September, 1881. AUSTRALASIAN SCHOOLMASTER. 47

September, 1881. AUSTRALASIAN SCHOOLMASTER. 47

3?/    .

x + -# + 63=180 coins.

30 half-crowns, 20 shillings, 20 threepenny pieces. Ans.

rn — 1

“l

3367 = a

s

(Ì)8 - I

1024 x

1024 x 58975 x 4

65536

8.    Solve, if you can, the simultaneous equations—

x + lly + 53z = 400)

3*+ 73?/ + 512 = 401 > .

19a; + 89?/ + 35r =» 40S )

Explain.

From 1 and 2 we get 140?/ + 108r = 799,

From 1 and 3    ,,    I40y + 1083 = 799\$-,

From 2 and 3    ,,    140// + 108z « 799g.

From this it is manifest that x, y, and 2 have different values in the three equations.

9.    A man has £5 worth of silver in half-crowns, shillings, and threepenny pieces. He has in all 70 coins. If he changed the three-penny pieces for halfpence, and half the shillings for sixpences, he would have ISO coins. How many of each had he at first?

Let x, y, and z represent the numbers of the coins, x + y + z = 70 coins,

” + y +'4'= 100 shillings,

10. A person who saved every year § of what he saved the previous year, had in six years saved £3367. How much would he save in eight years ?

ft — a x

-i -i

a = 1024.

= £3685 18s. 9d. Ans.

Educational Time ft.

HABIT.

It is surprising to find, on close scrutiny, how large a proportion of the acts we perform, seemingly at the bidding and under the control of the will, are in truth performed unconsciously. Walking, running, leaping, lifting and carrying burdens—in fact, most of the actions in which the muscular.system is engaged—are accomplished without the cognisance of details. The end only is perceived ; the will is engrossed with the result, and ignores the step by which it is reached. We set out to walk on a particular road to a certain place; the feet and legs are set in motion and we continue walking, while the whole attention is absorbed with matters of thought, no concern being bestowed on the management of the limbs unless unusual or unexpected sensations attract the notice of the mind. We carry a book or a parcel, and hold it, though its possession may be forgotten. In short, there is a power of setting a part of the organism to do certain work and leaving the task to be carried out by a subordinate faculty of superintendence, which discharges its function unconsciously.

Take as au illustration one of the commonest actions performed by most of us once or twice daily—that of lifting the water-jug from a washing-stand We will to pour out some water, and expect to find it in the jug. The muscular movements requisite for grasping the handle of the vessel and raising it are performed automatically, and the proper amount of force is put out to raise the weight of waier we are accustomed to find. It happens that the servant has neglected to fill the jug, and up it goes with a bound. Again, we are walking up stairs, habit leads up to expect another step at the lop ; the leg is raised, and comes down with a jerk, because the anticipated stair is not there to receive the foot; or perhaps we are coming down, and the foot is arrested by the level floor when we expected a further descent. These are common experiences, but they possess a high significance, and may stand for typical examples of a large group of actions which are performed unconsciously. The sort of unconsciousness which characterises these acts is made evident by the nature of the misadventures which have been instanced.

When anything is done for the first time, it requires to be worked out by the will, each step of the performance is intentional ; as when a child learns to walk, or a pianoforte player to strike the proper notes with the right fingers in the due relations of time by appropriate muscular movements of hands and wrist. When once the combination of acts is mastered, the will no longer superintends the exercise. The attention is not only withdrawn, but it must be diverted, or, in other words, the performance left to the supervision of the subordinate faculty. Let any one who doubts this try to execute in detail, under the superintendence of the will, movements which, are perfectly well done without consciousness ; for example, to descend a flight of stairs rather rapidly, particularly noticing the planting cf each foot on the step below, or to strike a few chords of music with conscious control of the several fingers employed. The unwonted attention embarrasses the performance, ar.d in certain cases even renders it impossible. The explanation of this experience is that the will is wont to relegate the control of muscular movements which are habitually performed to the guidance of a sense which, while it cannot originate, is able to repeat combinations of movements to which it has been accustomed ; and having thus, so to say, delegated a portion of its authority—as the employer of a large number of workers entrusts the management of details to some confidential agent—the will ceases to trouble itself with these lesser matters, and they pass out of the sphere of consciousness.

In certain morbid states this delegation is impossible, and the muscular system will do nothing it is not directly willed to perform. Physiologists and pathologists cite the case of a nurse who could not hold a child in her arms unless she kept it constantly in mind. The moment her attention was diverted from the business in hand her arms dropped, and she let the infant fall. This instance will suffice to illustrate the principle. The conclusion is, briefly, that much that we do is done unconsciously—the actions which fall into this class are, for the most part, matters of habit; and, in proportion as things come to be subjects of habit, they are likely to be done unconsciously.

What is habit? The apologist for humanity in its least noble phase asserts that “ habit is second nature.” It would be more explicit to say that habit is memory supplemented by an unconscious reasoning on the simple lines of a direct inference from the known to the unknown. I use the phrase “ unconscious reasoning” advisedly. There are more than sufficient grounds for believing that, a certain sort of reasoning may proceed without an appeal to the judgment, and without the cognisance of the higher intellect—in short, without consciousness. While the mind is engrossed with one subject, the lesser faculties may be actively employed with another, and even work out processes which, when they come to be reviewed, appear complex. By this reasoning the sleepwalker adapts his proceedings to the requirements of the surrounding circumstances, his brain being all the while asleep and he in a state of unconsciousness. This sort of reasoning probably differs in no essential particulars from the phenomenon! of “instinct” with which the animals below man in the scale of intelligence are gifted, and which sometimes seems in its exercise to emulate the power of reflection and judgment.

Corrcspo nò circe.

TEACHERS’ SAL A RIES.

THE EDITOR OF THE AUSTRALASIAN SCHOOLMASTER.

Sir.—That the payment of teachers’ salaries, based on numbers, which now obtains is most injurious to the interests of education in this colony, cannot be denied.

The system forces the best teachers into cities and towns, where they aro not all absolutely needed, from the country schools, whore they aro positively required.

For the urban and suburban taxpayer, apart from the highly efficient state school, can avail himself of the grammar school, the high school and his University, while his less fortunate fellow tax-payer in the country is compelled (having no choice) to use the next stato school, managed by a teacher of a lower professional grade.

This is unquestionably wrong. It is a wrong inflicted on the country which must continue to be intensified so long as payments on numbers continue.

Costly schemes of classification have boen proposed, and abandoned, simply because, by them, payments were coupled with numbers, and, it may now be safely predicted, that no scheme of classification but that which will class the teachers irrespective of numbers, will succeed.

I send you, as promised in my last letter, a synopsis of my scheme of classification ; you must noither publish it, nor discover its contonts to anyone, as I do not wish, in propria persona;, to repeat the history of Solomon’s poor wise man.

But when a scheme is called for. which will give to the country its right share of teaching-power, check the enormously increasing expenditure, stablish finality, and content the teachers, you may then publish it, but not till then.    Alpha.

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INSPECTORS’ REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1880.

The following passages extracted from the Reports furnished to the Education Department by the Inspectors, will not be without interest:— Thomas Brodribb, Esq., M.A.

INFANT TEACHING.

When I first took charge of this district, its infant teaching seemed to compare rather unfavourably with that of my previous district (the Western) ; but I am happy to report a considerable advance in this respect, good organisation and individual care being now the rule. I would, however, like to see more object lessons, more pictures, more reference to such external matters as would brighten up for little children the dulness of teaching. In two of the best infant schools that I have seen (Warrnambool 1743 and Barry’s Reef 885), the driest work, such as learning letters or figures, is made fairly interesting by being put in the most varied forms : letters are shown on a tablet, are chalked on a black-board, are exhibited and changed with moveable cardboard letters, are picked out from among others, are taken to pieces, and are given some verbal or fanciful association—the result being that children learn rapidly without apparent effort or weariness.

A mere course of reading, writing, and arithmetic, even though seasoned with rhymes and supplemented with school drill, is probably an insipid dish for the appetite of early childhood, for the infant mind ever finds sustained effort or abstraction wearisome or difficult. As far as I have observed, simple lessons in natural history seem the best suited to train attention into a habit, and to quicken interest in the outside world ; but still something more is wanted—something that will begin to educate the constructive powers of children. Here probably we shall bo led in time to recognise the merit of the Kinder Garten system, and to profit by Froebel’s teachings to the extent, at least, of introducing into our infant departments some of his simpler apparatus, and by showing our trained female teachers how to use it.

IMAGINARY OBJECTIONS TO THE SPREAD OF EDUCATION.

RETROSPECT.

By comparison we measure what is great or little—nay, often what is good or bad. Applying this test to the state of public instruction, and comparing its present condition with that of a dozen years ago, we shall find real cause for congratulation. We were then drawing towards the close of the period when the teachers’ ranks were too often recruited from the failures in other walks of life ; but classified teachers, though not the exception, were by no means the rule; and, when fouud, were commonly possessed of the lowest grade of classification, of what we now regard as so merely provisional a certificate that any special examination for it has been abolished. Even six years ago, the proportion of unclassified teachers was large ; and I then had in my district 33 unclassified and 107 classified teachers. Then, too, few of the teachers were trained, and few were acquainted with modern improvements;

while the school furniture was often rough and unsuitable, and the buildings were occasionafiy awkward and ill-planned, with poor means of warming or ventilation.

The briefest comparison will now show a great and salutary change : the school buildings are airy, cheerful, often handsome structures, erected with the utmost regard to sanitary and educational requirements ; while generally, though not wholly, the furniture is so designed as to give rest and promote convenience. Bnt more than this : every teacher in the Victorian service holds a diploma of qualification ; most of our pupil teachers go steadily on to the certificate examination ; we have in full working a sound and comprehensive course of training, which constantly adds to the ranks of our more highly qualified instructors; and, finally, we have at hand a large number of classified applicants, by whom our own vacancies can be quickly filled, aud by whose services other colonies are glad to benefit.

Report of Charles A. Topp, Esq., M.A., LL.B.

.    BOARD OF EXAMINERS’ WORK.

As the work of the Board of Examiners seems to increase year by year, and to seriously interfere with the inspectoral duties of its members, it becomes a question whether the functions of the present board might not, with advantage, be divided among several. There are various distinct classes of examination, viz., those for the State school exhibitions, those for students in training, those for pupil teachers, &c. It might be practicable from the inspectoral staff to form separate boards to deal with each of these, and so avoid the too engrossing claims on the time of the present board. The continuous preparation and perusal of examination papers for six or seven hours a day during the three or four hottest mouths of the year impose a mental and physical strain which is likely to affect injuriously the energies of the members of the board during the ensuing eight or nine months. It would also be a great boon if the bulk of the examinations could be held at midwinter instead of in midsummer ; not only would the strain on the examiners be less, but—a more important matter—the candidates would be placed in more favourable circumstances for dealing with the several papers. It must be almost impossible for an examinee to do himself justice at a written examination, when the thermometer records a temperature of 90° in the shade, and a strong north wind is blowing.

INSTRUCTION.

I may venture to express an opinion that, now that our schools arc, as a rule, officered by qualified teachers, properly trained in method, and generally anxious to do their duty, we shall see no further improvement of importance in the instruction given in State schools until the order and extent of the subjects of free instruction are reconsidered and rearranged. It rests with the department to initiate the next advance ; and just as efficient instruction and rapid progress are much facilitated, where a judicious time-table provides that subjects of instruction are taken in suitable order and for the right length of time, so must the efficient instruction and rapid progress of a child depend greatly on his being introduced to the various branches of knowledge in proper order and at an age when his faculties are fit to deal with them. I look forward to the happiest results from a careful but thorough revision of our course of free instruction. My views as to the direction in which I considered change desirable were fully explained in a paper read before the education section of the Social Science Congress last year, and I find that many inspectors point out changes urgently needed.

Robert Craig, Esq.

There are two parts of my district which appear to be over-supplied with schools, the Yan Yean road and neighbourhood, and the neighbourhood of Broadford. Generally, a rural district is considered well provided for if the schools are not more than four or five miles apart ; but in the localities referred to schools are found not more than three miles apart while there is one that is scarcely two miles from another.

In .some of the country townships a denominational school maintains a struggling existence side by side with the State institution, and at the same time that it does not itself thrive, it mars the success of the other. In one small village, all the children, if gathered under one roof, would make a prosperous school of about fifty, the teacher would throw that spirit into his work which the sight of a well-filled school imparts, and the pupils would derive benefit from the healthy competition which exists only where a considerable number are taught together. As the matter stands, the children are split up into two small cheerless schools. They are in neighbouring buildings, and, as may be expected, have no neighbourly feelings to each other. They form two camps, always unfriendly, and sometimes at war. Apart from the other disadvantages of this division, one cannot help regretting that the two sets of children, instead of learning to be good citizens through friendly competition in the school-room and playground, are kept apart, and led to regard each other almost as aliens.

Charles Tynan, Esq.

FURNITURE AND APPARATUS.

As the maps of Australia and Australasia supplied by the Department do uot appear to me to be of a sufficiently good character, either in their general construction or in the detailed information given, I should like to see maps of the separate colonies in more frequent use in our schools. Now that almost direct railway communication has been established between the two great capitals of Australasia, and in view of the advent of the day when the different colonies are united under one Federal Government, I am certainly of opinion that a much better knowledge of Australian geography than our children can now be credited with should be insisted upon, and could easily be secured.

COUNTRY SCHOOLS.

As might be expected, the instruction in the town schools is of a generally good character, The positions in the large town schools being

generally regarded as the prizes of the profession, it follows that, as a rule, the best teachers are to be found there, and good work is consequently the result. I say, as a rule, advisedly, for, without doubt, some of the most incapable teachers 1 have met with are still to be found in schools in close proximity to the metropolis.

With regard to the state of instruction in the country schools in my district, I fear that I cannot speak in very favourable terms. In the county of Mornington there are very few schools in which I have been able to report the management as satisfactory, and a combination on the part of the teacher of the qualities honesty, zeal, and ability is so rare as to evoke from me more than passing notice. Wherever any weakness in a school seemed to me attributable only to a teacher’s inexperience or lack of ability, I endeavoured, by making such practical suggestions and recommendations as I deemed necessary, to secure better work ; but where I had reason to impugn the teacher’s honesty or zeal, I brought the matter prominently under the notice of the Department, when such action was taken as effected an immediate change for the better in the cases of the particular schools affected.

NIGHT SCHOOLS,

Further experience confirms me in the opinion expressed in my previous reports as to the utter unworthiness of night schools, The recent regulation on the subject has had the salutary effect of closing the great majority of these schools, though a few still remain in the Metropolitan South district to entail considerable expense on the State without conferring corresponding advantages on the scholars in attendance. After some years’ experience on the subject, I have no hesitation in saying that, in the best managed night school I have ever inspected the expense incurred by the State is by no means commensurate with the intellectual benefits derived by the scholars, to make no mention of the probability, nay, the almost certainty of serious moral injury resulting.

RECORDS.

I regret to say that the school records in this district are not at all satis-torily kept. Besides cases of wilful falsification of the rolls, for which the offenders were severely dealt with, there have come under my notice, during the year, several cases of gross carelessness in the way of incorrect marking, and in some cases positive neglect to mark the roll at all. Notwithstanding the adoption by the Department of such stringent measures iu dealing with the offenders, I fear that the serious offence of wilful falsification is much more frequent in this district than is generally supposed. I shall make it my special business during the ensuing year to devote my energies and attention to discovering all such delinquencies, and in all cases shall recommend the Department to use the utmost severity in dealing with the delinquents.

Alfred Claribeux Curlewis, Esq., M.A.

Our secular system, no doubt, has its weak point. I allude to the want of familiarity with the language of that standard of the English tongue, the authorised version of the Bible, a want of familiarity shown by teachers and pupils. A teacher once objected to my using, in a sentence for parsing, the phrase “ they began to anger him,” urging Morell’s dictum against the use of nouns as verbs. Under the circumstances I consented to withdraw the unfamiliar word, merely expressing my regret (for the teacher was preparing for the ministry) that his knowledge of Morell was greater than his knowledge of the Bible, in which such use of the word is not infrequent.

I have had, in several instances, to examine in the art of teaching for a license those who had failed to pass the examination for the second year’s course of training. In all these cases the candidates had been admitted on passing cither the matriculation, or the ordinary examination for admission to training, and in none of these cases were the teaching abilities .of the candidates—as might be expected from the little experience they had had of teaching—of a high order. I do not know of any case of one admitted on his first-class pupil-tcachcrship failing at this examination. It seems a pity that, if we can get a sufficient supply of candidates from the pupil-teachcrs, we should admit those who are less likely to pass into the Melbourne institute, and, if they fail, are then thrown on our hands. There is, however, a want of eagerness among pupil-teachers for the training school, perhaps due to a feeling which seems to exist among them, and to which Messrs. Brodribb and Tynan refer in their last reports—an idea that there are means by which promotion may be more quickly secured than it would be by the possession of a training certificate.

I am still of opinion that, in cases of unavoidable absence of children from result examination, an allowance should be made. The six children of a gatekeeper may be removed by the Railway Department, and the teacher of the school they attend may thus be rpade to suffer in purse and prestige from a circumstance over which he has no control.

I am glad to find that the new regulation as to night schools has reduced to its minimum that necessary evil, and prevented the rise of those small schools which used suddenly to spring into being, drag out a weakly existence of a month or so, and then disappear.

James Holland, Esq., M.A.

BUILDINGS.

I have always found the school premises tidily kept at the time of my visits, and believe that it is the rare exception to find carelessness in this respect. There may be one or two cases of neglect in the district, but not more. If so, they have not come under my notice. In a straggling district like this, however, the exact whereabouts of the inspector is pretty well known, and slight deficiencies in this or any other matter may occur during part of the year, and yet be attended to prior to his visit. In compact districts, the constant liability to inspection has the effect of producing regular and uniform care and attention with regard both to school and school buildings.

FURNITURE.

I would again urge on the Department the advisability of not supplying slates, copy-books, and reading books until the intending recipients produce a certificate from the nearest clergyman or justice of the peace that the parents are too poor to procure them for the children. I have not the slightest hesitation in saying that the best reading and writing is found in schools where all the children provide their own books.

INSTRUCTION.

As tested by the result examinations, a very marked improvement has been shown during the year. The percentages, this year, have been unusually high. I am pleased, too, to be able to report that I see year by year a steady advance in the neatness and style of the papers received at the result examinations. Many of these are neatly and nicely written out, so as to facilitate correction, and show considerable taste in the arrangement of the work.

The proposal to do away with result examinations has not been received with favour. The strongest argument in its favour is the persistent recommendation of the system by the inspectors. They have nothing to gain by it. The work of the result examination is not inviting. There is nothing more monotonous than the treadmill work of examining young childrenday after day. Nothing but the deep-rooted conviction that these, or similar, examinations are absolutely necessary to the efficient and successful carrying out of the Education Act can induce inspectors to advocate their retention. There might be some modifications made in matters of detail. Slight examination iu programme work might be required in addition to the usual questions. On the other hand, as recommended by Mr. Curlewis, in his report for 1876, “ Concessions should be made in all cases of sickness or accident, where a doctor’s certificate is produced, and iu cases where children have left the district.” Generally, more discretionary power with regard to absentees might be left in the hands of the inspectors.

AGE AT WHICH CHILDREN ARE ADMITTED TO SCHOOL.

I think the minimum age at which children arc allowed to bo enrolled much too young. It is a pitiful sight to see babies of three years of age sitting in the gallery on a hot day, with their poor little limbs cramped in one position for half-an-hour or more at a time, and inhaling the over-heated atmosphere of a crowded infant room. It is absurd to suppose that such mites arc learning anything. They would be much better out in the open air, breathing “ God’s glorious oxygen.” Parents find it convenient to make a nursery of the school, and, no doubt, settle the account in doctor’s bills, and in the injured health of their oilspring. No child under five, or, at lowest, four years of age should, in my opinion, be admitted into a State school.

Walter M. Gamble, Esq.

■    BUILDINGS,

The residents in Sandhurst district No, 2 ought to be satisfied with the school accommodation provided for them by the State. 1 can only recall three localities where school-houses are needed to meet present requirements, and in each of these I have taken the preliminary steps to bring the matter under the Department’s notice. On the other hand, in two or three localities, the school houses already erected have ceased to be necessary, i.e., the school population has decreased, and thero is no immediate prospect of any increase of children in the neighbourhood, Murray Road, near Heathcote, and Mosquito Greek, arc cases in point; I learn that these schools are to be closed. A suitable building has been erected at Bailieston, so that the last unsuitable building in my district has been superseded.

Although it is now several years since the planting of school reserves was suggested, one must confess to a feeling of disappointment to see how little has been done in the time. Teachers ought to be alive to the fact that‘‘sins of omission ’’arc noted by the district inspector; and that since promotion may depend on the absence of unfavourable reports, it is for their interest to attend to the improvement of the school-ground.

DISCIPLINE.

It may not be complimentary to some, but it is nevertheless true, that the discipline maintained in the majority of the metropolitan schools which I have inspected compares unfavourably with that observed in Sandhurst schools    ‘

On one point—that of corporal punishment—I do feel considerable satisfaction that the department has, despite the pressure brought to bear during the year, re-affirmed its original ukase of 1873 against the flogging of girls. The thanks of every woman are due for the continued immunity of their sex from corporal punishment in schools, and, as our girls are thus protected from personal indignity, I am sanguine that in the next generation the brute who assaults a woman, whether wife or not, will be viewed as a hideous phenomenon, and execrated accordingly.

TEACHERS.

A perplexing question has frequently forced itself upon my consideration. What is to be done with those teachers occupying the better positions in schools, who not only do not deserve promotion, but are also unworthy of the positions which they now hold ? My reports to the office indicate instances of teachers in receipt of large salaries who are not making an adequate return.

I know that it is a question encumbered with difficulties; but if merit is to “ rise,” demerit must be displaced, no matter whether found in a half-time school, or in one with a thousand in average attendance.

If a teacher in a small country school absented himself from duty without leave, and the matter came to the knowledge of the Department, be would and should learn that a repetition of such conduct meant degradation if not dismissal ; and there should be no ground for believing that the same penalties would not fall on those in charge of the largest schools.

Hitherto, in matters educational, the race has not always been to the swift, nor the battle to the strong ; time and chance have happened to all alike. In future, we may hope that the anomalies will be reduced to an inappreciable minimum.

Alexander Stewart, Esq.

When the schools that are recommended are built, the requirements erf this district, as far as school accommodation is concerned, will be met. Of course under this remark are not included the two or three isolated localities where there are not sufficient numbers to warrant the establishment of even a half-time school. It would appear that, at the Colac Town Common school, the accommodation is insufficient, even with the addition of the rented building—at best only a make-shift; but it has to be remembered that the Colac school, which is only about two miles distant, is not nearly full. Tkere are, in all, some eight buildings which are rented, and Which, as a rule, serve their purpose as schools very fairly ; but tbe school accommodation cannot be called complete until those and one or two others, like that at Ilawkesdale, are superseded by new buildings.

Looking back at the work done during the past year, it is pleasing to note that it appears steadily improving. There are, it is true, a few instances where I have had to report unfavourably of the work, but happily these are few, and I have reason for hoping that this year they will be fewer still. I would indulge the hope that ere long unsatisfactory teaching will be one of those things “ that were.” Heading—under which is included comprehension of the matter read—is not so successfully taught as some of the other subjects. There is too much of what is called “ hearing children read,” instead of “teaching them to read,” while it is often forgotten that to give a satisfactory reading lesson it is necessary to make good use of the black-board. Neither can it be too strongly impressed upon teachers that, unless the meaning of the word or phrase given to the scholars is a living expression to tfcem, instead of another as lifeless to them as the one of the book, it is a waste of time to give it. I find that in those schools grammar and geography are best taught, and consequently best understood in the lower classes, where systematic class-teaching, combined with ample black-board illustration, is the rule.

In my opinion it would be an improvement if the Central Training Institution had its ranks recruited from those pupil teachers who, at the close of their own course, passed creditably the same examination as is now required for students at the close of the first year’s course of training. The advantages of this plan are obvious. At the same time it could be arranged that candidates of exceptional ability, other than pupil teachers, be allowed to enjoy the benefits of our excellent training institution.

Bogs Cox, Esq.

I have frequently oalled the attention of teachers to trifling repairs that were needed to the school furniture that could have been made right with a few nails or screws, and the expenditure of ten or fifteen minutes of time. But when anything is wrong about the school building or furniture, most teachers look to the Department to make it right, In old times, when the furniture and apparatus had to be kept in order out of school fees, any little jobs of the kind I speak of were performed by the teachers.

It is very rare indeed to see such a piece of school furniture as I saw last week at Eastville (1245). The teacher could not get a notation frame from the department, so she took the frame of a slate, fixed into it a row of ten knitting neodles, upon each of which she had strung ten quandong stones, and she had at once a neat and effective notation frame, without any cost to the department, and only a little trouble to herself. The teacher in question is, in other respects, one of the smartest in the district.

Teachers who are not able to compare their own work with others get so wedded to the ways they are used to that an inspector finds it very difficult to make them see that they might change their system of working with much profit to their schools. I think that a system of exchanges for short periods should be encouraged by the department. An assistant in a lar\$e town school would gain valuable experience by taking temporary charge of a country school, while the teacher of a country school would be improved through observing the systems adopted in the management of large classes. Even where a head or assistant teacher exchanged for a time with one in the same class as his own, good effects would follow, as a man who really wiahed to improve himself could learn from the faults as well as from the superior merits of another school than his own,

The exception now is to find a school where the conduct of the children is not good. The only serious breach of discipline I have to record is unpunctual attendance, find where that occurs I think the teacher must be held responsible for it. Last week I paid two unexpected visits to schools only a few miles apart. Going to the first I overtook a number of children running, and asked one of them what was the punishment for being late ? The boy answered, “ No purfchment, sir. We are never late ; the teacher doesn’t like it.” In this school every child was prosent twenty minutes before morning roll-call. In the other case, though the school opened later, and the children had more time to assemble, nine of them lost their attendance mark through being absent at floll-<*vll. If the children had been asked in that school, I am afraid they would not have answered as in the other, that “ the teacher didn’t like it.”

I would reoommend that an abstract of all the circulars to teachers which are still in force should be printed and sent to every school in the colony, to be attached to the copy of the rules already furnished to the schools, I am frequently told by teachers that they are unaware of matters upon which definite instructions have baen furnished by circular. There are, of course, rnaoy yofing teaohers who have pot seen circulars issued before their time, and there are old teachers from whose memory the directions contained in a circular, read once and put away, may have passed. If those circular instructions were embodied with the rules, there could then be no mistake in the minds of teachers.

Henry Shleton, Esq., B.A.

FEMALE TEACHERS.

The employment of female head teachers is becoming more extended. I would suggest that the license to teach be abolished, or that females be required to pass an examination of equivalent difficulty to that passed by males. The attainments required of a female licensee are not sufficient to qualify her to teach to the full extent of the programme, e.g.—in grammar, analysis of sentences, and in arithmetic fractions, decimals, &c., are not required.

I would again draw attention to the constant changes going on among the head teachers of the district, and the increased difficulties which such changes place in an inspector’s way. A very large proportion of the teachers are inexperienced persons who, having succeeded in passing the literary part of the examination, have been appointed to the charge of small schools. Though these teachers are fairly qualified iu point of attainments, they possess little or no knowledge of teaching or school management. It is, of course, part of an inspector’s duty to instruct such persons on these points, but it is wot encouraging to find that, successful after one or more examinations iu the art of teaching, the teacher has fled the district, and that another recruit has taken his place. Yet this is what is coustantly occurring ; and a more important view of the matter, one has only to examine a school to which a new teacher has been appointed to discover how the school has sufEered by the mere fact of the change.

I find that the bulk of the people eagerly seize on the opportunities afforded by the State, and cheerfully send their children long distances, four, five, and even six miles. Some, on the other hand, barely comply with the compulsory clause, and with a view to this frequently consult the teacher as to the number of days which the children have attended; while others, of the same class, but of more business-like habits, keep records themselves ; and, when the Act has been satisfied, keep the children at home. In farming districts, however, where the labour of the children is of some money value, this is, perhaps, to be expected. Samuel Summons, Esq., M.A., LL.B.

The percentages obtained by some schools were not so high as in the previous year, yet in many cases I was better pleased with the work done. Part payment by results, acting as a stimulus to the teacher, and forcing him to give a certain amount of attention to every pupil, is without doubt necessary for the effective working of our present State school system. I regret, however, to report that the result examinations unduly influence the instruction. By slight changes comparatively in the form and mode of conducting these examinations much can be done to cause the instruction given to be less mechanical and more intelligent. The defective management of the infant department is apparently a fault not confined to this district. Teachers iu charge of these classes seldom utilised the appliances at hand, and their efforts to arouse and secure the attention were rarely well directed. The want of proper preparation was a fault rather common, and especially noticed in the lessons given by young teachers. Mr. Fearon points out that “ teachers who do not prepare their lessons become more and more inefficient, instead of improving, as time goes on.”

Richard Philp, Esq., M.A,

J. Dennant, Esq.

Perhaps no better method of estimating the benefits the Education Act has conferred on the community could be adopted than to travel amongst the schools in some of those remote localities, far removed from rail or coach, where almost the only strange face the children look upon during the whole year is that of the school inspector, who comes to see that they are educated up to the same standard as their fellow scholars in town or city. Were it not for the facilities the Education Department has afforded during the past few years, these children would have grown up in the blankest ignorance. In a few places, where, from accidental circumstances, a school has only recently been opened, it is found that every scholar, from 15 years of age downwards, has to go into one common class (the first), and start by learning the alphabet.

I am glad to observe that the study of science has at once become popular with almost every teacher, both male and female, and during the current year many of the subjects specified will be taken up, the requisite books being now readily obtainable. There is no doubt but that the result will be highly beneficial to teachers and scholars, in enlarging their minds and leading to habits of observation, &c.

(To be continued.)

TEACHER AND PUPILS.

Relations op the Teacher to the Pupils.—It is not necessary or advisable that the teacher should display his authority on all occasions before his pupils. Such a course cannot but weaken it, and decrease the respeckjwhich ought to be felt by the pupils towards their instructor. He should rather endeavour to make the children feel that they are under the control and supervision of a superior and stronger mind, whose decisions must on all occasions be acquiesced in. The thoughtful teacher will readily discover various means by which he can influence his pupils in an indirect and yet very effectual manner. For instance, he should carefully encourage every indication of pleasurable feeling on the part of the studious pupils, and he should endeavour to increase and develop that feeling. Moreover, he should appeal to so many of the senses as possible in every exercise, and present the particular subject in a variety of aspects, so as to suit the capacity of every child, and to appeal to the strongest sense in every individual child. For this purpose he should employ pictures, sketches, and specimens where possible, especially in the case of the lower classes, where the eye is the most powerful instrument of education, and thus make the instruction intuitive as far as possible.

Another most important matter which ought never to be lost sight of, and which is nevertheless very frequently disregarded as a matter of no practical importance whatever, is the proper condition of the schoolroom, so as to secure the health and comfort of the pupils. The room ought to be properly ventilated, and the temperature of a proper degree. It ought to be kept in as perfect a state of cleanliness as may be consistent with the inevitable dirt and disorder of a school. In fact, the room ought to be to some degree a model of cleanliness, which the pupils would bear in mind in their own homes. It is impossible to over-estimate the immense moral importance of a well-regulated and properly-cleaned 6chool-room. The children should be shielded, as far as possible, from corruption and moral taint, and this can only be done by making a weekly visit to every part of the premises, and carefully examining the whole building. Then, again, the apparatus and school furniture should be carefully cleaned periodically, not only for the purpose of preserving them in proper order, but also with the view of practically inculcating upon the children the necessity for habits of cleanliness and order. The habits formed at school will in all probability be carried into their own homes in future years, and thus the teacher may exert a powerful-influence for good on the whole lives of those under his care.

Further Relations op the Teacher and Pupils.—The teacher must carefully strive to assimilate his instruction, in language and subject-matter, to the mental condition of his pupils. In order to do this effectually, care should be taken in the first place to ascertain the exact acquirements as well as mental capacities of his pupils, and afterwards by carefully preparing his lessons for each class. There can necessarily be but little success, and but few appreciable results of teaching, w'hec it is of a desultory and disconnected kind. The children can scarcely remember loose, unsystematical instruction, which costs the teacher little or no effort to impart, and which he has made no endeavour to bring down to the level of their own comprehension. Much of the wasted time and the instruction thrown completely away, might have been utilized if the teacher had properly understood the mental state of his pupils, and had then endeavoured to impart instruction in an agreeable and suitable manner adopted to their condition. This is, in fact, one of the great secrets of success in all teaching—to understand how

much the pupil knows, aud then to impart information concerning that which he does not koow, iu the method and manner best suited to his mental condition.

Method of Instruction.—The instruction imparted must not only be sound and accurate in matter, but also imparted in the manner most suited to the requirements of the pupils.

(a) . The language must be as simple and free from difficult and technical terms, even in the case of the higher classes. Technical term« should always, indeed, be introduced with much caution. The idea, embodied in or expressed by the particular technical word which tho teacher wishes to impress upon the class, ought first to be carefully explained ; and after it has bGen made perfectly clear and intelligible, the technical term employed to express it should then be brought forward. It is always objectionable to use unexplained technical terms, leaving the class to arrive at the idea conveyed by it ns best they ntay. The result always is, that the children’s notions respecting such words arc either very vague or quite erroneous, so that much of the oral distraction addressed to them is perfectly useless aud unintelligible.

(b) . The instruction must, as far as possible, be connected with the previous knowledcje of the pupils. The first rudiments of knowledge having been imparted, the teacher should build up the superstructure byproceeding from the known to the unknown, but always connecting them together, so that the child will be assisted to remember the facts by association as well as by the effect of memory. Apt illustrations aught also to be frequently employed to bring out unknow* or unintelligible acts more clearly.

(c) . Another point to which the teacher’s attention ought to be directed is, the exemplification of the practical utility of all the knowledge imparted. A child is far more likely to remember knowledge which hs feels can be applied to the ordinary purposes of every-day life, than if he was unable to perceive that the recollection of it would be of b*tb little if any service to him hereafter.

(d) . The instruction must also be carefully graduated, so that the knowledge may be thoroughly accurate. Much of the vagueness and inaccuracy which is so common in primary schools, is no doubt to be attributed to the want of proper graduation. If a child be suddenly removed, for example, from an elementary reading book to one that Is much more advanced, it will readily be believed that, it will never snccood in mastering the language and style, unless very great care and attention is bestowed on it—more than can be given in the ordinary class instruction. The child should therefore be led gradually and carefully from one difficulty to auother, as the only means of making the instruction thorough.

THE TOILET—DRESS, NEATNESS AND SUITABILITY.

As Dr. Doran remarks, Man is the only animal born without being provided with a necessary costume ; plante die that naan may live, and animals are skinned that the lords of the creation may be covered.” It» is therefore essential that the toilet should be a matter for thought anujl consideration for every one.

Now this chapter is not intended to be a dissertation upon fashion ; that I leave to the dressmakers’ monthly periodicals, for

‘‘ Our dress stl'l varying,

Nor to forms confined,

Shifts like the sand, tho sport Of every wind

I shall simply show what is the style and character of dress appropriate for wear on different, occasions.

Iagiee with Dr. Watts, that

“ It is in go'od manners, and not in good dress,

That the truest gentility lies

but still I think the two go very much together, and that dress has a certain effect on the character and manners. Most people hold that tho reverse of this is true, and that a person's dross is influenced by hi« character. Probably each has an influence on the other ; but be that as it may, an ill-dresfied man is never so much at his ease as a well-dressed man, and I believe that mean aud shabby clothing has an unconscious hold on the mind.

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy.

But not expressed in fancy—rich, not gaudy;

For the apparel oft proclaims the man.”

I have elsewhere protested against “best” rooms and “ company” manners, and would here remark that the habit of being particular in our attire only when we appear before “ company” is a bad one, and an “ ill habit has the force of an ill fate.” The eyes of those who form our home circle should never be distressed by an untidy appearance. Circumstances may forbid our garments being either rich or costly, but neatness and simple elegance can always be shown in every dress and at every season. “ My wife appears decent enough in her apparel to those who visit us in an afternoon ; but in the morning she is quite another figure,” writes a oioinplainaot.

There is no easier method by which to detoct the real lady from the sham one than by noticing her style of dress. Vulgarity is readily distinguished, however costly and fashionable the habiliments rnay be, by the breach of certain rules of harmony and fitness. No one, perhaps, can dress perfectly without a genius for it, but every one can avoid vulgarity and slovenliness, and attain the average standard of gentility. Neatness we have spoken of as a requisite element, and another and all-important one is suitability—suitability as to various times and seasons—suitability as to age.

A dresa which would look perfectly well on one occasion will appear

out of place and vulgar on another. A costume in which a young lady looks bewitching, makes an older one look absurd and ridiculous.

Our neighbours on the other side of the Channel, who are always held up to us as models of taste, arc very particular in these points—neatness and suitability—and we must own that an Englishwoman rarely presents an appearance as elegant as a French woman, even though the attire of the former may be gorgeous, and that of the latter simple and plain in the extreme. The French excel, too. in the assortment and harmonising of colours. They never dream of decking themselves in all the hues of the rainbow ; one, or at the most two colours predominate in their whole dress; and whatever the colours chosen, they are selected with a view to suit the complexion of the wearer. Alas and alack ! for Englishwomen in respect to these matters. Here, you see one with drab face and drab dress ; there, one bedizened like a harlequin ; some in silks and satins, lace and jewels, when the occasion demands that they should be plainly clad in stuff's and linen; mother and grandmothers affecting a style of juvenility which would look charming on their descendants, but ill-becomcs their grey heads and wrinkled brows. The old lady I saw at a college concert, who had placed on the back of her grey-haired head a brown chignon, and considered that a sufficient ornament with the addition of cap or lappet, and the one I met at a ball, attired in white satin, with her bare seventy-year-old neck and shoulders powdered and devoid of scarf or shawl, forgot the fact that the aping of juvenility “ multiplies the wrinkles of old age, and makes its decay more conspicuous.”

But lot us proceed to review the various styles of dress proper for different occasions.

The dress worn by a mother at her infant’s christening and her own churching should be plain and neat, but handsome and substantial. There is an entry in King Edward II.’s “ Household Book” to the following effect : To the Queen’s tailor was delivered five pieces of white velvet, for the making thereof a certain robe against the churching of the Queen after the birth of her son.” A silk dress will always look well ; a muslin, however beautifully fine, will look out of place.

The costume for paying calls when on foot differs from that which should be worn for the same purpose when driving in a carriage. In the former case it will be of a much plainer character. It may be light or dark, according to the season ; but it must not be gay, aud not have anything about it to attract attention, but be like that of the lady of whom Dr. Johnson said that he was sure she was well dressed, because he could not remember anything that she had on.

Carriage dress has much more licence. Handsome silks, with elaborately trimmed and sweeping skirts, feathery bonnets, and lace parasols, which would look quite out of place when walking, are suitable when driving. A few years ago light coloured gloves were invariably worn when paying calls, except by persons in deep mourning, but latterly black kid gloves have been fashionable at all times and seasons, and with every style of dress, whether simple or elaborate. These gloves are long, and are fastened with many buttons ; bangles or bracelets are worn over the glove.

The toilet for lawn parties, bazaars, flower-shows, &c., is of a brighter, gayer fashion, and affords room for the display of much taste and elegance. Young ladies attire themselves in delicately tinted fine materials —materials which have a refinement, beauty, and softness characteristic of those whom they are designed to embellish, but quite distinctive from those worn in the ball-room. These costumes are made as effective and coquettish as possible—everything that will add to the gaiety, without passing the limits of morning attire, is permissible, and the whole is crowned by a bonnet or hat of like description. In towns the former is mostly worn, but hats are allowable in the couatry for young ladies. The elder ladies should wear silks or some handsome material, richly trimmed with lace, a foreign shawl, or lace mantle, and bonnets, not hats, whether in town or country.

Costumes for picnics, excursions, and for seaside wear should be of a useful character. Nothing looks worse at these times than a thin, flimsy fabric, which will split and tear at every turn, or a faded, shabby silk ; and nothing looks better than some strong material, either one that will wash or otherwise, but of such a description that it will look almost as well at the end of a day’s hard wear as at the beginning.

Yachting dresses arc generally made of serge or tweed, as those materials are ur.spoilable by sea air and water, and at the same time possess warmth anti durability.

Lawn-tennis dresses are usually white, cream colour, or other pale shade. They arc made of strong and thick materials. The dress has a ; short plain skirt without frill or flounce ; its ornamentation consists of I embroidery in coloured crewels. The bodice is full and put into a band, which is stitched to the skirt. Another kind of costume suitable for players is that of dark blue or black jersey, which is put over the head, and fits close to the figure without fastening of any kind. A skirt of the same colour is worn. Either costume is not complete without a large apron, with bib and shoulder straps, and one large pocket across the front of the skirt, or two of smaller size. This apron is made in thick washing material, and is embroidered.

And next of indoor dresses.

A lady’s morning dress should be simple and refined, and suited to the time of day. No old “company” gown should exhibit itself and its shabbincss in the morning light, but a dress fresh as the morn itself, as inexpensive as you please, but clean and appropriate it must be. Lace, unless of a thick description, is not worn with morning attire. Honiton and Brussels would be quite out of'‘place. Neither is much jewellery consistent ; plain gold and silver ornaments arc permissible, but never precious stones, except in rings (the clear stones are only worn with full dress).

When visiting at a friend s house the morning dress may be of a slightly superior style ; for instance, a white dress embroidered with coloured crewels may be worn where a plain cotton one would be used at home, or a silk dress instead of a woollen one ; but remember that “great external display is generally said to be employed to hide internal vulgarity,” and we know of nothing which evinces not only greater want of taste, but also ignorance of the habits of good society, than smartness in morning attire, and especially a lavish display of jewellery.

Again, a dinner dress differs from that worn at a ball, although they both may be termed “ full dress.” For the former occasions silks and satins, velvets and brocades, are the materials chosen, and are trimmed with lace. The neck and arms of the wearer are now generally covered, excepting at a specially “ full dress” dinner ; the bodice is made high, but open in front, and the sleeves reach the elbow or a little below it.

Young ladies often wear coquettish combinations of soft silk, lace and flowers, in the form of caps, on this and similar occasions, or they place natural flowers in their hair in the manner most becoming to the shape of the head or the style in which the hair is arranged. Older ladies wear larger caps, or lappets, with the addition of flowers or feathers.

In the ball-room nothing but complete full dress should be worn. For young people dresses of some light gossamer fabric are chosen—net, tulle, grenaclis, or gauze, trimmed with ribbon or flowers, made low7 and with short sleeves. The wreaths of flowers worn in the hair are generally artificial, because natural ones so soon fall to pieces from the heat of the room and the movements of the dancers.

The dress of the chaperons should be similar in character to that worn at a dinner. Jewellery is generally worn in sets ; ornaments never look so well if pieces of different sets are displayed together ; that is to say, if diamonds are in the brooch, a necklet of pearls, and earrings set with, emeralds would not look w7ell if worn on the same occasion. All the ornaments should match in character as much as possible, but variety is allowed in the matter of bracelets.

( To be continued.)

REFINEMENTS OF THE DRESSING ROOM.

A London aunt has recently given some valuable practical hints on the art of beautifying the dressing room or bedroom, and carrying into it that atmosphere of lefinement which should pervade every apartment in a lady’s house. The brush cases, toilet tidy, square of muslin to throw over clothes at night, combing jackets and dressing gowns having been fully described, I will venture to bring forward one or two little contrivances of my own which have added much to the appearance and comfort of my own particular chamber. When a room does not happen to contain a hanging wardrobe, an excellent substitute may be effected by means of a set of those portable folding American pegs, which can be bought for a very small sum, fastened to the wall by strong nails. But dresses and cloaks are not sightly objects when hung up ; and if not covered they catch the dust in a manner very detrimental to their preservation. So I have adopted the plan of making a cretonne curtain (a light ground is the best) the required width and length, with several curtain rings at the top. I then procure at any ironmonger’s two of those little brass hooks to screw into the wall, which are used for hanging up cups in China closets—the largest size of these—and a strong piece of cane about three-quarters of a yard long. I screw in the hooks just over my pegs, run the cane through the curtain rings and fasten it up, the two hooks supporting each end. Thus a portable hanging wardrobe is at once made, and when the room is swept nothing need be done save to turn the flowing curtain inside out and pin it tightly round the dresses underneath it. When there are pegs behind the door the same sort of curtain can be put up. and has all the appearance of a portiere. The cretonne should match the window curtains and harmonise as much as possible with the shade of the carpet and the whole tone of the room. Boxes and trunks, which never look nice in a bedroom in their natural state, may be converted into ottomans by cretonne covers, made to fit loosely and take off and on. A flat piece lined for the top of the box, a piping cord round, and a loose flounce gathered on is the best way to make them. And when curtains, box covers, portiere, and hanging wardrobes are all made of the same pretty light cretonne to match, the effect is exceedingly good. When “ doing up ” a bedroom it is well to buy as many yards of cretonne as you are likely to want at first, in case of not being afterwards able to match the pattern. Nothing looks worse than a “ patchy ” room, and the idea should be fully carried out or not attempted at all.

A low chair is an addition to a bedroom which is almost indispensable, and I myself prefer one of the small folding ones which do not take up much room, and are so cosy to sit in over the fire during bedroom chats, and when brushing hair. The chair cushions should be covered either with the same cretonne as the curtains and boxes, or with sateen of the prevailing tone, and finished off at each side with a bow of ribbon. A little gipsy table—just large enough to write at—should accompany the chair, and be provided with a neat, pretty blotting case, small inkstand, and pen-wiper. A small hanging bookshelf is also desirable, and some framed photographs. If a bedroom, however small, is tastefully fitted up, and contains, above and beyond the needful accessories of the toilet, some suggestion of the culture and natural bent of its occupant, it is so much easier to bear any occasional illness which may confine us to it for a long or short, period. When the favourite books are within sight or reach, the writing materials at hand, and all the little objects round us which we have collected together from time to time and interested ourselves in arranging, the hours drag on far less heavily, and we can hardly deem the enforced quiet and retirement a hardship—indeed I have sometimes felt it to be the reverse in the case of slight ailments,

Sdente <§0sstp.

Regarding the influence of the moon in our atmosphere, Mons. de Paristle says :—“Along series of observations has shown that the moon, •which passes every month from one hemisphere to the other, influences the direction of the great atmospheric currents. The changes in these currents, in consequence of the prevailing moisture or dryness, are intimately connected with the relative position for the time being of the sun and moon. The distance of the moon from the equator—that is, the inclination of the moon’s path to the plane of the equator—varies every year, passing from a maximum to a minimum limit; and the meteorological character of a series of years appears to be mainly dependent upon the change of inclination, when those extreme limits have been touched. Observations prove that the rainy years, the cold winters, and hot summers return periodically, and coincide with certain declinations of the moon. Applying the deduced rule to the present period, we find that the next wet year ought to coincide with the declination of 18 degs.; therefore, with the year 1884, as the last was 1879, with the declination of 26 degs. Consequently, the dry summers should come about the middle of the intervening period between those two years—that is, they should be 18S1 and 1882,

It may not be generally known that 60 per cent, more work can be done with pulleys faced with leather than with a nude surface. Leather belts used with the grain side to the pulley will do more work and last longer than if used with the flesh side to the pulley. This is owing to the exclusion of air, consequent upon the smoothness of both surfaces. Leather belts with the grain side to the pulley can drive 34 per cent, more than when the flesh side is inwards.

The presence of magnesia in water may be ascertained by boiling the water to a 20th part of its bulk, dropping a few grains of neutralised carbonate of ammonia into about a small glassful, and adding a small quantity of phosphate of soda. The magnesia, if present, will then fall to the bottom of the glass.

A ready method of testing whether water contains organic pollution is to cork up a bottle nearly full and into which a piece of lump sugar has been dropped. If, after standing for two or three days, there does not appear a milky cloud, the water remaining pure and clear, it is free from the deleterious phosphate which is found in sewage water.

A new antimony mine has recently been discovered in the province of Quebec, America.

Herr Rinman asserts that the magnetic intensity of iron is regulated by the amount of carbon it contains.

From investigations made by a company of five underwriters in Hew York, it appears that certain kinds of silk are so laden with combustible chemicals that they are always liable to take fire spontaneously. Recent fires during transit both by rail and sea of packages of silk have led to this belief. These chemicals, it also appears, are an adulteration, and it is stated that the art has reached such a pitch that the original weight of the natural silk can be increased fourfold without the alloy being apparent.

