have really to do, and make one’s living by. I want to be doing some real good, feeling that I am not only at play in the world,” answered Tom, rather puzzled to find out himself what he really did mean.

39

   “You are mixing up two very different things in your head, I think, Brown,” said the master, putting down the empty saucer, “ and you ought to get clear about them. You talk of ‘ working to get your living,’ and ‘ doing some real good in the world,’ in the same breath. Now, you may be getting a very good living in a profession, and yet doing no good at all in the world, but quite the contrary, at the same time. Keep the latter before you as your one object, and you will be right, whether you make a living or not ; but, if you dwell on the other, you’ll very likely drop into mere money-making, and let the world take care of itself, for good or evil. Don’t be in a hurry about finding your work in the world for yourself; you are not old

40

   Well, air, as above said, is a substance. It is a substance still, when, in the form of a gas, invisible to the eyes of men. For, though it cannot be seen, it may be felt. If you move your hand rapidly to and fro, you are conscious of the resistance of the air, as its countless tiny particles press against your hand. In riding, in driving, in bicycling, the pressure of the air against your face can always be felt; and, the faster you go, the stronger is that pressure. If the window is left open as you journey in a train, you know well how strongly the air opposes your advance.

41

   That opposition is not like the opposition offered by a solid substance. A piece of iron resists pressure as a whole. But air resists piecemeal. If you want to get through a sheet of iron, you must break the iron first. If you want to get through air, you only have to push aside the separate air-particles, and to force your way between them. They are not bound together. They only resist your advance individually. But the faster you strive to push through, the greater is the sum-total of their combined opposition.

42

The history of this “ marvellous mushroom,” as Johannesburg, the largest and most important town in the Transvaal, has been repeatedly called, presents a striking instance of how a British community, moving forward under a spirit of advancement and improvement, despite the obstacles placed in its way by the governing power,

43

   The gathering mists of the evening had begun to darken the valley, as the detachment of Lawton made its re-appearance at its southern extremity. The march of the troops was slow, and their line extended, for the benefit of ease. In the front rode the Captain, side by side with his senior subaltern, apparently engaged in close conference, while the rear was brought up by a young cornet, humming an air, and thinking of the sweets of a straw bed after the fatigues of a hard day’s duty.

44

   Stretching forward his body in the direction he was gazing, as if to aid him in distinguishing objects through the darkness, the Captain asked, “ What animal is moving through the field on our right ? ”

“ ’Tis a man,” said Mason, looking intently at the suspicious object.

45

   “ By his hump, ’tis a dromedary ! ” added the Captain, eyeing it keenly. Wheeling his horse suddenly from the highway, he exclaimed—“ Harvey Birch !—take him, dead or alive ! ”

46

   Mason and a few of the leading dragoons only understood the sudden cry, but it was heard throughout the line. A dozen of the men, with the Lieutenant at their head, followed the impetuous Lawton, and their speed threatened the pursued with a sudden termination of the race.

47

   Birch had prudently kept his position on the rock until evening had begun to shroud the surrounding objects in darkness.

48

   The desire of the West to join the East began ages ago. In 1492, this desire gave Europeans a new continent, for Columbus sailed westward to look for the East Indies, and found America. A direct route to the East, however, was not yet discovered. For three hundred years, the traffic of the world went westerly and southerly. Portugal," Spain, England, and Holland blossomed into greatness: Venice and the commercial towns of Germany sustained a blow against which they could not bear up successfully.

49

   The great achievement of the eminent French engineer, De Lesseps, in cutting through the isthmus of Suez, brought about an important change. The Cape route was almost abandoned, and the world’s traffic took the route from Calais to Brindisi, and thence by the Suez Canal to the East. Fast steamers and express trains brought London within forty days of Japan—a journey which, round the Cape fifty years before, had claimed four months. Once