The Engineer says :—The small quantity of carbonic acid always present in sea water is due to the incessantly renewed supply afforded by oxidation of organic matter in the sea itself, and not from the air. If this supply were not constantly maintained this constituent would vanish from the ocean. Its higher percentage in the lower strata of the sea is doubtless due to three causes—(1), to the comparative stillness of the water, whereby the diffusion of the solution is retarded ; (2), to the absence of direct contact with the air and exposure to the wind; (3), and chiefly to the increased pressure whereby solution of the gas is greatly facilitated ; for under pressure of one atmosphere and at ordinary temperatures one cubic centimetre of water dissolves in round numbers one cubic centimetre or L529 milligrammes of carbonic acid, while under double that pressure the absorption is double, and so forth, varying directly as the pressure approximately. It can hardly be doubted that this presence of a larger proportion of carbonic acid in the lowest depths of the ocean has a distinct correlation to the character of their special inhabitants.

Matter.

If we wish to ascertain the temperature of a hot bath, or of a room, we uso an instrument called a Thermometer.

(In an upper class derive the word.)

lThis may be shown by the hand, which when cold may easily be gloved, but swells with heat, so that the glove can scarcely be drawn on.

s Water is one of them.

Illus. (1) by cistern pipes in winter; (2) Bomb shells, 13 in. incHameter and 2 in. thick, with their fuse holes plugged with iron, bursting when exposed io the severity of a Canadian winter.

3Why? Because spirits of wine cannot, by any applications of science at present known, be made to freeze.

* Why glass? In order that its indications may be the more readily noted.

“Illus. a bulb by an onion or tulip.

“Explain the “zero” of the thermometer, which is 32° below freezing, hence arrive at the graduation of the scale.

7Shew its application ns seen in (a) hot, baths ; (6) rooms; (c) cucumber frames, See., See.

* Derive the word'.

«The teacher should draw diagrams of each on the black-board, and work out imaginary questions, illustrating the various scales.

I must now say a word as to the washstand contrivances. When a washstand is not made of marble, it is best to cover it with marble oilcloth, for nothing looks more common and ugly than a painted wooden stand, and the paint wears off almost directly, from the splashing of water and soapsuds. Sponges should be kept in a wire basket fastened on to the side of the washstand, and tooth and nail brushes should always be kept in one of the neat open racks which have lately superseded covered china dishes. Taste may certainly be exercised in choosing between china, without going to expense, as very pretty patterns are now sold in the cheapest china. But. to my mind, the simpler the pattern the better—a Greek border, as it is called, of any colour which suits the room, always looks neat and nice, and can be matched easily, if any of the set gets broken. The washstand screen may be made of muslin, lined with glaze calico, like the brush covers and nightgown case, which has the best effect; or one of the cane screens sold at every linendrapers may be used. Muslin drapery for the toilet table is out of fashion ; but in cases where it is necessary to adopt it, to hide a common table, of course the glaze underneath must match the other surroundings ip colour.

It adds much to the appearance of the window to arrange the muslin blind in the French way—a strip of plain book muslin gathered up and tied in the middle with a bow of ribbon, to accord with the other appurtenances of the room—blue, mauve, rod, or whatever the principal colour ay be.—i; Brachne ” in The Queen

NOTES OF A LESSON ON THE THERMOMETER,

BY J. WALKER.

M KTHOD.

I.    Principle explained.

(1)    Take a bladder filled with air and place it before the tiro. It will be found to increase in size, in proportion to its increased temperature, until, if not removed, it will eventually burst.

(2)    Our bodies are larger when we are hot.1

From these two instances we see that :

With a few exceptions- nil bodies expand by heat, and

That the greater the heat the greater the expansion of the body.

II.    Construction,

The amount of expansion heat produces may be measured by either solids, liquids, or gases. Of these, liquids are generally chosen, for solids expand too little and gases too freely, to be of great use. The liquids employed in measuring heat are spirits of wine, or alcohol, and mercury, or quicksilver ; the former being used more especially for low temperatures.3

The thermometer consists of a glass tube,'1 terminating in a bulb.5 This bulb and part of the tube are filled with quicksilver, by a peculiar process, which expels all the air, thus leaving a vacuum ; the upper extremity of the tube is then sealed by melting the glass.

But the instrument as thus constructed would not indicate how much one body was hotter or colder than another. It must therefore be graduated.

This is done as follows :—The thermometer is dipped in melting ice or snow ; the mercury at onee sinks to a certain point called the freezing point,. It is then plunged into boiling water, when the mercury rapidly rises to another point in the tube. This is called the boiling point. These points are marked, respectively, 32° and 212° ; the intervening space being divided into 180°. A thermometer of mercury cannot be graduated below 40°, because at that point mercury itself freezes, but it may be graduated upwards to 670°.0

III.    Use.

To ascertain various degrees of heat.7

Thai the thermometer does not measure the quantity of heat may be shown by the following :—Dip it into a basin of water, and then into a wineglassful taken out of the basin, when it will stand at the same height in both, although it is manifest there will be more heat in the basin than in the glass.

Remarks.-—The date of the invention of the Thermometer and the name of the originator are unknown ; but it is generally believed to have been invented about the beginning of the seventeenth century. To Reaumur is due the credit of having proposed quicksilver instead of linseed oil, which had been used by Newton. In 1721, a Dutchman, named Fahrenheit, considerably improved it; since then it has undergone little alteration.

In conclusion the teacher may notice the three kinds of thermometers, and explain their scales, thus :

(1)    Fahrenheit’s begins at 32° and ends at 212°.

(2)    Centigrade begins at 0° and cuds at 100°.8

(3)    Reaumur begins at 0° and ends at 80°.

Here it will be noticed that 9 spaces of 20° each on the F. will correspond to 6 on the C. and 4 on the It.®

At a meeting of the Paris Academy of Sciences, M, Faye agreed with Newton that the tails of comets were nothing more than a continual emission of molecules from the head of 1 lie comet. Mons. Roche, taknig this theory as a basis, has accounted for the production of all the various shapes of comet tails as witnessed by observers.

School Department—

Inspectors’ Deport for the

Year 1880     50

Teacher and Pupils ...... 53

The Toilet—Dress, Neatness,

and Suitability ...... 53

Refinements of the Dressing Room ............ 54

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

Advertisements and other business communications should be addressed to the Publishers. No advertisements will bo inserted without a written order, or prepayment. It is particularly requested that they may be sent early in the month.

Books, music, and school appliances for notice, and all letters containing anything connected with the literary portion of the paper should be addressed To the Editor. Every communication accompanied by the name and address of the sender (as a guarantee of good faith, though not always for publication) will bo acknowledged ; but wo cannot attend to anonymous letters.

¿lustralashw Srljflulmastrr.

PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH.

MELBOURNE, OCTOBER, 1881. The report presented to His Excellency the Governor, by the Hon. the Minister of Public Instruction, on the working of the State school system of Victoria, has just been laid before Parliament. Its appearance at a time when the composition of the proposed Royal Commission of Inquiry is about to be discussed in the House of Assembly, may be considered opportune. That teachers though out the colonies may become thoroughly conversant with the valuable statistical information with which it is replete, we have inserted it in full, together with the expressed opinions of most of the inspectors on the manner in which the functions of the teachers are being performed. Even a cursory perusal of the Minister’s report must convince the most sceptical that the State schools have taken a firm hold upon the community, and that there is no ground for alarm respecting the stability of the system.

The total number of schools under the department (including night schools) has now reached 1,810. The number of children enrolled during the year was 229,723, while the number of children in average attendance throughout the year was 119,520. Taking the state of the schools in the year 1872— the first year of the enforcement of the free, secular, and obligatory Education Act—and comparing them with the year 1880, we find the following result:—For the year 1872 — Number of day schools, 1,048 ; number of scholars enrolled, 135,962; average attendance, 68,436; number of night schools, 1 ; total number of scholars enrolled, 93 ; average attendance, 20. For the year 1880—Number of day schools, 1,624; number of scholars enrolled, 216,854 ; average attendance, 115,160; number of night schools, 186; number of scholars enrolled, 12,869 ; average attendance, 4,360.

Though the general tone of the report is one of confidence in the practical educational \york achieved, the Minister has shown

CONTENTS

Science Gossip ...     54

Notes of a Lesson on the Thermometer ......... 55

Educational Report ...    ...    56

Dr. Andrew Bell ...... 56

Notes of the Month ...    ...    57

Educational Report for 1880-81 59

“ Pedagogue.”—We can but repeat the advice so often given in the pages of the Australasian Schoolmaster. Never pen a single line to a member of Parliament about your claims to promotion or your supposed grievances that you do not wish to fall into the hands of the Department. Members of Parliament are too busily employed to make explanations for you, and unthinkingly hand to the Minister your lettei’3, that you may explain your own case. Moral : Write discreetly, when writing about yourself, and never affirm anything that you do not wish to be called upon to put to the test of proof.

“ F. U. IIenderosn,” “A. McDonald,” “A Boy,” “ E. Row,” “ E. Newman,” “Eynon,” “ Grinder,” “Samuel Friend.”—Received.

“ Inquiry.”—Pupil Teacher.

“ No. 1420.”—Music received. Notice next issue.

16 words, Ono Insertion - Is. Od 1 32 words, One Insertion - 2s. 6d. 24    ,,    ,,    - 2s. Od I Ono Inch ,,    - 4e. Od.

no disposition to exaggerate the progi'ess made in the past, nor any wish to underrate the dangers which beset the Department in the future. Two extracts will exemplify this point. “ It will be observed,”says Mr. Grant, page iv., ‘That while the number of distinct individual children under instruction in day schools during 1880 has increased beyond that for the previous year by 3276, there is not a corresponding increase in the average attendance, which is only 556 in excess of that for

1879.    .    .    . The percentage of average attendance to the

number enrolled has fallen from 52-35 in 1879 to 52-02 in 1880, As a rule day schools are open for 230 days in the year, and as the attendance of 187,210 distinct children enrolled during

1880,    resulted in an average attendance of 115,160, the number of days attended by each scholar on the roll during the year is shown to be 141-4. The number of days attended during 1879 was 143-3 ; in 1878, 141’7 ; and in 1877, 140-7.”

Regarding the cost of education, the report says, pagevi.:— “ The cost for the instruction of each child in average attendance during the year 1880 was £3 18s. Compared with the cost for the preceding year, these figures show an increase of 2s. 9d. per scholar in day schools, and of Is. 0^d. in night schools.” And on pagexiii., the drain upon the departmental funds caused by the expenditure on repairs to school buildings is thus noted :—“The annual cost of maintenance uf school buildings cannot be estimated at less than ¿£22,000 per annum ; but as the sum of £20,000 has been placed on the estimates for 1881-82, there is a prospect of being able to deal with the most pressing requirements before much further injui’y occurs to the school buildings. A sum of £50,000 to £55,000 was estimated as necessary to meet both the annual cost of maintaining the property of the Department, and of pi'oviding for such new applications as would be caused by further settlement, together with the growth and shifting of population, and there is no reason to think that this estimate is in excess of what will be needed for year's to come.”

Some of the causes which have led to the apparently small percentage of increased results in teaching, and to the self-evident increased costliness of our educational system, are stated in the report. We have no doubt tha •sufficient reasons may be assigned, and that when the indirect benefits conferred upon the rising generation by the improved methods of instruction, and by the more healthful and cheerful class of school buildings are taken into account, the State does receive a substantial return for the money expended by the Education Department.

DR. ANDREW BELL.

It is not as a disciple of Dr. Bell’s once famous Madra8 system ”—it is not as an apostle of Dr. Bell’s method—tha^ Mr. Meiklejohn has produced (says the School Board Chronicle) this biography    of the man of one idea in

national instruction. Andrew Bell is a tolerably interesting figure in the history of national education; his life forms a landmark in the progress of the work ; and hence our author, having access to special information, has been tempted to add this biography to the annals of the last hundred and twenty years of the education movement. He has taken means to make the book interesting reading. Bell was born at St. Andrew’s, and Mr. Meiklejohn begins his task with a very fresh and happy description of the ancient North-British town. He is evidently no very great admirer of Dr. Bell; but he tells a man’s story with appreciation and impartiality, and does more than any writer before him to place him before the reader as he really was, with his merits, his great strength of will, his fixity of purpose, his narrowness, and his defect of culture. It was almost in the infancy of method in instruction that Dr. Bell thought he had made a great discovery. His monitorial system has developed into the pupil teacher system, and the pupil teacher now, in the opinion of many competent thinkers and practical educationists, stands in the way of the higher development of the elementary school. When it comes to estimating the character of Dr. Bell, and putting a value upon his system, Mr. Meiklejohn does not take a high tone. He says :—

He was not an interesting man ; he was not a great man ; he had very-little insight into human nature, though here and there arc to be found

glimpses of the truth ; he was singularly narrow-minded ; and he was in several respects a terrible bore. There is in his own mind hardly atrace of education—hardly the smallest sign of literary culture.

From the worldly point of view he was a very successful man. He saved money ; he became a dignitary of the church ; and he founded the National Society. But as an educationist he would have narrowed the schooling of the poor to the very wretchedest limits; and his system has in the main disappeared. His father was a barber in St. Andrew’s. When lie left school, he went to seek his fortune in America, and took an engagement as private tutor at «£200 a year. When he died, at an advanced age, the greatest trouble of his last hours was what he should do with the £120,000 which he had amassed. Of his authorship Mr. Meiklejohn says :—

His character is faithfully mirrored in the style of his writings. Cumbrous, clumsy, chaotic, dull, even to heaviness, full of involutions, repetitions, misplaced limitations ; it is a severe penance to be obliged to read a page.

And again :

The educational works of Dr. Bell amount to several thousand pages; but they cannot be recommended to a perusal of even the most enthusiastic student of education. There is much dust, chaff, and inorganic matter in them ; and it is only here and there that one finds something worth picking up.

But Dr. Bell was a man of mark in his time. His energy was great. The manner in which he pushed his system brought the world nearer to the realisation of the necessity for public elementary schools. And Mr. Meiklejohn has given us the best life of him—a biography, which is a good readable book.

Ilotes of fíje Ktonflj.

Br this issue we publish in full the report of the Minister of Public Instruction, on the operations of the Education Department of Victoria for the year 1880-81. Extracts from the Inspector’s reports will be found on page 50. The pressure thus caused upon our space has compelled us to hold over several important items of scholastic news.

We have received from Mr. S. Mullen, of Collins-street East, a copy of “ The Melbourne University Calendar for Academic year 1881-82” ; also “ The Source of Growffh of the English Language,” by Thos. Page. From Mr. E. W. Cole, Book Arcade, Bourke-street, a New Verbatim Translation of the Sixth Book of Caesar de Bello Gallico,” by Rev. W. Matthew and Rev. Dr. Williams, M.A.

Last evening the Hon. Sir Bryan O’Loghlen laid upon the table of the House a copy of the Royal Commission, to enquire into the working of the Education Act. The following are the names of the Commissioners : Mr. Francis Ormond, the founder of Ormond College; Mr. George Meares, late Mayor of Melbourne; Mr. J. W. Rogers, Q.C., Professor M'Coy, Dr. W. H. Cutts and Messrs. Herbert James Plenty, J.P., Edmund Keogh, J.P., Henry Nicholas Loughnan, J.P., Duncan Love and Wm. Peterson.

At a meeting called for the purpose of initiating a Bible-in-Schools Association in Invercargill, held on the 30th ult., the following resolutions were unanimously passed (1.) That this meeting express its profound regret that in the New Zealand Education Act no provision was made for daily Biblc-reading in the public schools of the colony. (2.) That this meeting record its thanks to the Hon. Dr. Menzies, and those members of Assembly who supported him in his efforts in last session of Parliament to amend the Education Act in the direction of allowing Bible-reading in the public schools, subject to a time-table and a conscience clause ; and further, that the meeting express its sorrow that the bill making this amendment was thrown out by the House of Representatives. (3.) That it is desirable to form a Bible-in-Schools Association in Invercargill.”

The recently-instituted system at Cambridge, of imparting instruction to women by correspondence, comprises the teaching of English history, languages and literature, arithmetic, algebra, music, biologies, and chemical sciences. In connection with this is a Teachers’ Education Loan, managed by a committee, who lend money for fees without interest to correspondence students, on certain conditions.

The highest salary paid to female teachers in Germany is £50,

The subjects taught in French primary public schools are only six, strictly adhered to, namely Reading, writing, arithmetic, French grammar, French history, and general geography.

The Sydney Mail says “ The great majority of the women who are asking for the benefits of University education in England have no private means, and it is urged that they be not shut out from scholarships at the Universities, as they have been shut out from scholarships at preparatory schools. In many parts of the country the Endowed School Commission has been redistributing old endowments so as to increase the benefits derived from them, and to extend those benefits to a larger number of persons. But by far the larger part of these improvements has been made to apply to boys only. Girls have still been left to find for themselves what boys are fortunate enough to kavc found for them-”

The Marquis of Salisbury has lately been urging the extension of the higher branches of education to women, and their admission into our chief English seminaries.

The proposed Southland (N.Z.), Bible-in-Schools Association will bo formed by the following gentlemen, who have been appointed a committee for the purpose :—The Revs. W. P. Tanner, P. W. Fairclougb, J. Ferguson, C. E. Ward, J. G. Paterson, Geo. Johnston, the Hon. Dr. Menzies, Messrs. J. Bain, M.U.R., Dr. Hodgririnson, T. M. Macdonald, George Trew, S. J. Deck, I). Smyth, G. Froggart, Wm. Russell <)■ Turnbull, H. Ilawson, D. L. Matheson, A. J. Ellis, J. L. M'Donald, A. Bethune, T. Denniston and J. Healey.

The Otago High Schools Board have decided to erect a bridge over the Wyndham River, in line with the road to be formed, for which they are selling land. The terms upon which the land is to be disposed of was left to the arrangement of a committee.

The Auckland Education Board have objected to the formation of free evening classes in the public schools, as proposed by the City Schools Committee.

The returns of attendances at the Otago public schools for the quarter ending 30th September show an increase of nearly a thousand. At the commencement of the quarter the number on the roll was 18.380, at the close 19,187. The average attendance was 15,190 The numbers, however, have not yet reached what they were before the outbreak of nmasles.

The following satisfactory report has been given as the result of a late inspection of the Winton State school (N.Z). Mr. P. Goyer says the school has passed an excellent examination. The only standard that is at all weak is the fourth. The writing has very much improved since last year’s examination. The drawing is very creditable indeed. The singing is good, scale practice is good, and the theory of music fair. The school-room is clean, the furniture and apparatus well taken care of. The children are very^ well-behaved,and the discipline and class movement are good. The examination papers are for the most part worked out in a very neat and methodical manner. The percentage of passes gained by scholars was 87-40.

At a meeting of the Wairo, N.Z., School Committee held on the 5th of August, Mr. John Beck was elected chairman for the ensuing year, and Mr. R. Bellenger to fill the combined offices of secretary and treasurer.

The Auckland Board of Education have decided to discontinue Hie practice hitherto followed of discounting salaries of teachers 10%. This resolution commenced to take effect on the 1st ult.

The monthly meeting of the Invercargill School Committee was held on the 27th September, Mr. Matheson in the chair. The head master’s monthly report of the central school showed 587 pupils on the roll, the average attendance being 425. The attendance at the north school was reported by Mr. Orr to be quite up to that of the prior month. The condition of the fencing was bad. It was resolved that the Education Board be requested to repair it. It was stated by the secretary that the accounts showed a deficit of about £30.

The following dates have been fixed by the Melbourne Universily for matriculation examinations during October term, 1881:—Monday, December 6, English (pass), English (honours), Arithmetic ; Tuesday, December 0, Latin (pass), Latin (honours), Elementary Botany; Wednesday, December 7, Geometry (pass), Geometry (honours), Geography ; Thursday, December 8, French (pass), French (honours), Elementary Physiology ; Friday, December 9. History (pass), History (honours), Elementary Chemistry ; Monday, December 12, Algebra (pass'), Algebra (honours), Elementary Physics; Tuesday. December 13, Greek (pass), Greek (honours) ; German (pass), German (honours). The last day of entering for this examination is Saturday, November 5, 1881. Examinations commence at 9.30 each morning.

A MEETING of the senate of the Melbourne University was held on the 4th inst., the Warden, Dr. Madden, in the chair. Dr. W. E. Hearn was elected to fill the vacancy in the council, caused by the death of the late Mr. Justice Stephens. The question of increasing the number of subjects necessary for medical students to have passed in prior to their entering upon the first year’s course for the degree of Bachelor of Medicine, was raised by Professor Halford, who initiated a debate on the matter by moving that the subjects of English History. Geography, and Elementary Physics, should be added to the six already required to be passed in. The motion was seconded by Professor Nanson, and spoken to by Messrs. Morrison, Sutherland, Dwyer, Dr, Williams, and Professor Elkington, mostly adversely. Mr. Sutherland pointed out that having to pass six subjects already frightened medical students, and he was afraid nine would frighten them away altogether, The debate was adjourned. The adoption of a recommendation of the council which would effect certain alterations in examinations was then moved by Mr. Leeper. The chief alteration recommended was toinsertin the place of sec.5,chap.

(3 of statutes and regulations, the following:—“The person delivering lectures in any subject shall be the examiner for that subject in all ordinary and honour examinations, and in addition to the examiner the council may appoint co-examiners not exceeding two in number for each subject, and the said examiner and co-examiners shall be the Board of Examiners for that subject. If for any subject no co-examiner be appointed, the decision of the examiner shall be final.” Professor Elkington moved that the matter be referred back to the council for consideration, as the proposed alteration would have a very injurious effect upon their present system. The debate was adjourned till Friday, the 14'h inst., oh the motion of Mr. E. E. Morris.

At Ingham, Queensland, a public meeting was held in the early part of last month to consider the progress of matters in connection with school accommodation there. It was reported that a considerable sum had been raised by some energetic gentlemen in the district.

A GRAMMAR school at Maryborough, Queensland, was opened on the 12th ult., when Mr. Murdoch delivered a speech appropriate to the occasion. There were enrolled 26 girls and 24 boys after the opening ceremony.

A petition was presented to the Queensland Legislative Assembly on the 13th by Mr. Macrossan from the School of Arts there, praying some assistance, as they suffered greatly from want of funds now that the Government grant had been withdrawn. The petition was laid upon the table.

The girl’s school at Maryborough, Queensland, will not be proceeded with as rapidly as could be wished. The promoters find themselves short of funds, and, therefore, will have to be more tardy in expenditure. Tenders were opened for the erection early last month, and it turned out that the lowest was for a good deal higher sum than what the trustees had in hand. Mr. C. H. Barton has been awarded the office of second master in the boy’s school.

REGARDING the giving of lessons in agriculture in the Queensland schools the Burleigh correspondent of the Queenslander says :—‘‘As we are a purely agricultural community here, a very great benefit would be conferred on the rising generation were Sir Arthur Palmer—our present energetic and practical Minister for Education—to cause the various teachers of our State schools to teach the elder boys some small lessons in agriculture, by giving them each a small patch of ground, and inculcating into them the difference of various soils—their applicability to certain kinds of crops—the effects of manuring, draining, and manipulating such soils. This might be made a most interesting and useful adjunct lo their usual lessons, and Vie of untold value to many of them in after-life. The system is iu active work in France, and is very ably handled and explained by Scudamore in his little book on Brittany. There is plenty of land attached to our schools, and, were seeds and implements provided, the rivalry would soon make the thing a great success, and this would be greatly increased were our Agricultural Society to take the matter into consideration, and devise a method of rewarding the boys.

The following dates have been fixed for the ordinary examination of the October term, 1881, at the Melbourne University Monday, November 7—Junior Greek, senior Greek, advanced surveying, metallurgy.— Deductive logic, inductive logic, mining. Tuesday, November 8.—Lower mathematics, geology and palaeontology, English language and literature, civil engineering. Junior Latin, senior Latiu, applied mechanics. Thursday, November 10.—Upper mathematics, History of the British Empire, Part II.; advanced natural philosophy. Advanced mathematics, ancient history, mining law, jurisprudence. Friday, November 11.— History of the British Empire, Part I. ; surveying and levelling, law of contracts. Poli tical economy, practical mensuration, mechanical drawing. Monday, November 14.—Comparative anatomy and zoology, surgery, obstetric medicine, law of property. Practical chemistry (1st division), forensic medicine, descriptive and surgical anatomy. Tuesday, November 15.—Medical chemistry, theory and practice of medicine, Roman law. Materia medica, clinical surgery, constitutional law. Wednesday, November 16.—Elementary natural philosophy, clinical medicine, anatomy by dissections, international law. Chemistry, mineralogy, and botany; operative surgery, law of procedure. Thursday, November 17.—General anatomy, physiology, and pathology; law of obligations, practical chemistry (2nd division). Das. and surgical anatomy (oral), junior ; des. and surgical anatomy (oral), senior ; law of wrongs.

A State school is to be erected at Lytton, Queensland. The local building committee have raised the necessary lodgment, and placed it in the hands of the Government. The committee have sufficient money, not only to erect the school, but to fence in the five-acre paddock in which it is to be built, which they intend to have done before the school is opened.

It appears that there is much diversity of opinion in the Queensland Legislature regarding compulsory attendance at State schools. An article by a local litterateur concludes as follows:—“The strangest part of these annual discussions (in the Assembly on education) is the blindness of Hon. Members to the inefficiency resulting from the non-enforcement of compulsory instruction. The chief justification for free education is the imperative necessity of making instruction universal. Yet a very large number in the aggregate of children living within reach of State Schools fail to attend them, and are growing up in deplorable ignorance. The fault, of course, in these cases liSs primarily with the parents ; but are not the Government, being armed with statutory powers to bring these parents to a sense of (heir duty, also guilty of culpable neglect in failing to enforce the law ? The very existence of State education implies that the Government have assumed parental responsibilities in this respect, and hence the non-enforcement of the compulsory provisions of the Act

when necessary is a standing reproach to those charged with its administration. To say that compulsion is not practicable is to dispute the existence of known facts, In England, in Victoria, and in New South Wales the compulsory system is enforced with beneficial results, and there can be no question that withiD certain prescribed limits it might be bene: ficially enforced in Queensland. Nor can it be reasonably held that our State Education Act has had a fair trial while this one of its provisions is allowed to remain a dead letter.”

The opening of a Free Library in connection with the Brisbane School of Arts has been under consideration for a long time, but seems difficult of effectuation. The committee lately had under its consideration an offer made by the Council, but this involving too much contingent expenditure the offer had to be declined.

On Friday, the 14th inst., the senate of the Melbourne University held an adjourned meeting to consider the recommendations of the Council in the matter of the appointment of co-examiners or assistants to examiners in ordinary and honour examinations, and for alterations in the mode of conducting examinations. Dr. Bromby presided. Dr. Morrison moved, and Dr. Fetherston seconded, “ That the senate while approving of the two main principles involved in the proposed statutes, viz. 1. Thatthe members of each board of examiners shall be jointly and severally responsible for each paper ; 2. That all the answers of every candidate in any subject shall be submitted to the decision of at least two examiners, and no candidate shall be passed or rejected without the concurrence of at least two examiners—do now proceed to the consideration in detail of the new statutes and regulations for the purpose of making such amendments as they think fit.” Several amendments were moved in this, and negatived. Dr. Hearn suggested that the new standing orders, 73 to 80 inclusive, be adopted for the purpose of considering the council’s proposals in committee, was agreed to, and on the motion of Mr. Leeper it was resolved to receive the proposals of the council and go into committee to consider them. This was done. In committee it was agreed “ That for any subject of examination, not a subject of lectures, the council shall appoint au examiner.” That the persons delivering lectures on any subject shall be examiners on that subject,” and “ Iu addition the council shall, when practicable, appoint two other examiners for each subject, and the whole of the examiners thus appointed for each subject, shall be the board of examiners for that subject.” The senate then adjourned.

Mr. Norton, during consideration of supply, in the Queensland House of Assembly, on the 6th inst., moved that it was desirable to discontinue the annual grant for scholarships. He urged that if it were true these scholarships enabled the poor man’s son to stand on the same level as the rich man’s, it was also true that it enabled the rich man to get an expensive education for his son at the lowest possible cost to himself, the greater part of the real cost being contributed by the poor man. The reply was given by the Colonial Secretary that these scholarships had done a great deal of good, not only directly, but indirectly, by encouraging other than successful pupils to increased exertion. The motion was supported by more than half-a-dozen members, on the ground that entirely free education had a demoralizing effect upon the community, and that those who were able to pay should have an opportunity of doing so ; and also that the present system was fostering an unhealthy desire amongst youth to aspire to professions and occupations free from manual labour. The motion was lost by 3 votes—IS for, 21 against.

In consequence of the rapidly increasing necessities of the district of Maryborough, Queensland, in the way of school accommodation, it has been decided to erect a new primary schoolhouse in Albert-street, of that city, amidst the large population around the adjacent foundries. Active canvass is being made to secure the required funds.

A special meeting of the School Commissioners of Otago, N.Z.,was held at Dunedin recently, at which the Gladstone Borough Council were granted a road line through the local Collegiate Reserve. The Commissioners decided, after consideration, to offer area3 under their control for sale for coal-mining purposes.

It having been decided by the Invercargill Education Board to frame regulations for the giving effect to the compulsory clause of the Education Act, they, at their September monthly meeting, passed a resolution to ask the Defence Minister to authorise the police to assist school committees to enforce the regulation.

The monthly meeting of the Education Board, Invercargill, was held on the 7th inst., when all members were present. A circular from the Education Department was read, stating that the grant for building purposes allotted to the board for the present year was £4590. The Executive Committee reported that at a meeting held on the 12th and loth September, it was resolved. (1) That Mr. Wm. McConagh be appointed temporary teacher of the Moke Creek School. (2) That Mr. Joseph Ivilburn of Miller’s Flat school, be appointed temporary teacher of Dipton schooDiffee Mr. Robert Haswe’l, resigned, (3) That the tenders of Messrs Thorn anJ Rough for erecting Schoolhouse at West Piaius for £149 15s ; for clearing one acre of bush land, for £6, be accepted. (4) That the tender of Mr. John Michie for re-roofing the schoolhouse at Campbeltown and other repairs as specified, for £47, be accepted. (5) That the carpenter’s report on the residence at Waikiwi be approved of, and that he be instructed to carry out the work as specified, cost not to exceed his estimate. (C) that the applicants of Fernhill district for anew school, be ; referred to the Inspector to visit and report. The report was adopted. A letter from the Wairo school committee, anent the Western boundary of the school district, was referred back to the committee for information as to the additional number of householders it would include. Notice of motion was given by Mr. Feld wick as follows ; —“That all applications for the creation of new School districts should include a statement of the boundaries the petitioner’s propose should include the new school district.” A deputation consisting of Messrs J. W. Hamilton, B. B. McKenzie, Instone, and Foster urged the erection of a school at Thornbury, The

 Number of Schools. Total Number of Children Enrolled during the Year. Number of Children in Average Attendance throughout the Year. Boys. Girls. Total. Boys. Girls. Total. Day Schools. Total in operation Less “ Struck off and attendance transferred to other Schools.” 1,644 j » 110,374 536 107,579 563 217,953 1,099 59,243 325 56,594 352 115,837 677 Balance ... 1,624 109,838 107,016 216,854 58,918 56,242 115,160 Night Schools. Total in operation Less “Struck off and attendance transferred to other Schools.” 186 10,2S5 2,581 12,869 3,421 939 4,360 Balance ... 186 10,285 2,581 12,869 3,421 939 4,360 Gen’I return for year 1,810 120,123 109.600 229,723 62,339 57,181 119,520

petition was referred to the Inspector to visit and report. It was resolved on the motion of Mr. Lurnsden, seconded by Mr. Deniston, hat plans and specifications be prepared for new schools at Olama and Limestone Plains ; and also for new residences at Otatara Bush, Heddou Bush, Pukerau, Wyndham, and Edendale, and submitted to the Executive committee, with power to invite tenders. Accounts amounting in the aggregate to £1341 2s. 9d. were passed for payment.

The Victorian Government have decided to appoint a Iloyal Commission to investigate the Education Act and its working. The names of the Commissioners have not yet been published.

Mr. Grant, Minister of Education for Victoria, attended at the Central State School, Spring Street, Melbourne, on Friday the 7th inst., and distributed the prizes gained by pupils at the annual examination. In the course of an appropriate speech, he stated that in the making of appointments, no other influence than that of merit would be his guide. Referring to the allegations as to the system of education being a godless one, he said that he considered such allegations groundless. Not only did a religious tone pervade the books, but a reverence for the Deity was everywhere inculcated, and the fact that SO % of the pupils of State schools attended Sabbath schools, indicated that the children were not left without religious teaching. He spoke in terms of favour as to the valuable assistance given by Boards of Advice ; and congratulated 'the teachers of the Central school upon the prominent position which the school had attained. Messrs J. Turner, I. Warren Ball, and P. Whyte also addressed the meeting.

The following circular to head teachers throughout Victoria has been published by the Education Department -It having been represented to the Hon. the Minister of Public Instruction, that the circular re the resting of female pupil teachers has been disregarded in a great many schools, head teachers are now informed that it is the Minister’s desire that the instructions as to female teachers not being required to stand for a longer period than an hour and a half at a time is to be strictly complied with.

EDUCATION REPORT FOR 1880-81.

The Minister of Public Instruction, Hon. .J. M. Grant, has submitted the following report on Education, for the year 1S80-S1, to Parliament:—

I have the honour to submit to Your Excellency the Report of the Education Department for the year 18S0. together with a statement of receipts and disbursements up to the 30th June, 1881. In the last report was shown the advancement in school provision made up to the end of 1879, when there were in operation 1,533 day schools. On the 31st of December of that year, 3 of these were closed, leaving 1,530 day schools in operation on 1st January. 1S80. During the year, 114 hew schools have been opened and 20 schools closed, leaving 1,624 as the total number of day schools in operation on 31st December, 1880. Of the 114 new schools, 111 were opened in districts previously unprovided with the means of State education. The other 3 supplied the place of schools which bad been closed. Of the 20 schools struck off the roll, 5 were lacking in the attendance of pupils sufficient to warrant their retention. 10 were discontinued as full-time schools and worked half-time with others, 2 were amalgamated with the same number in their neighbourhoods, and 3 were superseded by new schools. Of the 1,624 day schools in operation at the end of 1880, 1,580 were worked full-time, 43 half-time and 1 one-third time. There were thus 1,669 localities provided with State schools. This shows an increase during the year of 87 full-time and 4 half-time schools. There is no change in the number of one-tliird time schools, and the increased number of localities provided for is 95. At the end of the year 1879 there were about ISO night schools in operation, but only 121 of these furnished returns during 1880. In the latter year, 65 new night schools were established, making the total number from which returns were received 186. Of these, 60 were devoted to the instruction of boys only, 10 to Ihe instruction of girls only, and 116 to the instruction of both boys and girls.

The following table shows the number of schools in operation, and the number of scholars enrolled and in average attendance during the year :—    _

From a return of the children present in day schools on the 1st December, 1880, it was found that, out of 117,917 children, 13,014, or 11’03 per cent., had attended one other State, school during the year ; 1,233. or 1-04 per cent., had attended two other State schools during the same period; and 214, or 018 per cent., had attended three or more State schools during the year. It thus appears that of 117,917 names entered on the rolls, 16,122, or 13 67 percent., would bo found a second time. When the necessary deduction, therefore, is made from 216,854, the total number enrolled, 1S7,210 is found to be. the number of distinct individual children attending State schools during 1880. Compared with the number attending during 1879, the increase in the number of children enrolled is thus 3,276. The percentage of children enrolled in more than one school has fallen from 16T63 in 1878 and 13’93 in 1879 to 13 67 in 1880. With regard to night schools it was found from a return similar to that furnished by the teachers of the day schools, that, out of an attendance of 2,154 children on 1st December, 33’75 per cent, had been enrolled in more, than one school during the year. It the total number enrolled, 12,869, be reduced by the above percentage, it will be found that the number of district indvidual children who attended night, schools during 1880 was S.526. This shows a falling-off of 1,128 children as compared with 1S79. Combining the returns of the day and night schools, it will be seen that the total number of distinct individual children enrolled in them during the year 1880 was 195,736, being an increase of 2.148 over the number enrolled during the year 1879 ; and this increase of enrolment may be looked upon with satisfaction.

The following table allows a comparison to be made as to the progress from year to year since 1872 in regard to the number of schools and the number of children enrolled and in average attendance : —

 Year. Day Schools. Night Schools. Total. 4-1 O fsj 3 'S A c/- Total Number Enrolled Average Attend ance. Number of Schools. o a £ h ” a 'A W Û) , S"§ % h § c > L os So! 3 t « A Total Number Enrolled Average Attend ance. 1872 1,048 135,962 68,436 1 93 20 1,049 136,055 68,456 1873 1,078 207,826 98,746 29 1,580* 790 1,107 209,406 99,536 1874 1,111 21C», 144 104,375 56 5,020' 2,511 1,167 221,164 106,886 1875 1,203 212,041 98,456 117 8,492 3,0,39 1,320 220,533 101,495 1876 1,317 217,038 102,515 181 14,522 4,243 1,498 231,560 106,758 1877 1,410 217,114 110,444 216 17,405 5,571 1,626 234,519 116,015 1S78 1,456 215,355 111,278 208 15,814 5,330 1,664 231,169 116,608 1879 1,533 213,726 114,604 3 80 11,049 4,655 1,713 119,259 1880 1,624 216,854 115,160 186 12,869 4,36( ¡1,810 229,723 119,520

* The figures marked (°) are an approximation only, the returns of numbers on rolls of night schools lor these years being incomplete.

It will be observed that, while the number of distinct individual children under instruction in day schools during 1880 has increased beyond that for the previous year by 3,2,76, there is not a corresponding increase in the average attendance, which is only 556 in excess of that for 1879. This check in the rate of advance is due to the epidemic diseases which prevailed to an unusual extent during ten months of the year, necessitating the temporary closing of many schools, and considerably affecting the attendance at the remainder. The percentage of average attendance to the number enrolled has fallen from 52'35 in 1879 to 52'02 in 1880. As a rule, day schools are open for 23 ) days in the year, and as the attendance of 187,210 distinct children enrolled during 1880 resulted in an average attendance of 115.160, the number of days attended by each scholar on the roll during the year is shown to be 141.4. The number of days attended during 1871 was 943 3 ; in 1878, 141 '7; and in 1877, 1-10*7. The causes which, as stated above, reduced the average attendance will account for this decrease also during 1880.

In the following table the results as to average attendance in Victoria are compared with those in other Australasian colonies : —

 Colony. Number Enrolled during the Year. Average Attendance. Percentage of Average Attendance to Number Enrolled. New South Wales ... 149,112 70,505 47 '28 South Australia ... 40,578 19,058 48-44 New Zealand ... ... 117,418 60,625 5D63 Queensland ... ... 43,305 23,818 55-00 Victoria... ... .. 229,723 119,520 52-02

Returns have been received showing the ages of 216,361 of the children enrolled in day schools during the year, and from these it appears that there were—

 Under 6 years of age ... .. .. ... 29,790 Between G and 15 years ... ... ... 175,345 Above 15 years......... ... ... 11,226 Total ......... ... 216,361 Returns of a similar kind received from the night schools embraced a total of 9,799 pupils, of whom there were— Between 12 and 15 years ... ... ... 5.105 Above 15 years............ ... 4,694- Total ... ... ... ... 9,799 Reducing these numbers to correspond with individual children in attendance, we have— the number of distinct
 Under 6 Tears. Between G and 15 Years. Above 15 Years Total. Day schools... ... Night schools ... 25,776 151,720 4,442 9,714 4,084 187,210 8,526 Total... ... 25.776 156,162 13,798 195,736

Oat of every 100 children attending State schools during 1880 there were therefore—

 Day Schools. Night Schools. Day and N ight Schools Combined Under 6 years of age ... 13-77 13-17 Between 6 and 15 years 81*04 52 TO 79-78 Above 15 years ... 5-19 47-90 7-05 Total .. ... 100- 100- 100-

The following table shows the number of children who complied with the legal requirement of 30 days’ attendance in each quarter as compai’ed with the previous year :—

 Total Number who attended during each Quarter. Number who completed 30 Days’ Attendance. Percentage who made 30 Days’ Attendance, 1880. Percentage who made 30 Days’ Attendance, 1879. Quarter ending March 31, 1880... 171,156 120,061 70-14 69-18 „ „ June 30,1880... 174,080 131,014 75 26 73-03 „ „ Sept. 30, 1880... 174,054 134,032 77-00 80-66 ., Dec. 31.1880... 170,740 113,004 66-18 74-12

It will be noticed that, while the March and June quarters compare favourably with the corresponding quarters of 1879, those ending in September and December respectively exhibit a falling-off; but this is to be accounted for in a great measure by the large amount of sickness prevalent during the latter half of the year, to which reference has already been made.

The following statement gives the number of children who completed the legal attendance for each quarter of 1880, and of those who did not, together with an analysis of the cases of irregular attendance Total number who attended March quarter, 171,156; June, 171,080; September, 174,054; December, 170,740. Attended 30 days and upwards —March, 120,061 ; June, 131,014; September, 134,032; December, 113,004. Attended less than 30 days—March, 51.095; June, 43,066; September, '10,022 ; December, 57,736. Exempt on account of not being within the school age—March, 12 359 ; June, 11,215 ; September, 11,969; December, 13,183. Exempt on account of living beyond the prescribed distance—March, 4,910 ; June, 4,151 ; September. 2,953; December, 5,067. Exempt on account of being educated up to the standard—March, 2 455 ; June, 2,351 ; September, 2,100; December, 4,092. Exempt on account of sickness—March, 5,644; June. 4,180; September, 6,209; December, 10,300. Exempt on account of having entered late in the quarter, or left before its termination—March, 10,781 ; June, 12 289 ; September, 9,922 ; December, 8,838. Balance of defaulters—March, 14,946; June, 8,880 ; September, 6,869; December, 16,256.

From the foregoing it will be seen that the greatest number of actual defaulters in any one quarter was 16,256, while the least was 6,869. For the year 1879 the figures stand respectively at 15,022 and 8,514,

Returns furnished in accordance with the provisions of section 10 of The Edvcntwio Act Amendment Act were received from 620 private schools for the year 1880, being 46 less than for the previous year. A list of these schools, with the attendance at each, will be found in appendix K. The following is a summary of the returns :—

 Under 6 Years of Age. Between G and 15 Years. Above 15 Years. Age not stated. Total. Boys ......... 2,427 13,919 1,733 591 18,670 Girls ......... 2,716 15,415 1,823 700 20,654 Total ...... 5,143 29,334 3,556 1,291 39,324

To these must be added the estimated attendance at 38 schools, from which, owing to various causes, no returns were received for the year 1880, though they were known to have been in operation for at least a portion of it. This estimate, based upon the returns furnished for the year 1879, is as follows :—Boys. 313; girls, 460—making, when added to the above figures, a total of 18,983 boys and 21,114 girls, or 40,097 scholars who attended private schools.

Much difficulty has always been experienced in obtaining complete returns from private schools, many of the principals strongly objecting to furnish them, while in two instances it was only under threat of legal proceedings that they could be obtained.

An abstract of the department’s receipts and disbursements from the 1st of July, 1880, to the 30th of June, 1881, will be found in appendix A, and further information is given in appendix A (1) and A (2).

In the following table is furnished information as to the proportional distribution of the funds placed at the disposal of the Department daring the last five years >

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The cost for the instruction of each child in average attendance during the year 1880, calculated on the expenditure under items (1) and (4) of the foregoing table, was, in day schools, £3 19s. 7fd.; in night schools, £1 14s. lOd.; and in both combined, £3 18s. Od. Compared with the cost for the preceding year, these figures show an increase of 2s. 9d per scholar in day schools, and of Is. OJd. in night schools. Various causes have contributed to this increase. One of these is the largely augmented result percentage, which, though obtained in 1879, had nevertheless a partly prospective effect, regulating to a considerable extent the amount of results paid in 1880......

The following table shows the number and classification of teachers of all ranks employed in State schools on the 13st December, 1880 :—

Assistants

Work

Mistresses

Pupil

Teachers

 Males, Females. Total 597 45 674 250 19 39 — — 1,624 •75 266 143 36S 19 28 899 1 1 15 5 558 580 61 182 78 146 88 215 103 232 1,105 1,857 2,351 4,208

Totals ...

The classification of the teachers employed is shown in the following table. Workmistresses and pupiLteachers are not included ,

 — Certificated, including those Classified in Honors. Licensed. Partially Classified. Total. Number employed on 30th June, 1880 ... 969 1,397 102 2,468 Number employed on 31st December, 18S0... 983 1,435 105 2,523 Increase during the six months ... ... 14 38 3 55 Decrease during the six months ... ...

It will be observed that, as already shown in a corresponding table in the report for 1879-80, no unclassified teachers are employed under the Department.

The teachers available for employment on the 31st December, 1880, comprised the following :—

Males. Females. Total.

(1.) Trainees who had completed their course ...    18    15    33

(2.) First-class pupil teachers qualified for promotion to assistantships or the charge of small schools ...    ...    ...    57    155    212

(3.) Other qualified candidates    ...    ... 39    164    203

Total    ...    ...    ...    448

It will be seen that, notwithstanding the numerous appointments made since the publication of the last report, the number of qualified teachers available for appointment increased from 375 on the 30th June to 448 on the 31st December, 1880. This increase was made up of successful candidates at the periodical examinations, and of first-class pupil-teachers who, having served twelve months after passing their final examination, had become eligible for promotion. As these teachers, together with those who leave the Training Institution every six months, fully suffice to meet the requirements of the Department, it has been decided still to discontinue the holding of examinations for a license to teach.

The reports of the inspectors, which will be found in Appendix H, are of a generally encouraging nature. Discipline continues to be well maintained, and improvement is shown in the organization of the schools. The state of instruction, as tested by the result examinations, compares favourably with that of the previous year, the percentage of passes having risen from 77-42 in 1879 to 77-76 in 1880.

The following tables enable a comparison to be made of the results obtained during the last three years in the several subjects of examination, and also by the several classes :—

I.—Percentage of Passes in the several Subjects of Examination.

 . - 1878. 1879. 1880. Reading I. ... ... 85-3 88 6 88-1 Reading 11. (comprehension of matter read) ... .. 63-6 610 59-4 Spelling .. ... ... 75 9 78-4 792 Writing ... ... ... 89'6 90-4 92-1 Arithmetic ... ... 724 76-4 77-1 Grammar... ... ... 60-4 64 2 647 Geography ... ... 751 76 4 766

II.—Percentage of Passes for each Class in the several Subjects of Examination.

 Class II. Class III. Class IV. Class V. Class VI. Class x VI Reading I., 1878 ... 84 3 86-1 86-6 84-3 83-4 87-3 „ 1879 ... 88-3 90-3 89-0 86 0 87-8 90-9 „ 1880 ... 88-9 88-9 87'4 86-9 87-0 90-9 Reading II., 1878 ... 62-5 65-7 69 9 ,, 1879 ... 59-6 63-3 73-5 ,, 1880 . . ... 57-4 63-4 72-4 Spelling, 1878 ... 80-2 78-1 64-5 82-2 69-5 75 -6 „ 1879 ... 85-6 79 9 67 '6 84-1 65‘4 69-9 ,, 1880 ... 85-7 81-0 68-8 85-5 66 4 73-8 Writing, 1878 ... 96-4 81-8 89 3 89-9 91 -6 94-0 ,, 1879 ... 96-5 83-8 90-2 90-7 928 94 6 ,, 1880 ... 96 9 85-4 93-1 92-5 937 97 2 Arithmetic, 1878 .. 72-3 78 9 67 0 67-5 76 '5 761 ,, 1879 ... 75 0 87 0 69 7 69 J 79 4 76-9 „ 1880 ... 76'8 88 0 69 6 71-6 77-4 75 0 Grammar, 1878 ... 74-7 53-5 50-4 48 6 60’ 6 ,, 1879 ... 76-2 60 5 54-3 55 0 63-8 ,, 1880 ... 75'8 63 1 55-4 54-1 59-9 Geography, 1878 ... ... 78 8 72-3 73-3 73 2 79-8 „ 1879 . 80-5 736 72-9 78-1 79-4 „ 1880 ... 80-2 73-3 75 6 77'2 78-4

The number of schools in which instruction was given in extra subjects was 182, being a decrease of 16 as compared with the previous year The amount of fees received for such instruction has, however risen from £3600 12s, 7d. to £4083 4s. 10d., indicating a corresponding increase in the number of pupils taught. As evidence of the success attending the teaching of these subjects, it may be mentioned that iu 1880 32 pupils from State schools passed the University matriculation examination, while 59 passed the examination prescribed for the Civil Service. The corresponding numbers for 1879 were respectively 15 and 34.

Military drill was taught in 166 schools, to classes showing an average attendance of 10,685, being an increase of 47 on the number of children receiving instruction during the previous year.

Instruction in vocal music was given in 243 schools, being twelve more than in the previous year. In 194 of these, singing was taught wholly by visiting teachers; iu 25, by qualified members of the ordinary school staff; and in 24,by visiting teachers, assisted by qualified members of the school staff. The average attendance of children taught was 34,308, showing a slight decrease when compared with last year’s return, which amounted to 35,544. The visiting teachers now number 29, and it is satisfactory to note that the number of members of the ordinary school staff who give special instruction in singing has risen to 49.

Instruction in drawing was given by 14 visiting teachers and 45 qualified members of the ordinary teaching staff, the latter number showing an increase of 13. The visiting teachers, with assistance in some cases from qualified members of the staff, gave instruction in 112 schools, and the latter in 25 schools, making a total of 137 schools in which the subject was taught. The average attendance at the classes was 18,975, being a decrease of 432 children under instruction as compared with 1879.

Iu order to induce teachers and pupil teachers to pass the examinations in music, drawing, and military drill, a premium in the form of additional remuneration is offered to those employed in teaching these subjects.

The annual Exhibition examination open to State school pupils was held in December last, at which 49 candidates competed, and 11 exhibitions were awarded.

A difficulty having arisen as to the claims of certain candidates who were admitted to the examination, my predecessor deemed it advisable to increase the number of exhibitions from eight to eleven, and the regulation was altered accordingly. As this alteration met with general approval in Parliament, it is my intention to adhere to the increased number in future.

It is noticeable that, for the first time since the introduction of State school exhibitions, a girl was one of the succe sful candidates. She has since taken up her studies at the Corporate High School, Sandhurst. The successful competitors were presented from the following schools ;—

The number of exhibitioners at the present time is 45, distributed as under :—

Attending Lectures at the University, Melbourne 20

Of those attending the University, 12 passed the examinations for which they were severally due, viz. .-—Eight in the Arts course ; two in Medicine ; and two in Engineering. One forfeited his exhibition through failure to pass the required examination at the end of his fourth year.

The reports furnished by the several principals on the exhibitioners attending their schools show that the conduct has been excellent and

The number of qualified applicants for admission to the two years’ course of training for the term which commenced in January was 108 and in July 96. Of the former, 34 were admitted to the associated training schools, and of the latter, 29. In January, 4, whose qualifications permitted of the first year’s course being dispensed with, were admitted to the Central IiainiDg Institution, and 7 w’erc similarly admitted in July.    3

The number of teachers in training during the second half of 1880 was 145. Of these, 78 were engaged in the associated schools, and 67 in the Central Institution. Of the latter, 2 were relieved from duty in November on account of illness, and 33 left the institution at the end of December, having completed their term of training.

I he qualifications held by the successful candidates for admission to the first year’s course of training, and the positions to which they were appointed in the associated schools, are shown in the following table:—    b

 Teachers formerly employed in Schools. First-class Pupil-teachers who had competed their Course. Matriculated Students. Other persons who had passed the Entrance Examination. — Ma'ei. % a 0? p _ Males. ë’emales. Males F. males. Males Females. cS O H 1 5 ~ rc 2 £ 4 Is 2'S, Paid Students. 3 -PP ■O ~ rS *3 Pc(1 23 s 2 G a o 11 cj ~ - & pp Unpaid ; Students. I it IS 3 A i? *■* P CO tn .'S *p-PP I Unpaid 1 Students. 2 A ’3 3* PP I Unpaidj 1 Pupils. Jan. 1880. 2 2 1 5 1 9 7 6 1 34 July 1880. 5 1 4 2 6 l ... 9 1 29 5 1 6 2 2 1 11 1 9 l 16 7 1 63

The ordinary course of training has often been criticised on the grc that whilst the students arc shown how to teach a single class creditably, they yet receive little practical training in the art of managing a small school, so as to keep all its classes simultaneously and profitably occupied. It is a satisfaction to remark that all grounds for this objection have now been removed by the establishment of tsvo small model practising schools, where students may learn how, unaided by a second teacher, to control and properly regulate the instruction of a small school under circumstances similar to those which will afterwards become their actual experience.

The following statement shows in a tabular form the statistical results of the general examinations held in December 1880 for teachers, pupil

 Candidates for— Total Number Examined. Percentage passed in. Passed. Failed. 1878. 1879. 1880. I.—(a.) Certificate of competency ... 119 484 603 33‘8 25'9 19-7 (b.) Admission to second year’s course of training ... 27 26 53 53-3 58-9 50'9 II. — (

Buildings.

 School-houses. Residences. Ö Wood, &c. O Brick or Stone. Wood, &c. Part Brick or Stone. ' Brick or Sto Partly ofBi or Stone. Total. 1 Attached to Schoolhouse. Detached from School. Attached to School. Detached from School. Attached to School. Detached from School. öj O B Number provided under the Common Schools Act 175 127 10 312 19 16 12 81 4 1 133 Number provided under the Department 252 995 8 1255 41 9 738 164 2 3 957 Total number of buildings, 30th June, 1881 427 1122 18 1567 60 25 750 245 6 4 1090

The number of qualified candidates for employment has so largely increased that vacancies cannot be found for all ; and it may become desirable to restrict the certificate examination to pupil-teachers who have completed their course, and to other persons actually employed. Similarly, with respect to admission to training, it is found that matriculated students and first-class pupil-teachers are now more than sufficient to fill up the vacancies in the training schools ; and. as these two classes of can lidates are held to have better qualifications than those of other applicants, it is intended to fill all vacancies from them, and to discontinue henceforth the special examination for admission to training.

With regard to the examination for certificates of competency, the Board of Examiners report that barely one candidate in five has passed. This is six per cent, lower than last year’s proportion, and very much less than that recorded for previous years. The discontinuance of the “ Liccuse to Teach" examination may partly account for this fact; since many candidates who would probably have contented themselves with trying for the lower standard of the license to teach now address their efforts to the certificate examination; but, apart from this, it is evident that too many with meagre knowledge and insufficient preparation attempt to gain a diploma the possession of which must show, if not extensive attainments, at least sound and accurate knowledge.

It is also a matter of regret to find that, of the candidates for entrance upon the second year’s course of training, little more than fifty percent, have qualified themselves, being ten per cent, less than the average of the previous three years; and, considering the proportion of failures to be unduly large, 1 must express a hope that the care and exertions of the associates* in training may in future lead to more satisfactory results.

At the general examination, 806 pupil teachers were examined, the number being 969 in 1879. The diminution does not imply any falling off in the total of pupil teachers, but is simply the result of so many having completed their course, and attained to the first class. The result of the pupil teacher examination cannot be deemed quite satisfactory, though showing an improvement upon the work of 1879, in which year the results were unduly low. The average passes of the three classes, taken together, were 50 per cent., being 3£ per cent, above last year’s average, and less than 3 per cent, below the average of the previous three years. The first and second classes showed marked improvement upon the work of 1879 ; but the lowest class gave evidence of a considerable falling off, leading, perhaps, to the inference that sufficient care had not been taken by teachers to nominate candidates whose education and capacity fitted them for tlie position.

In six instances the services of pupil teachers were dispensed with on account of repeated failures at examination.

Examinations in music were held during the year in Melbourne, Geelong, Ballarat. Castlemaine, Sandhurst, Echuca, Stawell, Beech-worth, Sale, and Warrnambool, at which 315 candidates attended for examination in the subjects prescribed for a license to teach, and 5 for certificate of competency. Of these, 22 succeeded in passing fully for a license, and 18 will be entitled to be recorded as licensed on passing in the art of teaching ; but none of the candidates who presented themselves for the higher classification succeeded in passing.

Examinations in drawing have been held as usual in Melbourne, Geelong, Ballarat, Castlemaine, and Sandhurst. The total number of persons examined was 212, of whom 11 passed fully for a license to teach ; and 11 candidates for a license, and 1 for a certificate of competency, will be entitled to such classification ou their satisfying the examiner in the art of teaching. In addition to the foregoing candidates, 16 partly classified teachers completed their examination — 3 for a certificate, and 13 for a license to teach.

The usual examinations in military drill (theoretical and practical) were held during the year, and 73 candidates presented themselves for examination in the theoretical portion.

In the practical test, 19 candidates who had previously passed in the written work, satisfied the examiner as to their ability to impart instruction in military drill, becoming thereby entitled to the department’s certificate. In addition to those who have obtained classification under the department, 81 teachers are recorded as fully qualified through their having passed an examination prescribed by the Victorian Volunteer authorities corresponding to that held under the department.

In gymnastics two examinations were held, at which 125 candidates presented themselves, the result being that 36 passed. This makes a total of 163 teachers qualified to instruct iu gymnastics.

In August 1879 teachers were informed, by direction of my predecessor, that some elementary teaching of science should ultimately be given in State schools, and, in furtherance of this view, it was desired that every teacher should endeavour to qualify himself to instruct his pupils in at least one branch of science, to be selected at the option of the teacher from the following list, viz.Physiology, Botany, Geology, and Mineralogy; Magnetism and Electricity; Acoustics, Light, and Heat; Mechanics and Hydrostatics ; Chemistry, and Metallurgy. Examinations in these subjects were .accordingly held iu December last, at the different centres, when no fewer than 299 teachers presented themselves for examination, of whom 97 passed in one or more subjects.

The names of the successful teachers, with the subjects in which they passed, will be found under Appendix G 5.

Building operations during 1880 were not very extensive, on account of the limited funds placed by Parliament at the disposal of the Department.

A detailed statement of the work done is given in Appendix E (1), from which it will be seen that operations have been confined mainly to the urgent requirements of country districts, buildings in populous neighbourhoods having been provided in only a few eases of pressing need, where delay would have resulted in loss or serious inconvenience.

The same remark applies to the works undertaken from the end of 1S80 to the 30th June, 1881, which are set forth in Appendix E (2).

In Appendix D will be found a list of State-school buildings belonging to the Department, now 1567 in number, and providing for 151,732 children. Compared with last year’s returns, this shows an increase of 115 school buildings, with accommodation for 8120 children. Teachers’ residences are now provided for 1090 schools, showing an increase of 103 in the year.

A summary of Appendix D showing the character of the buildings and of the accommodation providedjn them, is given below

Accommodation.

 Buildings of Brick or Stone. ° O §)°^ .2 v Buildings partly Brick or Stone and partly Wood. Total in Brick or Stone Buildings* Total. g 8 S’" Brick or Stone Portion. Wooden Portion. Total in Wooden Buildingst Number of scholars ( provided, for under ) the Common Schools ) Act. ( 17,031 8,863 1,085 669 *18,119 f9,532 27,651 124,081 151,732 Number of scholars ( provided for under < the Department ( 73 245 47*133 2,821 882 *76,066 +48,015 Total Number of cho- ( lars provided for, <. 30th June, 1881 [ 90,279 55,996 3,906 1 551 *94,1S5 +57,547

included in the foregoing statements are the following buildings, which have been opened since the date of the last report :—

 1026. Balwyn Road, Carlton, Queensberry-st., to accommodate 100 children. 2365. 588 „ 1403. Dandenong, « 200 „ 1253. Emerald Hill, J) 1,080 ,, 2367. Epsom )) 100 „ 253. North Footscray, JÎ 300 ,, 3 50S. Hawthorn (Extension) J) 188 ,, 2374. Kensington, 5 ) 197 ,, 759. Kingston, i) 122 ,,

 Districts in which Prosecutions were authorised by— ! Total X nnibor of Districts 1 in exis-: tenee dur* ; ing the j period. Boards of Advice— Department. Unassisted A ssisted by Truant Officer. Total. Quarter ended March 31 15 183 198 119 317 ,, June 30 14 185 199 118 317 ,, Sept. 30 12 187 199 118 317 i, Dec. 31 11 188 199 118 317

The maintenance of school buildings has been attended to somewhat more fully that in 1879-80, a sum of £15,000 having been made available, which is £5,000 more than the amount voted for the previous year ; but, as repairs had run considerably into arrear, it has not even yet become possible to overtake all urgent requirements.

The annual cost of maintenance cannot be estimated at less than £22,000 per annum ; but, as the sum of £20,000 has been placed on the estimates for 1881-82, there is a prospect of being able to deal with the most pressing requirements before much further injury occurs to the school buildings.

A sum of £50,000 to £55,000 was estimated as necessary to meet both the annual cost of maintaining the property of the department, and of providing for such new applications as would be caused by further settlement, together with the growth and shifting of population ; and there is no reason to think that this estimate is in excess of what will be needed for years to come. For the past two years, provision has been made for maintenance; . but no vote has yet been taken to meet the yearly claims for the establishment of new schools. .    .    .

A great number of schools are still held in leased premises, and the erection of State buildings for them, in addition to some urgently needed buddings and other necessary works, would involve the further outlay of £270,000. The change may be made a gradual one : but it is desirable that it should be effected as soon as practicable.

It was thought advisable that the educational system of Victoria should be represented at the late International Exhibition, and for this purpose two of the ordinary country school buildings were erected in the Exhibition grounds. One of these was designed for an attendance of 20 to 30 children, and the other for fully double that number. Both were provided with the usual quarters for teachers ; and the school-rooms were fitted up with furniture and apparatus of the regulation pattern, including everything needed for the ordinary working of a school.

Advantage was taken of the space thus afforded to exhibit the work of State school pupils from various parts of the colony, and also to give, by means of photographs, plans, pictures, and a model of one of the proposed city schools, an ample illustration of the dimensions, arrangements, and style of architecture adopted by the department for its school buildings.

There can be no doubt that this exhibit was highly appreciated ; and it is a gratifying fact that this young colony obtained in the Exhibition awards an honourable place, when in competition with the rest of the world.

The number of school districts in the colony at the beginning of the year was 317. No new ones have been formed ; though, in some cases, alterations were made in the boundaries of existing districts. At the commencement of 1880 only 310 of these districts possessed Boards of Advice, but during the year two more Boards of Advice came into existence. . .    .

The vacancies occurring during the year on the Boards of Advice amounted to 363, and were occasioned as follows :—261 members retired by effluxion of time, 83 resigned their seats, 9 died, 9 forfeited their seats through non-attendance, and 1 was removed by the Governor-inCouncil.

To fill these vacancies, 256 elections were held, which resulted in the return of 276 members ; but in 56 instances no candidates were nominated, and the necessary appointments were therefore made by the Governor-in-Council, as was also the case with 12 other vacancies in districts where there were no ratepayers.

The following statement shows the arrangements made during the year for the purpose of carrying out the compulsory clause of the Education Act;—

During the year proceedings were instituted by the local boards in 3,268 cases, with the following results :—2,790 convictions were obtained, 231 cases were dismissed, and the remainder withdrawn. The department authorised prosecutions in 1,458 cases, 136 of which were not proceeded with (owiug to the lateness in the quarter when the instructions were issued), 95 were dismissed, and in 1,227 cases convictions were obtained.

During 1879 special instructions were issued to truant officers, directing them to investigate as many cases as possible of children found in school hours idling about the streets; and the beneficial result of this watchfulness became apparent when, out of 294 prosecutions instituted in consequence, 254 convictions followed. In some of these cases the children were found to be in criminal companionship, and this fact was brought under the notice of the Police Department, with the view of sending them to a Reformatory.

The total number of convictions during 1880 was 4271, being 596 less than those of the previous year ; and in 100 cases the maximum penalty of £1 was inflicted.

The number of Boards of Advice which have voluntarily enforced the compulsory clause is more by seven than it was last year ; and this at least shows that their interest is not waning ; though, as already stated, the total number of individuals prosecuted is far less than in 1879.

The increased facilities afforded to all denominations for holding public worship on Sundays in State school buildings have been largely availed of during the year. In 1879 only 39 distinct congregations assembled in State school-rooms for religious worship, whereas the use of 355 schools was granted for the purpose in 1880. In 30 schools, religious services have been conducted on week day evenings, and 167 school-rooms have been used for Sunday schools.

The opportunities afforded for imparting religious instruction to the children on week days after school hours do not, however, seem to be appreciated to the extent anticipated, inasmuch as only-in 27 schools is religious instruction given at the close of the secular lessons. But, although this is the ease, it would not be correct to assume that only a small proportion of children attending Stale schools receive religious instruction. No returns on a large scale have been collected ; but one of the inspectors has made some investigation into the matter, the result being that, of 5,057 children concerning whom enquiry was made, no fewer than 79 per cent, were found to be iu actual attendance at Sunday schools, to say nothing of any who might be receiving religious instruction at home. The number quoted (5 057) includes every child found on the rolls of 26 schools in localities of widely differing character, the schools being in urban, suburban, mining, and farming neighbourhoods.

The report of the board appointed by my predecessor to draw up a scheme for the classification of teachers lias not escaped my notice ; but the magnitude of the question and the interests involved have prevented me from giving to the subject that full consideration which its importance demands.

HEAD TEACHER, country school, a lotment 30 x 50, Western district, desires exchange, G-ippsland or Ballarat preferred. Address—“J.S.,” Schoolmaster Office.

HEAD TEACHER, 20 x 30, results 88*235, wishes to exchange with assistant, Melbourne or suburbs. Lower income no objection. Address —“M.B.,” Natimuk.

HEAD TEACHER, allotm'nt 30 x 50, rising township, ngrieullur 1 district, workmistress position vacant, desires exchange witu another in suitable locality. Address—“Doceo,” Schoolmaster Office.

WANTED to exchange, 50 x 75 school, results 84, vacancy for work-mistress and pupil teacher. Lower allotment accepted if requirements suitable. Address—“V.G.,” YVangara ta.

ASSISTANT, Melbourne, wishes exchange with H.T., country school after Christinas ; one within thirty miles of Melbourne. Ballarat or Geelong preferred. Address—“ Scholastic,” G.P.O., Melbourne.

rpHE SCHOOLMISTRESS WALTZ, by No. 1,420. .Melbourne- Messrs JL G en, Allan, and Nicholson. All music-sellers, Geelong and Ballarat.

I WARREN BALL’S “Hints to Candidates for Teachers’ and Matricur » lation Examinations,” la.; posted, Is. Id. Mullen, Melbou na,

CANDIDATES for EXAMINATIONS prepared by correspondence or otherwise. I. Warren Ball, South Yarra.

TEACHER of a 30 X 50 school, in the Wi stern District, would exchange for 20 to 30 in the neighbourhood of Kynefcon, Macedon or Kilmore. Address “H. B.,” P. O., Macarthur,

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INSPECTORS’ REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1880.

The following passages extracted from the Eeports furnished to the Education Department by the Inspectors will not be without interest :— W. M. M. Campbell, Esq., M.A.

With few exceptions, the teachers discharge their duty very fairly, so far as regards the keeping of the buildings under their charge clean and tidy.    _

I would again call attention to the insufficiency of the information contained in the maps of the smaller size supplied by the Department, I would also urge the desirability of having a timepiece in every school. If the Department cannot undertake to supply such, I should think Boards of Advice would have little difficulty, should they feel inclined to take the matter up, in raising subscriptions to supply the schools in their districts with clocks. Some of the not unfrequently too large amount of money spent in prizes for the scholars might be profitably devoted to this object. A notation frame in every school would be an advantage.

With regard to the various-subjects of the free course of instruction,

I observe :—

Rhymes.— Allowing children to hurry over words and jumble them up together into a meaningless jargon is the most glaring fault noticed. Of course, in such instances, the children can have no idea of the sense of the passage they repeat. With a little trouble the meaning of almost all that occurs in the rhymes in the second Royal Reader might be made comprehensible to very young children, though certainly this could scarcely be hoped for with regard to the rhymes in the Irish National series, including such pieces as Wordsworth’s “Ode to a Butterfly,” and such passages as—

“ Much converse do I find in thee,

Historian of my infancy,” &c., &c.

Arithmetic.—I can only repeat the opinion already expressed by so many inspectors that in the teaching of this subject mechanical accuracy is too exclusively aimed at. At result examinations the failures occur chiefly in notation and numeration in Class IV., and in reduction in Class V. It is very common to see 50 per cent, of the scholars fail in these, while the average number of failures in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division (simple and compound) is, I think, under 25 per cent. Counting on the fingers is too much encouraged, and in some schools even fifth class scholars are seen resorting to this practice. It is also too common to see children seated close together working the same sums ; under such circumstances the temptation to copy is to some children irresistible, and their time is consequently worse than lost.

Grammar is generally taught with fair success as far as simple parsing is concerned. In some cases teachers err in selecting too difficult passages, or in setting children to parse with full syntax before they are at home in the parts of speech. I still think that too much, as regards grammar, is expected of Class VI., and that the structure of words should be omitted from the programme of work for that class. In connection with this subject I cannot help remarking that a good many teachers (especially the younger ones) are not sufficiently careful to be grammatical in their language. One would scarcely expect to hear a licensed teacher use such expressions as “It ain’t, “This here book,” “ He done it wellyet I have actually heard them made use of, aud in school too.

Thomas R. Hepburn, Esq., B.A., LL.B.

In the smaller schools, I have frequently to complain of the systematic neglect of the first and second classes. The teacher bestows very little of his time on these classes, leaving them to the care of monitors solely. Were it not for the assistance that the children of these classes receive from their elder brothers and sisters, this neglect would be more noticeable. I have found, on making enquiries, that the backward children in these junior classes have invariably no brothers and sisters older than themselves.

Little or no improvement has taken place in the teaching of reading. Explanation of the reading lessons of the day is the exception, not the rule. Fair progress, however, has been made in arithmetic, grammar, geography, and dictation. The writing, in many schools, admits of much improvement, and the progress made during the year is hardly satisfactory. Although, during my visits to the various schools, laying great stress on the necessity of teaching this subject well, still there is ao subject, in examining country schools, that I am more inclined to

deal leniently with. Perhaps this may account for the poor progress made.

Samuel Ware, Esq., B.A.

As a rule, I found the children properly arranged in classes, and kept constantly at work, in accordance with time-tables, which, though not satisfactory in all points, usually suited the teachers’ method of working.

The principal faults I found in the reading were indistinct utterance and mistakes in easy words, caused by haste and carelessness.

In dictation lessons, the correction of errors is often carelessly performed, the teachers overlooking the fact that this is the most important part of the lesson.

The arithmetic lessons usually consisted of a dry working out of rules, few questions requiring any exercise of the intelligence being given. In a few schools, however, I was pleased to find that the questions were sometimes presented in the form of problems, even in the second and third classes.

In many cases I found the time-sheets filled in with the hours for opening and closing the school, instead of the exact time at which the teacher entered for school duty and that at which he left.

Another fault, which I found very frequently, was that the ages in the rolls did not agree with those in the school register. This did not appear to be the result of design, but of carelessness in transferring the ages from one set of roll-sheets to another.

Frederick John Gladman, Esq., B.Sc., B.A.

During the year I have paid my two customary visits to the associated schools, and have spent about half a day in each school on both occasions. My duty to the Central Institution will not allow me to give more time to these visits.

My report on the teaching power and promise shown by each trainee has already been sent in. The general character of the first-year trainees seems much as usual

As I propose to call attention to the weaknesses that have forced themselves on my notice, and to offer such suggestions as commend themselves to my judgment, my report may give a general impression which I do not desire it to convey. I would, therefore, say emphatically that, on the whole, the country has reason to be satisfied with its teachers and proud of its schools, and I would bear willing testimony to the generally faithful and painstaking work of the associates.

Every associated school has a character of its own, and whilst some are certainly better than others, they are as a rule suited for their special work, and most of them are doing it as well as can be reasonably expected.

The difficulties connected with the position of the associates, the necessity they are under of putting their school in the first place, and the consequent relegation of pure training work to a subordinate position, have been commented on in former reports.

If we regard the associated schools solely as branches of the Training Institution, it must be noted that, in places, positive training in teaching does not receive the attention it deserves. Allowing that the function of a teacher is to “get the pupil to learn,” and that every teacher ultimately makes up a method of his own for gaining this end, yet it is most desirable, in the trainee stage, that good methods should be presented, analysed, and taught. General directions are not enough, The thoughtful and experienced teacher knows that there is no cut-and-dried method which every one may adopt in detail, that there must be a frequent reference to first principles, and that method is to be tested by its results. But to deal too much in generalized advice, without sufficiently helping the young teacher to translate it into practice, is like telling a child to “ road as he would talk” before he has acquired the power of doing so. Such directions have their value at the proper stage, but for a learner they are “too much at large;” they want breaking down and adapting to individual needs.

I am led to make these remarks, because in one school the associate treats his young pqpple too much as finished assistants, rather than as persons who want training. In other places there is a want of fidelity to a school-pattern ; the trainees seem to be groping their own way into the light, so that their teaching is crude and irregular. I am glad to say, however, that this is not the rule. Commonly there is abundant evidence that the associate has succeeded in impressing his individuality on his trainees so far as teaching is concerned. My belief is that every training school should show this in reasonable degree, and that it will do so when telling, watching, and trying are judiciously combined ‘ Experienced men like our associates can well elaborate and define thmethods they approve of ; they can teach them, and cause their trainees to understand them by lectures, demonstrations, and criticism lessons, and they should then insist on their young teachers conforming to them.’ The greatest practical difficulty is that this work requires time, and that whilst some of it could be done out of school hours, parts can only be tried in school, and at a time when the associate probably has other urgent claims pressing upon him.

Some trainees do not get enough practice in different parts of the school. Here again I am speaking solely in the interest of the trainees. Sometimes I find one who has never taught in any class above the third,' or another who has been kept almost entirely with the infants, and occasionally, though rarely, one who has not spent a fair amount of time in the lower classes. Where trainees are weak or inexperienced the school might suffer seriously from putting advanced classes under their care. But as a means of training, and of fitting the young teacher for his future work, he ought to know something, of every class in the school. He might match a good teacher in an upper class, and be employed himself more as a monitor than as a class-teacher for a time. With good supervision, and a careful graduation of demand to his ability, increasing the size of the class and gradually adding subjects of greater difficulty as his strength increases, and never over-weighting him,

even a weak teacher would gain confidence and real power. But this plan can be followed oily where there is a sufficient staff without counting the weak trainees. Where they are counted as assistants and allotted accordingly, it seems impossible to deal with them as I have here suggested.

If our associated schools are to do their work thoroughly, they should be fully and even exceptionally well-officered. Good models should be available in all parts of the school, and the associate should be able to place the trainee where he may receive the greatest benefit. So far as my experience has gone, there has been too large a percentage of trainee-assistants, who have not been sources of strength to their schools, and who have not obtained the benefit they might otherwise have received from their training. This matter deserves careful and sympathetic consideration for another reason. Associates look on it as unfair to have trainees sent to them as assistants ; they think it is too much to ask them to manage their important schools with weaker helpers than ordinary. One or two have suffered considerably in this way, and feel it keenly, and I am bound to say my sympathies go with them.

The essential weaknesses of our training system are :—

(1.) Want of sufficient care i?i selecting candidates.—The examination for admission should be of a higher and more searching character. “ Persons who have passed the literary examination for a license to teach” (Reg. xiii., 9), but who have done no more than is implied in this, either as students or teachers, do sometimes develop into useful servants of the Department. If, too, the Department have need of extra teachers, it can fall back on candidates of this kind. But first-class pupil-teachers are available, or might easily be made so. These are the best subjects for further training, and it seems likely that there will be a sufficient number of them to supply our requirements. If others be admitted, it is only reasonable that they should pass an admission examination equivalent to that passed by a first-class pupil-teacher, except in class-teaching.

(2.) Teaching shill is not made sufficiently prominent.—Trainees get into the first year, sometimes without any experience as teachers ; we have some of this kind now. Then their admission to the second year does not depend at all on the teaching power and promise they show in the associated school (Reg. xiii. 13.) It is only after they come into the Central Institution that teaching skill becomes essential to success. This could be met by admitting outside candidates on probation only, until they showed fair teaching promise, as first-class pupil-teachers have already done. No one should be admitted to the examination for entrance to the second year until he or she have shown fair skill in class management and class teaching.

(3.) Our training syllabus is not graduated and consecutive.—In framing a course, the second year’s training should be kept in view from the first,and all the earlier stages should be so constructed as to lead up to it. This implies certain changes in the pupil-teacher course, and a complete recasting of the work of the first year.

The alternative of reducing the second year’s work so as to make it fit in with the present lower stages may be mentioned. One of the most experienced and most deservedly ¡respected of our associates thinks we should look in this direction. I think not. It would be a step backward, and I am convinced that a re-arrangement of the syllabus on the opposite principle would be practicable and far preferable.

( To be continued.)

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCOTLAND.

teacher (which he believes to be in the hands of the teachers themselves). The following is the text of the address in full :—

Ladies and Gentlemen.—The President’s retiiiug address is scarcely now- expected to be what it. once was—a lengthened resume of all the educational events of the year, or an elaborate exposition of educaticnal principles. The increased space and attention given to educational news, both general and parochial, in the public papers, consequent on the greater interest which the public has in the administration of education, as well as the full reports of School Boards, local associations, and committees of the Institute, in our professional newspapers, deprive the former proceeding of much of its wonted freshness and interest; while the discussion of theories and methods now finds for itself a fitter arena at the meetings of the Annual Congress. The hurry arising from the manifold and increasing business of this meeting makes it a not altogether suitable time for expounding new educational views or discussing old ones. The ordinary and legitimate business is ample enough to occupy the greater part of your time and energies. The President, moreover, on this occasion is not formulating the opinions of the Institute; he speaks for himself alone, and bears the sole responsibility for what he says ; and I am not vain enough to imagine that my personal views on the educational questions of the day are of sufficient importance to warrant me in inflicting them upon you at length. Recognising all these facts, it is my intention to contract my remarks within the narrowest limits which I deem consistent with the feeling of profound respect which I entertain for this great meeting of professional brethren.

In the outset, I am bound to record, in a more formal manner than has yet been done, my grateful sense of your kindness in raising me to the dignity of the chair. I confess that until that honour was proposed for me my ambition had not ventured to soar so high. But in view of the Congress which was to be held in Stirling, and in the hope that I might be able to be of some use in connection therewith, I accepted—not without some feeling of alarm at my own rashness—au honour which I had done little to deserve, and a responsibility which I was afraid might bo beyond my ability to sustain. If my term of office has not been marked by any open fiasco, it is due to the efficient work of the more permanent officials, the ready aid of the vice-presidents, and the attention to business of your committees. To all of these 1 am under the deepest obligation for their kind forbearance and support, and I now tender them my most grateful acknowledgments.

GAPS IN THE PROFESSION.

In such a large body as the Institute now happily is, it is impossible for a year to pass without making many gaps in the ranks. A number every year leave the profession for other modes of life, which they find, or fancy they will find, more lucrative or less laborious. A proportion of our lady members is alw’ays undergoing a process of translation from the schoolroom to another not less legitimate and honourable sphere of woman's work. To them we may offer our congratulations, and heartily wish them every happiness. Others, however, whom we were wont to see here have ended their work on earth. I have not the means of ascertaining the number of those who have thus fallen by the way in the course of the year, or of worthily commemorating their merits. But one name at once occurs to me, the more readily as it is that of one who was a valued member of the committee of management. 1 refer to the late Mr. Robert Muir, of Locherbie, who was suddenly cut off in the very prime of his life and usefulness. His death makes the first instance of a vacancy so caused in the General Committee ; and as no provision had been made in the rules for such a contingency, his seat has continued vacant until now.

THE CONGRESS.

The efforts of local associations to instruct themselves and interest others in regard to mattersof educational importance have been seconded and brought into focus, as it were, by the larger synodical or provincial gatherings, and especially by the annual congress, which met at Stirling in the beginning of the current year. That meeting, I am glad to say, was no less successful than any of its predecessors. The number attending and taking part in the discussions could not, of course, be expected to be so large as it was in the previous year at Glasgow, but even in this regard the gathering was eminently successful. Aud it was not less so in the point of work done. The papers were of no little interest and value. Several of them—and these not the least important—were read by gentlemen not connected with the profession. This was but one indication of that deep interest, manifested also by other important services, which was taken in the meeting by all the School Boards of the midland district. The countenance and aid of the provost and magistrates of Stirling were also freely given, and deserve our meed of thanks and praise. On the success of the more festive portion of the proceedings, and particularly, the brilliance of the conversazione, I cannot enlarge, from the fact that the entire arrangement of these was due to the local association of which I am a member, and was then chairman. But this I am quite at liberty to say, that the local members exerted themselves most willingly, to the full extent of their resources, for the comfort of their visitors, and that their efforts seemed to meet on all hands with due appreciation.

THE INSTITUTE’S DEGREES.

Of the subjects which have occupied the attention of your committees during the year, it is unnecessary to speak at length. The minutes of the various meetings, as well as the statement of the treasurer, are now in your hands. The income has been sufficient for all the needs of the Institute. Although it has suffered some diminution, that has arisen from a most honourable cause. In order to increase the value of degree o

Fellow of the Institute, as a mark of professional distinction, and to make ! it an honour of which the ablest and best men among us might reasonably | be proud, arecommendation was recently made to the Board of Examiners to scrutinise all applications for the degree with the greatest care, and to admit only those who come up to a very high standard of professional ability and experience. That recommendation has been carried out by Dr. Morrison and his board with the greatest strictness, and one result of it has been a smaller income from diploma fees than was wont to be the case. We may sympathise with the treasurer over his loss of income, but I am sure we must all give our approval to the action of the Board of Examiners. The granting of these degrees was one of the original reasons for the existence of the institute. As a sort of teacher’s hallmark and license for the practice of his calling—which I believe was the original intention of them—they have been long superseded by the Government certificate. But it is still possible, by judicious action like that which has been inaugurated, to give them such value in the eyes of the profession and the public that there will be as great ambition to append the letters F. E.I. S. to one’s name as there is to add F.ILG.S., F.R.S., and other similar honorary distinctions.

On the other hand, the expenditure has been kept within bounds by the judicious management of the treasurer. One item of expense, which is less this year than usual, is that for deputations. Some may perhaps regard that as an indication of the apathy of the institute in regard to questions of the day, but the majority will perhaps look upon it as a good sign—as an evidence, in fact, that fewer of our presumed rights have been supposed to be endangered in the course of the year. Only two deputations have been required. One of these was the usual complimentary one to the Congress of English teachers, at which the institute was ably represented by Dr. Morrison and Mr. Mackay. The other was in connection with Sir Herbert Maxwell’s Bill, which sought to provide a tenure of office for teachers ; and, on this occasion, the interests of the profession were attended to by the Secretary with his usual fidelity and zeal. The matter on which legislation was proposed by this Bill is the only one that has emerged during the year in regard to which there was, or seemed to be, some measure of antagonism between teachers and School Boards. The question is not yet settled, although various modes of settlement have been suggested ; and most of you, 1 have little doubt, have to a greater or less extent made up your minds in favour of one or other of these modes.

SCHOOL BOARDS AND TEACHERS.

To me the settlement does not seem altogether free from difficulty, and, therefore, if you permit me to say a word or two on the subject, I should wish to speak with all due caution and reserve. The evil against which we seek a remedy—the capricious and unjust dismissal of a deserving teacher—is a clear enough possibility under the Education Act, and has already manifested itself in actual occurrence. A remedy, which shall secure the teacher against arbitrary treatment, while it leaves the responsibility of School Boards unimpaired, and which, at the same time, shall be within our reach, is not perhaps so obvious, although I trust it is not impossible to find. The publicity given to the notorious Leswalt case has turned public attention more than before to the subject, so that teachers have now a fairer field for arguing the question. The Leswalt case is not the only one of the kind—from facts within my own knowledge, I should be justified in saying it is not even the worst. They are said to be few; and although they are not so few as we would like them, we gladly admit that they are the exception, and not the rule. I am sure I speak for all of you when I say that we are so far from rejoicing in any such collisions between teachers and the local authority that—in spite of the argument they supply for some sort of tenure—we had much rather they bad never been heard of. The practical question, therefore, is—are such exceptional instances of ill-treatment, and the possibility of similar occurrences at any place and at any time sufficient to justify a revision of the law which regulates the relations between School Boards and their teachers? Or, as I should like to put it, would some tenure of office other than the mere will of the majority of the School Board be for the advantage of education ? because that, I am convinced, is the only question the public will be got to look at—the only form in which they can be expected to consider the case. And I am not afraid to put it in that shape ; for my conviction is strong that, whatever is good for education in general, must in the long run be for the advantage of the teacher. It has been suggested that the connection between the teacher and the Board should be looked at in the light of a mere business contract, which may at any time be lightly closed. But the fact is, that there is always a measure of discredit attached to a teacher who has been dismissed from his school. I am not sure that I would wish to see that feeling entirely removed. If the relations between Boards and teachers should become so slender in their attachment that a dismissed teacher incurred no disgrace from the fact of dismissal—I am not now speaking of the reasons, good or bad, for it— we would soon have to face a state of matters in which the teacher would regard himself as a mere hireling, whose payment measured the whole amount of his interest in his work, than which nothing more calamitous, I think, could happen to the cause of education. If the dismissal is obviously unreasonable, it may be argued that all that requires to be done is to show that it is so, and the teacher’s prospects will suffer no injury. To some extent that is true. If a man is bold enough to put his case before the public, and fortunate enough to get them to attend to it, the chances are that substantial justice may be done to his character. But meantime hd has lost the means of livelihood ; and there is the further risk that, in defending his reputation, he may acquire the character of an aggressive and troublesome person, whom other School Boards will be naturally shy of engaging. Moreover, some of the best men shrink from the notoriety which such a proceeding implies, and choose rather to suffer injustice in silence. The loss of such men, and the mental disquietude of others, who know not what the stirring of the occasionally unclean waters of parochial politics every three years may bring forth for them, cannot be regarded as a very decided gain to education,

On the other hand, I think we must admit that, in taking the power of dismissal entirely out of the hands of School Boards, there is a danger of lessening that feeling of individual responsibility which is one of the best securities for the faithful discharge of duty, I am anxious to bear my own testimony—and I think the experience of most of you will be similar—to the general excellence of our School Board management, and to the circumspection which, in most cases, has marked their dealings with the teachers under their charge.    Would this carefulness and

caution in regard to matters affecting the personal or professional character of the teacher be increased or diminished by taking from them the responsibility of final judgment 1 Would it be likely that appeals to the higher authority would be frequently and lightly made ? just as at present, although dismissal may be rare, ill-natured complaints to the Board by unwise members—there are such—are not so rare. Would the teacher’s relation to the Board assume the nature of antagonism ? And would they and he in consequence be less interested and united in the great work which they must do so far in common ? If I believed that any of these evil results were inevitable, I say at once that I would be content to let tenure go, and to trust entirely to the good sense and good feeling of the Boards.

But there is no necessity for imagining any such state of things. The difference between the teachers and the public in this matter is not so wide as some would make it appear. Their interests, in fact, are the same. No one desires to shelter the inefficient, the idle, or the vicious. Nothing has been declared more emphatically than that. It is directly in the interest of the teaching body that these worthless members should be got rid of. And it is no less directly in the interest of education that the capable and worthy should be retained. Life tenure is dead, and we would not even drop a tear upou its grave. All that is required is something that will either prevent the possibility of capricious dismissal, or, at least, remedy its effects. I think the Special Committee of the Institute has shown wisdom in resolving to look to the Education Department for the due protection of the teacher. A right of appeal from the decision of School Boards to the Sheriffs of Counties will be difficult to obtain, and, moreover, the authority which has granted a man the license to exercise his calling seems to me to be his most natural protector against injustice in the discharge of it, The right of dismissal might well and safely enough be left with the School Boards, provided they were required to obtain the sanction of the Department. This would place the teacher in a similar position with other public and parochial officers, elected by, and subject to, the direction of public boards. Were the Department found unable or unwilling to exert a final control over the power of the Boards, something—and not a little— would be gained by obtaining even its judgment in cases of alleged arbitrary dismissal. If the reasons of the Boards were found sufficient, confidence in them would be confirmed, and other teachers would not hesitate to take service with them ; if the reverse was the case, the dismissed teacher, with the Department's certificate of innocence, could freely present himself for another engagement,

FREE SCHOOLS.

However the position of the Institute in regard to this question may stand in relation to outside opinion, in petitioning against Dr. Cameron’s Free Education Bill it seemed to be quite in harmony with the prevalent public sentiment as expressed by School Boards, Town Councils, and sundry other public bodies. Disapproving as I did of the Bill in question, especially of its partial and permissive character, I may yet confess to a feeling in favour of a national system of education, which shall be universal, compulsory, and free, and which shall include within its scope secondary as well as primary education. In this I think I see a possibility of removing several of the evils w'hich at present hinder our efforts, and of consolidating and strengthening the whole educational fabric. That may be a dream far from realisation—the opinion of the country, I admit, does not yet demand it—but it is a dream which I am not deterred from cherishing by any such imaginary terror as that of “ Americanising our institutions.” We have already taken the initial step towards it, and whether we shall proceed further in the same course we shall have by-and-bye to determine. I do not doubt that this is one of the questions of the future, and our duty, therefore, is to be gradually maturing opinion on the subject.

ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS.

The question of university reform has again been opened lately in this place in the form of a vigorous protest by the Rector of the High School of Edinburgh against the competition between the universities and the higher classes of the secondary schools. The complaint is an old one, and the remedy is not new. The often asked-for entrance examination has, at any rate, not yet been granted. It is hopeless to imagine that the standard of exit from the schools will rise, or can long continue above the mark of that for admission into the universities. If a reasonably high entrance examination were instituted, applicants would be bound to rise to that level, and there is nothing that I am aware of, even in the present condition of the schools, to prevent their doing so. Statistics such as we have often been treated to, showing the lamentable failure of junior students to pass a very elementary examination in Latin, are not quite to the point. No one who fails to pass that examination is turned away ; and, so long as that is the case, things will remain pretty much as they are. Quite as interesting a set of statistics might be prepared if some outside authority were to ascertain how many of these failed students were able to pass a similarly simple examination at the close of their session, It would not be a surprise to find that their progress had not

been much greater than it might have been expected to be had they remained another year at school. It has been argued, however, than an entrance examination might exclude many excellent students, who, although from defect of training or natural Inaptitude they may never become classical scholars, may yet distinguish themselves in philosophy or science. If that is so, what is gained by pretending to pass them through the classical portal ? Is not the real remedy for this a greater freedom in the choice of subjects of study, and an increase in the avenues to the degree ? I am not likely to undervalue the advantages of classical study, but I think we must recognise the possibilities of cultivation which other subjects afford.

I have no superstitious faith in the virtue of what is called a university education. I do not believe that the universities have a monopoly of that rather indefinite thing called culture. Sweetness and light may be drawn from other sources, Nevertheless, I do think that they afford the most convenient and easily accessible means of obtaining those elements of literature and thought by the due assimilation of which the cultured man is produced. I should like, therefore, to see them still more effectually operative than they are in the education of the teacher. Aspirants to the office of teacher should be urged to take full advantage of those opportunities of attending university classes which are now in their power—even should it be necessary, on that account, to delay for a little their entrance on the active duties of their profession. There are, of course, temptations to haste in the desire to blossom into the full dignity of mastership, and to experience at once the pleasure of earning a salary. But a complete educational equipment, which should add an academical training to the more strictly practical and professional study of the Normal schools, would open the way for more rapid promotion afterwards. It is matter for special regret that the university chairs of education do not yet seem to have obtained the place they ought to occupy in the preparation of the teacher. So far as I understand the function and scope of a university chair of education, it does not interfere with, but supplements in a most valuable way, the technical training of the Normal schools. The professors who so ably occupy these chairs are doing excellent and much-needed work in various ways which are opeu to them. By their writings and addresses at teachers’ meetings, and elsewhere, they are contributing to place the practice of education upon the sure ground of scientific principles. In this way they are influencing to good purpose many of the present members of the profession. But I fear they have not yet had the opportunity of dealing with the more plastic material afforded by youth to the extent that was anticipated by the advocates for the establishment of these chairs, among whom not the least strenuous was the Educational Institute of Scotland.

PROSPECTS OF TEACHERS.

From the fuller education of every teacher, two most desirable results would be likely to flow—the regular concatenation of all the parts of our educational system, from the lowest to the highest, and an improvement in the quality and in the public estimation of the profession. There is still subsisting something like an invidious distinction among teachers—a distinction which the separation of schools into grades (necessary for effective instruction as I believe it to be) only tends to perpetuate. However desirous an elementary teacher may be of finding an opportunity of devoting himself to instruction in some special subject for which his tastes and talents peculiarly fit him, the opportunity seldom comes to him—even in a secondary school. While, if anyone aspires so high as to indulge the hope of teaching his favourite subject from a chair in any one of our universities—with the honourable exception, be it said, of Aberdeen—he will find the fact of being a schoolmaster a greater obstacle to his ambition than almost any amount of ignorance on the subject to be professed. All these walls of separation might be broken down by the help of a higher and more uniform standard of attainment among all ranks of teachers, so that the young teacher might gladly accept the duties of the most humble post in the profession in the hope of rising, through time and by merit, to the most dignified. He might even dream of being permitted occasionally to enter the lofty region which at present he can only admire from the distance, inhabited by those shining beings, H.M. Inspectors of Schools. And if none of all these imaginations should ever become reality, no one need be afraid of becoming that “ most frightful thing” of Goethe—“a teacher who knows only what his scholars are intended to know.” We hear less now than we were wont to do of the “status of the teacher.” The phrase has, to a great extent, fallen obsolete. And it is not to be regretted • because, in the first place, it implies that dangers which were dreaded by some have not been realised ; and, in the second place, because no artificial means will raise the dignity of the teacher’s office in the public esteem so surely and so effectively as those that are within our own power.

THE CODE PROPOSALS.

The length to which my remarks have already run warns me not to enter on other subjects of interest. Upon the whole, I think we may regard the present educational outlook as satisfactory. There is more than one bit of blue in the sky. Immense activity prevails both within our own borders and beyond them. The popular interest excited by the Education Act has not yet died away, and proposed new legislation is proceeding on lines which wc have often affirmed to be the right ones. The proposals of the New Code must be regarded as eminently satisfactory. Very probably you will find in it details which you would prefer to see modified. That will form an important part of the work of the institute during the coming year. But I believe its proposals in general, as well as the regulations regarding inspectors, will be gladly accepted by teachers as an improvement on the present condition of I

affairs. They afford at least sufficient evidence—if that were still wanted—that we have at present a Minister in charge of the national education who adds to supreme ability and profound interest in each work a thorough knowledge of the details of the question.

PARTING WORDS.

In now retiring from the chair, I may be permitted to wish you all a pleasant and a successful meeting, and a safe return thereafter to the scene of your daily labours. These labours are by no means light. “ No faithful workman,” says Carlyle, “ finds his task a pastime.” If wc are ever tempted so to regard ours, we shall most probably find it a very melancholy one. But accepted in an earnest and true spirit, we shall find our labours not unmixed with pleasures of a very high and pure kind. Of those pleasures, I wish every one of you an ample share. My satisfaction in occupying the chair of the institute has been largely tempered and chastened by an ever-present sense of imperfection in the discharge of its duties—so much so that, if I make a true confession, I am bound to say that the feeling which is most strongly present with mo just now is one of relief in the near prospect of getting rid of the responsibilities of office. Nevertheless, I would not have you suppose that I am not proud of the honour which you have conferred upon me. I shall not forget this crowning mark of your kindness and confidence, and the memory of it which I shall henceforth carry with me is not likely to make me less anxious than before to do my utmost—small although I know that must at the best be—for the interests of this Educational Institute, and especially for the advancement of that noble cause of education to which we have dedicated our energies and our lives.—Schoolmaster.

EDUCATION IN THE CHIEF COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.

By J. J. Beuzemaker, B.A.

Hf.rr Seyffarth continues to give us annually a most interesting volume on the general progress of education in the different countries of the world. The present volume, the third of the series, treats of the year 1880. On the whole, there seems little of great moment to chronicle about those countries where education has reached its highest excellence. In fact, there appears to be going on in some of them a kind of retrograde movement ; one of those stages in the evolution of culture, which we observe in everything that obeys the law's of gradual development. This slight retrogression, following a protracted period of mighty effort, is chiefly observed in the German States, in Switzerland, in Holland, and even in Austria. It seems as if, for the present at least, elementary education in these countries had been perfected to a degree almost exceeding the exigencies of actual wants. And much beyond this it is not possible to keep it, even with high ideal efforts and aspirations. As a last resort, if not as an initial impulse, the stern necessities of the circumstances, in which each individual, as well as each separate nation, is placed, determine the degree of development to be obtained. Given a new impulse, of whatever kind, manifesting itself either as a silent force or as a “blazing principle,” and there will follow a proportionate rise in the educational standard to meet the new demands. On the other hand, the march of educational progress in England, Belgium, France, and Italy, has been rapid during the last year, for in these countries the stimulus for improvement is still very great, and not yet in excess of the wants of the hour. Yet, beyond the domain of scientific necessity, there lies that of idealistic effort, equally real and beneficent in its effect, although insufficient when relied upon as an efficient cause. In several countries we read of voluntary help in education of a material, moral, and intellectual nature. This is especially the case in Switzerland and Germany, where philanthropy has lately occupied itself with such things as cannot be very well taken notice of by the state. Health-resorts have been founded in the country for the most deserving in the schools in large towns, where the pupils are kept during the holidays.

The great scholastic event of the year 1880 has been, no doubt, the International Educational Congress, held in August at Brussels, at the invitation of the Belgian Government, on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Belgian independence. Delegates from most European countries and from North and South America, high officials, savants, authors, journalists, and schoolmasters and schoolmistresses, to the number of 400, had assembled to discuss the chief educational questions of the day. One of the first questions was that of the Universal School (Einheitsschule), i.e., whether the preparation for the Universities should be carried on in one uniform school or in different special schools. This is a question of greater interest to most Continental countries than to England. It is admitted on all hands, on the Continent, that the old Gymnasia, the Lycées, and the Athénées arc behind the times, and sorely in need of reformation. The question is, what to substitute for them. Can there be organised a school on sufficiently broad principles, and yet with aims clearly enough defined to be a direct road to the Universities ? Next came the question of Modern Languages. This is becoming a difficult problem in all countries. How far are the modern languages to encroach upon the ancient, and to what degree can they be made a means of a severe mental training ? That the necessity for their acquisition is being felt more and more, is incontestable; and, we believe, with the majority of the speakers at the Congress, that this will in the end over* ride the second part of the question. The Congress came to the conclusion that, only for those who intended to make Classics or Philology their special study, should the ancient languages continue to hold their old position.

The Industrial Schools and Schools of Art were then discussed, and the limits between them and the elementary schools defined. The Kindergarten system, so thoroughly established in Germany, Switzerland,

Matter.

and Holland, and making its way at present in England and Belgium, was strongly attacked by some of the French delegates. The French are only just beginning to make experiments with the system, and it is just possible that their slight acquaintance with it may be at the bottom of their little love for it.

On one of the days, the subject of Girls’ Schools came on theto^- On this occasion the high strain of exalted idealism, which had hitherto marked the proceedings, gave way for a moment to a slight touch of human nature, which made these enthusiastic educationists akin to ordinary men and women. One Herr Erkelenz, from Cologne, had stated in his report on Girls’Schools that the Head should always be a man. This was more than the ladies present could allow to pass unchallenged. Five of them sprang to their feet to interpolate the speaker. They all spoke well, and their arguments carried conviction and gained applause. But, unfortunately, Herr Erkelenz had the last word, and summed up thus :—A head-mistress is either married or unmarried. If unmarried, she cannot be a femme modile for girls. If married, she either rules her husband or is ruled by him. In the first place, she sets a bad example to future wives, her pupils. If she is ruled by her husband—well, then there is a man at the head of the school. This argument seems to us, however, not perfectly conclusive, and, through its form, open to the objection that can be brought against most disjunctive syllogisms, that they do not exhaust all the possible cases.

As is often the case in great gatherings of this kind, mere oratory and fine phrases frequently take the place of sound argument, especially with the Latin races. At a discussion on the Training of Teachers a celebrated man exclaimed :—“ Voulez-vova des professeurs excellent s, ensignez anx jeunes gens aohereherle beauet le vrai, a aimer la verite,car la verite e'est la liberte.” (Continued applause.) Such high falutin may have suited a certain school of speculative philosophy, now almost forgotten, or may sound appropriate in the mouth of a modern apostle of sestheti-cism ; but it is singularly out of place when important practical matters form the subject of discussion.

In the German .States there is little to report in educational matters. In Prussia complaints are heard of a lack of sympathy among the authorities with elementary education. This is strange news indeed from the country that was fond of boasting that the schoolmaster had won the battle of Sadowa.

The change of government in Belgium has had a beneficial influence upon the state of elementary education in that country. Although the strife between the secularists and the clergy is by no means ended, the latter has become much less virulent in tone and less arrogant in action, being now' entirely deprived of official support.

i France is making every effort to be no longer behind in education. The Republican government may evince now and then perhaps a little too much zeal, aud thereby injure their own cause ; but there can be no doubt that, so far, they have been successful, and have made great progress. Compulsory elementary education ; the abolition of the “ letters of obedience,” i.e., of sham degrees ; the erection of day schools for girls to replace gradually the convent schools, which have done so much mischief to the social as well as to the intellectual life of the nation ; a higher standard for the qualifying examinations for teachers; the introduction of new school books, instead of those hitherto used, which were more antiquated and narrow in spirit than it is possible to describe —these are some of the chief measures that are being vigorously adopted. That the Ultramontane party are yielding with a very bad grace, and are detecting mines laid for them in the most innocuous reforms, need scarcely be observed.

In Italy education is making rapid progress, and here the Ultramontane party is so insiguificant as yet, compared with the whole body of the no 6uch friction is felt as in France. The same may be said of Portugal, where the standard of education has alw'ays been considerably higher than in neighbouring Spain. But even there we find an unusual activity displayed to educate the ignorant masses of the people. Spain, which in the middle ages, and in the 16th and 17th centuries, was second to no country in Europe in culture, had also more Universities than any other country. At present several of these universities are superfluous, and a Bill will soon be brought forward to convert some of them into elementary schools, which are so much needed. Ligas contra la ignorancia are also being formed throughout the country to agitate for gratuitous compulsory elementary education.

Education in Russia still wears too military a garb to exercise a truly civilising influence over the masses. The army of officers is scarcely separated from the army of teachers and professors. Directors of banks, governors of provinces, curators of universities are mostly generals. Everybody in Russia wears uniform, be he the most peaceable of schoolmasters or the most warlike of soldiers. Recently one of the chief inspectors visited a school in St. Petersburg. The masters were all present at the morning parade. The inspector here noticed two men in black coats standing among the group of masters, and inquired who they were. On being told that they belonged to the staff; of masters, he said with a smile, “What, masters without uniform 1 Impossible I” Elementary education in Russia is still in a very backward state. Nor is there any likelihood that it will soon improve. The war with Turkey has left Russia so exhausted and crippled in finances, and the recent conspiracies of the Nihilists have called into existence such an enormous body of state officials, that no money can be spared for educational purposes. A law on compulsory education has had to be abandoned, for the simple reason that no means could be found to cover the expenses it would entail.

We need not wonder that there is no reliable information on the state of education in Turkey. That it is in a lamentable condition, we may be certain. Nor can there be any doubt that the ignorance among the people will greatly contribute to the final breaking up of the Mussulman power in Europe, which some believe to be inevitable in the present political situation in the East.

In South America, the state of Chili seems to be in advance of the neighbouring states in education. Although there is still much room for improvement, much has already been done in the right direction. This state compares most favourably with Brazil, where the government does very little to promote the cause of education. In the United States, the schools in the larger cities alone seem to be in a satisfactory condition. Those in the smaller places, and in the country districts, are insufficient in numbers and their teachers ill qualified.

The accounts of the schools in China are still very incomplete and often contradictory. One missionary, named Hue, states that the Chinese possess excellent primary schools, and that the teaching is both systematic and comprehensive. Another missionary, Genahr, says that instruction in the Chinese schools is very inadequate, mechanical, and confined to the merest rudiments. It will require the opening up of the country by means of railways, which are said to be constructing now, before we can accurately compare the degree of Chinese civilisation with our own.

We cannot but congratulate the German schoolmaster on being able to obtain annually a compendium so full of useful information and so ably edited. A similar edition in English would be highly desirable, and would no doubt find many readers.—Educational Times.

NOTES OF A LESSON ON THE STRUCTURE AND USES OF JBONE.

1. Description.(a.) Composed of two substances. 1. Animal matter1

... Mineral matter. Periosteum (Peri-osteon).    (b.) Bony tissue hard)

spongy (c.) Hard bony tissue—Ilavereian canals—Lacunal—Canaliculi-II. Use.—For supporting body. For protection.

Specimens Required.—Bone burned in open fire to show Mineral manner; also Bone which has been kept in dilute Hydrochloni acid for some time, to show animal matter.

Method.

I. Description.

{a.) Composition.

(J.) Bony tissub.

(c.) Hard

BONY TISSUE.

II. Use.

Bone is only found in vertebrate animals. Other animals have no bone, only a substance like cartilage (chiliney). Bone is composed of two substances. (1.) Animal matter, which is soft, flexible, and when boiled resembles gelatine.

(2.) Mineral matter, which is chiefly phosphate of lime, carbonate of lime, and salts, The first gives tenacity to the bone, the second hardness and durability. In some animals, more animal than earthly matter, wrapped round the bone is a thick tough skin, the periosteum, which is plentifully supplied with bloodvessels.

1 There are two kinds of bony tissue, (1) hard compact part next the surface ; (2) spotigy part in the centre. In some bones this spongy part, in time, becomes hollow, and is filled with marrow, which in different animals is of different densities. In birds this hollow is filled with air.

2Hard bone is traversed by numerous tubes called haversian canals. These open into the periosteum, and receive blood-vessels from it. Around these tubes are arranged layers of bone, and in these are small open spaces or lacunas, which contain nutrient matter ; from the lacunae branch off numerous delicate canals, known as canaliculi, which ramify through the bone and unite with the canals and thus convey nutriment all over the bone.

3(1) Framework for moulding and supporting the body.

(2) For attachment of muscles.

(.3) Cavities for lodgment and protection of delicate organs, such as brain, &c.

Tell this.

Ask deviation and meaning of vertebrate. Name some vertebrates, andnon-vertebrates

Tell this ;—Explain cartilage.

Tell this :—Educe meaningof flexible. Tellhowanimalaud earthly matter may be separated from each other, and show bones thus treated. Educe and illustrate meaning of tenacity and durability. Illustrate this by fishes. Tell this. Ask or tell derivation of periosteum. Educe use of blood vessels

1Tell this Use specimens to show this.

Children can tell this ;—Meaning of different densities. Tell consequence. Recapitulate. 2Tell this, and 6how on diagram. Tell why so called. Draw class’s attention to this on diagram, and tell name and educe derivation of lacuna;. Meaning of nutrient. Show these on diagram, and explain that they contain blood vessels, and then educe use. Construct diagram on B. B. and recapitulate.

sEduce uses, from examples. Final recapitulation,

NOTES OF A LESSON ON THE EYE.

B. B. Sketch.—Diagram of Eye, showing Coats and Lens, and Optic Nerve. Technical terms set down under proper headings as lesson proceeds.

Apparatus, &c.—Model of Eye. Eye of Bullock. Bottle containing Aqueous Humour. Bottle containing crystalline lens.

Matter.

Method

Structure.

Coats.

How we see.

(a.) Is a nearly round ball, about one inch in diameter, (A) 3 coats which enclose 3 lenses or humours, attached to optic nerve behind.

(1)    Sclerotic forms external wall of the eyeball, “ white of the eye.” Is an opaque, tough, fibrous membrane, cuts like leather, two openings.

Cornea, (d.) Is the circular watchglass-shaped transparent, fibrous body inserted in opening of Sclerotic coat at front of eye which admits light.

(2)    Choroid, (e.) Delicate coat of blood-vessels and pigment cells; forms middle coat of eye, and causes black appearance of pupil. (f.) When pigment is wanting the blood-vessels showing through the aperture give it a pinkish colour.

(3)    Betina [g.) is delicate coat, which lines interior of back of eye, consists partly of expansion of optic nerve.

Iris (h.) is the circular flattened perforated curtain of membrane, which is placed behind the cornea, and regulates by contraction and expansion of its opening (pupil) the quantity of light admitted to the eye.

Humours (i.) Aqueous is the clear limpid, watery fluid which fills the space in front of crystalline lens, and bathes both sides of Iris.

(4)    Crystalline Lens (k.) is the bi-convex lens-shaped transparent jelly-like body placed behind the iris, by which the light (l.) entering the eye is focussed and made to form inverted images on the retina.

(5)    Vitreous humour (m) is the large spherical, transparent glassylooking lens or humour, jelly-like, which fills up the greater part of eyeball, about four-fifths.

recapitulate.

The rays of light («.,) fall upon the cornea, pass through, and are converged by it; then enters the Aqueous (&.) humour. Those which fall upon its more central part, pass through the pupil, (c.) The rays strike upon the lens(c£.)which, by the convexity of its surface and greater density towards the centre (e.) very much increase the convergence (/.) of the rays passing through it. They then traverse the vitreous (y.) humour, and are brought to a focus (h.) upon the retina, forming there an exact image of the object, but (i.) inverted, and the sense of sight is thus awakened in the brain by the optic nerve (k).

Gen. Recapitulation.

(a.) Exhibit model and draw circles explaining it.

(b.) CJse model and explain.

(c.) Show model and obtain description from class (Greek, Skleros, hard). Show these on model.

[d. ) Elicit this from class (Latin, cornu horn),and noticeits position.

(<?.) Use model and show pigment.

(f.) Mention case of pink-eyed rabbit (familiar).

Illustrate by white mice and rabbits.

(y.) Show position and notice that part of optic nerve.

(h.) Show model and notice its position, draw attention to own case when coming from a dark room into a lighted one ; cause of this ; instance, cat’s eye.

(i.) Show some to class, and obtain description.

(Jc.) Show lens and get appearance from class ; explain this.

{m.) Exhibit some to class, and notice the difference between Aqueous and Vitreous. (Latin, Vitrum glass.)

[a.) Explain that all the rays that strike the eye do not enter.

(b.) Obtain position from class, serveBasrecapitula-tion. (c.) Have pupil shown. (d.) Use model, and explain and(e.) obtain from class.

(f ) Meaning from class.

(g.) Position of vitreous humour, explain (it) focus by magnifying glass, (i.) Explain why we see objects not inverted.

(k.) Use of optic nerve, and that braiu is cause of sight._

AT a meeting of the Invercargill High Schools Board of Governors held last month, at which Mr. Lumsden presided, a letter was read in committee from Mr. Von Tunzleman referring to the continuation of his services ; but immediate action was not taken. The report of the committee appointed to consider what steps should be taken in the matter of the further sale of endowment was briefly discussed. It was decided^to postpone action upon it till next meeting. The new teaching staff was considered in committee, and the meeting adjourned.

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School Department— Inspectors’ Report for the

Year 1880    .........

Educational Institute of Scotland ...    ...    ......

Education in the Chief Countries

of the World.........

Notes of a Lesson on the Structure and Use of Bone ... Notes of a Lesson on the Eye... Time Table .........

66 67

69

70 .. 71 .. 71 72-73

Mutual Trust and Investment Society.

LIMITED.

(Incorporated under the Companies Statute 1864).

OFFICES: 66 COLLINS-STREET WEST, MELBOURNE.

Capital, 41100,000 in 10,000 shares of £10 each. Subscribed, £10,000. Paid-up’

£9301.

DIRECTORS:

Mr.

Robert Inglis, accountant, 64 Collins-street West.

Mr. Charles Hetherington, Secretary, 66 Collins-street West.

o

PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH.

CONTENTS

Technical Education in a ^

Saxon Town......... 73

Notes of the Month ...    ...    74

President Garfield a Teacher ...    74

Science Gossip ...     75

University of Melbourne ...    76

Victorian Education Department ............ 78

Appointments ...    •••    78

A Visit to the Kinder Garten School at South Yarra ...    78

THE

Mr. M. IT. Davies, Chairman, 8 Collins-street West.

Mr. Francis J. Smart, architect (Messrs Henderson-and Smart)

Auctioneers and Special Valuators: Messrs. C. .T. and T. Ham, Swanston»St.

Surveyor and Valuator; Mr. Percy Oakden (Messrs. Terry and Oakden).

Auditors : Mr. Thomas Inglis and Mr. John G. Shield. SECRETARY; MR. C. HETHERINGTON. MANAGING DIRECTOR: MR. ROBERT INGLTS.

SECOND ISSUE of 1000 SHARES of £10 EACH.

The chief objects of the company are; —1. To lend money to members upon the security of real property or upon bank, gas or building society shares, or upon other approved security. 2. To negotiate loans of all descriptions upon such terms as to profit and remuneration as may be agreed upon. 3. To buy and sell freehold or leasehold estates. 4. To collect and reoeive rents, debts, dividends, interest and other moneys. 5. To buy and sell shares in any public banking corporation, insurance or gas company or building society, or any incorporated company. 6. To act as attorney or agent in the management of estates for absentees and for trustees.

In order to increase the paid-up capital of the company and extend its business it has been decided to make a second issue of 1000 shares of £10 each. These shares are now offered to the public at a premium of os. per share, and may be paid either in cash or by instalments of £1 per share per month. The company has now completed its sixth half-year, and has, during its progress, in addition to paying off all preliminary expenses, paid one half-yearly dividend at the rate of 8 per cent, per annum, and four half-yearly dividends at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum. The secretary will receive application for shares until further notice, and will furnish information regarding the company to intending shareholders, together with copies of previous reports and balance-sheets.

C. .HETHERINGTON, Secretary.

APPLICATION FOR SHARES.

To the Directors of the Mutual Trust and Investment Society (Limited).—I hereby apply for    shares in the Mutual Trust and Investment Sosicty

(Limited), and inclose , being 5s. per share application fee.

Name in full.........................................

Dato.............................. Occupation ..........................................

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

Advortisomonts and other business communications should be addressed to the Publishers. No advertisements will be inserted without a written order, or prepayment. It is particularly requested that they may bo sent oarly in tho month.

Books, music, and school appliances for notice, and all letters containing anything connected with the literary portion of tho paper shonld be addressed Po the Pd ¡tor. Every communication accompanied by the name and address of tho sender (as a guarantee of good faith, though not always for publication) will bo acknowledged; but we cannot attend to anonymous letters.

Du sir a 1 a s r a ir 5 r bo a 1 m aster,

NO VEMBER 23,    1881.

The deference shown by the Education Department of Great Britain to the opinions of the Executive Committee of the National Union of Elementary Teachers is an evidence of what can be accomplished when teachers act as a body, and with unswerving persistency. It also serves to illustrate the soundness of the advice we tendered to the Hon. the Minister of Public Instruction in this colony, when he first announced to Parliament his intention of introducing a new scheme of classification of teachers. By closely associating themselves together, and taking an active part in the discussion of all questions aftecting the progress of popular education in England, the National Union of Elementary Teachers have at length forced the Government to pay some respect to their views. Before proceeding to introduce an amended code, the political head of the Education Department—Mr. Mundella,

M.P.—requested the association to offer suggestions upon the reforms required in the code. A committee was thereupon appointed, termed the “ Code Committee,” to draw up a report upon the revision of the code. The third progress report of this committee, dated Sept. 17th, 1881, is now beforeus. From this we gather that the views of the elementary teachers have been “ largely taken into account by the vice-President of the Council when preparing the proposals for the revision of the code recently placed before Parliament.” While acknowledging this, the code committee point out that, as the efficiency of the reforms now proposed will depend upon the manner in which the principles contained in the “ proposals ” are applied and embodied [in the code itself, the following general principles should underlie any reform of the education code :—

1.    That greater freedom of teaching should be given to the teachers,

both as to methods and classification.

2.    That while the individual and mechanical results of instruction

should be secured, the higher educational work, the general tone, and the methods and organization should be more considered than was the case under the Revised and New Codes.

3.    That any reduction in the amount of the Parliamentary Grant for

Elementary Education, or the transference of the duty of making such grants from the General Exchequer to the local rates or to voluntary contributors, would be fatal to the educational progress of the country.

4.    That it is advisable to make a larger part of the grant depend on

fixed conditions (say, average attendance), and less on those which are variable and uncertain (e. g.. Examination).

5.    That the difficulties of half-time school's require that in any system

of grants based on average attendance, special arrangements should be made for children presented under Art, 20.

6.    That the pressure upon scholars and teachers by the undue

importance attached to the per-centage of passes in elementary subjects, should be removed or reduced.

Upon the system of making the Government subsidy dependent upon the number of individual passes, the committee say :—*

“ If No. 14 be so modified as to allow of the maximum grant being paid on something less than 100 per cent, of the possible passes, and a reasonable allowance be made for dull scholars, the injurious pressure on scholars and teachers will be relieved. They are nevertheless convinced that if the present form of No. 14 be inserted in the code, the evil results of the old system will be intensified, and that no relief whatever will be accorded either to scholars or teachers. The rage for high percentages now existing in the minds of some managers and teachers will undoubtedly be increased under the present form of No. 14. The committee desire to reaffirm their opinion that the maximum grant for elementary subjects should be attainable on passing 75 per cent, of those possible. The liberty of classification and of teaching, so much to be desired in the interests of education, cannot be secured without the concession now asked for, or some greater liberty in respect of the representation of scholars in the same standard. They also desire to express their satisfaction that the grant for average attendance under Art. 19 (A) is retained, and they recommend for consideration the advisability of enlarging the proportion of grant payable under this article, and of reducing that payable on the various examinations. They consider that it would be an advantage to make a larger part of the grant depend upon certain sources, and that only so much money payment should depend on the • examinations and other variable conditions as would secure proper attention to the instruction.”

With regard to the proposed granting of certificates to University graduates, the committee remark :—“ After a close examination of the probable effects of this proposal, the committee are of opinion that some danger exists of introducing into the profession persons possessing little or no practical skill. While valuing the scholarship indicated fby a degree, the committee know it to be useless for elementary school purposes, if unaccompanied by skill and experience in the art of teaching. They therefore advise that greater safeguards should be provided against this danger, and as a present means to that end, the words £ two years ’ should be substituted for ‘ one year ’ as the period of probation before graduates are admitted to the Certificate Examination. Having regard to the want of practical skill, the committee desire to point out the inability of these graduates to act as efficient teachers for sixty children. The committee think that in justice to the large number of apprenticed and trained teachers who, drawn into the profession

by the Department’s regulations, are now unable to obtain appointments, the operation of this proposal should be deferred.”

Among the suggestions made by the Union and adopted by the Government may be named :—

The abolition of the payment on the individual pass of each scholar.

The abolition of endorsements on Certificates after they are raised to the 1st class.

The raising of the standard for certificates.

The raising of low certificates by re-examination.

The re-organization and the partial opening of the Inspectorate.

The regulation of the supply of teachers, by the limitation of the number of pupil teachers.

The closing of the bye-entrances to the profession.

The abolition of the Child’s School Book.

The simplification of the Needlework Schedule.

The granting of “Means of Appeal.”

Speaking of the “ Code Committee’s” report, the editor of the Schoolmaster says:—“We will not now discuss the criticisms and amendments of the Committee, but commend them to the serious attention.of our readers, and trust that every teacher will make a point of attending the association meetings at which they are discussed, and seeing that his views have their weight in forming the opinion of the association which is transmitted to the Executive. Teachers, whether members or non-members of the National Union, have now a grand opportunity, and if they do not seize it they will have themselves to blame. The chief thing teachers look for is the dethronement of the idol of percentages, and the great relief to children and teachers which this will bring. The individual payment for the individual pass to which the power of this idol has been so justly ascribed is abolished. We hail the abolition with the greatest satisfaction ; but the abolition alone will not dethrone the idol whose worship has demoralised our system, nor remove the unnecessary pressure. Payment on the average attendance, if cent, per cent, of passes is to be required for the maximum grant, will only increase the worship of the idol and intensify the pressure. We are, therefore, glad to find that the Code Committee have adhered to their former recommendation, and insisted that the maximum grant should be attainable on the passing of 75 per cent, of those presented, and that there should be little or no inducement to go beyond. This is a most vital point, not so much for teachers as for education, and upon the adoption of this (we do not tie ourselves to this exact percentage), or some similar plan, the educational value of the Code will depend. There is some reason to believe, from the Vice-President’s speeches, that he does not intend to ask for cent, per cent, of passes for the maximum grant; but we cannot too strongly press upon teachers that this is the point in the proposals which should receive their most earnest attention.”

The recent appointment of a Royal Commission to enquire into the working of the Education Act should, we think, stimulate State school teachers to support the committee of the Victorian Teachers’ Association in any action which they may deem advisable to take to relieve the profession from some of the disabilities under which it at present labours, and to secure the adoption of a scheme of classification that will place teachers on an equal footing with the highest branch of the Civil Service. All that is wanted is that the teachers should act with promptness and with cordiality.

The press at large has been seriously taking into consideration Mr. Mundella’s proposition to admit, as teachers in elementary schools, university graduates who have served one year as assistants in a school under inspection, and have received certificates of skill in teaching the “ Standards.” Mr. Mundella makes the somewhat startling declaration, in defence of this step, that the Department has applications by the dozen, and almost by the hundred, from university men who want occupation. This statement, at first sight, awakens curiosity. What sort of university men can those be who desire to teach the three It’s? But we must remember that the word “ university man” no longer means what it used to mean. Formerly a “ university man ” belonged to Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin ; now, he may belong to London, Durham, Victoria, or the Queen’s Universities of Ireland, without counting the very

respectable universities of Aberdeen, St. Andrew’s, Edinburgh, or Glasgow^, or those of Sydney, Melbourne, Calcutta, or Montreal, which are all British universities, and all give authority to a graduate to call himself a “ university man.”" At several of those universities, where no residence is expected, there are a large number of men who have taught themselves, and by praiseworthy efforts achieved even honours in the examinations. These are, we presume, the graduates who have applied to Mr. Mundella ; or there may be among them some of the failures of the residential universities—men who would take to anything, if they could get anything; or there may be some who would take up the life of elementary schoolmaster, as foreseeing that there is good and honest work to do, and that there are very fair prizes—much better prizes than are open to clergymen of mediocre ability, no pushing power, and no interest.

We may, however, be assured that the number of the higher class of university men, who will content themselves with a life spent in teaching School Boai'd children the elements of knowledge, is not large. On the other hand, there is a certain significance in the step, though it is hesitating and put forward with timidity. May we see behind it the first advance of a scheme for the organisation of middle-class education! This has already been hinted at in more than one paper. A body of university men, trained in the art of teaching, might become most useful in the working out of some comprehensive scheme of secondary education. We cannot suppose that Mr. Mundella’s object is merely the relief of the “ dozens ” of university men wdio have applied to him for employment. We make, however, a note of comment on the article of the New Code, and beg our readers to bear it in mind. We would not willingly exclude good candidates from the work of tuition; but in this particular instance, we would ask vdrether more does not remain behind.—Educational Times.

TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN A SAXON TOWN.

Mr. Felkin, the author of this interesting account of the notable work of technical education carried on in the comparatively small city of Chemnitz, in Saxony, is a Nottingham man who has resided some years at Chemnitz, and his experience in the English and in the Saxon town enable him to draw important comparisons and conclusions as to the value of specific technical instruction. Speaking of the difference between these days and those when the apprentice system flourished, the editor says :—•

The introduction of machinery into nearly every branch of industry has greatly changed the character of the relationship that formerly existed between the master and his apprentice ; and the application of science to industrial operations has, in not a few cases, transferred from the foreman or works' manager to the practical science teacher the key to these mysteries, and has rendered necessary, for workmen of every grade, a different kind of training from that which was considered sufficient not many years ago.

We speak of the editor apart from the author because the work is produced at Gresham College, for the Council of the City and Guilds of London Institute. But the report on the educational institutions of Chemnitz is entirely the work of Mr. Felkin, and it is he alone who places Chemnitz side by side with Nottingham, and who says :—

As Chemnitz is a large manufacturing town, like Nottingham, resembling it too in the fact that hosiery is one of its staple manufactures ; and, moreover, as the town of Chemnitz has already taken away the glove trade from Nottingham, and is, in the opinion of many, slowly undermining the trade in cotton hosiery too, it cannot but be important to the people of Nottingham to know something of the educational advantages which have enabled the Saxons to do this. For, in the writer’s opinion, neither in physique nor in energy and natural ability are these Saxons equal to Englishmen. On the contrary, the human raw material in Saxony is inferior to that of the midland counties, and yet the weaker race takes the bread out of the mouth of the stronger, and competes with it in the markets of the world. What enables it to do this? The answer to this question will partly be found in the educational advantages which the people of Chemnitz, and of other German towns undoubtedly possess.

Chemnitz increased from a population of 54,000 in 1864 to a population of 89,000 in 1879. It is the largest manufacturing town of Saxony, and is surrounded by small towns engaged in manufacture. Its main industries are machine-building, cotton

and wool spinning, weaving, and hosiery and glove manufactures. Mr. Felkin gives a full detailed account of the manufacturing industries of Chemnitz, and of the great strides its manufacturers have made in competition with the manufacturers of this and other countries ; he next tells us all about the general schools of the place, and finally describes with gi’eat detail and circumstantiality the technical schools. What he has to tell about the general schools is scarcely less interesting than his account of the technical schools, which are established distinctly to meet those new conditions of industrial life under which the apprenticeship system is going practically out of existence. The technical schools are under the control of the Home Minister. The Royal State Technical Educational Institution consists of a higher technical school, a builder’s school, foremen’s school, a technical drawing school. Then there are the higher weaving school, the hosiery school, the agricultural school, the school for hand weavers, the school for tailors, and the trade schools for males and females. We cannot make clear what this system is and how it works, because it is a matter of description and detail. This is to be found in the book, and it is a book which all who are interested in one of the most important branches of the education question ought to procure and read thoughtfully, without loss of time. Chemnitz is beating Nottingham out of the race in great fields of manufacturing industry, and Mr- Felkin shows how Chemnitz does it.

PRESIDENT GARFIELD A TEACHER.

President Garfield was a teacher. He taught (says the Schoolmaster) in the family, the district school, and the college. But, in common with many successful public men in America, he chose teaching, not as a career, but a stepping-stone to something else. However good for the individual and the reputation of teachers, this must be detrimental to education. While we are glad to learn that this disposition to adopt teaching as a half-way house on the road to something better is on the decline in America, signs are not wanting that it is on the increase in our own country. The causes, however, are different. In America the man plans it as one of his aids in his upward course; in England, what we may call official pressure, the worry of Codes and Inspectors, is driving him from work which he loves. Mr. Grove bore testimony to this before the Birmingham District Union many months ago, and Mr. Gardner, at the last meeting of the Executive, expressed the pain with which he heard in all parts of the country the almost feverish desire of teachers to quit the work of education for spheres in which honest work was better recognised, and the position was more secure. It is painful to hear so constantly experienced teachers say how gladly they would “ get out of it.” We trust that something will be done in the coming Code to remedy this by making the conditions of a teacher’s life pleasanter and less subject to needless worry and annoyance. This will not be unless teachers are on the alert. Those who wear the shoe know where it pinches. Mr. Mundella Las will, and teachers should show him the way to make their life pleasant in their work, and open up a career for them that no thoughts may enter their minds of making their profession a mere house of call on the journey of life.

Ilotes of ibc    onib.

The Education Department have decided that the time for closing the schools for the Christmas holidays will be left to the head teachers.

Professor Andrew has been appointed the Hon, the Minister of Public Instruction to act as examiner in Mathematics and Physics at the Science Examinations, in the place of Mr. Pirani, deceased.

THE Brisbane Week says :—“ Queensland children appear to be more regular in their attendance at school than those of any other of the Australian colonies, as shown by a report issued by the Education Department of Victoria. According to that document, the average attendance in Queensland was 55 00; Victoria, 52'03 ; New Zealand, 51-63; South Australia, 48'44 ; and New South Wales, 47*28.”

It is gratifying to learn that the boys’ and girls’ grammar schools at Maryborough, Queensland, are increasing their number of pupils. As a

Consequence, the teaching staff is to be increased also. Four scholarships, of the annual value of £20 for three years, have been donated by the Council.

Writing on the motion for withdrawal of State scholarships, made by Mr. Norton in the Queensland Assembly, the Queenslander trenchantly remarks :—“ Surely if there is anything which should cause a man to blush in the knowledge that his son was profiting by a State scholarship, he ought to be doubly ashamed if he permitted him to bold a bursary founded by a private benefactor. In the former case he, as a taxpayer, would be a contributor to the fund by which he benefited ; in the latter, he would accept a free gift from a private benefactor. The truth is, that the rhetorical flourishes about receiving State charity were nothing but empty sentiment. ... As private effort has in all cases proved itself inadequate to secure the universal spread of knowledge essential to the well-being of a self-governing democracy, we in Queensland have applied the machinery of State government to effect the purpose. . . . There need be no more shame in winning a bursary than in walking through a State-supported museum, or strolling in a State-supported garden.

Tenders have been received as follows by the Queensland Govern-ment:—For the erection of a kitchen and covered way to the State school at Seven Mile Rocks, John Storie, £80. For teacher’s residence at Blenheim, J. Byers and Son, four months, £2S8 10s.; T. Jetfcott, £261 ; and Thomas Christie, £215 10s. For the erection of a State school at Lytton, T. Carey, £598 10s.; I. L. Sands, £749 ; J. Meise, £658; Hardy and Vowles, £587 los.; and J. Salisbury, £720. For the erection of a State school at Allora, A. Gordon, four months, £315. For effecting some repairs, including painting, at Ashgrove School, J. Storie, £60

At the annual scholarship examinations held recently in connection with the Ipswich (Queensland) Grammar School, there were a large number of examinees. The following carried off scholarships :—Peter Macgregor, the Tiffin Scholarship, two years; Theodore R. Barrymore (West Ipswich), the Trustees’ Scholarship, two years ; James Griffiths (North Ipswich), the Thom Scholarship, one year ; Louis Heiner (North Ipswich), the Special Trustees’ Scholarship, one year. None of these boys are over 17 years of age.

The foundation-stone of a new High School was lately laid at Waitaki, N.Z., by Mr. Slermiski, M.H.R. The bon. gentleman was presented with a handsome silver trowel and ivory mallet in memento of the event.

A special meeting of the Winton (N.Z.) School Committee was held, as appointed, on the 12-th ultimo, a fair number of auditors being present; Letters from Messrs. Taylor, M'Cormack and Butler were read. They complained that some of their children were not progressing as well as they (the parents! had anticipated they would. It was proposed that the letters be sent to the board to be dealt with ; the chairman suggesting, however, that the committee should take action. A member then proposed that the present teacher be asked to resign. The secretary moved an amendment to the effect that the parents named be requested to send their children more regularly to school, the irregularity of attendance being, he urged, the real cause of their slow progress. The register showed they had not attended more than 50 per cent, of the time they had been attached,

The Auckland Board of Education have increased the salary of its Inspector to £550 per year.

The Education Board of Dunedin have passed a resolution calling the attention of the Government to the injustice done to the Otago district by taking as the basis for the appointment of sites for schools local population instead of school attendance.

In a cricket match between the Central and Gladstone Public Schools at Invercargill, the latter secured an easy victory.

A meeting of the Invercargill School Committee was held on the 24th ultimo ; Mr. Matheson presiding. A statement presented showed that the average attendance for the month was as follows :—Central School, 468 ; North School, 163 ; and South School, 420. The attendance at the North School had been lessened by sickness to a greater extent during October than when the measles prevailed in the other schools. Necessary repairs at the Central and South Schools, also extensive repairs at the North School, were referred—the former to the Visiting Committee to deal with, and the latter to the Education Board. Repairs to Mr. Gurr’s residence were also referred to the Education Board, with a recommendation that they be effected.

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Invercargill High Schools Board was held in the first week of this month, Mr. Lumsdenin the chair. The report of Mr. Blanchtlower stated that three new boys had entered the school since the commencement of the new quarter, bringing the roll number up to 57. The average attendance was much higher than previously, it now being 52. The teacher recommended that an examination by an outside examiner should be held before Christmas. On this head it was resolved, after some discussion, that the Inspector-General of schools be written to with a view of ascertaining when be would be down to inspect the school. The report from the head mistress of the girls’ school stated that the number of pupils attending during the quarter was 48, the average daily attendance during the last month being 43'4 The sale of the board’s endowments was further considered at length, and the ultimate decision was to ask the permission of the Government to sell sections 37 and 41 at Wairio, on terms of credit; and also to be allowed to dispose of, in a similar manner, all the unleased sections in Gore, at the upset price named in the recommendations of the subcommittee appointed to investigate and report—section 11, block 2, however, to be supplemented.

The agricultural college at Wellington, N. Z., has now a total acreage of 661 acres, of which 626 are tilled and sown. The institution’s live stock comprises 1110 sheep, 58 pigs, and 14 horses. The buildings are being enlarged by the addition of a new wing. This is greatly welcomed, for the present building is overcrowded, and a number of applicants have had to be refused.

The monthly meeting of the Southland Education Board was held on the 4th inst., Mr. T. M. M'Donald in the chair. A special report from the Executive Committee stated that new school buildings at Limestone Plains and Otama, and residences at Wyndham, Pukerau, Edendale, Otatara, and Heddowbush, in course of erection. The ordinary report of the same committee recommended several smaller works. Mr. Stocks was appointed temporarily to the Miller’s Flat school. It was decided to elect a school committee for the new district of East Hokonui, at a public meeting to be held for the purpose. The question of sites for schools at Biversdale, Waikaka, and Otama was dealt with, and variously referred, and after passing accounts to the amount of £1926 Is. lid., the meeting adjourned till the 2nd prox.

The monthly meeting of the Otago School Teachers’ Association was held as usual in the first week of the month, when several new members were admitted. Mr. Qurr drew attention to the fact that the difference between thesalaries of certificated and uncertificated teachers was only £20 per annum in Otago,and that teachers of that district were paid much lower for gaining high average, &c., than those of any other district in New Zealand. He thought this perhaps was caused by the issuing of bonuses by the boards instead of by the Department,and moved that the latter body undertake the duty of isssue. Mr. Neil seconded the motion, and it was carried unanimously. Mr. Neil read an interesting paper on “ How to meet country school teachers’difficulties,” which was much appreciated, and the meeting terminated.

A MEETING of the senate of the Melbourne University was held on the 18th ult,, to consider the new standing orders, Dr. Madden (the warden) in the chair. The chief alterations effected by the clauses considered—84 to 96—relate to the election of wardens and councillors, and provide that elections shall take place at meetings of the senate, and that voting shall be by ballot if more than one candidate put up for a vacancy. The voting is to be done somewhat upon the proportional system, and will be conducted on the principle of excluding those with fewest votes on papers whereon voters have marked their preferences by numbers opposite names, as 1, 2, 3 &c., the excluded votes being given to those on the same paper, next in order of preference.

A well-attended meeting was held at Castlemaine, Victoria, on the 25th ult., to enable Messrs. Pearson and Patterson to address themselves to the question of the appointment of an Education Commission to enquire into the working of the Act, then under consideration in the Assembly. Mr. Patterson, in the course of his remarks, appeared greatly apprehensive lest the proposed enquiry would lead to an interference with the secular principle of the Education Act. He objected to the commission because nearly all the gentlemen composing it were, he said, known to be in favour of religious instruction in State schools. The proposed inquiry, he argued further, reflected impliedly upon the previous administrations, and also upon Parliament itself; and complained that the country Boards of Advice were not represented upon it. He could see that the stated over-costliness of the system was not the real grievance, but that the Roman Catholics, numbering one-fifth of the population, desired to educate their own children in their own way, and to participate in the money set apart by Parliament for general instruction. Mr. Pearson dwelt principally on the phase of the question as effecting and affected by the Roman Catholic claims. He would be ready to concede all the Catholics asked if it could be done without jeopardy to the free, compulsory, and secular character of the Act. This, however, he felt, could not be done, and he argued that no commission could satisfy them, who would always be attached to their own foregone conclusions.

A meeting of the council of the Melbourne University was held on the 25th ult., at which Dr. Bromby presided. An agreement was arrived at that examinee’s papers should be returned by examiners to the registrar within one month after being given them for scrutiny. Additions to the medical school buildings were arranged to be considered at a conference with the faculty. A letter was read from Mr. Thos. A’Beckett stating that he did not intend to continue as lecturer on procedure after the close of the year. On the suggestion of Professor Elkington it was decided that as the examination for the Cobden Club prize had not been sufficiently advertised, it be postponed until the February term, 1882, the right of any candidate who was then qualified to enter being barred.

At an adjourned meeting of the Senate of the Melbourne University, held on the 25th ult,, it was resolved that the council may meet at some central place in the city, should it be found advisable, in future. It was also agreed that senate meetings should be held in May, August, and November of each year, besides meetings convened by the wardens. After a number of minor matters, such as manner of voting, no quorum, notice of meetings, &c., had been disposed of, additional orders for the regulation of procedure in the dealing with statutes and regulations, and in the conduct of the business of committees. These included the usual as to resolution, meetings, committee, and manner of procedure reassembling, &c.; the principal being, “That a committee shall consider such matters only as shall have been referred to it by the Senate.”

The Social Science Association will, this year, hold its annual Session in Dublin, in the month of October. The following are the subjects set down for discussion in the Education Department:—1, “What alterations is it desirable to introduce into the system of national (primary) education in Ireland ? 2. In what way may intermediate education be best promoted, under the Act of 1878 ?    3, How may the higher educa

tion of women be most efficiently advanced in Ireland ?” The programme

IS rather a meagre one, but as these subjects are all of local interest, others will probably be added later on ; and persons desirous of reading papers would do well to communicate with the General Secretary of the Association, at its offices in Adam-street, Adelpln, before the final arrangements for the Congress are completed.

I he schoolmaster has become iu his corporate capacity, as lie so frequently is in his individual, a connecting link between the various classes of society. He who breaks down the distinctions of caste, and bridges the chasm which separates class from class does good service to hi» country. Lord Mayor M'Arthur has been particularly active in this cause. His reception of the representatives of the National Union was a graceful recognition of their important functions in the State, and doubtless paved the way for the invitation of the Trades’ Union delegates to the Mansion House. We believe with the delegates that by his courtesy the Lord Mayor has broken a barrier between the various classes of the people, and has shown to the world that commerce and labour go hand in hand to build up the prosperity of the community. We gladly acknowledge that these are not the least of the services which the Lord Mayor has rendered during his year of office, and trust that other of our influential classes, in official and private life, will follow the example 60 well set by his lordship of seeking to unite all social grades.

We have received from Mr. M. L. Hutchiuson, bookseller, of Collms-street West, a choice assortment of Christmas and New Year’s Cards ; also specimen pages of cards containing British Birds printed iu oil colours, specially suited for school prizes. It is pleasing to note the advance which has been made this year in the adoption of art culture in the production of these popular season greeting cards.

A SUCCESSFUL dramatic entertainment was given by the Mitchell (Queensland) Dramatic Club recently, in aid of the local State school. A committee has been organised in connection with this school, whose business is it to raise funds for its enlargement. Subscriptions are solicited.

Sbzuntt anb gxi fossip.

We owe the following scientific item to Mr. Cosmo Newberry, of Melbourne :—A spray of sulphate of iron injected into a cavity where the smoke of nitro-glycerine compounds exist will decompose and destroy the noxious vapour.”    ,

A second electric railway is about to be opened in Berlin. The success of the first is quite up to expectation.

Me. W. T. Blandford, Fellow of the Royal Society, contests the theory that the great plain of Northern India is a great sea basin. It has long been taught that the great plain traversed by the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmapootra was once the basin of a great sea. Mr. Blandford says this large tract of land has been always above the sea level through a long period of geologic time.

Gulf streams and their effects weie descanted upon by Mr, D. S. Houghton, of York, recently. He said the gulf stream and its countercurrent, the Labrador current, produced important effects upon the climate of adjacent parts. The northern hemisphere was warmer than the southern from lat. 0 deg. to lat. 30 deg., and it was colder than the southern above 40 deg. The lighter temperature of the southern hemisphere in the temperate latitudes was explained by the existence of those gulf streams there, while there was only one in the North Atlantic, and a partial one through Behring Straits. The general effect of the gulf stream was to make the climatal range of temperature less. It had no effect upon summer heat, or upon the maturing of plauts and trees. The January temperature in the North Atlantic at 70 deg. were raised by the gulf stream, whilst the July temperature remained unaffected. The effect of the cold currents wdiich were indirectly caused by the warm ones, in preserving the proper equilibrium, was nothing upon the January temperatures. The effect of the cold water was to raise the July temperature, and leave the Jauuary untouched, and the influence of the warm made the January temperature moie warm, and left the July untouched.

In a paper on the origin of coal, Mr. E. Wethend, a geologist of repute, says that on land where coal was found grew the vegetation of the period—Kepidodendrous, Sigillaria, Calamities, &c. As the land sank and the water encroached the land vegetation was gradually washed away, but the roots remained in many cases, and those which offered the greatest resistance to decay arc the ones preserved in a fossil state— hence the occurrence of stigmaria. As the waters advanced the ground would become swampy, and reeds, mosses, and other vegetable products spring into life, and it is to vegetation of this kind that Mr, Wethend ascribes the formation of coal. He concludes (a) that coal was not found from vegetation of the Lepidodendroid type, and that therefore the stigmaria found in the underclays are not the roots of the vegetation which gave rise to the coal. (?;) That the varieties of coal, and the changes which take place in one and the same seam are not due to metamorphism, nor are they dependent upon the contorted state of the surrounding strata, but arise from the greater or less chemical decomposition of the vegetable mass, influenced by the circumstances under which it was submerged.

The South Kensington repository is being so crammed with archmolo-gical, antiquarian, and high art objects, that it is proposed to turn out the merely technical.

The value of coal and fuel exported from the United Kingdom during 1880 was £8,372,933 ; this is, however, but a small ratio of the total value of all the coal produced during that period.

A contributor to the Engineer has calculated that the proper num-

Corneille.

6. Translate—

ber of steps for a man to take per minute whose leg is 33 5 in. long is 64-7 ; that is, such a rate would be that at which he would walk with least effort. lie has based his calculations on the supposition that the leg swings as a pendulum, and taken into account the relation between the point of suspension and centre of pedal gravity.

Sulpho-carbonate, it appears, has a double value as a dressing to vines. It kills the phylloxera—or has done so ; and, solved in water, it acts as a manure.

The rusting of machinery may be prevented by the application of the following mixture as stated :—Dissolve half an ounce of camphor in one pound of melted lard ; take off the scum, and mix in as much fine black lead as will give it an iron colour. Clean the machinery, and smear with this mixture. At the end of 24 hours rub clean with a smooth linen cloth. It will keep clean for months.

Messrs. Crosby, Lockwood & Co., London, have published a useful work, which deals largely with the coal and iron industries of the United Kingdom, Mr. Richard Meade being the writer.

A most brilliant sable surfacing may be produced on iron and steel by applying a mixture of turpernine and sulphur, boiled together, with a fine hair brush. The turpentine evaporates, and leaves on the metal a thin layer of sulphur, which unites closely with the iron by heating over a spirit or gas flame.

The large deposit of ozokerine lately found at Gisbourne, New Zealand, is said to contain 50 per cent, of paraffin, 10 per cent, of kerosene, 10 per cent, of light oils, 20 of heavy oils, and 10 of earthy matter.

The docks of Liverpool cover 403 acres ; those of London 434 acres.

Two French scientists—De La Tour and Du Breuil—have recently devised an economical and quite new method of extracting sulphur from its associated ores. They utilise the chemical principle of elevation of the boiling point by allowing salt to dissolve therein. Chloride of calcium is the salt selected, on account of its fixity, cheapness, and complete inertia when in contact with sulphur and gangue at the temperature of 120deg., at which the process of extraction is effected. Two rectangular boilers are used, coupled and inclined ; and these are heated alternately from one hearth. The boiling liquid, containing 66 percent, of chloride, is introduced into one vessel previously filled with ore, and while liquation is taking place in it—which occurs after a lapse of a couple of hours—the other boiler, in which the operation is finished, may be emptied and charged afresh with ore. The chief advantages of the method are—small cost of extraction, great purity of sulphur, fusion possible throughout the year, and almost complete extraction.

alnibcrsitn .of JfUlkrttnxc.

The following are the test papers set for candidates for the Matriculation Examination, December, 1881, conducted by Mr. I. Warren Ball and Mr. H. J. L. Batten : —

FRENCH.—[For Pass.]

1.    Translate—

Néron se voyant autant d’esclaves que de sujets, ne consulta plus que le déréglement de son esprit insensé. On vit un empereur comédien, qui jouait publiquement sur les théâtres comme un acteur ordinaire. Il croyait même exceller en cet art. Il paraissait souvent sur la scène la lyre â la main, suivi de Burrhus et de Sénèque, qui applaudissaient par complaisance, lâcheté ordinaire aux philosophes de tous les temps, dont la froide morale ne tient pas contre la volonté d'un tyran. Lorsqu’il devait chanter en public, des gardes étaient placés de distance en distance, pour puuir ceux qui n’avaient pas cté assez sensibles aux charmes de sa voix.

2.    Parse every verb in question 1.

3.    Translate—

Maître Corbeau, sur un arbre perché

Tenait eu sou bec un fromage.

Maître Renard, par rôdeur alléché,

Lui tint à peu près ce langage :

Hé ! bonjour, monsieur du Corbeau !

Que vous êtes joli 1 que vous me semblcz beau !

4.    Translate into French—

How are you ? Pretty well, thank you.

How loug has he beeu at home ?

It is line weather.

He is seventeen years old,

What o’clock is it?

Have you any white wine ?

Is this the way to the Exhibition ?

He is a painter.

What news is there to-day ?

Come and see me this day week.

Do you know Melbourne?

I kuovv my lesson.

Bring me a wine-glass.

Take the milk-jug.

5.    Write—(a) the 3rd person sing, of the future absolute, the preterite

definite, and the imperfect subjunctive of s’en aller, finir, battre, rire, faire, savoir, vivre, connaître;

(b)    6 differently formed feminines.

(c)    6 differently formed plurals.

6.    Translate into French—

But the judgments of God are always filled with wisdom and mercy.

As soon as Victor came to himself, as if his nature had been entirely changed, he accused himself of having beeu the cause of all his misfortune : he confessed that he had deserved all that had happened to him, and from that day became the gentlest of beings. All those who approached him pitied him. One would wish to restore his sight, but one cannot prevent oneself from saying that he has gained much by losing the use of his eyes.

7, (a) When does the subject follow the verb ?

For Honors.

1.    Question 2 in the pass-paper,

2.    Question    4 in the    „

3.    Question    5 in the    ,,

4.    Question    6 in the    ,,

5.    Translate into good English—

Eraste—“ Quoi, seule et sans Tircis ! vraiment c’est un prodige ;

Et ce nouvel amant déjà trop vous néglige Laissant ainsi couler la belle occasion De vous conter l’excès de son affection.”

Mélite— Vous savez que son âme en est fort dépourvue.

Eraste—“ Toutefois ce dit-on depuis qu'il vous a vue, Il en porte dans Pâme un si doux souvenir Qu’il n’a plus de plaisir qu’ à vous entretenir.”

Pymante—“ Pardonnez-moi la faute que j’ai faite Un berger d’ici près a quitté ses brebis Pour s’en aller au camp presque en pareils habits ;

Et, d’abord voui prenant pour ce mien camarade,

Mes sens d’aise aveuglés ont fait cette escapade.”

Corneille.

7.    Albert—“En quel gouffre de soins et de perplexité

Nous jette une action faite sans équité.

D'un enfant supposé par mon trop d’avarice Mon cœur depuis longtemps souffre bien le supplice:

Et quand je vois les maux où je me suis plongé Je voudrois à ce bien n’avoir jamais songé.

Tantôt je crains de voir, par la fourbe éventée.

Ma famillee en opprobre et misère jetée ;

Tantôt pour ce fils-là qu’il me faut conserver Je crains cent accidents qui peuvent arriver.”

Moliere.

8.    Give the dérivation of ten French words of Latin origiu in this paper.

LATIN.—[For Pass.]

(Do not abbreviate any latin ivord. )

1.    Translate—

Qualis ubi ad terras abrupto sidéré nimbus It mare per medium ; misersis, heu, praescia longe Horrescunt corda agricolis ; dabit illc ruinas Arboribus, stragemque salis ; met omnia late ;

Ante volant, sonitumque ferunt ad litora venti ;

Talis in adversos ductor Rhoeteius hostis Àgmen agit ; densi cuneis se quisque coactis Agglomérant. Ferit ense gravem Thymbraeus Osirim Archetium Mnestheus, Epnlonem obstruncat Achates Ufentemque Gyas ; cadit ipse Tolumnius augur,

Primus iu adversos telum qui torserat hostis.

2.    Parse the words in italics in question 1, giving the principal parts of verbs and the nominative and genitive singular of nouns.

3.    Translate—

His sunt arbores pro cubilibus : ad eas se applicant, atque ita paulum modo reclinatæ quietem capiunt. Quarum ex vestigiis cum est animadversum a venatoribus, quo se reeipere consuerint, omnes co loco aut a radicibus subruunt, aut accidunt arbores, tantum ut summa species earum stantium relinquatur. Hue cum se consuetudine reclinaverunt, infirmas arbores pondéré affligunt atque una ipsæ concidunt.

4.    In question 3 decline his, cubilibus, quarum, loco, species, pondéré ipsæ.

5.    Translate—

(a) L A te decurrit ad me haustus liquor.

2.    Hoc sustinete, majus ne veniat malum.

3.    Non is sum qui hoc faciam,

4.    Id hoc facilius eis persuasit.

5.    Quæ in eo repreheudat ostendit.

6.    Ad multain noctem pugnatum est.

7.    Quid sui consilii sit, ostendit.

(b. ) They asked the gods for a king.

You and I will go to the town.

It is reported that Cæsar will attack the town.

His sister lived at Rome.

He advises him to make forced marches.

I do not care a straw.

I fear that he will not do this.

6.    (a) Give the principal parts of pango, gigno, cerno, solvo, pendo,

hæreo.

(b) Write subjunctive pluperfect, 2nd, plural, of Nolo.

Passive, imperative, future, 3rd. plural of fero.

Infinitive, future of fio.

Subjunctive, perfect, 2nd, sing,, of fruor.

7, Explain with examples :—

Cognate Accusative,

Genitive of Valuation,

Double Dative,

Ablative of Measure,

Factitive Accusative,

Historical Infinitive.

HONORS.

1.    As in Pass-paper.

0.    !>    ))

7.    „    „

8.    Translate freely :—

Delicta majorum immeritus lues,

Romane, donee templa refeceris,

Aedesque labentes deorunqet Foeda nigro simulacra fumo.

Dis te minorem quod geris, imperas :

Hinc omne principium, hue refer exitum.

Di multa neglecti deberunt Hesperiae mala luctuosm.

TranslateInter tree jam prmmissi Albam erant equites, qui, multitudinem trad :cerent Boman.

9. Legiones deinde ductac ad diruendam urbem. Quae ubi intravere portas, non quidem, fuit, tumultus ille, nec pavor, qualis captarum esse urbium solet; quum, eft'ractis portis, stratisve ariete muris, aut arce vi capta clamor hostilis et cursus per urbem armatorum omnia ferro flammaque miscet ; sed silentium triste ac tacita moes-titia ita defixit omnium animos, ut, prae mctu obliti quid reliquerent, deiiciente consilio, rogitantesque alii alios, nunc, in liminibus starent, nunc errabundi domos suas, ultimum illud visuri, per-vagarentur.

10.    Translate into idiomatic Latin :—

No sooner was it known that these towns, the latter of which is not two days’ march from Paris, were in the hands of the enemy, than that great capital, defenceless, and susceptible of any violent alarm in proportion to its greatness, was filled with consternation. The inhabitants, as if the Emperor had been already at their gates, fled in the wildest confusion and despair, many sending their wives and children down the Seine to Bouen, others to Orleans and the towns upon the Loire.

Note,—Bouen : —Botomagus. Orleans : — Genabum. Loire :— Ligeris.

11,    Translate:—

Quae est ista in commemoranda pecunia tua tam insolens osten-tatio? Soluene tu dives? Quid si ne dives quidem? Quid, si pauper etiam ? Quem enim intelligimus divitem ; aut hoc verbum in quo homine ponimus ?

ENGLISH.—[For Pass.]

1.    Make a complete analysis of the following passage:—“My chief companion, when Sir Roger is diverting himself in the woods or in the fields, is a very venerable man who is ever with Sir Roger, and has lived at his house in the nature of a chaplain above thirty years.”

2.    Thus nature gives vs (let it check our pride)

The virtue nearest to our vice ally’d :

Reason the by as turns to good from ill And Nero reigns a Titus, if he will.

The fiery soul abhorred in Catiline.

In Decius charms, in Curtius is divine.”

(a)    Parse the italicised words in this passage.

(b)    Explain the allusions in the last four lines.

(e) Refer to the context all subordinate clauses or phrases.

3.    Derive, giving root, prefix and suffix, the following words .—Invitation, discouraged, accompanied, jovial, behaviour, philosophic.

4.    Correct or justify :—

(a)    Neither of the books are in the room.

(b)    Who did you speak to about John and I.

(c)    This is the man’s hat whom I knew was expected to-day,

(d)    Clubs is trumps.

5.    Write the seventeen lines commencing—Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes.

(!. “ I distinguished myself by a most profound silence.” Write a brief redsume of the essay in which these words occur.

The surfaces of all bodies arc perpetually flying off from their respectiveffiodies one after another.” Refer this passage to the context,

7. Write a short essay on “ Temperance.”

For Honors.

1.    As in the pass-paper.

2.    As in the pass-paper.

3.    Write a brief description of Macbeth.”

4.    Describe the construction of the metre and quote six lines having peculiarities in the scansion.

5.    Comment upon and refer to the context :—

Fortune on his damned quarry smiling—

Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds Or memorise another Golgotha,

I cannot tell :—

—Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown.

C, Quote Macbeth’s remarks upon hearing of the Queen’s death.

7. (a) Give the substance of Bacon’s essay upon Travel.

(b) Mention any obsolete usages therein.

{c) Explain and refer to the context Beware how in making the portraiture thou breakest the pattern.

EUCLID.

(Five propositions must be written out correctly.)

Book 1.

1.    The supplement (or exterior angle) of a triangle is greater than either of the other angles.

2.    The three angles of any triangle are equal to two right angles.

3.    If the square on one side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angle contained by these two sides ia a right angle.

Book II:

4.    The square on the sum of two straight lines is equal to the squares on the straight lines and twice the rectangle contained by them.

5.    To divide a given straight line into two parts so that the rectangle contained by the straight line and one part shall equal the square on the other part.

G. To draw a straight line the square on which shall equal a given rectilineal figure.

Book III.

7.    One circumference of a circle cannot cut another in more than two points.

8. The angle at the centre of the circle is double the angle at the circumference upon the same base, that is, upon the same part of tho circumference.

9.    To bisect a given circumference, that is, to di vide it into two equal parts.

GEOGRAPHY.

1.    (a) State in which hemisphere is the greater rainfall, and why.

(b)    State in which hemisphere the trade winds are more constant,

and why.

(c)    State in which hemisphere the range of temperature is greater’,

and why.

2.    (a) Contrast the fauna of the Old World with that of the New.

(b) Describe the causes of two constant currents, one flowing approximately parallel with a meridian, and the other parallel with the equator.

3.    (a) Draw a rough outline of England.

(b) Show on the above map by dotted lines the counties on tho coast, give their names, their chief towns, and the rivers on which they are situated.

4.    Give the chief foreign possessions of Great Britain in each division of the world.

5.    Give any general information you can relating to Italy.

6.    Describe in order N. to S. the Zones of fauna and flora, with characteristic animals and plants respectively.

ARITHMETIC.

1.    Write down in words the quotient and remainder found by dividing nine thousand seven hundred and forty-three billions four hundred millions and thirty-seven by three hundred and three thousand millions and thirty-six,

2.    Reduce to its lowest terms :—

3.    Simplify.

(i+*)x(S + g)x(ft + i)xtf I ?)

(; + ?)x(:W)x(Yf£)x(* + f).

4.    Arrange in order of magnitude :—•§\$•!, ■§£•£,

5.    Simplify 10.1ÒÌ x .40307 4-1.7.37 x 2.343.

G. Extract the cube root of 15G25000.

7.    A person borrows £50 to be repaid in twelve monthly instalments of £5, beginning one month from the date of the kum. What is the rate per cent of interest paid ?

8.    A man has 4000 trees to plant ten acres of ground with in parallel rows 12 feet apart. Plow many will there be over? (Take the ground as a square, and allow for the trees going along the edges.)

9.    Find the price of 4£ percent, stock, when the income from £1050 invested in it is £52 10s.

10.    Six sheep are worth 34 geese ; 12 sheep are worth one cow ; three cows are worth one horse ; 10 geese cost £4 17s Gd. Find the value of a pair of horses.

SCHEME OF ANALYSIS.

 Sentence. Kind of Sentence or Clause. Distin guishing Letters. Connective8 _ (if any) introducing Sentences. Subject with Attributes.

Predicate.

Bktanun (Bimtniian guarirne«!

APPOINTMENTS.

Joseph Irvine, H.T., Bealiba, 749: JohnM'Leod, H.T., Caralulup, 974 • John Bardin, H.T-, Granito Flat, 243-4 ; Elizabeth Ponsford, H.T., Taripta East, 2184 ; Margaret Murray, 2nd Asst., Shepparton, 1469 ; John Quinlan, H.T., Moora, 1991; Wm. S. Best, H.T., Kororoit and Diggers’ Rest, 1933; Paul Shugg, H.T., Pearsontown, 1456 ; James Smith, H.T., Narioka, 2214 ; Peter J. Macnarnara, H.T., North Pannoobamawn, 1853; William Waldon, H.T., Uppor Moondara, —; Lydia Bennett, H.T., Muckleford, 402; Margaret J. Webber, H.T., Echuca North, 1780 ; Flora A. Marston, H.T., Major’s Line, 1798 ; Sarah Jane Flea, H.T., Wappentake Creek, 1841; Robert Dickson, H.T., Yarroweah, 2425; Samuel Bolitho, H.T., Wakiti Creek, 2298; George R. Hancock, H.T., Purnim, 1016; George R. Mott, H.T., Cape Bridgewater, 741; Fanny Duke, H.T., Bootapool, 1545 ; Margaret Walsho, H.T., Willowmavin, 2179; John W. Taylor, II.T., Shel-bourno, 950; John C. Corbett, H.T., Timmering East, 2177; Elizabeth Roberts, H.T., Hawkinston, 2431; Goorgo Wiigley, H.T., North Fitzroy, 1490; Arthur Sanders, II.T., Carlsruhe, 115; George Ick, Toolamba West, 1888; Caroline J. Rennie, H.T., Muckleford, 402; Edward F. Williamson, II.T., Jootho East, 2423; Joseph G. Haughton, |H.T., Newry, 2074; John Whitbourn, JLL.T , Rowsley, 2183; Martha L. Rutter, H.T., Granito Flat, 2434; Emma Anderson, II.T., Goldie, 1173 ; James Thomson, H.T., Drouin North, 2435; Susannah Hollands, H.T., Muckleford, 402; Henry J. H. Irwin, H.T., Parupa, 854; Robert Craig, H.T., Bruthen, 1141; Richard Nunwoek, 2nd Asst., King-street, 1689; Joseph W. H. Lugg, H.T., Lake Burrumbeet, 368; Finlay Matheson, H.T., Katunga, 2269; Henry Stielow, II T., Lake Meering, 2351; Joshua Ingamells, H.T., Hawthorn, 293 ; John J. Edgoose, H.T., Rosebrook, 526 ; Wm. J. Trembath, II.T., Kensington, 1146 ; Fanny Duke, H-T-, North Walmer, 2264; Emily Short, H.T., Strathbogie West, 2267 ; Lilian Lucas, H.T., Barrachee, 23-45 ; John M. Bardin, H.T-, Morwell North, 2439 ; Margaret M. McEvoy, H.T., Oxley Flats, 2347 ; Emma Fairhall, H.T., Barnawm South, 2254; Wm. H., King, H.T., Batesford, 1845; John II. Refshange, H.T., Loyola, 1953; Agnes Muir, II.T-, Black Range, — ; James F. Glennon, H.T., Gheringhap, 261,

CANON DANIEL ON MEMORY.

The following is a summary of the chief points treated of in a paper recently read by Canon Daniel, the principal of Battersea Training College:—

The rev. gentleman said that he would follow Latham’s classification of memories into the portative—mere mental carpet bags ; the analytical or mental pigeon-holes; and the assimilative or mental stomachs. Memories were classified according as they dealt with subjects. The portative memory was shown by its recollecting power, remembering merely the form, while it had not assimilated the subject. There was nothiug more in this kind of memory than the retention of the form. Teachers who trusted to this kind of memory nearly always made their pupils averse to the subject in hand. So in after-time very little remained but a few odds and ends of this and that—a kind of mental scrap-book, Modern teachers who used this kind of memory urged that they did so only as a foundation. But an unsound foundation affected the whole superstructure. Inspectors sometimes made the mistake of examining children only as to the form of knowledge they had gained. The test should show whether the pupils had thought about the matter for themselves. The analytical memory was one that arranged the knowledge for convenience of reproduction. It was pigeon-holed on a plan, and the possessor held the key. Teachers of this plan often did the analysis for their children, and so left no room for the exercise of their pupils’ powers. This plan could not be used without reason. Knowledge must be methodised as it was acquired. We must know what pigeon-hole each bundle was in. Bad memories were often the result of a muddled acquirement of knowledge. The assimilative memory worked knowledge into the mind until it was a part of it. It digested it into a permanent and living force. Teachers should turn the knowledge they imparted round and round in new lights and combinations, so as often to repeat their lessons under the guise of novelty. Looking at pictures, plans or models, and drawing or making sketches of what was seen, all helped to prolong the attention on a subject without weariness. In using each of these kinds of memory we must remember that the portative memory, like a carpet bag, might be full of holes; that the analytical memory enabled us to recover what was lost, but that the assimilative memory did not allow knowledge to be lost, because it was a part of the possessor. He then passed on to the work of the memory, and said that impressions needed time for lodgment in the mind, and so should be prolonged till they had taken root there. This was not effected by bare repetition, which did but produce satiety. A divided attention weakened the impression of each of its ideas, and so teachers must remove the causes of distraction by offering to their pupils greater and more powerful attractions. Again, attention was automatic or volitional, a very important distinction ; for volitional attention in young children was very weak. So they especially needed powerful attractions appealing to their senses to win their attention from the number of counter-attractions which solicited their will. With increasing years children’s volitional attention increased, and so intellectual attractions were required which appealed more to their sympathy. The habit of attention was only formed by systematic use of it. Very young children could not be much influenced by high motives of duty, truth, or economic advantage. They lived chiefly in the present, and so must be approached through°it. Properly conducted examinations were considered powerful quickeners of

attention. Every task set should be carefully examined and appraised. Examinations -were only mischievous if they produced distraction. They strengthened the roots of knowledge when properly conducted. “A child who knew his work entered the examination like a war-horse who scented the battle from afar.” Speaking of examinations,generally, he said that teachers disliked them on account of there being so much work to do in so short a time. The Times newspaper had said, “ What kills is not work, but worry.” He would also add, “ Work per se and too much of it.” The reader said that an attitude of attention favoured the exercise of attention, and so good class-drill was useful. Proper safety-valves must be provided or the children would be very inattentive, though seemingly very attentive. Emotional excitement was a pow'erful aid to attention, for if pleasurable we willingly prolonged it, and were glad to recur to it ; while if painful it compelled us to attend to it. He lastly touched on the classes of association by which matter was reproduced, 1. Associations of contiguity which were low in order and possessed by the beasts. 2. Associations of Resemblance and Difference, which were more valuable as the mind must compare, discriminate, reason. 3. Associations of Cause and Effect, which were valuable, especially in the teaching of science, if we guarded against the fallacy of Post hoc ergo propter hoc. The Canon was listened to for nearly an hour with great atttenion, and very loudly applauded at the conclusion of his paper.

A VISIT TO THE KINDER GARTEN SCHOOL AT SOUTH YARRA.

The merits of the Kinder Garten system received lately in this paper ample consideration from the pen of Miss Wilhemnia Rule, a lady skilled in the matter, and it may well be asked wby Frobel’s principles, which have found such favour with advanced educationalists, have not yet been applied to the State course of training, so as to give every teacher who may be charged with the management of infants an insight into the principles of a system that can do so much to strengthen and develop the mind of early childhood. Happily, our contributor lias for some time past been giving to the public an able and a practicable exposition of the merits and advantages of Frobel’6 teaching. In Walsh-street, South Yarra, Miss Vaughan, a lady who has studied the system at home, is now carrying on in full operation a Kinder Garten school ; and from the happy faces and interested looks of her little protégés, there can be no doubt of the success of her work in leading children to the domain of knowledge by the path of pleasurable exertion.

The special studies consist mainly of a rapid way of teaching reading by a phonetic plan, and of teaching writing or drawing by tracing simple patterns on copy-books ruled in small squares, thereby leading to a ready command of pen or pencil ; also lessons on form and color are given, besides practice in the folding or plaiting of colored papers, building and designing with toy bricks, and even the simpler kinds of modelling in clay. In fact, such tasks are undertaken as will please the taste of children, while being skilfully designed to train their thinking powers, and to develop a taste for construction ; and in harmony with this purpose it should be noted that play and physical exercise find a fitting place in the actual school course.

A taste for reading will, with average opportunities, make a man a scholar, while a taste for school is at least likely to lead to rapid progress in the path of knowledge ; and from the pleasant associations mingled in this system with a young child’s school course, the happiest results may be expected. Learning with little effort, taste for steady application and mental flexibility may thus be easily promoted, while a strong foundation will be laid, and a preparation effected with the plastic disposition of early childhood that will facilitate study and lead to successful effort at a more advanced period.

We have reason to think that the parents have to thank Miss Vaughan much for doing a good work, the fruits of which will be neither few nor unimportant ; and, while hoping that many children may be brought within the sphere of that lady’s amiable and beneficial influence, we earnestly hope that not only other Kinder Garten schools may be opened ; but also that the benefits of this excellent system may not be confined to children of the well-to-do classes, but that others of humble station may likewise share in its advantages and privileges.

PUBLICATIONS RECEIYED.

We have received a copy of the Schoolmaster Waltz, published under the nom de plume of State school 1420. This is a graceful composition, and of more than average merit. It has been well printed by Messes. C. Troedel tc Co., and can be obtained from all the leading music sellers in Melbourne, Ballarat and Geelong.

Mr. M. L. Hutchinson’s “ Australian Almanac and Educational Register” for the year 1882 is to hand. This useful publication has now reached its twenty-third year, and certainly exhibits no signs of decrepitude. The list of teachers has been revised up to a later date than that of the Education Report, which will make it of special value to State school teachers.

Mb. M. L. Hutchinson, bookseller, Collins-street West, has forwarded us specimen copies of an additional shipment just landed of Messrs. Blackie and Son’s Comprehensive School Series, consisting of : The Elementary Historical Reader, pt. I. and II. ; The Geographical Reader, pt. IV.; The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales ; The Lady of the Lake; Geography, Scotland and Ireland; and the Home‘Lesson Book I.

I.

WARREN BALL’S “Hints to Candidates for Teachers’ and Matricur lation Examinations,” Is.; posted, Is. Id. Mullen, Melbourne.

GOVERNMENT

c

ANDIDATES for EXAMINATIONS prepared by correspondence or otherwise. I. Warren Ball, South Yarra.

H

EAD TEACHER, allotment 30 x 50, results 82, desires exchange bet ween Belfast and Colac. “ Novo,” Post Office, Warrnambool.

M

ALE ASSISTANT, Melbourne, wishes to exchange (after Christmas) with Assistant, Geelong. Address, “ Lingua,” G.P.O., Melbourne.

HEAD TEACHER, allotment 30 x 50, rising township, agricultural district, worktnistress position vacant, desires exchango with another in suitable locality. Address—“Doceo,” Schoolmaster Office.

HEAD TEACHER, country school, allotment 30 x 50, Western district, desires exchange. Gippsland or Ballarat preferred. Address—“J.S.,’ Schoolmaster Office.

HEAD TEACHER, Western District, allotment 20 x 30, four rooms, four acres land attached, wishes exchange with Head Teacher or Assistant Geelong or Melbourne. Address, A. Z. Macarthur.

HEAD TEACHER, 8 miles from Euroa, allotment 20 x 30, 76-81 per cent. Coach passes every day mile from the school, would exchango with an assistant in a large town, (sea-sido preferred). Address, “ Diana,” Euroa.

Education Department, Melbourne, 12th Novembor, 1881. SCIENCE.

AN EXAMINATION of TEACHERS in the different sciences enumerated below will be held at school No. 391, Spring-street. Melbourne, on Friday and Saturday, 16th aud 17th December, 1881, commencing at 9 30 a.m. : —

Physiology

Botany

Geology aud Mineralogy Magnetism and Electricity Acoustics, Light and Heat Mechanics and Hydrostatics Chemistry Metallurgy.

Only teachers who are recorded as holding a certificate of competency under the department, or who shall have passed in all subjects except Time Table and Collective Lesson, with notes thereof, and Class Drill for such classification will be permitted to attend this examination.

Notice of intention to attend, specifying the subject intended to be taken up, addressed to the Secretary, Education Department, Melbourne, must be received on or beforo the 30th November, 1881.

T. BOLAM,

Acting Secretary.

AN ASSISTANT ;n town, salary £114*, wishes to exchange with Head Teacher in country in a better position, Apply, “Anser,” General Post Office.

EAD TEACHER, near Melbourne, allotment 30 x 50, results 90, wants exchange. Vacancy for Workmistress. Address, Borung, G.P.O.,

H

Melbourne.

HEAD TEACHER, 30 X o0 school, Shcpparton district, 5 miles from Railway station, wishes to exchange with Head Teacher in South Gippsland. Address, Exchange, Shepparton.

HEAD TEACHER, 23 miles from Melbourne, daily coach, wants exchango with assistant in Town or Suburb. “Desirous,” care P. Matthews, Esq., 52 Collins-street.

HHEAD TEACHER Country School, Salary £132, residence free, desires to exchange with any assistant in Melbourne or Suburb. Address G. Wylie, Esq., 67 Drummond street North, Ballarat.

HEAD TEACHER, 20 to 30, good chance for 30 to 50, results 88-235) wishes exchange assistant Melbourne or Suburbs. Lower income accepted. “ M.B.,” Natimuk.

A CARD.—A COUNTRY TEACHER, through failing health, wishes to exchange for a cooler climate. Assistantship in a town preferred.

No. of children on roll, 60. Department allotment 30 x 50, building new, opened this year, 30 x 20 feet, four-roomed dwelling attached.

Shooting, fishing, boating, bathing, hunting, riding, cricket, and permanent water. Every inducement. Salary about £165. Postal address, <l Rubicon ” Cherry Tree, Big Hill, Sandhurst.

Punch Almanac, 1882

Will

be

Published

6tii DECEMBER, 1881. 6th DECEMBER, 1881.

Will

be

Published

Punch Almanac, 1882.

ALEX. M'KINLEY & CO., PUBLISHERS 61 QUEEN ST.

GOVERNMENT

Education Department,

Melbourne, 12th November, 1881. GYMNASTICS.

AN EXAMINATION of TEACHERS desirous of becoming qualified to IMPART INSTRUCTION in GYMNASTICS will be held at the Central school, No. 391, Spring-street, Melbourne, on Thursday and Friday, the 8tli and 9th December, at 9.30 a.m. The practical portion will be taken on the 8th, and the theoretical on the 9th.

Notices of int ention to attend this examination must be lodged at this office not later than Wednesday, the 30th November, 1881.

T. BOLAM,

Acting Secretary.

Education Dopartmont, Melbourne, 12th November, 1881.

A N EXAMINATION of TEACHERS and CANDIDATES for EMPLOY-J_A_ MENT as teachers in State Schools, will be held at school No. 391 Spring-street, Melbourne, on Thursday and Friday, loth and 16th December’ 1881, commencing at 9.30 a.m. This examination will bo for certificate of competency only.

Candidates will be required to give notice of their intention to attend addressed to the Secretary, Education Department, Melbourne. All such notices must be received on or before the 30th November, 1881.

All candidates, other than teachers, assistants, first-class pupil teachers and workmistresses actually employed in State schools, desirous of attending the examination, will be required to pay a foe of 10s. beforo being examined.

Satisfactoiy evidence that each candidate, if a male, is upwards of eightcon and, if a female, upwards of seventeen years of age, with certificates of sound health and moral character, must accompany each notico to attend examination.

T. BOLAM.

Acting Secretary.

Education Department. Melbourne, 12th Novooibcr, 1881. DRAWING.

AN EXAMINATION of PERSONS desirous of qualifying thorn selves to 1EAC.FI DRAWING in State schools will be held at the Central school, No. 391, Spring-street, Melbourne, on Wednesday and Thursday the 7th and 8th Deocmber, at 9.30 a.ra.

Candidates not employed in State schools will be required to pay a fee of 10s previous to being examined.    '

Notices of intention to attend this examination must bo lodged at this offic# not later than Wednesday, the 30th November, 1881.

T. BOLAM,

Acting Secretary.

Education Department, Melbourne, 12th November, 1881. MUSIC.

A N EXAMINATION of PERSONS desirous of qualifying themselves to A— TEACH MUSIC in State schools will bo held at the Central school, No. 391, Spring-street, Melbourne, on Monday and Tuesday, the 5th and 6tll December, at 9.30 a.m.

Candidates not employed in State schools will be required to pay a fee of 10s previous to being examined.

Notice of intention to attend this examination must bo lodged at this office not later than Saturduy, the 26th November, 1881.

T. BOLAM,

Acting Secretary.

Education Department, Melbourne, 14th November, 1881 MILITARY DRILL.

AN EXAMINATION of TEACHERS desirous of qualifying themselves to impart instruction in Military Drill will bo hold at School No. 391 Spring-street, Molbourne, on Monday, the 12th Decomber, 1881, commencing at 9.30 a.m.    h

The examination will bo a written one, and will comprise—

2. M.arching.

3. Squad Drill in single rank 4. Squad Drill, in two ranks.

5. Company Drill.

Candidates passing in the written examination, as abovo. will be roquired to undergo a practical test in addition thereto before becoming fully qualified as instructors in drill.

Notices of intention to attend must he received at this office not later than Monday, the 5th December, 1881.

T, BOLAM,

Acting Secretary.

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MULLER’S MATRICULATION MANUALS.

POPE’S ESSAY ON MAN, Epistles 1 to 3; and TEN ESSAYS of ADDISON, from the “Spectator.” In One Volume, Crown 8^0, Limp. Is.

POPE’S ESSAY ON MAN, Epistles 1 to 3; and TEN ESSAYS of ADDISON, from the “Spectator.” Prepared with Notes for the use of Candidates for the Matriculation Examinations at the Melbourne University. By E. E. Morris, M.A. In One Volume, Crown 8vo, Cloth. 3s.

VIRGIL’S AENEID, Book XII., and CiESAR,’S GALLIC WAR, Book VI. Prepared with Notes for the use of Candidates for the Matriculation Examinations at the Melbourne University. By James Clezy, M.A. Second Edition, Revised. Fcap. 8vo, Limp. 2s.

VIRGIL'S AENEID, Book XII., and CTESAR’S GALLIC WAR, Book VI. Translated by James Clezy, M.A. Ecap. 8vo, Sewed. 2s. 6d.

FIRST BOOK OF AUSTRALIAN BOTANY. Specially designed for the Use of Schools. By W. R. Guilfoyle, E.L.S., C.M., R.B.S., London ; Director of the Melbourne Botanical Gardens. Illustrated, Crown 8vo, Sewed. 2s. 6d.

O c. EXAMINATION.

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Course of Lessons by Correspondence in Latin Grammar, Translation, and Composition.

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The Shakespeare Reader, being Extracts from the Plays of Shakespeare, specially selected as fulfilling Article 28 and Schedule IV. of the Education Code. With Introductory Paragraphs and Notes Grammatical, Historical and Explanatory. Foolscap 8vo, 160 pp. cloth, ls.

Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome. A Hand book of Greek and Roman Mythology, for Schools and private Students. By E. M. Borens. Illustrated from Antique Sculptures, Eoolscap 8vo, 330 pp., cloth 3s.

Poetical Reader, for the use of Elementary Schools in England and Scotland. Foolscap 8vo, 224 pp., cloth ls. 6d.

London, Past and Present. a Reading-book for Elementary Schools. With numerous authentic Illustrations. Foolscap 8vo, 288 pp., cloth 2s.

The Scottish Historical Reader; being Extracts from Eminent Writers Descriptive of Events in Scottish History, with Introductory notes. This volume will supply a fuller account of leading events in Scottish history than can bo embodied usually in School histories, and being composed chiefly of extracts from the works of approved writers will form excellent reading lessons. It is adapted more especially for the requirements of the Fourth Standard.

HOME LESSON BOOKS.

The object of this scries is to place in the hands of the Pupil a certain amount of Standard work, which will enable him to grasp the leading facts of English History, Geography, and Grammar, and at the same time lighten tho work of the Teacher. The questions in Arithmetic are mixed in order to test the pupil’s knowledge.

M E L B O U R N E,

Further Particulars and Catalogues from All Booksellers,

Or their Representative, GEO. STILLIE, care of Messrs. COWAY & Co,,

WHOLESALE STATIONERS,

tffoal g epuri ment.

LONDON SCHOOL BOARD.

Mr. Edward North Buxton, at the meeting of the London School Board, on 6th October, made the following remarks from the chair :—

A few weeks before we separated for the recess, I invited from you an expression of your wishes as to whether I should maintain the custom, introduced by my predecessor, of making an annual statement of our work. A considerable majority were in favour of my continuing the practice of recording our progress, and of noting the most important matters that have come to the front during the year. I need hardly say that this entirely accords with my own inclination, and I have much pleasure in presenting for your recollection, and for the information of those who send us here, a brief account of our operations during the past twelve months. In doing so I shall, as far as possible, coniine myself to facts carefully ascertained, and, where I have to draw my inferences fiom them, I wish it to be understood that the opinions indicated are my own opinions, and that no one is committed to them but myself. I feel sure that the most prominent thought which occupies our minds on this day of our re-assembling for another year’s work is of the heavy personal losses which we have sustained since the corresponding day last year. Both Sir Charles Reed and Mr. Rogers were unceasingly occupied with the details of our committees almost up to the day of their deaths, and if their unselfish devotion to School Board work did not, as some believe, shorten their lives, at least it may be truly said of them that they died in harness. It is a satisfaction to us to hope that we shall before long possess a valuable presentment of their well-remembered features in two busts, which will be placed in this room, but a more lasting memorial of these good men exists in the impress which each of them has made upon the character of our work ; the one by his wise leadership and foresight, the other by his enthusiastic and unremitting toil, and both of them by the “ infinite capacity for taking pains ” which is said to amount to genius. The work which is transacted in these offices is so varied and multifarious, that from the first we have found “ division of labour ” necessary, and in reviewing our operations it is convenient to considei them under the headings of the departments which are controlled respectively by our seven standing committees. Ihese are Statistics, Works, School Management, Compulsory Bye-Laws, Industrial Schools, Educational Endowments, and Finance.

STATISTICAL COMMITTEE.    _

The Statistical Committee, whose business it is to ascertain the number of children of school age in a given area, the number of school places already provided, and—after making the necessary deductions for illness and other causes—to recommend to us the new schools that may be necessary to provide for the balance, stands first in the natural sequence.

CENSUS of 1SS1.

In considering the larger district outside of this limited area, we find a very different state of things. The wider zone has increased in the past decade at the rate of 27-6 per cent. I transcribe from the Registrar-General’s report a table showing the rates per cent, of increase of each of the registration districts comprised in the outer belt, from which it will be seen that the further we move from the centre the moro rapid is the increase.

 Districts inside of Central Area, Inc 1861—71. rease per ce 1871—81. rnt. 1861—81, Kensington ... ... 4S-8 24-4 85-1 Fulham ... ... ... 64-9 73-8 1866 Chelsea ... ... ... 12-1 23-9 38'9 Hampstead ...... 69-0 40-8 137-8 Pancras......... 11-4 6-7 18-8 Islington......... 37 6 32-2 819 Hackney...... ... 50 0 49-2 123-8 Bethnal Green...... 14-3 5-7 20-8 Stepney ... ...... 2-0 1-4 3-4 Mile End Old Town ... 27-5 13*3 44-5 Poplar ... ... ... 46-9 34-5 97-6 St. Saviour, Southwark... 0-7 11-5 12-2 St. Olave, Southwark ... 20-1 10-0 32-1 Lambeth ... ... ... 28-6 21-7 56-5 Wandsworth ... ... 77-6 68-2 198-8 Camberwell ...... 55-7 67-6 161-0 Greenwich ... ... 170 30-5 52-7 Lewisham ...... 61-2 42-2 129 -3 Woolwich ... ... 2-8 10-1 7-0

Looking at the extraordinarily rapid growth in some of these parishes which is as certain to continue as the sun is to rise in the morning the question arises whether we are always justified in waiting till' the children are on the ground before providing for them, and whether we should not look a little more forward than we have been in the habit of doing in the purchase of sites, and building of schools. Not only will it be an economical measure to anticipate by a year or two the arrival of the population, because the sites may be so much more cheaply purchased, but when we remember that an interval of two yerrs elapses from the first recommendation of a school by the Statistical Committee to its opening, and that the numbers are in the meanwhile in many districts' increasing annually with rapid strides, it is clear that large numbers of children will be left for a time without schooling, unless we have regard, not to the present population, but to that which we may predict with certainty mill be the population two years hence. Probably it may be well to tabulate the annual rate of increase in each registration dis-

trict, and have them before us in considering the accommodation needed I commend this matter to the Statistical Committee.

WORKS COMMITTEE.

The Works Committee may be described as the executive of the Statistical Committee. Their function is to select the sites and build the schools. The choice of positions for our schools has to be made with extreme care, as we here encounter many opposing interests. Neighbouring voluntary schools are sometimes nervous about the effect on their attendance, though in a far less degree than used to be the case. Property holders are often alarmed at the effect of a Board school on the value of their houses. Other land owners are not less anxious to sell their land to the School Board, and all sorts of means are adopted to press upon the consideration of the “ Sub-Committee of Sites” the eligibility of a particular plot. That this duty is performed with care and judgment is shown by the fact that out of the large number of sites recommended to the Education Department, who have the ultimate veto, only a very small percentage have been finally ejected. The cheerful appearance, convenient arrangement, and solid construction of our schools are the result of the accumulated experience often years, centring in our architect’s department where every suggested improvement likely to be of value is adopted, as far as possible.

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT.

The appointment of our teachers, the arrangement of the curriculum and all the varied and complicated details connected with the organisation of our schools, are under the charge of our School Management Committee, “ What is to be taught ? aud how is it to be taught ?” are questions which occupy a very large part of our time. With regard to the former question, it is needless to dwell on the fact that it is not in our hands, but in the discretion of the Education Department, to lay down the main lines for our guidance. By far the greater time of our teachers is devoted to imparting the three primary subjects to our children. It is satisfactory to find that we still maintain our supremacy over the rest of the country, now established for some years, in the proportionate number of children who pass in the “three Its.” The following table shows this :—

PERCENTAGE OP PASSES.

In all schools in In London England and    Board.

Wales.    Schools.

Reading    ...    ...    SS-25    ...    ...    89-3

Arithmetic    ...    ...    79 '9    ...    ...    83'3

But while our chief efforts arc devoted to laying the foundations of education, and the great majority of our children are still in the lowest standards, it is encouraging to note some progress in the standards to which our children attain. Thus in 1878 less than one in five of our children attained to the fourth and higher standards. This proportion has almost risen to one in three.

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION.

There is only one subject generally taught in our schools which is not included in the Code of the Education Department. This is religious knowledge. The best test of our progress in this matter is afforded in the annual examination for Mr. Peek’s prizes. ^ The numbers entering for the preliminary examination were 141,274 this year, as against 127,501 last year, and 112,979 in 1879. Mr. Ricks, who kindly superintended his laborious work, says : “ The results are in no respect inferior to those of former years, but show, in some respects, a clear improvement;” and that, “ almost without exception, the teachers give to the Bible instruction all that care and attention which the importance of the subject demands.” On the other hand, it was remarked with regret that there was a considerable falling off in the number of pupils teachers who presented themselves for the annual examination. Doubtless the pressure on pupil teachers is heavy, and there is a temptation to drop out subjects that do not “ pay.” Moreover, many of them had already entered for this examination more than once in previous years, and probably thought it needless to go over the same ground again. Still, it is very important that our teachers of the future should be adequately trained and tested in religious knowledge, and I presume that the School Managing Committee will look into this matter.

COST OF SCHOOL MAINTENANCE.

A great deal of attention has been called by the recent report of the Education Department to the high cost of school maintenance in our London Board Schools as compared with the boards of other large towns. The report of the special committee on the comparative cost of school maintenance, presented to the board in December, 1880, throws much light upon the question. It is worthy of note that the nett expenditure for school maintenance fall upon the rates has been singularly uniform since 1874. It was £1 12s 8d per child in that year, £1 12s 9d last year, and it has hardly been varied in the interval. It is, however, the gross cost that we must chiefly consider. I here give a table showing the gross annual cost per child of school maintenance for the past six years :—

Average gross annual cost per child on the average attendance in London Board schools : —

 Year ended Gross Cost. March 25th. £ s. d. 1874 ... ... 249 1875 ... ... 278 1876 . ... 2 11 10 1877 ... ... 2 12 3 1878 ... ... 2 15 0 1879 ... ... 2 17 G 1880 ... ... 2 19 3 1881 ... ... ... 2 17 I

It is for us to justify this expenditure to ourselves and our constituents, or, if we are unable to do so, to reduce our staff, to diminish the scale of salaries, and cut down the expenditure or apparatus and other items. I believe that when the facts are examined we shall not be recommended to take this course by those who send us here. We shall not cease to keep a vigilant watch in our committees, as we have overdone, on every item, and to economise wherever it is possible, but to depart from the general policy that we have adopted can only be done at the expense of efficiency.

EFFECT OF NEW SCHOOLS ON EXPENDITURE,

It will be remembered that we differ from other boards in the large number of new schools that we have still to open every year. Most other large towns completed, or nearly completed, their school provision some years ago, whereas in London we have still to add something like

20,000 fresh school places each year, and this has a marked effect on the expenditure per child. It must be some time before wo shall have provided for the past, and in the meantime there is an annual increment of more than 9,000 children requiring places. The effect of this is twofold. In the first place a new school is some time filling up, and therefore the cost is spread over a smaller number of children. In tire next we have every year to stock a number of neur schools with apparatus and books —a heavy item which is required to be added to current expenditure. Moreover for the first year we receive no grant. Although this does not affect the gross expenditure it reduces the average grant per child. Of course the proportionate number of new schools added yearly is less now than it was, and the effect of this is shown in the fact that we reached the turning point in the expenditure last year, and it will be scon by reference to the table given above, that the gross expenditure per child is reduced this year by 2s 2d.

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS.

If we now examine the expenditure in detail, we find that we do not, considering the special conditions in London, compare unfavourably with other towns in the “ miscellaneous” items, and I do not doubt that this amount will be further decreased as the proportion of new schools to old diminishes. These miscellaneous items therefore do not call for further remark, except that many of them, such as fuel, rent and rates, are generally higher in London than elsewhere.

TEACHERS’ SALARIES AND STAFF.

There remains then the very heavy item of teachers’ salaries, in which will be found the chief difference of cost between London and other towns, and which, therefore, demands full consideration. With regard to the staff, our rule is to reckon the head teacher or a pupil teacher for thirty children, and an assistant adult teacher for sixty ; and we also allow a larger proportion of adult teachers to pupil teachers than is usual elsewhere. But it will be seen that the Education Department, in their New Code, which comes into force iu the beginning of next year, acknowledge the wisdom of this arrangement by adopting our scale, at least so far as to allow only sixteen children to an adult teacher. We also, undoubtedly, pay our teachers salaries which are somewhat higher than the average. The average salary of an adult male teacher under the London School Board is £144 ; of an adult female, £108 ; whereas the salaries in other schools of the country are respectively £121 2s 7d and £72 128 8d. It will, however, be remembered that the teachers in London Board schools have no houses allowed them, although this is very frequently the case elsewhere, where it is, of course, considered in the salary. Moreover, the cost of living is higher in London than elsewhere, The truth of this latter statement and its bearing on the scale of our salaries is shown by a comparison of the average gross cost of London voluntary schools with voluntary schools elsewhere. The former exceeds the latter by Gs 2,’d per child. Still, it must be acknowledged that, even after allowing for all these circumstances, we do pay somewhat more than the average market value of average teachers ; and we do this deliberately, because it is not a dead level of average ability, but the best of their class, among the teachers that we require for our schools. The deficiency of schools in London has been so great, and the proportion of neglected children consequently so large, that we believe ourselves justified in providing them with teachers who will make the most of the brief years during which the child remains under their hands.

GRANTS.

It is, however, sometimes urged that the results as indicated by the grant are not commensurate with our expenditure. To this I reply— first, that our schools are too new to have reached their maximum grantearning power, a large proportion having been established for less than five years ; secondly, that we are able to show a marked superiority in the three fundamental subjects to which our attention should bo chiefly directed ; thirdly, that the good work which is done by a first-rate teacher is not to be measured merely by the grant. The fact that the grant is so nearly equal throughout the schools of the country, whether good, bad, or indifferent, shows that it is an imperfect guide, and the President and Vice-President of the Council seem to acknowledge this in their new proposals. The latter says “ Under the ‘ special merit’ clause the inspector is to have regard to the organisation and discipline, to the employment of intelligent methods of instruction, and to the general quality of the work in each school, especially iu the standard examination, and should have power to recommend an additional grant on the average attendance, varying in amount as the school was in these respects fair, good, or excellent.” We cannot doubt that the systematic manner in which drawing, drill, and physical exercises, the kindergarten methods, &c., are taught in other schools will, under this system, tell upon our grants to the advantage of the ratepayers.

(To be continued).

The Silesian Botanical Society exhibits a machine which enables a person even to hear plants grow,

NOTES OF A LESSON ON

SUNSTROKE.

By G, H. Morton.

For an Upper Class, ordinary apparatus. Time—One hour.

Matter.

Method

Matter,

Method.

II. Temperature of the BLOOD DURING HEALTH.

III. Various WAYS OF OVERHEATING THE BLOOD.

IV. Cause of Sunstroke.

V. Precautions.

The term “ Sunstroke” is hardly suitable, as it is apt to convey the impression that a person is suddenly struck down by the direct rays of the sun. (1). That the sun is the primary cause of most cases is certainly true, but they are all due to an overheating of the blood, by whatever means brought about. Heat-stroke would, therefore, be a more applicable term.

The ordinary temperature of the blood when a person is in a state of health, both in summer 01-winter, during exertion or while at rest, varies very little on either side of 98° F. (2.)

The principal cause which regulates the temperature of the blood is as follows : When the blood gets overheated it causes a tlow of perspiration (3) from the sweat glands in proportion to the excess of heat. This perspiration evaporating on the surface of the skin cools the blood near, which passes on through the system, and warmer blood takes its place to be cooled in turn. (4.)

The blood can be heated or overheated by

(a)    Exertion, such as running.

(b)    External heat, such as a fire or the sun

(c)    By preventing its superfluous heat from escaping. (5.)

(dJ Eating fatty or other heatforming foods. (6.)

Recapitulate.

Anything which causes the blood to be heated to excess, the flow of perspiration being at the same time impeded, may bring on an attack of sun, or more properly, heatstroke. (7.)

The following precautions are deemed necessary during summer : (8.)

[a and b) Unnecessary exposure to heat to be avoided. (9.)

(c)    To wear light and loose clothing.

(d)    To abstain from fatty, or other heat-forming foods. (10.)

Recapitulate the whole.

VI. S Y M p- The symptoms are not always t oMs.    the same. In some cases the heart’s

action is stopped altogether, and with it the breathing. In others the face is flushed, with heavy breathing, and sometimes complete insensibility. But in all cases if a

(1.) Introduce to class by telling them you are about to give a lesson on Sunstroke. Ask them what sunstroke is, and you will probably get such an answer as, “ being struck down by the heat of the sun.”

Recapitulate.

(2.) Explain briefly the thermometer and its uses.

(3) Educe this by asking the class what they notice on their skin (1) after running hard, (2) if they continue running or exerting themselves.

(4.) Ask meaning of evaporation, and explain how evaporation produces coolness by reference to a canvass water-bag. The moisture on the exterior of the bag is turned into vapour - vapour = water + heat. The heat, besides, from other sources, is drawn from the water, thus cooling it. Recapitulate.

(5.) Educe by asking class how they would warm themselves on a cold day if fa) sent outside (exertion) ; (b) inside (by a fire) ; (c) if no fire (by putting on more clothes).

(6.) Illustrate the heat-forming properties of foods by reference to the staple foods of inhabitants of the Northern regions, and compare them with those of tropical countries,

(7.) Educe this by questioning on the foregoing heads.

Recapitulate.

(8.) These may be educed by referring to causes which heat the blood under heading III. Refer to cases of sunstroke occurring recently in England and France during reviews. (10.) Notice that we often here of pigs being sun-struck, probably owing to the grossness of their food,

Lecturing,

VII. Treatment.

VIII. Statistics.

IN. Probable causes of

F Ii E E D O M

from Sunstroke in this Colony.

thermometer be applied to a convenient part of the body,such as the armpits, it will show an increase up to 10 or more degrees on the ordinary temperature of the blood.*

If a medical man be not handy the patient can be safely treated in the meantime by the application of cold to the surface (11) by means of wet towels, &c., applied to different parts of the body, &c. (12.)

During the years 1869-78, 61 fatal cases of suustroke occurred iu this colony. This number is small, however, compared to some parts uf the world. In the city of New York, for instance, no less than 1S9 fatal cases occurred in the first four days of July, 1872, and no further back than the 26th of last August 60 deaths were recorded for that one day in the same city.

Our hottest days arc generally accompanied by hot. dry winds, which promote a profuse perspiration, and, owing to their extreme dryness, facilitate evaporation, which, as before shown, has a cooling effect on the blood. (13.)*

(11.) What effect will this have ?

(12.) Elicit from class.

Recapitulate.

Lecturing.

(13.) Notice that we often get very hot if exerting ourselves during misty or rainy weather— excess of moisture retards evaporation.

Recapitulate the whole.

A synopsis of the whole should appear on the blackboard at the end of the lesson, to be placed there as the teacher is dealing with each head.

This lesson, if more suitable, may be conveniently divided into two, the second one commencing at head VI., care being taken to recapitulate the former lesson before proceeding with the remaining heads.

*See Australian Health Society's Tract on Sunstroke.

[ITelbounu Hitibcrstiir.

The following are the Pass Papers set by the University at the Matriculation Examination, October. 1881 :—

GEOMETRY.

1.    Draw a straight line at right angles to a given straight line from a given point in the same.

2.    Prove that the three interior angles of every triangle are together equal to two right angles.

3.    Prove that in any right-angled triangle the square which is described upon the side subtending the right angle is equal to the squares described upon the sides which contain the right angle.

4.    If a straight line be divided into any two parts the square on the whole line is equal to the squares on the two parts together with twice the rectangle contained by the parts.

5.    Divide a given straight line into two parts, so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the parts shall be equal to the square on the other part.

6.    In every triangle the square on the side subtending either of the acute angles is less than the squares on the sides containing that angle by twice the rectangle contained by either of these sides, and the straight line intercepted between the acute angle and the perpendicular let fall upon it from the opposite angle,

7.    Find the centre of a given circle.

8.    The opposite angles of any quadrilateral figure inscribed in a circle are together equal to two right angles.

9.    If a straight line touch a circle, and from the point of contact a straight line be drawn meeting the circle ; the angles which this line makes with the line touching the circle shall be equal to the angles which are in the alternate segments of the circle.

ENGLISH.

1.    Analyse—“ I have heard him often lament that, in a profession where merit is placed in so conspicuous a view, impudence should get the better of modesty.”

2.    “ Grant that the pow’rful still the weak contronl,

Be man the wit and tyrant of the whole :

Nature that tyrant checks ; he only knows,

And helps another creature’s wants and woes.

Say will the falcon, stooping from above,

Smit with her varying plumage, spare the dove ?”

Parse fully each word which 'is printed in italics in the above passage.

3.    Give the derivations—including roots, prefixes, and suffixes—of— victim, temptation, meadow, parallel, observant, diffuse, escape, politics, critic, belief, ordinary, prevail.

4.    Give six instances of words which can be used either as adverbs or as prepositions, and write sentences illustrating their use in either way.

5.    What is the 1st person singular past perfect conjunctive passive of gnaw? 2nd person singular future perfect indicative active of creep? 3rd person plural past indicative active of chide ? "What is the plural number of—vortex, criterion, virtuoso, miasma, index, penny ? What is the feminine of—heritor, director, marquis, testator, margrave, czar ?

6.    Write out the 22 lines of the “ Essay on Man ” commencing “ Heaven from all creatures” down to “ a life to come.”

7.    Who is addressed as St. John at the commencement of the 1st Epistle of the Essay on Man ? Give some account of him. Who was “ Curtius ” ? Explain “the starving chemist in his golden views supremely blest.” Give a short account of the principal members of the Spectator’s Club.

S. What is the difference between simile and'metaphor ? Give instances from the text-books.

9. What is the use of prepositions in the English language ?

10. Write a short essay on—Fire.

FRENCH.

1.    Translate—“ Vous me dites des merveilles du tombeau de M. de Montmorency, et de la, beauté de Mesdemoiselles de Valençay. Vous écrivez extrêmement bien, personne n’écrit mieux : ne quittez jamais le naturel, votre tour s’y est formé, et cela compose un style parfait. J’ai fait vos compliments à M. de la Rochefoucauld, et à Madame de la Fayette, et à Langlade : tout cela vous aime, vous estime, et vous sert en toute occasion.”—Mme de Scvigné.

18 Février, 1671.

2.    Parse the following words iu the above passage :—dites, Mesdemoiselles, écrivez, personne, mieux, sert.

3.    What is the rule for the formation of the feminine of adjectives ending in fand x 1

4.    Whât lettex-s terminate the substantives which retain the same form in the plural that they have in the singular.

5.    Which two cardinal numbers in French take an s in the plural ? Write out phrases exemplifying this.

6.    Translate—The lady to whom I am writing. The men who are singing. The books which you read.

7.    Write out the present subjunctive of être and avoir.

8.    Into how many conjugations are French verbs divided? Give an example of each.

9.    Translate—I should not speak, I should not have spoken. Should I speak ? Should I not have spoken ?

10.    What do'you understand by a pronominal verb? Give an example

11.    Distinguish between a direct and an indirect regimen.

12.    What is the general rule as to the agreement of the past participle of a verb active accompanied by the auxiliary avoir, when the direct regimen is placed before the participle ? Give an example,

13.    Translate into French—I want a pencil. There are several in my desk. Describe all you saw in that beautiful city. Are you my friend’s sisters ? Yes, we are. I am studying French ; I know its rules well ; but its pronunciation seems difficult to me. If I do not see you to-night, it is because I shall not be able to go out. Wait till the tragedy is over and we will go out together. The books which I have seen. The books which I saw bought.

14.    Translate into French—“ A knowledge of living languages” (says Rollin) “serves as an introduction to all the sciences. By its means we arrive, almost without difficulty, at the perception of an infinite number of beautiful things, which have cost their inventors long and tedious labours. By its means all ages and all countries are open to us. It renders us to a certain extent contemporaries of all times and citizens of all nations, and enables us to converse even at the present day with all the wisest men that antiquity has produced, who seem to have lived and to have laboured for us.

German.

1.    Translate into English— Sie kchertc ins Dorf zurück, es kam ihr leer vor, und in der Dämmerung, als sie die Kinder des Rodel bauern ein wiegte, konnte sie nicht ein einziges Lied über die Lippen bringen, wahrend sie sonst immer sang wie eine Lerche. Sie musste immer denken, wo jetzt ihr Brudersei, was man mit ihm rede, wie man ihn empfange, und doch konnte sie sich das nicht vorstellen. Sie wäre gern hingeeilt und hatte gern allen Menschen gesagt, wie gut er sei, und dass sie auch gut gegen ihn sein mögen ; aber sic tröstete sich wieder, dass Niemand ganz und überall fur den Andern sorgen könne. Und sie hoffte, es würde ihm gut thun, dass er sich selber forthelfe.

2.    Give the verbs in the above passage which are in the subjunctive mood, and explain why they are in the subjunctive.

3.    Decline throughout: Ein weisser Duft; das kleine Dorf; die grosse Fluth.

4.    What classes of nouns are generally masculine ?

5.    Give the 1st person singular Impf. Indie, and Past Participle of the following verbs :—Schlagen, ziehen, nehmen, gebieten, dringen, zerstören, vollziehen, and give their meanings.

6.    What classes of verbs do not take the prefix ge in the Past Participle ? Give examples.

7.    Give the Present Indicative and the Present Subjunctive, in full, of the following Verbs :—Dürfen, nachfolgen, antworten, beurtheilen, schicken.

8.    How do conjunctions affect the position of the verb in a sentence ?

9.    How is the German Present Participle used; and how is the English Present Participle chiefly rendered into German ?

10.    Give the Demonstrative Pronouns. Under what circumstances is the neuter used invariably without regard to the gender and the number of the noun ?

11.    Translate into German—I ought to have done it. When the lesson is finished, you may go. He closed the door and went quickly

up stairs. A year ago. Early in the morning. Had you only told me of it, the letter would have been sent. They say that the unfortunate man has lost his money. The dog has sprung into the water ; the man is standing under the tree. He is older than I. Seeing that the planets resemble the earth, arc they therefore inhabited ?

12. Translate into German—A blind peasant, who could go about without a guide, lived with his daughter in a small village. One evening the daughter suddenly became ill, and the blind man had himself to seek for help. He put a light into the lantern, took it in his hand and went out. An acquaintance, who met him in the street:, remarked, “ I always thought you a prudent man, now I see that you have become childish ; for the light can be of no use to you.” “ I do not carry the light for myself,” replied the old man, “but for you and such as you that you may see me, and step out of the way.”

LATIN.

C.<ESAR, Book VI. ; Vergil, Aenoid, Book XII.

(N.Jd.—In parsing any word taken from the extract, on the paper before you, add the rule from the Grammar, when you can, for its concord or government. State the 'principal parts of the verb, after the example in the Grammar, then its voice, mood, and tense. In parsing a substantive or an adjective, give the nominative and genitive singular, the number, gender and case.

1.    Translate literally—Interim confecta frumentatione milites nostri clamorem exaudiunt: praecurrunt cquites ; quanto res sit in periculo cognoscunt, IIic vero nulla munitio est, quae perterritos recipiat: modo conscripti atque usus militaris imperiti ad tribunum militum centurion-esque ora convcrtunt: quid ab his praecipiatur exspectant. Nemo est tam fortis, quin rci novitate perturbetur. Barbari signa procul conspi-cati oppugnatoiue desistunt: redissc primo legiones crcdunt, quas longius discessisse ex captivis cognoveraut: postca despecta paucitate ex omnibus partibus impetum faciunt.

2.    Select the verbs, in the above extract, that are in the subjunctive mood, and give the reason, in each instance, for its use.

3.    Parse ;—Confecta, periculo, perterritos, usus, ora, redissc.

4.    Translate into English—(a) Tunc recordatus est praeteriti temporis quo puer adhuc, cum posset jucunda fratrum aut aequalim consuctudine frui, cum illis dissidia ac saepc jurgia inierat, quorum nunc magnopere eum poenituit. Eheu, secum reputavit, eqnidem tunc temporis parum intellexi, quanti amicus sit mstimandus. (¿0 Nil adeo Fortune gravis miscrabilc fecit, ut minuant nulla gaudia parte malum.

5.    Put into Latin—(a) The cause of all good men is the same, my son.

(b)    The very mention of that great sorrow has weakened my voice with weeping. (c) I wish (utinam) thou hadst forgiven him. (d) Corn was in no place of so much value as my friend, the merchant, reckoned.

(c)    Let me know where you are, what you are doing, what you have done, and what you are going to do. (/) One does one thing, another another ; but it is the mark of a Christian to do good to all.

6.    Translate literally—

Ut primum discussae umbrae et lux reddifa mcnli,

Ardentis oculorum orbis ad maenia torsit Turbidus, eque rotis magnam respexit ad urbem.

Ecce autem, flammis inter tabulata volutus Ad coelum undabat vertex turrimque tenebat,

Turrirn compactis trabibus quam eduxerat ipse Subdideratque rotas pontisque instraverat altos,

Jam jam fata, soror, superant; absiste marari;

Quo deus et quo dura vocat Fortuna, sequamur.

Stat conferre manum Aencac, stat, quidquid acerbi est,

Morte pati ; neque me indecorcm, germane, videbis Amplius. Hunc, oro, sine me furere ante furorem.

7.    Decline ipse, ulerque, unusquisque, paterfamilias, domus.

8.    Give the dative and ablative plural of dea, filia, genu, iter, bos-quercus, senex,

9.    Compare celer, acer, difficilis, pius, maledicus, benevolus, nequam,

10.    Write down the perfect and supine of coco, lacesso, gcro, haurio misceo. applico, revello.

11.    Explain what is meant by the sequence of tenses.

12.    Give an example of (a) the genitive of quality ; (b) the double dative ; (c) the double accusative ; (d) the use of the gerund and the gerundive.

GEOGRAPHY.

I.

1.    Draw, to the full size of your paper, a map showing, in order, the countries on the Mediterranean sea-board of Africa, and the position of their chief cities ; and give a brief summary of any facts of interest you may know concerning either the countries or the cities.

2.    Give an account descriptive of the different routes from Melbourne to London. State which yci •'•ould prefer, and for what reasons.

3.    What animal and vegei.w productions useful to man come from India. Sweden, Spain, and the South of North America respectively?

4.    Write down what you consider to bo the most important facts in the political geography of Chili.

II.

1.    Mention, in order, the towns, capes, river-mouths, and inlets of the sea which would be passed during a voyage from Melbourne to Adelaide.

2.    Mention six cities of the British Empire larger than Melbourne. Give their locality, their population, and any facts of importance concerning them.

3.    Give a short geographical description of the Lowlands of Scotland.

4.    Describe, with reference to the adjacent towns and provinces, the course of the three rivers which you consider the most important in the British Empire.

P + 1 P-1

lies between

P + 1

ax2 + by- + cz2 = 0 ax +by +cz =0 yx +zx + xy =0

and

0.

86

xl USTE AL ASÌ AN SCHOOLMASTER.

December, 1881.

1.    Explain the means by which the shape and size of the earth have been ascertained.

2.    Explain the theory of the tides. Mention some places at which the ordinary rise and fall is at a maximum, and some other place at which it is at a minimum, and give the reasons in each case.

3.    What is the ordinary annual rainfall in Victoria? Mention some country in which the yearly rainfall is less than in Victoria, and some other country in which it is greater, giving the reasons in each case.

4.    Describe as well as you can the influence of forests on the condition of a country;

ELEMENTARY PHYSICS.

1.    What is meant by the mass of a body, and why cannot we accept weight as a fundamental method of estimating mass ?

2.    State the first law of motion, and explain how you reconcile this law with ordinary experience of the tendency of bodies in motion to come, sooner or later, to rest.

3.    Rapidly revolving grindstones have been known to burst into pieces. How do you account for this result ?

4.    What is meant by the Centre of Gravity of a body ? How would you proceed in order to find the position of the centre of gravity of a plate of metal of irregular oatliue ?

5.    The length of the pendulum of a clock is half a metre. Calculate how many oscillations it will make in an hour.

G. Describe the Mercureal Barometer, and explain how it is used for determining the height of mountains.

7.    Describe fully the process of making and graduating an ordinary ’Mercureal Thermometer.

8.    Explain carefully the various actions that take place when a kettle of cold water is placed on a fire and left there until it boils.

0.    Describe an experiment in which water is frozen by means of its own evaporation.

10. What were the principal improvements in steam machinery introduced by James Wi*tt?

ELEMENTARY PHYSIOLOGY.

1.    Describe the circulation of the blood through the human heart, statiug the results produced by the contraction of its several chambers, and explaining the action of its valves.

2.    Draw a rough sketch of a horizontal section of the eyeball, and name in order the different tunics and humours.

3.    What are the structures entering into the formation of a perfect joint ? Enumerate the chief varieties of such joints, and give examples.

4.    Describe the secretions taking part in digestion, aud their actions upon the principal classes of foods.

5.    What are the differences between inspired and expired air ?

The following are the Honour Papers set by the University at the Matriculation Examination, October, 1881 :—

English.

1.    In the following passage parse fully each word which is printed in italics, and explain the construction of the sentence in each case :—

Command upon me ; to the which my duties Are with a most indissoluble tie.”

“ How you shall bid God ’ild us for your pains.”

“ For the poor wren,

The most diminutive of birds, will fight,

Her young ones in her nest, against the owl.”

“ Making the green one red." t: Out, out, brief candle !”

<! They have tied me to a stake ; I cannot fly,

But, bear-like, I must fight the course.”

“ Was it not yesterday we spoke together ?”

“ If he had been forgotten,

It had been as a gap in our great feast,

And all-thing unbecoming.”

“ If such a one be fit to govern, speak :

I am as I have spoken.

Fit to govern !

No, not to live. 0 nation miserable.”

Ay, sir; there are a crew of wretched souls That stay his cure ; their malady convinces The great assay of art.”

2.    State what changes have taken place in the usage of the relative pronouns since the Elizabethan period. Explain the use of each of them in modern English, illustrating your explanation by examples.

3.    Analyse, and also paraphrase, the following sentence :—“The referring of all to a man’s self, is more tolerable in a sovereign prince, because themselves are not only themselves, but their good and evil is at the peril of the public fortune.”

4.    Explain the meaning which each of the following words bears in its context, and give its derivation :—Seeling, cancel, gouts, adage, harp’d, baited, burses, humours, dudgeon, warrant, saucy, chaudroD, mansionry, sequester, aculeate, bias.

5.    State in what sense an adverb can be said to qualify a noun. State also what class of adverbs qualify adjectives and adverbs.

G. Give briefly the argument of Bacon’s Essay on Anger.

7. Modernise the following passages, and give reasons for the alterations which you make :—

“ There be that delight in giddiness.”

“ If you listen to David’s harp you shall hear,”

“ The first man took hold of it and found means it was told the Queen.”

“Sylla did a little resent thereat.”

“ Nature will lay buried a great time.”

“ Are ye fantastical ?”

“ The worm that’s fled hath nature that in time will venom breed.”

“ I have words that would be howl'd out in the desert air.”

8.    Give some account of Banquo, Fleance, Lady Macbeth, illustrating your description with passages from “ Macbeth.”

9.    What reasons are there for believing that some parts of Macbeth” were not written by Shakespeare ?

10.    What meanings does the preposition “ of” bear ? Give examples.

11.    From what languages has English been principally recruited ? At what periods and throagh what channels were Latin words mostly introduced ? Give examples.

12.    Write an essay on—Extremes meet.

ALGEBRA.

1,    Prove that

a(b-c) (h + c — a)-+ b(c - a) (c + a - b)2 + c[a -b) (a + b - c)2 = 0.

2,    Prove that when m and n are positive integers

am. a" = am + ",

and assuming this result to be true for fractional and negative exponent interpret the meaning of am when m is fractional or negative.

3,    If the equations

x2 + ax + bc = 0 x2 + bx + ca = 0

have a common root, show that their other roots satisfy the equation. x2 + cx + ab = 0.

4. Prove that whatever real valuer may have, ax- + hx + c and never differ in sign except when the roots of the equation ax- + hx + c = 0 are real and different and x is taken so as to lie between them.

If y; be greater than y, then for all rea’ values of x the expression

x2 -2qx + p2 v , ^    P~1 x- + 2 qx+jF

6. If prove that

a

b - c c - a + a - b

~• If —-= 77 =—r — &c., prove that each of these ratios is equal to

/pan + qbn + rc'n + .... \ _L \y;a''1 + qb'n + rc'n + ,...) n

Solve the equations

x2    y2 _ z2    x3 y3 z3

a    b c    a3 + b2 ^ c- '

8.    Define a geometrical progression, and show how to find the sum of any number of terms of such a progression. The sum to infinity of a certain geometrical progression is s, and the sum to infinity of the series formed by taking its first, third, fifth, &c., terms is s'. Find the first term and the common ratio of the series.

9.    Prove that in the scale of which the radix is r, a number is divisible by r - 1 when the sum of its digits is so divisible, Show that, in the ordinary scale of notation, the difference between the square of any number consisting of two digits and the square of the number formed by interchanging these digits is divisible by 99.

10.    Find a formula for the number of combinations of n things taken r together. If the number of combinations of 2n things taken n-1 together be to the number of combinations of 2n — 2 things taken together as 132 to 35, find n.

_ 11- Enunciate and prove the Binomial Theorem for a positive integral exponent. If n be a positive integer prove that

l+.z n{n-1) l+2z ~nl + nx+ L2 (T+ nx)_ n(u~l) (n-2)    1 + 3x

1.2.3    (1 +nx)3 + kc-~{>

12. Solve the equations

(i) ^ x2 + 3x +1 + ^ Sx2 + 5x - 7 = 2 \rx2 + x-4 (ii) ax2 + by2 — a2% + b2y = a3 + b3.

9. If sin 2A— \r 2 find sin A.

LATIN.

Livy, Book I. ; CLesar, Book YI.; Horace, Odes, Book III.; Vergil, Aeneid Book XII,

1. Translate into Latin prose—Some days before the execution of Socrates, Crito came to him in prison before daybreak, found him in a sweet sleep, and seated himself quietly by his bed, in order not to disturb him. When Socrates awoke, he said, “Why are you so early today, friend Crito?” Crito mentioned that he had received intelligence, that the next day the sentence of death was to be put into execution. “ If it is the will of God,” answered Socrates, with his usual calmness, “ So be it.”

ENGLISH.

1.    In the following passages parse fully each word which is printed in italics:—“ It was, so please your highness.” “Certainly great persons had, need to borrow other men’s opinions to think themselves happy.” “ Who wear our health but sickly in his life, Which in his death were perfect.” “Whatman ¿are, I dare.” “Returning were as tedious as go o’er.” “ Say what the use, were finer optics given t’ inspect a mite.” “ And sundry blessings hang about his throne that speak him full of grace. ’ “It is worthy the observing.”

2.    Make a complete analysis of the following passage :—“ My worthy friend has put me under the particular care of his butler, who is a very prudent man, and as well as the rest of his fellow-servants, wonderfully desirous of pleasing me, because they have often heard their master talk of me as of his particular friend.” Also, write out in full, each of the attributive and adverbial phrases which occur in the passage, assigning to each of them its place in the grammatical construction of the sentence.

3.    (a) What property of prepositions distinguishes them from conjunctions ?    (b) To what parts of speech, other than nouns or pronouns, are

prepositions sometimes prefixed ? Explain the construction in such cases, (c) When a phrase is formed by a preposition prefixed to a noun or its equivalent, how can it be determined whether it is an attributive or an adverbial phrase ?

4.    Paraphrase the following passages, and point out in what respects they differ from modern usage :—“ A servant or a favourite, if he be inward, and no other apparent cause of esteem, is commonly thought but a by-way to close corruption.”

“ Noble Banquo,

That hast no less deserved, nor must be known No less to have done so.”

“ And something from the palace ; always thought That I require a clearness.”

“ My noble partner

You greet with present grace and great prediction Of noble having and of royal hope,

That he seems rapt withal.”

“ Diet in such places where there is good company.”

“ Wail his fall

“ Who I myself struck down.”

5.    Write out the 24 lines from the “ Essay on Man,” commencing : — “ But errs not nature,” down to “ is to submit.”

6.    Reproduce briefly in your own words the last scene in which the witches are introduced in “ Macbeth.”

7.    Explain the meaning in the following passages of the words which

are printed in italics :—“ Who can ingress the forest ?”    “ The crack of

doom.” “And the receipt of reason (shall be) a limbec only.” “That mixture of falsehood is like allay.” “ When hearing should not latch them.” “My mind she has mated.” “It mates aud masters the fear of death.” “ Art not without ambition but without the illness should attend it.” “ Which is a great adamant of acquaintance.”

8.    Give the derivation of the following words :—Farnham, Llandaff, Scarborough, Winchester, Fenwick, Kilbride, Strathmore, scourge, ally’d, squire, savage, baronet, gentle, jovial, sleave, file.

9.    State briefly what distinction Bacon makes between goodness and goodness of nature, and what he says regarding the errors of goodness and the signs of goodness.

10.    (a) What is there unusual in Addison’s use of the words“ utter”

and “ venture ” ?    (b) What is the meaning of the word “ gust,” and in

what context does Pope use it in the “ Essay on Man ” ? (c) “ Much may be said on both sides.” On what occasion did Sir Roger de Coverley give this decision ? (d) What does Pope imply by the epithet “nice ” as applied to the bee ?

11.    What classes of words are exclusively of Anglo-Saxon origin, and what classes are generally so ?

12.    Write an essay on—Opportunity.

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY.

1.    Two equal circles touch at A and a circle of twice the radius is described having internal contact with one of them at B and cutting the other in P and Q. Prove that the straight line AB will pass through either P or Q.

2.    If two circles touch each other externally the circle described on the straight line joining their centres as diameter will touch their common external tangents.

3.    Inscribe a circle in a given triangle. From the angles A, B, C of a triangle AD, BE, CF are drawn perpendicular to the opposite sides meeting them in D, E, F respectively. Show that the point in which these perpendiculars meet is the centre of the circle inscribed in the triangle BEF.

4.    Describe an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double of the third angle. In the figure of this problem what portion of the circumference of the smaller circle is intercepted by the larger?

5.    Prove that the perpendicular drawn from the right angle of a rightangled triangle to the base is a mean proportional between Ihe segments of the base; and also that each of the sides is a mean proportional between the base and the segment of it adjacent to that side. From any point P on the circumference of a semicircle, PQ is drawn perpendicular to the diameter AB. Through M, the middle point of PQ, are drawn straight lines at right angles to AM and BM, meeting AB in the points a and b respectively. Find the ratio of ab to AB.

6.    Divide a given straight line in extreme and mean ratio. Show that the straight lines joining the alternate angular points of a regular pentagon cut each other in extreme and mean ratio.

7. Describe the two units used in expressing angles numerically, and investigate an equation connecting the numbers which express the same angle in terms of those units. In measuring the length of an arc of a circle whose radius is 100 feet an observer is liable to make an error of £ inch. Show that this is equivalent to making an error of about 34^" in determining the angle which the arc subtends at the centre of the circle.

admits of four values ; find them and explain them.

10.    Prove that sin (.r + ?/-!-z) sin y = sin (.r + y) sin (y +2) - sin x sin 2.

11.    A person walks from one end A of a straight wall a certain distance a towards the west, and observes that the other end B then bears

E.S.E. He afterwards walks from the end B a distance ( ^2 + 1) a towards the south, and finds that the end A bears N.W. Show that the wall makes with the east an angle whose contangent is 2.

12.    Find an expression for the radius of a circle which touches one side of a triangle and the other two sides produced. If rQ be the radius of a circle inscribed in a triangle and rx,r^,rz the radii of circles which touch each side respectively and the other two produced, show that the area of the triangle = \r r6 rx rz.

2. Translate into English—(a) Sex item alias centurias—tribus ab Romulo institutis—sub iisdem quibus iuauguratae erant, nominibus fecit; ad equos emendos dena millia aeris ex publico data, et quibus equos alerent, viduae adtributae, quae bina miliia aeris in annos singulos pen-derent. (¿)—taking the Latin—Spectavere furcis duodens ab terra spectacula alta sustinentibus pedes.

3.    Translate into English—Darius praefecit Megabazum, virum Per-sam, quern magnopere honoraverat, hoc in eum verbo coram Persia dicto. Mala punica comedere cupiverat Darius ; qui postqum primum aperuit malum, quaesivit ex eo frater Artabanus, 1 Quidnam esset cujus tantum sibi numerum esse cuperet, quantus numerus granorum in punico malo ?’ Cui Darius respondit, 1 Yelle se tot Megabazos habere ; hoc enim malle quam Graeciam suae potestati subjectam.’

4.    Put in Latin—(a) Poems are often admired without being understood. (b) It makes no difference to me at all, though perhaps it does to another, (b) You are envied and you are maligned, but there is nothing to prevent your living at Rome or at Athens, at Carthage or in London, (d) I have no doubt his relievers have been sufficiently answered. (e) My brother and I fear you will forget us in our absence ; but having promised to return to Athens by the 5th February, we hope you will have it in your power to be as good as your word, (f) If I may say so without offence, you paid too much for that horse of yours ; it is not worth a straw.

5.    Explain aud connect with the context—Paulo supra hanc momoriam —primum pilum duxerat—Adclarassis—eum frequentiae taedere—dedier *'**■* siris—ab decumana porta—conditum lustrnm—silentium triste actacita moestitia.

6.    Translate the following extracts; note the different readings, if any, and scan the first stanza, marking the quantities :—

(a)    Vos Gaesarem altum, militia simul Fessas cohortes addidit oppidis,

Finiré qnaerentem labores Pierio recreatis antro,

(b)    Unico gaudens mulier marilo Prodeat justis operata sacris,

Et soror clari ducis et decorae

Supplice vitta

Virginum matres juvenumque nuper Sospitum.

(c)    Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici Sospitis centum, et vigiles lucernas Prefer in lucem ; procul omnis esto

Clamor et ira.

{d) Ut in ejusmodi difficultatibus, quantum diligentia provideri poterat providebatur, ut 1 ♦Tns in nocendo aliquid prater-mitteretur, etsi omnium au,.,n ad ulciscendum ardebant, quam cum arique militum detrimento noceretur.

7.    Translate into English—

Nec minus Aeneas, quamquam tardante sagitta Interdum genua impediunt cursumque recusant,

Insequitur, trepidique pedem pede fervidus urguet:

Inclusum veluti si quando ilumine nactus Cervum aut puniceae saeptum formidine pennae Venator cursu canis et latratibus instat;

Ule autem. insidiis ctripa territus alta,

Mille fugit refugitque vias : at vividus Umber Haeret bians, jam jamque tenet, similisque tenenti Increquit mails, morsuque elusus inani est.

8.    Point out any peculiarities in the following constructions Raptim quibus quisque poterat elatis; nequiquam fallís dea; quisque

suum populatus iter; regina tui fidissima ; abstiueto, dixit, irarum calidaeque rixae ; luctatur eripere ; uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis.

II.

1.    What is the genitive plural of bos, terrester, celer, nummus, sestertious, modius, faber, drachma ?

2.    The future infinitive passive is applicable to all genders. Why ?

8. Adduce an example of oratio obliqua, and convert the same into

oratio recta.

4.    What do you understand by the infinitive as subject, the infinitive as object, and the infinitive in exclamation ?

5.    Parse—Nactus ; passis (erinibus) ; pereuntis; Rhodopen; 'Mnesthea; farre ; coiisse.

G. Express in Classical Latin Prose the poetical forms—Invadunt martem ; me verius unum pro vobis foedus luere ; irasci in cornua temptat; Orcum moror.

HISTORY.

I.

1.    A Statute was passed forbidding men to possess more than 2,000 sheep. When was this Statute passed, and under what circumstances ; and what were its effects?

2.    State the history of the Star Chamber and its jurisdiction.

8. Describe the polity of the Saxons—In matters of legislation, in matters of justice, in matters of rank, in matters of war, in matters of land.

4.    Describe the circumstances which led to the enactment of the English poor laws, and explain the nature and effects of those laws.

5.    Describe and contrast the circumstances of the union of England with Scotland, and the circumstances of the union of England with Ireland.

6.    Describe briefly, giving dates, the circumstances of the acquisition or founding (as the case may be) by the English of South Australia, Canada, Cape of Good Hope, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras.

.    .    . n.

1.    Explain fully the rivalry of the Senate and the Equites, and the policy of Cains Gracchus with regard to the latter.

2.    Explain and illustrate the doctrines of Euemerus (Evemerus) and their effects on Roman society.

d. Describe, giving dates, the legislation of Rome with regard to large estates, and state the results.

1. Draw a map of Sicily as known to the Romans, naming the principal places ; and sketch the history of the Siculi up to the first revolt of the slaves.

r    III.

1.    What was the motive for the Attic law as to Ostracism ? Describe, giving dates, some of the principal instances in which this law was applied.

2.    What was the origin, and what was the nature, of the Athenian clcruchies (klerouchiai) 1 State the principal instances, describing the geographical position,

3.    Sketch the western coast of Asia Minor, naming the principal places, and stating the principal events associated with them.

4.    State and explain the position taken up by Socrates with regard to —1. Physics. 2. Ethics. 3. The Sophists.

CONTENTS

Notes of the Month ...... 90

Science and Art Gossip ... 91 Victorian Education Department ...    •••    ••• 92

New Zealand Education Department ...... ••• 93

Matriculation Examination-

Algebra ......... 94

Arithmetic ...... 94

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SECRETARY : MR. C. HETHERINGTON. MANAGING DIRECTOR : MR. ROBERT INGLIS.

SECOND ISSUE of 1000 SHARES of £10 EACH.

The chief objects of the company are:—1. To lend money to members upon the security of real property or upon bank, gas or building society shares, or upon other approved security. 2. To negotiate loans of all descriptions upon such terms as to profit and remuneration as may be agreed upon. 3. To buy and sell freehold or leasehold estates. 4. To collect and receive rents, debts, dividends, interest and other moneys. 5. To buy and sell shares in any public banking corporation, insurance or gas company or building society, or any incorporate company. 6. To act as attorney or agent in the management of estates for absentees and for trustees.

In order to increase the paid-up capital of the company and extend its business it has been decided to make a seeond issue of 1000 shares of £10 each. These shares are now offered to the public at a premium of 5s. per share, and may be paid cither in cash or by instalments of £1 per share per month. The company has now completed its sixth half-year, and has, during its progress in addition to paying off all preliminary expenses, paid one half-yearly dividend at the rate of 8 per cent, per annum, and four half-yearly dividends at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum. The secretary will receive application for shares unti, further notice, and will furnish information regarding the company to intending shareholders, together with copies of previous reports and balance-sheets.

C. HETHERINGTON, Secretary. APPLICATION FOR SHARES.

To the Directors of the Mutual Trust and Investment Society (Limited).—I

hereby apply for    shares in the Mutual Trust and Investment Sosiety

(Limited), and inclose , being 5s. per share application fee.

Name in full.........................................

Date.............................. Occupation..........................................

PHYSICAL EXERCISE FOR GIRLS.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

Advertisements and other business communications should be addressed to the Publishers. No advertisements will bo inserted without a written order, or prepayment. It is particularly requosted that they may be sent early in the month.

Books, music, and school appliances for notice, and all letters containing anything connected with the literary portion of the paper should be addressed f.o the Editor. Every communication accompanied by the name and address of the sender (as a guarantee of good faith, though not always for publication) will be acknowledged; but we cannot attend to anonymous letters.

BIRTH.

Moncttu. — On the 27th November, at Townsend-st., Albury, N S.W., the wife of Alex. Moncur, State-school No. 2956, Mokoan, Benalla, of a daughter.

Australasian: Srljuulmastrr.

PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH.

MELBOURNE, DECEMBER, 1881. The Royal Commission recently appointed to inquire into and’ report upon the working of the State school system of education in Victoria has now fairly entered upon its duties. At a meeting held on the 21st inst., the chairman—Mr. J. Warrington Rogers, Q.C.—read a very ably-written memorandum showing the scope of the Commission, the subjects of inquiry, and the order in which, in his opinion, the business should be taken. Resolutions adopting the memorandum, fixing the date at which the examination of witnesses shall commence, and affirming the desirability of their meetings being open to the Press, were passed, and the Commission adjourned till the 11th day of January next.

After referring to the terms of the Royal Commission, Mr. Rogers remarks :—

“ As the commission directs all financial economic considerations to be regarded in reference to the maintenance of the efficiency of the system of public instruction, it follows that the inquiry must be entered upon in the twofold aspect of financial economy and efficiency. These two considerations affect the entire population of the country. The second subject of the inquiry, the ‘alleged grievances of a portion of the population,’ relates more especially to that portion of the population only which alleges the existence of grievances. The question of the existence of these grievances, and, should they be found to exist, the best means for their redress can be better inquired into after the question of the general expense and efficiency of the system has been exhaustively disposed of, especially as in the course of the larger inquiry much statistical information will be collected, which must have an important bearing in determining the direction of the more limited, although very important, inquiry which will remain, I would therefore suggest that the commission should, in the first place, direct its inquiry into the general administration and organisation of the existing system, and that the question of the grievances of a portion of the population should form a separate and subsequent part of the inquiry,”'

It is then pointed out that the inquiry respecting the administration of the Act should embrace : (1) Tire children ;

(2) the school-buildings; (3) the instruction and discipline of the schools; (4) the teachers ; (5) inspection and control; (6) the departmental expenditure. With regard to this branch of the Commissioners’ work, Mr. Rogers says :—

“The inquiry into the subject, ‘ The Children,’ at once divides itself into—1. The number of children in the colony of statutory school age ;

2.    The number and ages of children receiving education at state schools ;

3.    The number at state schools under the age of six ; 4. The number at state schools above the age of 15 ; 5. The average age at which the pupils attain the required standard ; 6. The proportion of boys to girls;

7. The number of pupils learning extra subjects ; 8. The number and ' effect of night-schools ; 9. The number and character of ragged schools ; 10. The largest number of pupils in any one school ; 11. The smallest number of pupils in one school ; 12, The number and effect of mixed schools ; 13. The number of separate schools ; 14. The number of pupils who have attended a greater number of days than the minimum number of days required by the act ; 15., The greatest number of attendances by individual pupils ; 16. The lowest number of attendances by individual pupils who have not been treated as defaulters ; 17. The number of children at private schools, or receiving private tuition. (The 10th section of the Education Act Amendment Act requires returns to be made to the department, but provides no penalty for false returns.) It will be from inquiries in this direction that the commission will be enabled to ascertain to what extent children of thriftless or very poor parents are excluded to make room for pupils of a class of

eople in better circumstances. ,    .    . The Third

ubject—‘ The Course of Instruction and Discipline.’ This subject may be divided into—1. The general discipline of state schools, including the question of the control by head masters over pupils after school hours, and especially in reference to the influence of the general system in training the youth of both sexes in good habits of morality, industry, and quiet demeanour. 2. The statutory instruction required by the act. 3. Instruction in extra subjects permitted by the act. 4. The time within which a pupil of ordinary capacity, well taught, should be able to complete his education up to the statutory school standard.”

With a view to economising time and expense, it is recommended that the evidence of teachers as to their ability and willingness (or otherwise) to give general religious instruction, if the law should permit of it being imparted, should be taken at this point of the investigation.

That the Commission may make an exhaustive report upon the status and work of the teachers, together with that of the school inspectors, Mr. Rogers divides this branch of inquiry into :—

1. The Teachers.—(a) The education of teachers and their necessary proficiency and moral character ; (b) their appointment ; (c) their classification; (d) their promotion; (e) their supervision ; (f) their remuneration by salary or otherwise ; {g) the proper proportion of the number of teachers to a given number of scholars ; (h) the rights and duties of teachers as to extra subjects. 2. Inspection and Control.—(a) The relation of the central department to the local authorities ; (6) the inspectors, their status, powers,duties, and remuneration ; (c ) boards of advice—qualification, election, duties, and powers of members. In reference to this branch of the inquiry,fit may be desirable to.consider how far the centralisation of the present system might be reduced by improving the system of election of the boards of advice, and giving to them an increased power and greater responsibility.

Speaking upon the vital question of “ Expenditure,” the Chairman pointed out that the cost of the Department for the year 1880-81 amounted to more than half a million. The remuneration of teachers being over ¿£400,000, while the maintenance allowances reached no less a sum than ¿£44,722,

i.e., for maintenance allowances to teachers for school expenses, ¿£29,684, and for maintenance of buildings, ¿£15,038. Upon this subject Mr. Rogers remarks :—

“It will be necessarjf to take evidence as to these large figures. It may be that the salaries and emoluments of teachers arc not in excess of what is necessary to secure efficiency, and that the number is not in excess of the requirements of the service; but it will, I think, be necessary for the commission to enquire closely into this question, as the subject of the appointment of teachers ‘greatly in excess of the number authorized by the regulations ’ seems to have attracted the attention of the audit commissioners in the report of the 7th December, 1880. It is to be noticed that the cost of the system has been gradually increasing. Possibly the expense of the system might be much reduced if pupils were not received into the schools before the statutory age of six years, and their education to the school standard was completed by the time they reached the age of 12 or 13 years, instead of extending the time over the period from 6 to 15 yeai-s.”

THE WORK OF INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.

The charges which have recently been put into circulation concerning the management of St. Paul’s Industrial School are calculated to make a very unpleasant impression on the public mind. The time has not yet arrived to pronounce a final judgment as to the validity of these charges. The whole of the evidence in support of them has not yet been received. It may be assumed, too, that to this, as to most cases, there is another side, and that other side, of course, must also be heard. There is some ground for the expectation that, when the facts of the case are fully brought out, its aspect may be to some extent modified. Not to speak of a tendency to exaggeration which the ungallant might characterise as feminine, it ought to be kept in mind that Mrs. Surr and several other members of the School Board for London are possessed by an inveterate feeling of almost fanatical dislike to the very idea of Industrial Schools, and that there is, what may be called, a standing feud between them and Mr. Scrutton, the chairman of the Industrial Schools Committee, in connection with this subject. At the same time, it must be admitted that Mr. Scrutton and his committee have been somewhat unfortunate in respect to some departments of their operations. Of the integrity or good-heartedness of Mr. Scrutton or any other member of the committee, no rational person can entertain the least doubt. But this is not the first time that the anti-industrial School party have been able to adduce complaints against their administration which must be confessed to have been not altogether unfounded. The committee—especially the chairman—did not come off with flying colours in respect to either the case of the Shaftesbury or of the Upton House School.

The worst effect which is to be feared from such complaints is that the public might be brought altogether to lose faith in Industrial and Reformatory schools. From this point of view, it is fortunate that Sir William Harcourt should have found occasion to speak at the opening of an Industrial School at Cokermouth, and more fortunate that he was able to give such gratifying information as to the success ot these institutions. The Home Secretary was able to adduce the most irrefragable ovidence that crime has diminished in a very remarkable degree since about the period that Industrial and Reformatory schools began to be. established, and especially since the large increase of elementary schools consequent'upon the passing of the Education Act of 1870. This improvement may not all be the effect of education in general or of the training given in Industrial and Reformatory schools. Other beneficial influences of similar origin and character have happily been actively at work during the same period.

These facts are, however, not only specially gratifying to all who have taken an enlightened and philanthropic interest in the cause of popular education. They are, it may be for different reasons, equally calculated to secure for the work of education, and for such institutions as Industrial and Reformatory Schools, the sympathy of the large class whose special concern is that they get value for their money.

The suggestions and hints thrown out by the Homo Secretary as to desirable changes in the law and its administration in relation to juvenile offenders we cannot now afford space to discuss. This is the less to be regretted that this subject has already received fi’om ourselves and the press generally considerable attention. With the tendency and aim of the proposed changes every humane and intelligent person must i sympathise. The great desideratum is to dimish the number of offenders, and to accomplish this result no other effective means can be employed than education. On this subject Sir W. Harcourt offers some observations which are equally applicable to all educational institutions, and which, it is to be hoped, will receive the serious consideration of managers of all kinds of schools. The right hon. gentleman, speaking of the school about to be opened, said, “I would say of this school what I deeply feel—’that its future success will depend upon the personal care and supervision which is bestowed upon it by those who have taken so much pains to found and originate it.” In confirmation of this conviction Sir William referred to “ a very painful example recently of a school which had totally failed where the whole system has gone to pieces ” because “there were no persons who have devoted themselves to the superintendence and care of the sojfool.” This is one very important practical lesson. It seems to us that this is a matter to which more attention ought to be given at School Board elections than it has hitherto received. There is a class of candidates who, when they happen to be elected, make a point of attending all public meetings of the Board, and of doing everything which tends to make themselves notorious, but who exercise no “ superintendence and care ” with respect to the real work which they are elected to perform. All such candidates should be decisively rejected, irrespective of party, personal, and every other consideration. Another lesson relates to the importance of securing rightly qualified persons to manage and to do the work of teaching. Speaking again of the new school at Cokermouth, Sir William says, “ I am quite certain, from what I have heard that one of the main things has been attended to. You have spared no pains or expense in getting the fittest master and manager • and, of all the economies, the worst is where you have an institution where everything depends on the individual who has control of it, you should take a second-rate instead of a first-rate man.” These are wise words and worthy of the man, the office which he holds, and the occasion on which they were uttered. —Schoolmaster.

SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS’ TERM OF OFFICE.

The length of time during which School Board members should hold office has been discussed in the columns of The Times. It has been suggested that five years instead of three would be an advantage. It would, in our opinion, be a better plan if the elections were to continue triennial, with the provision that one-third or one-half of the members should retire by rotation. This would always secure a number of experienced members on the Board, and obviate many of the difficulties, if not the dangers, of the present system. The discussion has given one of the London members an opportunity of classifying an 1 describing his fellows at the Board. In the opinion of the Rev. H. D. Pearson there are two classes of members—those who with great pains try to gain a mastery of details, visit schools, and attend committees diligently; and those who are for the most part unwilling to do this, so appear only on the Board day, and make orations more or less prepared. It would seem, however, that these oratorical members complain that they are “left out in the cold but Mr. Pearson has a remedy for their grievances. He suggests that they should give a little attention to the business of the Board, and altogether depart from the ways of obstruction. It is not very pleasant to be told that the work of the Board is almost at a deadlock, in spite of the chairman’s exertions, because questions which might be settled in ten minutes occupy hours, while the most important educational matters are delayed. Among these, Mr. Pearson names the question of“ inclusive salaries for teachers.” If the public return members to the Board, great in promise, but in fulfilment almost next to nothing, simply because they are local bigwigs, or ambitious wire-pullers, altogether indifferent to the work which they are supposed to control, the blame must rest upon the public shoulders. Earnest men must sympathise with the feeling of dependency in which Mr. Pearson writes as follows :—“ It is very trying to have to listen to long, dreary, dis

cursive, acrimonious harangues from the least well informed among us, while those who, however they may differ, take a real interest in elementary education, whose whole heart is in the matter, who devote their time and whatever mental powers they possess to the work, who scorn to make the Board a medium for electioneering cannot but sometimes wish themselves to be anywhere else but at the Board.—Schoolmaster.

|lotcs of iln lltontb.

A deputation from the residents of Parkeville waited on the Minister of Education, to request that a strip of land through Trinity College Grounds, should be made into a pathway between the Sydney Road and Madeline Street, so as to form an easy communication between their residences and Carlton. The trustees of Trinity College appointed a deputation to object to this, and urge that their grounds should not be tampered with. The Minister has promised that a path shall be made through the University Grounds. As there is some talk of building new houses for the professors, and they need them, it would be an ornament to the grounds if an avenue were formed at this place, trees planted all along, and dwellings, with each aA"extensive piece of ground, erected at the side.

The first meeting of the Education Commission was held on Monday 12th inst. Preliminary business, only, was transacted.

Over £1,000 has already been subscribed towards a fundfor the foundation of a Girls’ Grammar School, in Brisbane, Queensland.

For the December Matriculation Examination, 674 candidates entered their names at the following places Melbourne, 429 ; Ballarat, 96; Geelong, 66; Sandhurst, 26; Stawell, 12 ; Creswick 12 ; Hamilton, 11 ; Warrnambool, 11 ; Daylesford, 7 ; Hobart, 2 ; Launceston, 2 ; Brisbane, 3.

^ The success of the ladies in the recent Honour Examinations, at the University of London, in arts, sciences, and medicine, was something wonderful. Two ladies have obtained their B.Sc. degree, with high honours, and several others have taken good honours in other courses.

A new series of the Melbourne Review will commence in January, 1882. The prospectus which announces this, says :—“ Under the impression that the Review might still be made to present as varied and attractive an appearance as was at first contemplated, the proprietors have made a change in the Editorial Management. The Review will in future contain shorter articles on a greater diversity of subjects. It will still be thoroughly eclectic, in the sense of being confined to no special policy in any subject; articles will, as heretofore, be admitted to its pages, no matter what side of the question they may take. It is intended, however, to exercise a strict supervision ; so that the liberty of free discussion may not lead to personalities, or to needlessly offensive references. The next number, to be published on the 1st of January, will contain articles by the following authors :—ft. Murray Smith, Esq., M.P. ; Rev. James Lambie, M. A. ; Mrs. Webster ; H. G. Turner, Esq.; W. E. Johnstone, Esq., LL.B.; Hon. Robert Stout ; with several others.”

Dr. Siemens, in a lecture at the Birmingham Midland Institute, which now counts 2688 students, objected to the national systems of education, on the grounds that they afford no encouragement to originality or innovation.

A meeting of the Public Schools Floral Society of Adelaide was held on Saturday, November 19tli. Mr. J. A.Hartley, B.A., B.Sc., presided, and there was a satisfactory attendance of members. From the Secretary’s and Treasurer’s reports it appeared that the Society was in a flourishing condition. A larger number of teachers had become members than iu any previous year, and the receipts from the late show were greater than usual. The Secretary was instructed to thank those ladies and gentlemen who had given their services as Judges ; and also Messrs. Boult and Fisher for their organ recitals. It was resolved that a first certificate of merit should be awarded to Mr. Masson, of the Central Model School, Lor his excellently drawn diagrams illustrating physical geography history, &c., which were exhibited at the Show,

Arrangements are being made for the establishment of a new Australian College of Agriculture. It is proposed that 11 scholarships shall be given by it for State schools.

A resolution, reported to Parliament from Committee of supply, agreeing to an estimate of expenditure on State school buildings, to £80,000, has been adopted.

The new system of examining at matriculation was introduced for the first time at the examination held this month; A few mistakes, that caused some confusion, were made at some of the examinations.

The examinations for teachers were held on the 15th and 16th inst. Some of the candidates object to the custom of breaking up the Arithmetic by the Reading examination. This system greatly hinders the nervous candidate, who needs to be helped by perfect questions rather than disheartened in the midst of his work.

The Australian Health Society’s examination on “ Health in the House” was held in November, and the results were made known a few days ago. The three first prizes were awarded as follows ¡—Frank Crowther, Hawthorn Grammar School, and George Halford, Hawthorn Grammar School, equal with prizes to the value of £4 each, and Jane Schutt, of the Presbyterian Ladies’ College, with a prize value £3. Other prizes were awarded—in all £20 worth.

The government have decided to grant the allotment near the University to the Roman Catholics, to be used only for college purposes.

Mr. Ellery, the government astronomer, has been requested by the Minister of Education to prepare an Elementary Text Book of Astronomy for use in state schools. This he has promised to do with as little delay as possible.

There is some chance of all children under six years of age, who certainly should not be pent up all day, being excluded from the State schools unless a small fee be paid for their tuition.

A CONCERT in connection with state school No. 1896, was held in the Prahran Town Hall for the benefit of the prize fuud, Mr. J. Stewart, correspondent of the Prahran Board of Advice, conducted the arrangements, and Mr. J. C. Rennie, the government singing master, the music.

The Congregational College, Melbourne, held its annual meeting, in the beginning of this month, in their hall in Russell-street. The Rev, E. Day presided. The Treasurer’s report showed the receipts to be £422 and the expenses £512,

The Sydney Health Society have been urging upon the Minister of Education for that colony the necessity for the introduction of instruction upon sanitary subjects into the public schools. It is likely that they will gain their wish, as the Minister has given a favourable reply.

A meeting of the Musical Association of Victoria was held at Glen’s rooms on Saturday, the 10th instant. Mr. C. Thompson was made an associate, and the Messrs. Fysh and M'Lachlan members.

From Brisbane we learn that the jury who tried Michael John Minnis, a school teacher, for the murder of William I’illinger, near Broadwater, on Sept. 30th, were unable to agree, and the prisoner will have to be tried again.

Mr. Ormond, with his usual fine taste, has determined to devote the large sum of £5000 to one of the best of objects, the establishment of a college where working men may hear interesting and instructive technical lectures.

A BAZAAR was held on the 15th instant for the benefit of the Children’s Hospital. A sum between £300 and £400 was realized.

The Christmas number of the Sketcher contains a fine coloured supplement with a picture representing “ A few early Squatters.”

A deputation from the Prahran schools waited on the Secretary for the Marquis of Normanby, to request his Excellency’s presence at the distribution of prizes for that district. The Secretary replied that it was too late to make arrangements this year.

J he Presbyterian Ladies’ College speech day was held at the Athenseum Hall, on Wednesday, the 14th instant; when the Hon. J. MacBain presided. The Head-master’s report was in every way satisfactory. There had been 10 more pupils during this year than last, and the health had been unusually good. Two girls had passed matriculation with credit, and one had obtained an exhibition.

The Carlton State schools have collected the handsome sum of £300 for the purchase of prizes to be distributed at the annual speech day, which will take place on the 23rd December, in the Melbourne Town Hall, The Mayor will preside.

The “Aragabond” has commenced the writing of a new play for Dampier. The scene is laid in America and Australia.

The South Australian Register in a leader on the school standards, says :—“The probability is that in any country where the standard aimed at is unduly high the pupils in a few of the schools are injured through cram, while the majority suffer from want of thoroughness.”

Sir James M'Culloch, on the Toorak College speech day, said that the State Education system did not reach the people for whom it was intended, as might be seen by the number of boys who sell newspapers in the street. He estimated the cost of building and repairing at £600,000 per year.

The Rev. C. Du Port, the Government Inspector of Schools for Berks, Wilts, and Surrey, speaking of the lack of culture amongst pupil teachers, tells that a lad who had reached the close of his apprenticeship as a teacher, being asked the meaning of some familiar lines from Hamlet’s soliloquy, “ To be or not to be,” answered—“ This passage means that when we are dead no dreams can disturb us then. By shuffling off this mortal coil means, by trying to get out of dying, which is impossible.”

The Fortnightly Review for October, in speaking of the advantage which school readers, published by private firms, have over those determined upon by Government, says :—“ Let any one place side by side the books from which children are now taught in the schools and the books which their grandfathers, or even their fathers used, and it will be impossible for him to come to any other conclusion than that immense improvements have been made, both in the matter and in the appearance of the books. These improvements are due to private enterprise, and nothing else.”

_ The average number of school hours in England is 36 a week ; in Germany 31 ; and in France 40. Or reckoning holidays, which in England are twice as long as on the continent, the ratios are as 6. 8 and 11.

An “ Inquirer” in the Glasgow Weekly News asks—“ Would any of your mathematical readers have the kindness to tell me how to get the equation—

AP2 _

AAJ'2 1 +

^&rom AP'2 = A Mi + PMi, AMI    ’

As given in 1 Todhunter's Trigonometry for Beginners,’ chapter II, article 23, page 11 ?” In the next issue “ Answerer” says—“ I think “ Inquirer” might with great advantage buy an Algebra for Beginners before commencing the study of Trigonometry. In case he cannot do so, however, I will give him a problem to study* As7 = 3 + 4:|=1 + |. When he thoroughly understands this, let him try the question he gives.

Science    anb    %ti    (gossip.

A young student named R. Sutton, forwarded to the Royal Society of Victoria a paper, which was read at the last meeting, on a new method he had discovered of storing electricity. He was requested to send a cell so that it might be tested.

The Victorian Electric Company have commenced to build a large place in Russell-street, and have arranged for the importation of several powerful engines to work their electric machines.

It is proposed to light the Flinders-street station by electricity. This will cost three times as much as at present, but the light will be greatly improved.

Nature, of the 29th September, pays a graceful tribute to the late Professor Pirani, who was a contributor to its columns.

The committee of the Victorian Academy of Arts have offered two silver medals as prizes to the “ life schools.” One for the best drawing in black and white of a male figure, and the other for the best painting in oil colours of a human head. The competitors for the painting medal commenced on Saturday last, and will be allowed eight Saturdays to complete the pictures.

M. Buvelot has completed another picture—A Scene at Bacchus Marsh—representing the green fields of an early summer, with a creek trickling through, and cattle straying in the distance.

Mr. Drouhet has invented an apparatus which, he believes, will facilitate the using of electrical lights in houses. This is effected by a combined system of batteries. Boxes containing stored electricity will be left at the houses and will be changed at regular intervals for fresh ones.

Mr. Fletcher, of the Art Gallery, in Collins-street, has received a large and fine collection of water colours by the last mail.

A WRITER in the Saturday Review says that, on the whole, were every house lighted by electricity, and every factory to receive its power in that form, the danger of accident would be much lass than that which now exists from gas and boilers, for no bad workmanship or carelessness could cause accident.

On the lake in the Public Gardens at Boston, may be seen a pleasure-boat which is worked like a bicycle. The paddle is located above the middle of the hull, and the wheel is worked after the fashion of a velocipede by a man who sits above it. It is encased in a metallic sheathing, which in turn is covered by a beautiful and elegant swan modelled in copper. The boat does not attain a very great speed, but glides beautifully and smoothly over the waters, and is easily propelled.

Wherever we turn in scientific journals we see the accounts of new inventions connected with electricity. The two latest are the “ Electric Lamplighter” and the “ Electric Balloon.” The latter is propelled by force obtained from a Dynamo-Electric Machine. If any method of propelling balloons is to succeed we believe that this will be the one, as the electric power is the most easily carried of any that has yet been discovered.

The Field Naturalists’ Club of Victoria has lately received some substantial additions to its library.

The Royal Society of Tasmania has received a very large addition to its library, consisting of about 130 bound volumes, together with a large number of official books, reports, pamphlets, &c., from Mr. E. S. Hall.

At the last meeting of the Royal Society of South Australia, Professor Tate stated that he had found, near Golden Grove, Quinetia Urvilla a plant not previously discovered in South Australia, though common in Western Australia, aud which was probably indigenous here, not imported from the latter colony as Baron Von Mueller surmises.

CARL Bock, late commissioner for the Dutch Government, has published a book of his travels in Borneo, called, “ The Head Hunters of Borneo.” Among other natural history facts noticed, the remarkable tenacity of life of the Loris Tardiqradus is told in the following words : — One day I wounded one, and knowing its tenacity of life, I strangled the little animal, then cut it open and pierced its heart. An hour elapsed before I wanted to skin it, and when I took down the body I found it still alive, its lovely eyes wide open. When, hoping to finally despatch it, I pierced its brain with a needle it began to shriek, and still some minutes elapsed before it was actually gone.”

One of the most interesting sights at the Paris Electric Exhibition was the Siemens’ Electric Tramway constructed by M M. Boistel and Sappey, the engineers for Messrs. Siemens. It is “ a first practical solution of electric traction in the case of a tramway.” It is quite plain that this electric power will soon be extended and developed so as to be applied to railways.

The Bolometer, a new instrument, invented by Professor S, P. Tanglcy, is capable of indicating a change of temperature as minute as 1-100,000th of a single centigrade degree.

Arrangements for an Electrical Exhibition at the Crystal Palace are progressing. A great feature will be the display of the Edison light at the Concert Hall. It is believed that Mr. Edison has solved the problem of how to produce a light to supersede gas in houses.

Nature, of Nov. 3rd, says :—“ Since 1869 the Otago (New Zealand) Acclimatisation Society has, we learn, liberated 157,041 young trout, and has sent 136,110 trout over to various parts of Otago. Since 1874 it has liberated 34,900 salmon fry, and in 1879 and 1880 it liberated 790 perch and sixty tench. Young American white-fish, let loose in the lakes in the Rotorua district about two years ago, have been recently met with by the natives, but as soon as it was discovered what the fish were they were returned to the water. Toe native.? are delighted at the discovery.”

Widmvm (BìmcvAiBn gtji'arímcnf.

The following are the papers set by the Department for a Certificate of Competency at the Examination held December, 1881 :

ARITHMETIC.—Set I.

(Time allowed two hours.)

1.    Explain the terms Notation, Multiplicand, Cypher, Volume, Ratio’ Concrete N umber.

2.    What number is that from which if you deduct eighteen millions and seventeen, and to the remainder add five times the difference between three hundred millions seven hundred and thirteen and seven hundred thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, the sum will be two thousand and eighty-six millions forty-nine thousand three hundred and two ? Numerate your answer.

3.    Find by practice the value of 97 cwt. 2 qrs. 131bs. 5]ozs. at £4 12s. 8]d. per quarter.

4.    If 80 horses and thirty-six cows eat up the grass of a 200-acre field in 110 days, how long would it take 90 cows to eat pip the grass in another field the area of which is ten-elevenths of the former ?—[N.B.—6 horses eat as much as 18 cows.]

5.    State and explain the rules for determining mentally—(a) What 3d. a day will amount to in a year, allowing G days to the working week. (¿) What G articles cost at 15s, a gross, (c) The product of 25 and 156.

G. At what rate per cent, per annum, simple interest, will £142 16s, produce for interest £23 lGs, in 5] years.

7, Simplify.

_L 2_

. 2t ~ 39 + »*______•

0yt ' T’l t °* ^2 ~ § (r~~

8.    What decimal of a cwt. is the difference between '0281 of a qr, and •025 of a lb. ?

9.    Reduce to a simple decimal correct to six places—

(8-5 x -00085 x -085)- 0005 + .0085

•05068    69-574

' -905 + -86

- -056

[W.R,—Work by decimals.]

10.    How many gallons of water fall on a flat roof 92ft. 5in. long and 13 ft. 4 in. broad in a rainfall of -4 of an inch ? What height would the water in a tank whose area is 100 sq. ft. be raised by receiving the rainfall on this roof ? (277] c. in. = 1 gallon.) Answer to three places of decimals.

11.    If by selling an article at 10s. 6d. I lose 16 per cent, of the cost price, what would be my loss or gain per cent, if I sold it at 153. ?

12.    If a map drawn to a scale of 1] in. to the mile has an area of 4sq. ft. 138sq. in., what area of country is represented on the map? What is the distance between two places which are 5-]- inches apart on this map ?

BOOK-KEEPING.

13. (a) When I buy goods for part ready money, part credit, and part bills, under what accounts and on which side of them mu3t entries be made ?

(5) What are Bills of Exchange? Rule aud name the necessary columns for Bills Payable.

(o) Post the following transactions :—

 1881. & s. d, Jan. 3rd. Goods on hand...... . 1,500 0 0 ,, 5th. Sold Roberts and Co.— £ s. d. GO lbs. currants at 9d..... ... 3 7 6 100 lbs. sugar at 5d. ... . ,. 2 1 8 --- — — 5 9 2 ,, 6th Bought of McPherson & Co. — 80 cwt, sugar at 28s. ... ... 112 0 0 75 chests tea at £5 10s. ... ... 412 10 0 — — 524 10 0 ,, 7th. Cash sales this day ... ... • ,, 190 0 0 ,, ,, Paid McPherson & Co. ,, 524 10 0 „ 8th. Lost a £100 bank note . 100 0 0 ,, „ Received Legacy ... . .. 100 0 0

Set II.

(Time allowed three hours.)

1.    Explain the terms : Numeration, Subtrahend, Digit,SArea, Proportion, Prime Number.

2.    The sum of twenty-nine billions nine hundred and ninety-five thousand three hundred and sixty-four millions nine hundred thousand two hundred, and of five thousand and ninety-seven millions four hundred and nine is divided by a certain number, and the quotient is five hundred thousand aud seven. Find and numerate the divisor and the remainder.

3.    Find by practice the value or 2G acres 2 roods 12 perches 15] yds. of land, at £18 10s. 11]4 per acre.

4.    If the royalty on 65 tons of quartz, yielding 7 dwt. to the ton, is

6.    What principal will amount to £606 13s. 4d., in 3] years, at per cent, simple interest ?

7.    Simplify —

_ 1 4-1._    1

¥2 V 2 — TFF

? of 8

£8 10s. 7]d., when gold is worth £3 15s. an ounce, what will be the price of gold if the royalty on 100 tons of quartz, giving 5 dwt. to the ton, is £9 13s. 9d., the royalty in each case being the same percentage of the gross yield.

5. State and explain the rules for determining mentally—(a) What 15 shillings per week will amount to in a year. (b) The interest on £41, for 36 days, at 5 per cent. ? (c) The quotient when 9250 is divided by 250.

of 53

H

8.    Reduce to the decimal of 4 quarters the difference between ■£ of -] of -875 of a peck, and -A- of 2-85 bushels. Answer to three places.

9.    (a) Find the quotient when the sum of '0085, '08651, and ’4 is divided by the product obtained by multiplying "87 by the difference between "00413 and ’04136. (Correct answer to three places.) (b) Divide -4612608 by 2562-56.

10.    Find the expense of painting, at 6s. per square yard, the walls and ceiling of a room whose length and breadth are each 15 feet 3 inches, and whose height is 12 feet.

11.    If a man sells a horse for £19 16s., and thus gains 10 per cent, of the cost price, what would be his loss per cent, if he sold it !for £17 13s. ?

12.    A cistern has two supply pipes which can fill it in 4 and in 5 hours respectively, and two discharge pipes which can empty it in 3 and in 7 hours respectively. Supposing the cistern to be full at 5 p.m, on Monday, and all the pipes to be thrown open together at that hour, when would the cistern be empty ?

BOOK-KEEPING.

13, (a) What is the use of the Bill-book? Rule and name the necessary columns for Bills Receivable.

(h) Write out an “ Acceptance” in correct form.

(c) Post the following transactions :—

 1881. £ s. d. Jan. 3rd. Cash on hand........... . 1,500 0 0 Goods ............ . 1,700 0 0 „ 4th. Bought of Robertson & Co.— £ s. d. 130 yds. silk at 6s. 6d 42 5 0 170 yds. velveteen at 4s. 6d. 38 5 0 — - 80 10 0 ,, 5th, Sold Hogarth and Co.— £ s. d. 75 hats at 13s. 6d. 50 12 6 185 prs. boots at 18s. 180 0 0 212 12 6 And received on account ... 106 6 3 „ 6th. Paid Robertson and Co., for silk ... 42 5 0 if Paid clerk’s salary ......... 15 0 0 a if Paid annual subscription to Hospital 5 0 5

GRAMMAR.—Set I.

(Time allowed two hours-and-a-half.)

1.    Parse with full syntax the words in italics in the following :—.

Valour, religion, friendship, prudence, died At once with him, and all that's good beside ;

And we, death's refuse, nature’s dregs, confined To loathsome life, alas! are left behind :

Where we (so once we used) shall now no more,

To fetch day, press about his chamber door ;

From which he issued with that awful state,

It seemed Mars brohe through Janus’ double gate ;

Yet always tempered with an air so mild,

No April suns that e'er so gently smiled :

No more shall hear that powerful language charm,

Whose force oft spared the labour of his arm :

No more shall follow where he spent the days In war, in counsel, or in prayer and praise ;

Whose meanest acts he would himself advance As ungirt David to the ark did dance.

All, all is gone of ours or his delight In horses fierce, wild deer, or armour bright :

Francisca fair can nothing now but weep Nor with soft notes shall sing his cares asleep,

—Marvel, on the Death of the Lord Protector,

2.    Analyse according to Morell’s second scheme the following passage :—

But yet, because all pleasures wax unpleasant If without pause we still possess them present,

And none can right discern the sweets of peace That have not felt war’s irksome bitterness,

And swans seem whiter if swart crows be by (For contraries each other best descry),

The All’s architect alternately decreed

That night the day, the day should night succeed,

3.    Give fully the derivation of the following words, the meaning of

the component parts, and the language from which each is derived :_

Slaughteryard, inquiry, Southampton, polyglot, deprivation, octopus. '

4.    Give the general rule for the comparison of adjectives of two syllables. There are three classes of exceptions to this rule ; what are they? Give examples.

0.    What is a noun sentence ? Give examples of the various places which the noun sentence may take in complex sentences.

6.    Write each of the following sentences in a correct form, and state the reason for each correction :—(a) This account is very different to what I told you. (?;) They make such acquirements, that suit them for useful avocations, (c) Neither John nor Robert swim well. (d) Their etymology as well as their use show them to be adjectives.

7.    Give the name and number of the feet in each of the following lines:—

Lightly they'll talk of the spirit that’s gone And o’er his cold ashes upbraid him.

He shook the fragment of his blade,

And shouted, “ Victory !”

Set II.

(Time allowed two hours-and-a-half.)

1.    Parse with full syntax the words in italics in the following :—

“ Oh,” cried the goddess, “ for some 'pedant reign !

Some gentle James to bless the land again ;

To stick the doctor’s chair into the throne,

Give iaw to words, or war with words alone,

For sure, if Dullness sees a grateful day,

’Tis in the shade of arbitrary sway.

Oh 1 if my sons may learn one earthly thing,

Teach but that one, sufficient for a king ;

That which my priests, and mine alone, maintain,

Which, as it lives or dies, we fall or reign :

May you, my Cam and Isis, preach it long,

The right divine of kings to govern wrong.

Prompt at the call, around the goddess roll Broad hats, and hoods, and caps, a sable shoal;

Thick and more thick the black brocade extends,

A hundred head of Aristotle’s friends.

Nor overt thou, Isis, ovantvncj to the day (Though Christ-Church long kept prudishly away)

Each staunch polemic, stubborn as a rock,

Each fierce logician, still expelling Locke,

Came whip and spur, and dashed through thin and thick,

On German Crouzaz and Dutch Burgersdyck.

2.    Analyse according to Morell’s second scheme the following :—

My mother I When I learnt that thou wast dead,

Say, wast thou conscious of the tears I shed ?

Hovered thy spirit o’er thy sorrowing son,

Wretch even then, life’s journey just begun?

Perhaps thou gav’st me, though unfclt, a kiss,

Perhaps a tear, if souls can melt in bliss.

Cowper, Lioies on his Mother's Picture.

3.    Give fully the derivation of the following words, the meaning of the component parts, and the language from which each is derived ;—Wood-stock, bibliophile, bracelet, commingle, collateral, diagnosis.

4.    How are Primary Derivative Verbs formed? Give examples.

5.    Morell gives a list of words which may be used as “ Connectives of the Adjective Sentence.” Name them, and give examples.

6.    Write each of the following sentences in a correct form, and give the reason for each correction :—(a) When we seen these sort of things going on we run off as quickly as we could. (b) A lot of us, asknowed the lay of the country, started for Mount Feathertop. (c) I would not dress like you do without you paid me for it.

7.    Scan the following verses, giving the name and number of feet in each line :—

Sweet are the uses of adversity,

Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous,

Hides yet a precious jewel in his head.

Know ye the land where the Cypress and Myrtle Are emblems of deeds that are done in their clime.

GEOGRAPHY.—Set I.

(Time allowed two hours.)

1.    Explain the lunar method of finding the longitude.

2.    Specify the causes on which rainfall depends, and give some instances of excessive rainfall.

3.    The mean pressure of the atmosphere is estimated as greater in the region of the “ Horse Latitudes,” and less in the regions of the Equatorial and Polar calms. To what causes is this owing ?

4.    In what parts of the world arc the following chiefly carried on :— The cod, herring, whale, pilchard, and anchovy fisheries ?

5.    Draw a map of Africa, south of Walvisch and Sofala Bays, to the Cape of Good Plope, and mark on it the following :—

States, S)'c.—Cape Colony, Natal, Kaffirland, Orange Free State, South African (or Transvaal) Republic,{Great Namaqua Land, Country of the Bechuanas, Zululand, and the Kalahari Desert. Ilivers.—Limpopo, Orange, Vaal, Tugela. Capes.—Delgado, Good Hope, Corrientes, Agulhas. Bays.—Table, Delagoa, Algoa, Santa Cruz. Mountaiois.—Draken-berg, Nieuwveld, Zvvarte Bergen. Towns.—Cape Town, D’Urban, Graham’s Town, Pietermaritzburg.

6.    Where and what are the following : Mention any circumstances for which they are severally remarkable :—Warrego, Mocha, Stoke-upon-Trent, St. Helena, Utah, Jena, Feathertop, Socotra, Coruna, Titicaca, Batoum, Versailles,

Set II.

( Time allowed two hours.)

1. Describe the consequences which arise from the inclination of the earth’s axis to the plane of its orbit.

2.    Show by diagram aud description the boundaries of the various belts or zones of the calms, and of the prevailing winds.

3.    When it is noon at Philadelphia, what is the time at Belgrade, their longitude being respectively 75° 9' W. and 20° 30' E. ? Explain the principle of ascertaining longitude by the difference of local time,

4.    Where are the manufactures of lace, porcelain, linen, and opium chiefly carried on ?

5.    Draw a map of the Baltic Sea, showing the river mouths and the towns on the coast.

G, What aud where are the following? Mention any circumstance for which they are severally remarkable :—Puy dc Dome, Jumna, Mara-caybo, Abrupt, Mobile, Torres-Vcdras, Barcoo, Hartz, Tycrs, llagusa, Hong Kong, Albany.

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. Set II.

(Time allowed two hours.)

1.    (a) State the various subjects included under the “ organisation” of a school. (¿>) Explain the objects to be aimed at, and the errors to be avoided, in drawing up a time-table ; (i) for a single class under one teacher; (ii) for a school under one teacher ; (iii) for a school where several assistants and pupil-teachers are employed.

2.    State—(a) How you would ascertain in what class to place a new pupil. (b) How aud when you would determine to transfer a pupil from one class to another.

3.    Describe briefly the Home Lessons you would give to a fifth class or each day of one week, mentioning exactly the nature aud quantity of work in each subject.

4.    Give six problems in arithmetic suitable for a fourth class ; such problems being framed to show how to apply rules already learned to practical questions. State how you would explain to the class how to reduce one of the problems to an example in known rules.

5.    State what comments and explanations you would give on the following passage occurring in a reading lesson of the fifth class :—

Triumphal arch that fill’st the sky When storms prepare to part 1 I ask not proud philosophy To teach me what thou art.

Still seem, as to my childhood’s sight,

A midway station given For happy spirits to alight Betwixt the earth and heaven,

Can all that optics teach unfold Thy form to please me so,

As when I dreamt of gems and gold Hid in thy radiant bow?

6.    What is meant by moral education ? To what extent does it form part of State School education ?

7.    When and where should the following entries bo made in the school records :—“Class at Result examination” ; Number of cancelled attendances” ; “ Teacher’s arrival” ; “ Number present at drill” ; “ Transfer of pupil” ; “ Number of meetings in the quarter.”

DICTATION;

( Time allowed one hour and a half.)

“ Corn is the food most convenient and most suitable for man in a social state. It is only by the careful cultivation of it that a country becomes capable of permanently supporting a dense population. All other kinds of food are precarious, and cannot be stored up for any length of time : roots and fruit arc soon exhausted ; the produce of the chase is uncertain, and if hard pressed ceases to yield a supply. In some countries the pith of the sago palm, the fruit of the bread-fruit tree, the root of the esculent fern, and similar food, supplied spontaneously by nature, serve to maintain a thinly scattered and easily satisfied population ; but man in these rude circumstances is invariably found depraved in body and in mind, and hopelessly incapable of bettering his condition But the cultivation of corn, while it furnishes him with a supply of food for the greater part of the year, imposes upon him certain labours and restraints which have a most beneficial influence upon his character and habits;—R.R., Book vi., pp. 123 4.

COMPOSITION.

(Time allowed one hour.)

Write an essay upon or reproduce the substance of the lesson on— Coal, Cleanliness, The Burning of Moscow.

PENMANSHIP.

( Time allooved quarter of an hour.)

Large ITand.—Electrolysis. Small Hand.—Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark.

|tciu £ citi ¿mb (Bìmcaiioa gcjrartmcnt.

The following are the questions set at the Result Examination of the Public Schools in the District of Westland, December :—

Sixth Standard.

1.    Writedown all the sums of money between £149 19s lOJd, and (including these two) add them together.

2.    A person buys a horse for 55 guineas, keeps it 37 days at a costof 7s 10-j- a day, and sells it for £52, lie might have hired a horse for 15 8d a day clear. By how much is one plan more profitable thant he other ?

3.    E’ind the G.C.M. of G72, 1440, and 3172 ; and what is the small es number they will all divide without a remainder?

4. 10 - (I* + 3* + 2-A-+A)- ? : If of *4- 3h of * - ?    .

o. Reduce 7s 4d to the fraction of 2s 9d, and what fraction of 91b. 9oz. 12dwt. is 61b. 7oz, 16dwt. ?

6.    Find the sum of 7*907, 8*365, 9*0724, *00615, and 11*25 ; the difference of 1*9675 and *00212 ; the product of *0092 X *167 ; and the quotient of 854*2296 -+ *00192.

7.    A gentleman, after paying an income tax of 9d in the £, has £225 6s 6d remaining. What is his income ?

8.    As 156 : 78 : : ? : 550, Find the third term.

9.    8263 @£99 19s Ilfd.

10. 8cwt. 3qr, 111b, 8oz. @ £4 16s Sd per cwt.

Seventh Standard,

6. Solve the equation

x — a x + a lax

a -1 a + b a'ì - b'2 2ax

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Find the value of:

.o

31

■2 *-U

lx

U

Find the value’,of f of -£b of -gj* of 17s. Gkl.

What fraction is2| acres of T7C of a square mile? Reduce *00176 and 12*4583 to vulgar fractions. Reduce 13cwt. 2qr. 131b. 9oz. to decimal of 1 ton. Find the value of 17 square yards 8 feet 37 inches

3s 4-Jd. per

yard.

7.    If the costof carrying^ ton of goods 185 miles be 12s 6d, how many cwt. could be taken 240 miles for the same money ?

8.    If £16 4s be paid for lodgings from July 10th to November 22nd what should be paid from September 3rd to October 2Sth ?

9.    If a 41b. loaf cost 7d when wheat was 42s per qr., what should be the weight of a twopenny loaf when wheat is 48s per qr. ?

10.    Find the interest on £2000, from January 5th to February 9th, at 6 per cent.

11.    What principal would produce £68 Is 3d interest in 3 years at 4 per cent ?

12.    A can do a piece of work in 26 days which B can do in 32 days ; they work together 4 days, then A leaves off. In what time will B finish it ?

MATRICULATION EXAMINATION.

October Term, 1881.

The following are the Algebra and Arithmetic Papers set by the Melbourne University, with solutions :—

ALGEBRA.—Pass.

Solutions by J. Sutherland.

1. Divide x3 -\-y3 +z3 + 3y2z + 3yz2 by x-xy —xz + y- +

2 yz + z2.

x2 — an/ + y2 -xz -f 2yx + z2)

x3+y3+z3 + 3y2z + 3yz2 ( (x + y) x 3 -\-y 3 —x'2z+ '2xyz -j- xz2 — xyz-\- 2y2z + y2z x2z + z3 + y2z--j- 2yz2 +xyz - xzx2z + z3 + y2z + 2yz2 +xyz-xz2

Answer, x + y + z.

2.    Prove that (a + b -I- c) (be + ca + ab) - abc = (!> + c) (c + a) (a + b)

(a-^-b + c) (bc + m + ab) -abc-=(a + b) (bc + ca) + (a + b) {ab) +c(bc + ea)

+ abc — abc.

= (a + b) (bc+ca + ab + c2)

— (a + b) (b + c) (a + c) Q.E.D.

3.    Find the Greatest Common Measure of x3 — 7x— 6, x3 — 13x+12

x3-7x-G)x3 - 13a +12(1 a:3lx— 6

-6.T+18

x — 3 ) x3 — lx — G ( x2 + 3x a- 2

x3 - 3x2

3x2 — Tx — C 3x2 —9îc

2a:-6 2a:— 6

a2 - ¿>2

. *. a2 — x(b - a)

. . x = -— . Ans. b-a

7. Solve the simultaneous equations

x + 2y + 3z = 5 ( 1 )

ax — as + bx-ab — ax — ai + bx + a a2 — b*2 2a2 + 'lab = lax

2a* + 3y + z = l (2)

3x + y + 2z = 6 (3)

2z + 4y + Gz = 10 y + 5z = 9 3x + Gy + 9z = 1 o 5y + 72 = 9 5 y + 25a = 45 182 = 36 .*. 2 = 2 y= -1 x = 1

8.    A’s annual income is half of B’s and B spends £60 a year more than A. At the end of two years A has saved £200 and B £600. What are their yearly incomes ?

Let x be J’j income, then 2a; is B’s. y + 60 is B’s.

2x - 2y = 200

4a;-2y-120 = 600

9.    Solve the equation

2a; + 1    2a; - 3

Multiply (1) by 2 Subtract (2) Multiply (1) by 3 Subtract (3) Multiply (4) by 5 Subtract (5)

From (4)

„ (1)

(4)

(5)

Let y be i’s expense, and Ans.

2a: = 520 a; = 260

2 + 2

(x + 5) (x+ 1 j "^2a - 1 (x + 5) (x - 1)'

• *•    ~ 2x + x - l + 2x2 + 10a; - 32 - 15 - 22 - x -

3x- + 32- 18 = 0 ^ _ 3 + /9l 216    -3 + 15

6 : = 6 '

22-2 = 0

— 3 or 2. Ans.

10. A rectangular court is a feet long and b feet broad, and a path of uniform width runs round it. If the area of the path beone m,h part of the remainder of the court, find the width of the path.

The area of the path is-T^- feet

7)1 + 1

Let x be the width.

2ax + 2a(b-2x)=-ab vi +1

-422+ 2 (a + b)x-

ab

m +1

= 0.

-2(a + bU ç

16ai

- + 4 (a + b) -m r 1    '    '

-8

2(a + b)+    /4«2 m + 4b^vi + 3abm + 4aa — 2ab + b%

“ ^    vi T1

= ^ j a-\-b+ •a2m +b2m + 2abm +a2 - 2ab + b‘< ^    m +1

Ans,

ARITHMETIC.

Solutions by J. Sutherland

1, Write down in words the quotient and remainder obtained by dividing six hundred and seventy-one thousand five hundred and forty-three millions two hundred and sixteen thousand four hundred and thirty-eight by the remainder obtained by subtracting forty-five millions six hundred and seventy-nine thousand from five hundred and twenty-three millions six thousand and forty-two.

523006042 - 45679000 = 477327042.

477327042) 671543216438 (1406 47732704*2

Reduce to a single term-

1

7* +12

+ -

1

1942161744

1909308168

a*2 - 02 + 6 1

+ ■

a*2 - 62 + 8

1

Jx + 12 X2 - 5a* + 6 -6a* + 8 (x -4) (x -3) 2    x- - 3a: + 2 + a 2 - 5a* + 6 - 2a*2 + 82

(x - 4) (oj- 2)    O-l) 0-2) (x -3) (2

5. Solve the equation

-4)

0-4) o-l) - = 0. Ans,

3285357638

2S63962252

421395386

x + 10    2 + 1

o' + *

x + 11 x + 2

* + -

x +10 x+ 11 C0 ¡ 8 ~ x + 9

æ + 8 ' x + 3    a?+ 9 1 a: + 4

x + 2 x+l x2 + 10.2 + 9a: + 90 - o;2 x + 4 x + 3''    22 +92 + 82 + 72

8a; - Ila:-88

x2 + 3a* + 2a* + 6 - aff - 4a; - x - 4 __2_ 2

-t- 4a; + 3a; + 12    ' '22 + 4a; + 3x + I2=a;2 + 9a: + 8a; + 72

V £Si + 17a:*i-72«=«:2 + 7a; +12 .*, 102= ~G0 ,*,2=—6, Ans.

Answer—One thousand four hundred and six.    Remainder—Four

hundred and twenty-one millions, three hundred and ninety-five thousand, three hundred and eighty-six.

2. Give in a decimal form the result obtained by simplifying—

This expression = x    x + x -R- = f + T23- = T°3 = = 3.

3. State the rule for the calculation of compound interest. What is the difference between the simple and compound interest upon £45 for 2 years at 44 per cent ?

To find the compound interest:—Find the interest for the first year ; add it to the original principal ; call the result the second principal ; find the interest on this for the second year ; add it to the second principal; call the result the third principal; find the interest on this for the third year, and so on.

Simple interest on £45 for 2 years is

45x9x2 81

200 ~20 ~£41s*

The compound interest is 1*045 x 1 045 x 45 - 45 pounds.

49T41125

45

4-141125

20

2-8225

12

8. Find the cost of making a tennis court 103 feet in length and 39 feet m breadth at a cost of 3 -4A per square yard.

“    103

39

927

309

.    .    4017

3s. -4 is a sixth of a pound, and h is one twenty-fourth of a shilling.

6)4017

1 -015 1-045

5225 4180 10450

10*92025

45

5460125 4368100

49-141125

.*. The compound interest is £4 2s. 9’87 The difference is Is. 9-87d. Answer.

4. Find the value of l||+l| + |y|?-4^ by decimal and by vulgar fractions.

9-8700

The expression equals 18 + J + f + T?,--g +

,0 250 + 400 + 24-= 1S+ 1000 Also 13-25 +1*4 + 8-024 - 4-125-= 22-674 - 4-125 = 18 549.

125_    549

~lb1000-

A ns.

669 10 S 7

9)677 17 44

15 6 44

24 ) 4017 ( 167 24

161 144

177

168

9.    A boat’s crew rowed four miles in twenty minutes against a stream flowing three miles an hour. How long would they take to row the same distance with the stream ?

They can row 4 + 1 + 1 miles in 20 minutes =» 6 miles in 20 minutes .-. it will take them + x 20 minutes = sv° = 134 minutes. Ans.

10.    Three persons whose estates are worth respectively £1000, £755, and £645 per annum, buy 100 railway shares among them, each buying a number proportional to his estate. How many shares does each buy ?

1000 755 645

2400

(1)    buys ÜH x 100 = ^ =41

(2)    '

(3)

2 +0 0 a 1 :> i ■! 0 if

x 100 = x 100

31 lì-

m

411, 311£ and 26-7,

24(3046§(126

24

64

4S

166

144

= 1H.

Find the square root,

H

5. A bankrupt who owed his creditors £3046 13s. 4d. possessed property, the total value of which enabled him to pay a dividend of 6s. 114d. in the £. What is the loss sustained by the whole of the creditors ?

They lose £1—6s. Ill in the pound =* 13s. O.j, in the £.

.-. out of £304G| they will lose 3046§x 13 + 3046^ + 24 shillings. 3046§

13

39606 8 126 11J

20) 39733 74 1986 13 74 22|

24

6.    How much per cent, is £34 of £55 ?

rate = 100 times the interest divided by the principal.

rate = 10°^«®=£61*

55    11

7.    The area of a circle is found approximately by multiplying the square of the radius by 31416. What is the radius of a circle whose area is 3277"o99864 square feet?

Divide 3277*599864 by 31416 and we obtain the square of the radius 3-1416 ) 3277-599864 ( 1043 29 3141 6

135999 •

125664

103358

94248 91106

62832

282744

282744

 3 1043 29 (32-3 9 62 143 124 643 1929 1929

Curious relics of bygone times arc picked up at times and in out-of-the-way places, but we, The Schoolmaster, did not think to find one in such an unexpected quarter as the advertisement columns of our contemporary, which more especially represents the interests of the managers of the Church schools. In a recent issue the following advertisement appeared Mistress ; Gardener; Choir.—Wanted, at Michaelmas certificated Mistress, for Mixed School. Must be thorough Church-woman, good disciplinarian, and successful Teacher. Sunday-school. Good house (mainly furnished), and garden. Salary £40, and half grant, which this year is £22 14s , but might be much increased. Hus. hand as Gardener, 4'c , and sing in choir Wages about 12,y. a-wed-. Address, Vicar.” Shade of Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth. what have we here? Has the world rolled back and brought the cobbler’s lap-stone and the housewife’s vegetables again into the schoolroom ? The worthy Somersetshire vicar does not say which lie wants most—the schoolmistress or the gardener—or why he thinks it likely he shall find them so commercially joined in wedded harmony. He has a mind, however, not to be misunderstood. The mistress of the mixed school might be so ambitious as to think that the vacancy for her husband was one of those delightful situations bringing in hundreds which gentlemen’s head gardeners deservedly obtain, so the vicar is careful to specify the wages —about 12s. a week, not those of a workman’s slab. The benevolent vicar may be desirous of indicating a desirable possible opening to some aspiring youth working in a neighbouring village, on marriage thoughts intent, but withal would desire to get quantity, if not quality, for his money—a schoolmistress, a gardener, and a bass or tenor for the village choir, all for the magnificent sum, say—for the language is rather ambiguous—of £93 4s. a year. In this incongruous association of offices the wife is the bread-winner, and the weight of the household is to fall on her, and this is the position which a clergyman of the Church of England thinks suitable and proper for the certificated mistress of the village school.

BEAT) TEACH EE Country School, Salary £132, residence free, desires • to exchange with any assistant in Melbourne or Suburb. Address G. Wylie, Esq., 67 Drummond street North, Ballarat.

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HEAD IEACHER, country, 30 x 50, results 88"235, wishes exchange Assistant, Melbourne or Suburbs. Address—“M.B.. care of Mr Eoth, Tivoli Place, South Yarra.”

HEAD TEACHER, Country School, good 30 x 50, inspector’s percentage 75, wishes to exchange with another, same allotment. Addres— “Scribo,” Schoolmaster Office. 2 1

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MATRICULATION EXAMINATION,

October Term, 1881.

ALGEBRA.—Honours.

Solutions by John B. O'Hara,

1.    Prove that

a(b-c) (b + c-a)3 + b(c-a) (c + a-by + c[a-b() {a + b-cf — 0.

The expression is = {ab-ac) [a- + b" + c2 + 2bc-2ab-2ac) +two similar expressions.

= (a- + b2 + c2) {ab - ac + bc-ab + ac - be)

+ 2bc(ab - ac) - '¿(a -b - - a2c 2) + 2ab[ac - be)

- 2(a.2c2 _ J2C2) + 2ac[bc - ab) - 2(b2c% - a^bz)

= 2 | ab2c — abo2 + a2 be - ab*c + abc2 — a2 be |

- 2 | a2?;2 - fl26>2 4- a-c2 - b-c~ + b~c2 - «2^2 1 = 0.

2.    Prove that when and n are positive integers

am. an = am + n,

and assuming this result to be true for fractional and negative exponent, interpret the meaning of am when m is fractional or negative.

See Todhunter’s Algebra. Theory of Indices.

3.    If the equations

x2 + ax -f be = 0 x- + bx + ac = 0

have a common root, show that their other roots satisfy the equation. x2 + cx + ab = 0

#2 + ax + bc — 0......(1)

x2 + bx + ac — 0......(2)

(1) - (2) gives us x(a-b)-c{a-b)=*0. Now a-b is not zero, for then the two equations would be identical.

Hence we obtain x — c and this satisfies both equations.

Now product of roots of first equation — be, and since c is a root .*. b is the other root.

Similarly a may be shown to be the other root of (2).

Also sum of roots of first equation = - a. But cis one root- (a + c) must be the other.

. \ b = - [a + o); for b was shown to be the other root.

co + b + c = 0.

This relation could also be found from (2)

Now we have to show that a and b satisfy the equation x2 + cx 4- ah = 0. Substitute a for x in the expression x^+cx + ab and we obtain a(a + b + c) which is = zero from above, since a, when substituted for x makes x- +cx + ab = 0, a is a root of the equation x3 + cx + ab = 0.

Similarly b may be shown to be a root, . \ a and b satisfy the equation x - + cx + ab — 0.

4. Prove that whatever real value x may have, ax2 + bx + c and a never differ in sign except when the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are real and different and x is taken so as to lie between them.

For first part of this see Todhunter’s Algebra. Theory of Quadratic equations.

If p> be q, then for all rea1 values of x the expression

x2 - 2qx + y2 X- + 2 qX+p2

lies between

p+q

x2 - 2qx+ v-

Put —g-,- ,-—0 == ?/.

a?3 + 2qx + p2 J

q- and «

p-q

Then x will be found to be

?(1 + ?/) + A/2( 1 + y)2 -p2[\-vy2

~~ i -y

The expression under the radical sign = (7 + qy - p + py) (7 + qy + p- py)

= ■{ y (p + q) + q - vj j y(q -p) + q + p |

=U2-p2)

p-q{

p + q(

y

_p + q {

p-q I

and as 72 -p2 is negative, one of the other factors must be negative to make x real: y must lie between    0

p-q

p + q

and

p + q p-q

5. If

prove that

abc b^r0 + c~^a + ~b= °*

... 11

Iporq (3) we have, by dividing by oryz,—■+ —

x y

!/z

~y + 2

0

Substitute this value of x in (2) and we get

_ ciyz

y+ *

.'. -ayz+by2 + cs2 + byz + cyz=0 . yz{b + c - a) + by2 + cz2 •= 0 ; but from (1) Inf- + cz2 = - ax'2

. az2 ‘    b + c —a

And since the equations are symmetrical

btJ2

by multiplication xhfz3

+ by+ cz-0

CZ2

^ a + b -- < abcx2y2z2

{a + b - c) (a-b + c)(b + c~a)

(a + b-c)(a-b + c)(b + c-a')=> -abc

.a2b + «2c + ab2 + ac2 + b2c + bc2 — a3 - 1)3 - c3 — 3abc = 0 (Todhunter, pp. 19) a{c - «)(« - b) + b[b - c)(a -b) + c[b - c)(c - a) = 0 _ abc ' ' b — c +.c - « + a-

7. If

-, = p ==—-, =&c., prove that each of these ratios is equal to 0 c

/pa71 +qb“ + rc" + .... \ 1 + qb'n + rc'n + ....) n

Solve the equations

x2    y3 _ z3    «s

a    b c    a2 ^ b1 ' c1

For first part of this question see Todhunter’s Algebra, page 226. a

similarly

V'

+ ■

a;2= y2    3:

 / «3_. \7 "¿3 .y3--*L J /a3 V7/;3 Z3

I «3

• •.Substituting these values in the equation — =*1+ V +

we have

xf

a

a2 In

.r = 0 or

 a?8 x3 «2 + m / «3 M / ¿g C2 / ~c2 1 f 1 1 1 ' a * I û2 + /¿3b+ Srfc i 1 1 1 1 = x ■ { a'2 + co fab a J ac j 1 =X- fbcf J ac + /afa

a / bo a / be

z

C2

f abf / ac L / bo

Since the equations are symmetrical, y and 2 can easily be found. Thus by changing x to y, also a to b we find y, &c.

8. Define a geometrical progression, and show how to find the sum of any number of terms of such a progression. The sum to infinity of a certain geometrical progression is s, and the sum to infinity of the series formed by taking its first, third, fifth, &c., terms is s'. Find the first term and the common ratio of the series.

Let a, ar, art &c., be the series where a is first term, and r common ratio.

a    s' 1    s- s'

Then

r

1 - }’2

r _ __ then by substitution = s'. a can be found

9. Prove that in the scale of which the radix is r, a number i9 divisible by r- 1 when the sum of its digits is so divisible, bliow that, in the ordinary scale of notation, the difference between the square of any number consisting of two digits and the square of the number formed by interchanging these digits is divisible by 99.

(1)    For first part of this question see Todhunter, page 252.

(2)    Let xy be the number, then in the ordinary scale of notation this number = 102; + y.

When the digits interchange the number = 10y + x

Now (10x + y)2 - (10i/ + «)3

= (11z + 1L/)(9z-92/)

= 99(a;2 -y2) and is . \ divisible by 99.

10. (i) Find a formula for the number of combinations of n things taken r together, (ii) If the number of combinations of 2n things taken n- 1 together be to the number of combinations of 2n — 2 things taken together as 132 to 35, find n.

(i)JFor first part of this question see Todhunter, page 280.

'ii) The number of combinations of 2>i things taken ?i-l together

I 2n

n—1 | n + 1

The number of combinations of (2ii—2) things taken n together is

| 2n—2

\n\n—2

|_n_j 11—2

I 2n—2

2»

_ _ 132 _ 2n (2»,—1) _ 132

n—1 | ?i +1    35 * '(» + !)(»—1)    35

140»2—70» = 132??,2—132 . ’.S»2—70» + 132 = 0 -6)(8»—22) = 0 .-.)) = 6.

;i Enunciate and prove the Binomial Theorem for a positive eg’ral exponent, _ ¡If n be a positive integer prove that 1 + ® »(»-1), 1+2®

1~nl + nx +    12 (l+ «*)"»

n[n-l)(n-2)    1 + 3®

"    1.27T"“- (i+»®)3 + &c-~0.

This expression =

n[n — 1)    1 n(n-1)

"7 2 (1 -»®)2 + 1.2

3*

1 -

1 -

1 + nx 1 + nx ( 7i{>i - 1) (n -2)

l |T (1 + »®)

M(»-l)    1

1 n{n- 1)(»- 2)

8~    172.3

7§0l - !)(» - 2)

1 + nx |_2    (1 + nxy    J_3

x n(n-l){n—2)

nx »{» 1)

= 1-

1+ nx '    1    (1 + nx)

1    ) n nx

2-

2x } (1 + nxf f

1

(1 + 7)X)

3    &c,

n 3

/ 7 ....... + See,

(1 +nx)

0*    +    ¿—6......(2)

+    —• = <?......(3)

From (1) xyz — az—x from (2) xyz = bx—y from (3) xy. = cy-

From (4) y = bx + x—a: substitute in (5) and we get

itz—x = box + cx—acz—z £ (1 + a + ac) = x(l + c + be)

1 + c + be

l+a + ae Similarly y may be shown <=

1 + 6 + n b

1 + il + cic

Substituting these values of y and z in (2) we get (1 + c + be) (1 + 6 + a6)    l+6 + «6

x'2    (1 +a + ac)2 + "i + a + ac ~

.,x'2 (1 + e + be) (1 + b + ab) = 6 (1 +a, + ac)'2—(1 + b + ab) (1 +a + ac) = (1 +a + ac) [b + ab + abc,—1—6—ah)

= (1 + ® + iH’) [abc—1)

(1 + a + ac) (abc 1 *'• 92 = (l+c + 6o)(l + 6 +76)

. .9 _    (1 + c + be) (abc—1)

* * *    (1 + a + acj (1 + 6 + czb

(1 + b + ab) (abc—1)

W* ~ (1 + a + ac) (1 + c + be)

1 + nx

1. 2

!_(„_!)    1    +(»-Dl«-2)

1 + nx I    1 + nx

1

Science imb %xt cOosriip.

(1+»®)^

—&c.

- 1 i

 nx ' 1n nx (i 1 ' \ H 1 + nx j 1 1 + IV, ® \ 1 7iXj 1 i rv i nx ! 1 + nx 1 1 + 71X 1 + nx s

f    1 j n — 1 ) nx _nx_1

l 1 + ‘nx)    ( 1 + nx 1 + nx)

.    = zero.

12. Solve the equations

(i) v7- + 3x +1 + ^3x- + 5® - 7 = 2 \rx2 + x - 4

 (ii) ax- ■\-by‘l = a2x + 6 "~y = a x( ' 1 ' (iii) y (z+4 )=6 r i > X + - k V > >-

(i*) ?2 + 5®—7 + ^ ®2 + 3® +• 1 = 2/®2 + ®—4 Now we have identically (3®2 + 5®—7) — (®2 + 3® +1) =* 2 (®2 + x—4) That is ( \f+ 5©—7“ /®2 + 3® + l) (V73®2 + 5®—7 + ^£2 + 3®+ l) = 2( /x2 + ®—l)2

Now divide the original equation into this and we get J 3®2 + 5®—7— v' ®2+3®+ 1 = v72 + a;_ 4.

Add this to the original equation, and we get

2 'J 2X1 + 5©—7 = 3 7r2 + ®—4 . •. squaring 12®2 + 20®—28 =s 9©2 + 9®—36 3©2 + ll® = -8

11    /11\2    8    121 121—96 25

©-+ 3® + ( 6 ) -    3 + 36 ~    36 “36

II 5    ,    8

‘‘x = —~6 + 6 =-lor—3

«3 + 53—<72®

From (2) y =

62

\ substituting this value of y in (1) we get

(a3 + 63)2—2af!x(a‘l + 6') +

a®2 +

.'. fl®2(a3 + 63)—2»2®(a3 + 63) + (fl.3 + 63)2 = 63(a,3 + 63)

. •. dividing by «3 + 63 ax’l—2a3u + a 3 + 63 = 63

a®2—2a2® + a3 = 0    ,\ ®2—2a® + <z2 = ()

(x—<v)2 = 0 ® = a

5y substituting this value of ® we find y = b.

The plaster model of the statue of the Queen has been placed, for a time, on a pedestal at the intersection of North Terrace and King William Street, Adelaide.

At a meeting of the Technological Commission of Melbourne, held on January 5th, it was decided that the next exhibition of the works of the pupils would be held in May next, and that each district should be examined separately.

Professor Draper, professor of Chemistry at the Cambridge University, died on January 5th.

Mr. It. J. L. Ellery has been appointed a trustee of the National Gallery, Victoria.

At the second half-yearly meeting of the Victoria Sketching Club, the following office-bearers were appointed :—Committee—Misses Rae, Stone, Ballard; Messrs. Campbell, Mather, Watson, and Wilson; Miss Earles, treasurer; Mr. A. C. Trapp, secretary.

At a special meeting of the School of Arts, Rockhampton, Queensland, held on January 5th, for the purpose of electing a secretary, Mr. George Potts was chosen in preference to several candidates.

A Roumanian mechanic recently submitted to the Chamber of Bucharest a plan for a submarine vessel, and a committee appointed to examine it are satisfied with it. The Government has been authorised to meet the expense of construction. It is a vessel designed to run under water for twelve hours, without renewal of air. It is to be a steam vessel, will travel faster than a sailing ship, and will be lighted by electricity. It is to be sunk to a depth of thirty metres by opening certain valves, and may, if necessary, continue indefinitely under water, the air in the vessel may be renewed by an apparatus sent up to the surface.

A valuable specimen of quartz, studded with gold, was stolen from the University Museum on the night of the 10th instant.

A PORTRAIT of Christopher Columbus has lately been found in the colonial office at Madrid, the work evidently of a contemporary artist. The inscription it bears shows clearly that it is a genuine portrait. It runs, “ Columbus Lygur, Novi Orbu repertor.” The painting, which is still in good condition, represents the original as about 40 years of age, dark, and with pointed features.

The Birmingham Arts Gallery has lately received donations which will in all amount to £90,000.

In 1831 it was found that ink. of a remarkably good quality could be made by treating an infusion of galls with vanadote of ammonia. This was at first found to be too expensive, but it has Bince become so cheap that it can now be used for ordinary inks.

The Brackenbury Natural Science Scholarship at Baliol College, Oxford, has been awarded to Mr. T. F. M'Arthur, of Manchester Grammar School.

From Nature we learn that In consequence of an appeal from Mr. Leigh Smith’s relations and friends the council of the Geographical Society resolved to ask the First Lord of the Admiralty to receive a deputation from their body, accompanied by experienced Arctic navigators, who will urge upon him the necessity for taking immediate steps for the relief of the Eira.

Mr. E. C. IIore has presented the Geographical Society with a map of Lake Tangauyika, which he constructed from careful surveys and observations made during his explorations.

Puofessor Haeckel is making a scientific exploration of Ceylon, which will occupy him for the next three months.

At a lecture delivered at the Midland Institute, Birmingham, Prof. Robert S. Ball stated that “The tides are increasing the length of the day.” The discoverer of this was Mr. G. H. Darwin, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge,

Mutual.Trust and Investment Society.

LIMITED.

(Incorporaieel under the Companies Statute 1864).

OFFICES: 66 COLLINS-STREET WEST, MELBOURNE.

Capital, £100,000 in 10,000 shares of £10 each. Subscribed, £10,000. Paid-up

£9301.

DIRECTORS :

Mr. Robert Inglis, accountant, G4 Collins-street West.

Mr. Charles Hetberington, Secretary, GO Collins-street West.

The first line of telegraph in China, from Shanghai to Chinkiang, has been opened.

The flashing system of telegraphy has been made so successful that the French in Tunis converse by it daily in spite of all the efforts of the insurgent Arabs to prevent it.

Mr. F. M, Balfour, F. R.8., has been elected President of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Mr. Edward B. Tylor, in a paper on the Sacred Myths of Polynesia, says, Prof. Bastian, on a late journey made to enrich the Ethnological Museum of Berlin, stayed a short time in New Zealand and the Sandwich Islands, and there gathered some interesting information as to native traditions, some not yet published, and some which have been neglected (if ever met with) by European students. The documents now printed in a small volume all strengthen the opinion which has for years been gaining ground among anthropologists as to the civilisation of the Polynesians. It is true that they were found in Captain Cook’s time living in a barbaric slate, and their scanty clothing and want of metals led superficial observers even to class them as savages. But their beliefs and customs show plain traces of descent from ancestors who in some way shared the higher culture of Asiatic nations.”

The Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales show that within the last 25 years, although the land has been greatly denuded of trees, no diminution in the amount of rainfall has taken place as might have been expected.

THE MATRICULATION EXAMINATION.

The new scheme for the matriculation examination at the University has at last been subject (o the test of experience. The history of the scheme has been given in our columns, and the result of the test to which it has been submitted this month, has been looked forward to with keen interest by all who are interested in education, but by none with greater anxiety than the originators and earnest advocates of the plan, of whom our Head-master is one. No final, nor even an approximate verdict can be offered until the results of the recent examinations appear. Not that results are always or at once a fair test of the merits of a plan, but because we shall be then able to ascertain two things which arc of great importance—(1) Whether the proverbial indignant parent of the plucked candidate is more content with the verdict of a board of examiners than with that of a single examiner, and (2) whether papers set and revised by a board are better tests of a candidate’s knowledge than these set by a single examiner. We have little doubt that experience will answer the first query in the affirmative; the knowledge that the plucked candidates have been rejected by at least two examiners, after an independent revision of their answers, will completely stop incessant complaints from parents and from teachers, which have for years past been a fruitful source of annoyance to the University authorities. With regard to the second point, we fear that the confidence which the promoters of the scheme had in its being adapted to remove all chances of errors being made in setting examination papers was misplaced, for the daily newspapers have recently teemed with letters from candidates, as well as from their guardians and tutors, complaining of the papers set. for honours in English and in French, and for pass in chemistry. We arc bound to say that the complaints are just. It passes belief that such an important paper as that for the honour examination in England should haveignored half the work prescribed, and that of the remainder a considerable portion was set from the proper author, indeed, but the questions were upon a part not. included in the syllabus of the examination.

ft is conceivable that an examiner in preparing the paper might make such a blunder, for we have had bitter experience in the past of similar lapses, but it is intolerable that a board of examiners should carelessly pass such slip-shod work. So, too, when the examiner in chemistry—an able chemist, but not versed in conducting University examinations—set one, and we might say, two questions on the chemistry of metals, a portion of the subject distinctly excluded from the limits of the examination, and the questions were passed by the board of examiners for the group of subjects containing chemistry, can we suppose for a moment the paper was ever really revised by the board ? The honour examination in French was the laughing-stock of the schoolmasters; there was hardly one question that might not have been included iu the pass-paper. The examiner’s accurate and extensive knowledge of the literature, history, and philosophy of the French language is too well known to allow of our supposing that he is wholly answerable for the paper ; but he must share the responsibility with the chairman of the board of modern languages for having directly discouraged earnest teachers, who for the past year have been devoting their energies to an extensive study of the best authors in prose and in verse of a certain prescribed period of Freftch literature. The painful conclusion forced upon us is that we have the name and not the reality of examining boards ,* we have all the evils of the independent examiner, plus the shirking responsibility, which is thrown upon a sham board ; and if the University does not see to it that the resolution of council and senate is carried into effect, all the evils under which for a long time we have groaned will be intensified. The council showed the importance it attached to the boards by making the salary paid to each examiner depend chiefly upon the performance of his duties as a member of the board, and by keeping the chairman free, when possible, from setting papers; it rests with the council to insist upon these duties being satisfactorily performed. It has recently rightly shown its determination to uphold the dicipline and moral tone of the University fearlessly ; it is hardly less important for it to see that the examinations are conducted according to the statutes and the regulations.— Wesley College Chronicle,

CONTENTS

Matriculation Examination—Algebra    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    98

Science and Art Gossip...... ...    ...............99

The Matriculation Examination ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    100

The Revised Testament ..................101

Elementary Education Act......... 101

Public Elementary Education in Ireland .........102

Notes of the Month ...    ............... ......102

Parliament and the Universities ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    103

Victorian Education Department—Examinations Papers, Dec., 1SS1 ... 107

THE

Mr. M. II. Davies, Chairman, 8 Collins street West.

Mr. Francis J. Smart, architect (Messrs Henderson and Smart)

Auctioneers and Special Valuators: Messrs. C. J. and T. Ham, Swanston-St.

Surveyor and Valuator: Mr. Percy Oakden (Messrs. Terry and Oakden).

Auditors : Mr. Thomas Inglis and Mr. John G. Shield. SECRETARY : MR. C. HETHERINGTON. MANAGING DIRECTOR : MR. ROBERT INGLIS.

_ SECOND ISSUE of 1000 SHARES of £10 EACH.

The chief objects of the company are:—1. To lend money to members upon the security of real property or upon bank, gas or building society shares, or upon other approved security. 2. To negotiate loans of all descriptions upon such terms as to profit and remuneration as may be agreed upon. 3. To buy and sell freehold or leasehold estates. 4. To collect and receive rents, debts, dividends, interest and other moneys. 5. To buy and sell shares in any public banking corporation, insurance or gas company or building society, or any incorporated company. 6. To act as attorney or agent in the management of estates for absentees and for trustees.

Iti order to increase the paid-up capital of the company and extend its business it has been decided to make a second issue of 1000 shares of £10 each. These shares are now offered to the public at a premium of os. per share, and may be paid either in cash or by instalments of £1 per share per month. The company lias now completed its sixth half-year, and has, during its progress in addition to paying off all preliminary expenses, paid one half-yearly dividend at the rate of 8 per cent, per annum, and four half-yearly dividends atthe rato of 10 per cent, per annum. The secretary will receive application for shares unti, further notice, and will furnish information regarding the company to intending shareholders, together with copies of previous reports and balance-sheets,

C. HET11 ERIN GTON, Secretary.

APPLICATION FOR SHARES.    '

To the Directors of the Mutual Trust and Investment Society (Limited).—I hereby apply for    shares in the Mutual Trust and Investment Sosiety

(Limited), and inclose , being 5s. per share application fee.

Name in full........................................

Date.............................. Occupation ..........................................

J. B. O’HARA.”—Thanks. Solutions of Geometry and Trigonometry inserted next month.

Received.—“J, J. M,” “ Hugh Hughes,” “ R. E. Gilsenan,” “ T. F. Corbett, LL.B ”

Elisiralashni j§dja0lmasfn\

PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH.

MELBOURNE, JANUARY, 1882. State school teachers in Victoria will learn with pleasure that the Secretary of Education has returned by the mail steamer after enjoying his well-earned holiday in Europe. The change of Government that took place shortly after he left the colony has led to several important projected alterations in the working of the State school system. These will at once engage Mr. Brown’s attention, and, doubtless, the observation and experience of the elementary school systems of Europe, gained while absent, will materially aid him in forming a correct judgment upon them. The Hon. Jas. Macpherson Grant having assumed office as Minister of Public Instruction during his absence, Mr. Brown Avas formally introduced to the Minister by the Acting-Secretary, Mr. Bolam, on the occasion of his visiting the department on the 13th inst. Mr. Grant warmly congratulated the Secretary on his return and upon the improved state of his health. Among the questions now awaiting a decision, are the exclusion from the schools of all children who have not attained the age at which the Act renders education compulsory, and the closing of night schools, excepting in very special cases. With regard to the first named, it is manifest

that the influx of infants into State schools has become an evil, and must be restricted. Apart altogether from the question as to whether or not it is injurious to the physical development of young children, to force the growth of their mental powers and keep them for hours together in close, heated rooms, we hold that it is unwise to encumber the edu-tion Act with the cost of providing schooling and nurses for children whose education was not in question when the battle of free, secular, and obligatory education was fought out in Victoria. AVhat the friends of popular education desired was to inaugurate a system of public instruction, under which the whole of the children in the colony of school age should be brought into school, and be prepared to enter upon the active business of life, altogether free from sectarian training. School age is clearly defined in the Act, and ought never to have been departed from. Owing to the infringement of the Act in this respect, serious embarrassment has arisen in consequence of the enormous additional expenditure it has entailed upon the department. To provide ample building accommodation of the character of the present State schools, and togivea sound education to the youth of the wholecol-ony, is certainly all that the State ought to be called upon to do, and is a work of sufficient magnitude to tax the energies of the Education Department. The care of infants may well be left to their parents, or to private seminaries.

The subject of night schools is beset with special difficulties. Many children have been allowed to pass the legal school age without education, while the necessities of the parents of others are such as to render it imperative that they should contribute something to the support of the family circle. Exceptional circumstances, therefore, do arise in which it is incumbent on the Department to open free night schools. 1 hese, however, ought to be conducted under the best of masters, men who are strict disciplinarians, as well as good teachers.

In an article criticising the latest edition of the Revised ISew Testament, the School Board, Chronicle remarks :— Glorious old JohnDryden used to say that everything suffers by translation except a bishop, and we fear that the revised translation of the New Testament now before us is no exception to the rule of that great poet and critic, whose own translations of classical works were complete demonstrations of his rule. The revisers were entrusted with the work of revising the Holy Scriptures translated in King James’s reign, on the understanding that they were “ to increase its fidelity without destroying its charm,” and “ to render a work that had reached a high standard of excellence still more excellent.” We wish that the excellence of execution of the task assigned to the revisers had in any way equalled the excellence of their aim, confessing, as we do, our deep disappointment at the results, which are for the most part anything but satisfactory. The best work done by the revisers is the excellent text of the original Greek which they have published along with the translation; and the translation itself is not without many merits, though by no means are these merits of such a character or of such weight as to counterbalance the gross errors of good taste and mistranslation of which the revisers have been guilty.

As samples of admirable and useful correction we note St. Luke viii. with the happy an 1 accurate rendering, “Then cometli the Devil, and taketh away the word from their hearts, that they may not believe and be saved,” where the Authorised Version gives us “ out of their hearts,” erroneously; for the Greek not only does not warrant it, but the sense of the context shows that the good seed was never in their hearts, and therefore could never be taken out of their hearts. Again, << Deliver us from the Evil One,” in the Lord’s Prayer, instead of the loose and general term “ evil” is much truer to the Greek and in happy concord with the earliest versions and the comments of the Fathers. It is curious to note here that the word Devil is really etymologically the evil—thevil—and so Devil, as God is the Good Being. Again, in St. Luke vi. 35, the revisers give us, “ Love your enemies, and do them good, and lend, never despairing,” with a marginal note:—“ Some ancient

authorities read despairing of no man.” Here the Jacobean translators perverted the Greek by translating “hoping for nothin«: again”—a sense which the Greek never bears. Here we regret, however, that the revisers did not still further improve their rendering by following the reading of the Sinaitic codex, confirmed as it is by the three Syriac vesions, and accordingly rendering it “ driving no man to despair.” Speaking generally, however, the greatest improvement of the revisers will be found in the careful rendering of the Greek article and the Greek tenses—a portion of Greek scholarship but little understood in the days of King James’s translators.

The education of the humbler classes of the community lies somewhat outside the sphere of the majority of our readers ; yet we cannot refrain from making a few comments on that grand experiment of Mr. Forrester’s ten years ago—the Elementary Education Act—and the results which have flowed from it. If we are not ourselves engaged in educating the class for whom that Act was passed, we are at least ratepayers, and we bear our share of the burden of maintaining the Elementary Schools. That is the lowest ground for taking interest in this great subject. We are also however, Englishmen, and therefore deeply interested in whatever concerns the education of the people, our fellow subjects amongst whom our lot is cast.

At the recent Church Congress held in Newcastle, several papers were read on the First Decade of the Education Act, and were followed by the usual discussions. Both papers and discussions were full of interest and suggestive facts. Thus, as appeared from Mr. Heller’s paper—a valuable contribution to the statistics of the subject—the number of children on the school registers, in the year 1870, was 1,949,070, while in 1880 it was 3,895,824. That is to say, it had actually doubled ! One trembles to think what would have become of half the children in England if this Act had not been passed. Again, the school provision has more than doubled. Ten years ago there was room for 1,878,584 scholars in our Elementary Schools; there is now accommodation for 4,240,753. The average attendance was, in 1870, 1,152,389, and, in 1880, 2,750,91G. One of the most noteworthy facts in connection with this vast extension of elementary education is, that there has been a very considerable increase of Voluntary Schools, notwithstanding the multiplication of School Boards; and, in spite of all that was once said in favour of secular education, it has become apparent that religious training is desired both by the Boards and by the majority of the parents all over the country. Nothing is more instructive, on this point, than the experience of the Birmingham Board. They began there by having a purely secular form of education. The conviction was, however, soon forced upon them, that morality, at least, ought to be taught; they thereupon introduced a “ Text-Book of Morals,” and a year afterwards the Bible itself found its way into the schools. An interesting question for consideration is the all-important point, how far the Education Act has benefited the morality of the country. There are, we find, more boys in reformatories than there were ten years ago; but then more care is taken to send boys to these schools, and an increase in the number may and ought to show a decrease in crime. It seems to all but violently prejudiced people, as if the teaching of morals in schools must be better than no teaching at all; and we believe, with Professor Huxley, that the maintenance of the religious feeling is the most desirable of all things, and that it cannot be maintained without the Bible. Although it may be too soon to pronounce a very confident opinion on the subject, we can hardly see how it is possible for the morality of the country not to have improved. That lads living under bad home influences, and among immoral surroundings, will suddenly become honest, patient, virtuous members of society, we do not at all expect; but we must remember how good a thing it is for a boy or a girl to learn, even for two or three years only, the ways of wisdom.

The connection of actual knowledge with religion and morals is a subject on which people’s minds are curiously vague. There are many who seriously believe, that a boy who learns to read write, and cipher, is far advanced, not only on the road to wisdom, but virtue. By reading, to be sure die may help himself

We are not disposed to agree with Sir Patrick Keenan that, so far as principle is concerned, the problem is solved, and that all that is now needed is to extend and complete the system, complementing it with compulsory attendance. We are rather prone to think that it is not the business of the State to hand over the duty of the education of the poor, and the money with which to carry it on, to the priesthood of the various theological creeds. Education in the hands of the Churches appears to us to be a survival from mediaeval times. It is nearly all that remains of the old grip of the sacerdotal power upon the secular Government. If the Churches feel it to be their duty to educate the race, let them find the money and carry on the work as far as the people are willing to accept the services at their hands; but if the State is to find the money and educate the children, it should be done on State and not on ecclesiastical principles, and for State and not for ecclesiastical ends. These are views of national education which must prevail more and more in a free community, and we imagine the time is gone by when the British Government can make new and costly terms, on the great question of national education, with the principle of concurrent endowment or State subsidy to education by the Churches.—School Board Chronicle.

liâtes of tlje UTottfjj.

because he may read good books ; on the other hand, he may do himself a very great deal of harm by reading bad books. Writing and arithmetic have absolutely no connection with morals; nor have geography, mechanics, or facts of any kind, except those historical facts which show the advantage of being on the side of the angels. Yet the learning of these things may have its moral aspect, by awakening a spirit of curiosity and research. All we can do, in this respect, is to lead the children into the right path, and to encourage them to keep in it. Our ancestors were wise in one thing, for, whether they taught the children to read or not, at all events they taught them their catechism ; and the reformers of the Birmingham school have been taught a salutary lesson, and been compelled to go back on their footsteps, because they did not, at the outset, ask themselves how best to inculcate the right conduct of life.—Educational Times.

PUBLIC ELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN IRELAND.

The newspapers generally, in their reports of the proceedings of the Social Science Congress at Dublin, do not reproduce at any great length the interesting opening address in the Education Section, delivered by the Chairman of the Section, Sir Patrick J. Keenan,the Resident Commissioner of National Education. A full reprint, however, of Sir Patrick Keenan’s speech lies before us, and we are tempted to call attention to it as an important contribution to the consideration of the great-estcoming education questioned the age. We cannot help agreeing all round that not much longer may be postponed the solution of the great and difficult problem of national elementary education in Ii-eland, and the first element towards the solving of the question is the diffusion in this country of correct and clear information as to the existing state of things in the Sister Isle. Sir Patrick Keenan has left it to other hands to give us full information as to the kind and the measure of existing ignorance and neglect of instruction among the poor in Ireland, but he has placed within the reach of all inquirers a lucid statement of the system of national education now in operation, enabling us to consider whether Parliament ought to content itself with the extension and completion of that system, or whether, in providing elementary education for Ireland as it has been provided for England and Wales,new principles must be introduced.

Sir Patrick Keenan is an almost ardent advocate of the extension of education on the lines of the existing system,which may be described as the denominational, or “ concurrent endowment ” system. In presenting an historical summary of education in Ireland, with illustrative glances at experiments in national education in other countries, his main object appears to be to show that all schemes of national education fail which are not of a denominational character, or which do not recognise the ministers and teachers of religion as the principal co-operators with the Government—if not the chief agents of the Government in the education of the people more or less at the cost of the public.

That is really the point at issue. We invite all who are interested in this complex and almost painful problem to study carefully Sir John Keenan’s pamphlet, and to see how far they can agree with him and how far, in differing from him, they can find reasons for taking the opposite view and for expecting success where he would only look for failure.

Sir Patrick draws a melancholy and disastrous picture of the failure of the Kildare Place Society, which was established in 1811, on lines similar to those of our British and Foreign Schools Society, one of whose articles was i( Bible reading without note or comment.” Bible reading was, of course, in Ireland, a heresy. This was not the principle of leaving religious teaching outside the field of national education. It was not negative. It was an actual carrying of war into the Roman Catholic camp. On that rock the Society split. With the appearance of neutrality in the matter of religious instruction it was in fact, in its relation to the predominant x-eligion in Ireland, a Protestant scheme of national education. At the instance of the late Lord Derby the Kildare system was superseded by the denominational and concurrent endowment system now in operation.

The Rev. A. F. Harding, a teacher in Christ College, Tasmania, committed suicide, on account of disappointment in love, whilst he was on a visit to Melbourne.

Mr. Quick, M.L.A., of Victoria, has taken his ad sundem degree of Bachelor of Arts at the Sydney University.

The well known novelist, Mr. William Ainsworth, died on January 2nd, at the advanced age of 77 years.

Copies of the Planisphere and the explanatory references compiled by Mr. Ellery for use in State Schools, will be sent to each school, and instruction in astronomy will soon be included in the daily work of the upper classes. Two thousand have been printed at the Government printing offices.

The chairman of the Education Commission visited and inspected the Education Department on Wednesday last.

A teacher named Leonard Woodruff, who, in June last, collected some money and failed to hand it over to the owner, was arrested on January 5th.

The Government Gazette notifies the appointment of Mr. J. Thorn, formerly assistant master at the state school at Kilmore, to succeed J. C. Hayes, dismissed.

The first meeting of the class for instruction in Telegraphy was held in the lecture-hall of the Technological Museum, on Monday last.

The Parliamentary Library of Tasmania has received a case of books from Professor Spenser F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. It contains the publications of the several Executive departments of the Government of the United States. The Parliament Library has already received upwards of a thousand volumes from this scientific society.

At a meeting of the Richmond Board of Advice, held on Monday, Jan. 9th, a letter was received from the Education Department stating that application had been made to the Crown Lands Department for the reservation for school purposes of land previously withdrawn from sale, viz., allotments 39, 40, 2 and 3.

The Warragul Guardian says: A new state school at King Parrot Creek is much needed, and we are informed that the Board of Advice have more than once drawn the attention of the Education Department to the fact. There are, we understand, about 40 children who would attend school, but out of that number only about one-fourth have been attending lately, though the weather has been fine ; and we are informed that the reason of the poor attendance is the unsuitability of the building now occupied. The teacher has no accommodation at King Parrot Creek, and consequently has to live at Drouin, three and a half miles distant,

A State school is to be built at Coy’s Diggings, near Heathcote, at a cost of £263 17s. 9d.

The Minister of Education has refused to alter the hours during which the poll is taken for members of the Board of Advice, on the ground that no complaints have been made by the voters themselves, and that not much interest is taken in these elections.

Telegraphic despatches announce the death, at the age of 66, of Henry Dana, who wrote “ Two years before the mast.”

A competitive examination will be held at the Melbourne School of Music, in February next, for two musical scholarships.

The Education Commission met at the Treasury Buildings on Wednesday last, and made arrangements to examine the witnesses on 18th of February next.

The senate of the University of Melbourne met on Tuesday, December 21st, for the purpose of electing a member of the council in the place of Professor Andrew, who had resigued in his turn. The only two candidates for the position were the retiring member and Professor McCoy. Professor Andrew was returned by a majority of 13. The numbers polled were 7 5 and 62.

The question as to whether very small children are to be excluded from attendiug State schools has not yet been decided. The inspectors are to meet and confer with the Minister of Education on the matter.

A full time school has been opened at Lubeck, in Victoria at the request of a deputation from some of the more important inhabitants.

Troubles of the eye and ear in children are often traceable to defective teeth. Dr. Sexton regards irritation of the jaws as among the chief causes of the increasing near-sightedness among school children.    .    .    .

The International Geographical Congress at Venice, m September last, adopted a resolution in favour of the construction of a general geological map of the world, which will be made at Berlin under the direction of some of the most eminent geologists from all the European countries.

“ ASSISTANT,” writing to the Argus, Melbourne, says there are many rules with regard to the appointment of teachers that ought to be altered by the Education Commission. For instance, he complains that the youth who has had merely a year or two of training at the training institution, is often placed over the head of an equally clever man who has had several years of practical experience in schools.

Mr. G. Wilson Brown, secretary to the Education Department, arrived in Melbourne by the Royal Mail Steamer Khedive, from Venice, on Thursday evening last. On the next day he visited the department, and he will commence attending to his duties next week.

Mons. A. C. Aucher, B.A., will deliver a lecture on Friday evening, February 3rd, on “ The French language and how it should be taught.”

The London Quarterly for October contains an interesting article on George Eliot,

The University of Sydney, which recently opened its classes and degrees to women, has received a donation of £5,000 for the endowment of scholarships for poor students, The donor connects the gift with the opening of the University to women.—Educational Times.

The statistics of England show that out of 17,000 schools, Church of England possesses 11,000, Wesleyans only 569, and Catholics 758. There are 3433 Board Schools, and 1438 British, the Board Schools, however, are by far the largest. The Church schools employ 7512 teachex*s, and the Board schools 8920.

The report of the Council of Education in England says :—The extent to which the training colleges have contributed to the supply of efficient teachers in England and Wales is shown by the fact, that out of 13,521 masters employed in schools in 1879-80, 8,129 or 60'12 percent, had been trained for two years, 1,130 or 8’36 per cent, for one year, and 287 or 2T2 per cent, for less than one year, while 3,975 or 29'4 per cent were untrained. In like manner, of 17,901 school mistresses, 8017 or 44-79 per cent, bad been trained for two years, 1075 or 6'01 per cent, for one year, and 255 or F42 per cent, for less than one year, 8554 or 47'78 per cent, were untrained. Many of those untrained had been under the best teachers, had passed their pupil teacher course, and were serving as assistants of large schools at the time of passing examination for the certificate.

There has lately been erected, near Cockermouth, in the county of Cumberland, a large new Industrial School, which the Home Secretary for England considers the latest, and he believed most perfect development of thescheme of an Industrial School. A thoroughly efficient master has been secured, and the whole is to be under the management of a committee of eighteen Magistrates, under the guidance of a very able chairman.

On the 17th of December last, the Bishop of Adelaide, Dr. Short, resigned his position as Chancellor of the University of Adelaide. On the 30th the Church of England Synod’s Standing Committee presented an address to His Lordship, on his retirement from the office of Bishop of the See of Adelaide.

The Philharmonic Society of Adelaide gave their first concert in the Town Hall, on December the 23rd. At this concert Handel’s Messiah was produced.

At a meeting of the Port Adelaide School Board of Advice held on January 5th., 30 parents were present to answer accusations of neglecting to send their children to school, but. most of them escaped with a caution, as the Board deemed it necessary to take proceedings in the police court in one case only ;

At a meeting of the Hindmarsh (South Australia) Institute, on Friday evening, January the 6th, the Secretary intimated that a Dramatic Club was being formed amongst members of the Institute and others with apparent success. Entertainment Committee to ma e arrangements for a series of concerts (three) on behalf of Piano and Library Funds.

SOME handsome buildings have been added to the public school accommodation in South Australia during the year 1881. At Glenelg, a large stone building capableof accommodating 250 pupils has been erected at a cost of £2936 10s., and at the following places also schools have been established at the coits named, and capable of holding over 50 children :—Goodwood, £2,398 15s. 3d.; Nailsworth, £2,520; Oaklands, £1,014 5s.; Port Augusta West, £1,315; Port Pirie, £600; Quorn, £1,100; Snowtown, £1,028 ; Stockwell, £971 ; Payneham, £1,820.

In Sydney, the total receipts for public school fees for the year just completed, were £46,347. In Adelaide the total revenue under the head of Education amounted to £19,900, which is an increase on last year’s receipts of somewhat between £1,500, and £1,600.

The election of Lord Rector of the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, was held in the beginning of November, and resulted, according to expectation, in the election of Dr. Baine, late Professor of Logic in the University.

Professor Huxley has resigned the position of Secretary of the London Royal Society, after occupying it for ten years. Dr, Michael Foster, professor of physiology in the the University of Cambridge, will likely succeed him.

The late Mr. McDouald, J.R., M.P., has bequeathed to the University of Glasgow the whole of his books on mining, and £1,000 for the foundation of bursaries to be held by young men who have worked underground as miners.

Messrs. Reid and Barnes, architects, of Melbourne, have called for tenders for the erection of three professors’ houses to be erected in the University grounds.

Mr. H. Dempsey has been appointed head-master of Asburton (New Zealand) Borough School.

The returns of the monthly attendance of the Invercargill High School showed boys 52 and girls 44'31.

At the invitation of Alderman Bale, (Queensland) chairman of the committee of the school, 220 of the children of Bowen Bridge school assembled on his grounds, and were entertained with a long programme of sports as a breaking-up fete.

A correspondent of the Launceston Examiner says :—The Roman Catholic clergy resolved to establish in Launceston a school for their youth, with the primary object of giving instruction in the tenets of the catholic religion. The first step was to withdraw from the Board of Education St. Joseph’s schoolroom, which had been used for many years as a public school. The Roman Catholic congregation was warned recently from the alter, that all children of the church must be withdrawn from the protestant schools, and entered in the new school under a penalty of excommunication.

The receipts for Christ College, Tasmania, for the year 1881, amounted to £1471 13s. 2d., and the expenditure £1086 17s. 6d., leaving a balance of £384 15s. 8d.

The Nelson Colonist (N.Z.) says that a horrible disease is breaking out among the children attending the Riwaka school.

News has been received by the mail that William Sutherland, B. A., has obtained his B.Sc. at the London University, and at the Honor ex aminations gained first-class honors and the Physical scholarships—£50 a year for two years. Mr. Sutherland gained a State school exhibition from the Model school in 1873, coming second on the list. He then studied at Wesley College, from which he matriculated with ci'edit and took the mathematical entrance exhibition. In 1878 he completed his

B.A. course, and in the following year, having been appointed Gilchrist scholar, proceeded to London University, where in his first year he won the Cloth-weavers’ scholarship. Some original work in electricity which he did during his course was favourably received by the Physical Society of London.

PARLIAMENT AND THE UNIVERSITIES.

Four Old Collegians are members of Parliament; Legislative Council : The Hon. Thomas F. Cumming. Legislative Assembly ; The Hon. Robert Ramsay, Mr. William Shiels, LL.B., and Mr. James Gibb.

At the Universities upwards of 350 old pupils have passed Matriculation, and about ninety have obtained Degrees.

The alterations in the Matriculation Examination, which were referred to in my last report, came into operation for the first time this year. For the ordinary Pass, the principal change has been the addition of four science subjects to the ten already open for selection. The most important change, however, has been the institution of a higher or Honor examination, in four groups of subjects—Classics, Mathematics, Modern Languages, and English. The ultimate effect on education of the new system will doubtless be beneficial ; but in the examinations held this year there has been a marked want of uniformity in the difficulty of the papers set in different subjects. This has been the case notably in the Honor papers, which in some subjects, such as English and French, were but slightly more difficult than those set for the Pass. In the Mathematical subjects, on the other hand, the Honor papers were so much higher than the Pass that the difference in the standard represented for an average boy at least two years’ school work. It is to be hoped that in future the Examiners will avail themselves of the power given them by the University to secure that there be something appi-oaching uniformity in the standard of the papers set in the various subjects, both for Pass and Honor,

As the Matriculation Examination under the new system includes every subject of school instruction, it will now be practicable to carry out to a fuller extent the division of the college work into two or three different courses of study, These, whilst coinciding to some degree, will be so arranged as to have a distinctive classical, scientific, or practical character. Boys will thus have an opportunity of studying the subjects suited to their mental capabilities and best calculated to prepare for their future career in life. Each pupil in the upper school will be required to select one or other of these courses, from which he will not be allowed to deviate. In this way every boy will study a sufficient number of subjects to qualify him for passing matriculation, and I would impress on parents that they could have no better test than that examination of the use which their sons have made of their time and opportunities at school.

I would further remind parents that the mere passing of the Matriculation Examination is not a sufficient preparation for entering the University, and that only those who are able to pass in honors can really benefit by the lectures, or expect to pass at the end of the first year. I trust, therefore, that every boy who intends to prosecute his studies after leaving school, will attend for a year or two in the sixth class, in which all the honor work is taught, and in which I shall in future allow no boy to remain who does not show by his application and industry that he has entered the class with the object of studying.—Scotch College Report,

ISutoxwn (Btracatxott gLprimenl

Our readers will be glad to learn that Mr. G. W. Brown, Secretary of the Education Department, has arrived in Melbourne by the mail steamer, after nearly twelve months absence from the colony. Mr. Brown paid a short visit to the Education Office on the 13th, and was introduced to the Minister who has taken office since Mr. Brown’s departure. Mr. Brown’s leave extends to the end of the month, but we understand that it is his intention to resume the duties of Secretary at once. We believe that Mr. Brown’s health has been improved by the holiday and voyage.

The Royal Commission on Education propose to sit to take evidence on the 18th February. The first witness who will be examined will be the Secretary of the Department, Mr. Brown.

The following are the papers set by the Department for Exhibitions at the examination held December, 1881 :—

GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION.

( Time allowed two and a half hours.)

1.    Parse fully the words printed in italics in the following passage :— King Henry.—Your wondrous rare description, noble earl,

Of beauteous Margaret hath astonished me ;

Her virtues, graced with external gifts,

Do breed love's settled passion in my heart :

And lihe as rigour in tempestuous gusts Provokes the mightiest hulk against the tide,

So am I driven, by breath of her renown,

Either to suffer shipwreck, or arrive Where I may have fruition of her love.

Suffolk.— Tush \ my good lord ! this superficial tale Is hut a preface of her worthy praise :

The chief perfections of that lovely dame (Had I sufficient skill to utter them)

Would make a volume of enticing lines Able to ravage any dull conceit,

And, which is more, she is not so divine,

So full replete with choice of all delights,

But with as humble lowliness of mind,

She is content to he at your command ;

Command, I mean, of virtuous chaste intents,

To love and honour Henry as her lord.

2.    Analyse—Shakespeare indeed has said that a rose by any other name would smell as sweet ; but there are some things which are not roseB, and which are thought to smell a great deal sweeter by any other name than by their own.

3.    State the rules for the apposition of nouns, and for the agreement of the relative with its antecedent ; and give examples of verbs used absolutely.

•1. (a) Write each of the following sentences in a correct form, stating the rule violated in each case :—Who do you think I saw yesterday ? Neither John nor his sister Mary were present. After he done his home lesson, he spoke quite kind to his little brother. Between you and I, he acted like his brother did, (h) Show how each of the following words may be employed as different parts of speech, naming in each case the part of speech :—that, as, what, for, fast.

FRENCH.

( Time allowed two hours.)

1.    Translate into English—En vain implora-t-il, dans ses derniers instants, quelqu’un qui daignât lui donner la mort ; personne ne voulut lui rendre ce dangereux service, “ Quoi !” s’écriait-il dans son désespoir, “est-il possible que je n’aie ni ami pour défendre ma vie, ni personne pour me Fêter ?” Il serait difficile d’exprimer la joie des Romains lorsqu’ils apprirent sa mort. On arbora publiquement le signal de la liberté, et le peuple se couvrit la tête d’un chapeau semblable à celui que prenaient les esclaves après leur affranchisement. Le sénat n’y fut pas moins sensible ; Néron avait dessein de l’abolir, après avoir fait mourir tous les sénateurs, Lorsqu’il apprit les premières nouvelles da la rébellion, il fórmale projet de faire massacrer tous les gouverneurs des provinces, et tous les généraux d’armée, comme ennemis de la République ; de faire périr tous les exilés ; d’égorger tous les Gaulois à son armée ; d’empoisonner le sénat entier dans un repas ; de brûler Rome une seconde fois, et de lâcher en même temps dans les rues toutes les bêtes réservées pour les spectacles afin d’empêcher le peuple d’éteindre le feu.

2.    Parse fully with French syntax the preceding words in italics.

3.    Translate into English—Les habitudes de Napoléon étaient extrêmement simples, et il était d’une frugalité remarquable. Il déjeûnait à neuf heures et demie precises, sur un petit guéridon en bois d’acajou, couvert d’une serviette. Ce déjûner ne durait pas huit minutes ; il ne se prolongeait que lorsque Napoléon aspirant à redescendre à la vie privée, fermait son cabinet et se mettait à son aise. Alors, rien n’égalait sa douce gaîté ; ses expressions étaient rapides et pittoresques. Très souvent le préfet du palais lui proposait de recevoir dans ces instants quelques personnes favorisées, C’etaient, en général, des savants du premier ordre : Napoléon entretenait chacun du sujet favori de ses études ; il interrogeait avec autant d’abandon que d’affabilité. Bonaparte dînait seul avec l’impératrice ; le dimanche, il réunissait sa famille. Un seul service composait le repas ; Napoléon choisissait de préférence les mets les plus simples et ne buvait que du Chambertin fortement trempé. Le dîner durait de quinze à vingt minutes et etaitê toujours terminé par une tasse de café,

4.    Parse fully with French syntax the preceding words in italics.

5.    Give the following grammatical forms (a) Active Subjunctive

Imperfect 3rd plural of “buvoir.” (h) Indicative Preterite 1st plural of “ naitre.” (c) Indicative Present 2nd plural of “croitre.” (d) Indicative Present 3rd plural of “devoir.”    (e) Subjunctive Imperfect

3rd plural feminine of “ se flatter”.

6.    (a) Distinguish between the verbal adjective and the present parti

ciple a3 regards signification and inflection, (b) When are at, to, in rendered by a.; when by e«- ? (c) When are passive verbs followed by de and when by par ?    (d) (1) What exceptions are there to the rule that

cardinals do not take the mark of the plural ?    (2) What peculiarity is

thereabout the expression vingt-et-un? (e) In what respect does the preposition en differ from all the other prepositions in regard to government of a following verb ? Give examples.

7.    Translate into French :—(a) I will eat your black bread, and we

shall both gain by the exchange.    (h) We ought to reflect well before

undertaking anything, (c) This man must be enormously wealthy to offer 20 louis to whosoever shall find his dog. (d) He confided his design to only seven officers ; one of them Irish, the other Scotch, (c) The two armies came in sight of each other, at 2 o’clock in the afternoon, at a place called Culloden. (f) They lost all hope when, after passing two days in this frightful place, no one came to their assistance. (g) Your Father knoweth of what you have need before you ask it of him. (h) Two consuls between whom he was sitting, seeing him burst out laughing asked of him the reason for it.

LATIN.

( Time allowed two hours).

1.    Translate into English—Natio estomnis Gallorum admodum dedita religionibus ; atque ob earn causam, qui sunt affecti gravioribus jnorbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant, aut se immolaturos vovent, administrisque ad ea sacrificia Druidi-bus utuntur ; quod, pro vita hominisuisa vita reddatur, non posse aliter deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur ; publieeque ejusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. Alii immani magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum contexta viminibus membra vivis hominibus complent, quibus succensis, circumventi flamma exanimantur homines. Supplicia eorum qui in furto aut [in] latrocinio aut aliqua noxa sint comprehensi gratiora diis immortalibus esse arbitrantur ; sed quum ejus generis copia deficit, ctiam ad innocentium supplicia descendunt. Deum maxime Mer-curium colunt. Hujussunt plurima simulacra, hunc omnium inventorem artium ferunt, hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc ad quaestus pecuniae mercaturasque habere vim maximam arbitrantur.

2.    Parse with full syntax the following words from the above passage— Morbis, reddatur, placari, immani, contexta, viminibus, succensis, noxa.

3.    Translate into English—At ii qui in jugo constiterant, nullo etiam nunc usu rei militaris percepto, nequein eoquod probaverant consilio per manere, ut se loco superiore defenderent, neque earn quamprofuisse aliis vim celeritatem que videraut imitari potuerunt: sed se in castra recipere conati iniquum in locum demiserunt. Centuriones, quorum nonnulli ex inferioribus ordinibus reliquarum legionum virtutis causa in superiores erant ordines hujus legionis transducti, ne ante partem rei militaris lau-dem amitterent fortissime pugnantes conciderunt. Militum pars, horum virtute summotis hostibus, praeter, spem incolnmis in castra pervenit; pars a barbaris circumventa periit. Germani, desperata expugnatione castrorum, quod nostros jam constitisse in munitionibus videbaut, cum ea praeda quam in silvis deposuerant trans Rhenum sese receperunt.

4.    Parse with full syntax the following words from the above passage :—Constiterant, quam, profuisse, vim, causa, considerunt, summotis, incolumis.

o. Translate and explain the words in italics :—

Quos ex Cisalpina Gallia consulis Sacramento rogavisset Taxo, cujus magna in Gallia copia est se exanimavit Hospites violare fas non putant.

6.    Decline—Virus, os, neuter, arcus, quisque ; and write out the following :—

Infinitive Future of Loquor.

Subjunctive Past Imperfect 2nd singular of Malo.

Subjunctive Present Imperfect 3rd singular of Fio.

Passive Indicative Past imperfect 3rd plural of Sisto, Imperative Future of Memini.

7.    (a) Give the Lai in for eighteen hundred and eighty-first.

(b)    Name the prepositions that govern two cases, and mention the

peculiarity of the preposition tenus.

(c)    Explain, with examples, what is meant by Inceptive Verbs.

8.    Translate into Latin—

to him for the purpose of clearing themselves.

(b)    Csesar compelled the Nervii to surrender, and to give him hos

tages.

(c)    The Druids are accustomed to absent themselves from war, and

they do not pay tribute.

(.d) It is a well-known fact that many kinds of wild beasts are born in this wood.

(e) Who doubts that it is the duty of all men to do good to their parents and children.

(/) Who will dare to prevent us from worshipping God as we please ?

(,g) No one will deny that the Romans destroyed, in one year, two most prosperous cities.

([h) I am disgusted at the folly of men who drink too freely,

)*

4a2 b + 2a~^2a — b/ ' 6a2 + 5ab + b2

•05)

= -80:4-290.

•008 5 + ”04 2 1

•08

1

(ii)

EUCLID.

{Time allowed two hours.)

1.    {a) Give the origin of the names Euclid and Geometry, (b) (1) Describe generally the contents of the first book of Euclid, and (2) describe particularly, but briefly, the parts into which it may be divided according to the matter dealt with, (c) Distinguish fully a theorem from a problem, show of w'hat parts each consists, and point out an example of each in the following questions, indicating and naming its essential parts.

2.    {a) From a given point draw a straight line equal to a given straight line. (b) Write out the definition, axioms, and postulates referred to in showing that what is required in the foregoing question (a) has been done.

3.    Show that if the equal sides EE, DFol the triangle DEF be produced to G and II respectively, the angle GEF shall be equal to the angle EFH.

4.    Show that if at a point in a straight line two other straight lines upon the opposite sides of it make the adjacent angles together equal to two right angles, these two straight lines shall be in one and the same straight line. (a) What name is given to the method of proof employed in Euclid to establish this proposition ? (b) What is its distinctive feature ?

5.    In every triangle the angle opposite to the greater side shall be greater than the angle opposite to the less, Prove this.

6.    In the triangles PQR, STV, the two sides PQ, PR are equal to the two sides ST, SF, each to each, namely, PQ to ST, and PR to SF, but the angle QPR is greater than the angle TSV: prove that the base QR is greater than the base TV.

7.    Show that all the exterior angles of any rectilineal figure, made by producing its sides successively in the same direction, are together equal to four right angles.

8.    Describe a parallelogram equal to a given square and having an angle equal to a given obtuse angle.

9.    If in the triangle EFG the square described on the side EG is equal to the squares described on the sides EF, FG, prove that the angle of is a right angle.

ALGEBRA.

(Time allowed two hours.)

1.    What is Algebra ? Mention some of its uses.

2.    Explain these terms, giving examples of them:—An exponent, a simple expression, a compound expression, the terms of an expression, the square root, a formula.

3.    Express algebraically, the sum of «.and of twice the remainder after taking from three times y four times thc^excess of z over unity is multiplied by itself, and the product is divided by a number which, when multiplied by itself twice, wrould produce the quotient obtained by dividing x by five times the sum of y and z.

4.    (<t) Explain the term : Greatest Common Measure. (6) Why is it not very appropriate in Algebra ? What would be a better expression for it ? (c) To what operations is the finding of the G. C. M. subservient ’

(d) Find the G.C.M. of 3«* - 10«3 + 9x2 -2x and 2«2 —7«3 + 2x* + 8x.

5.    Find the simple expression that must be added to a5 + 2asx2(a-x) + 3ax{ai - «3) to make it an exact multiple of ¿2 + x2.

6.    Simplify

/9a?-\-ccb b    ci \    Sab

7. Solve the equations

... 2-4?, 6(-215aj

w

3cc —    1 x 12a:3—16m2+4a;

8.    A waggon-load of wheat and oats, weighing 2^ tons, is worth £17 5s 4d at 2s a bushel of oats (40 lbs.), and 4s 9d a bushel of wheat (60 lbs.). How many bushels of each are there?

9.    A person bought a horse for a certain sum, and after keeping it a month sold it for £6 4s less, by which he lost 1 of the prime cost and -A, of the keep ; but, had he kept it a month longer and sold it for the same sum, he would have lost a of the prime cost and ^ of the keep : find the prime cost and the keep per month.

10.    A number consists of three digits whose sum is 12; if it be in

creased by 9, the digits in the units’ and tens’ places will be interchanged ; but if it be increased by 90, those in the places of tens and hundreds will be interchanged ; find the number.    '    /

ARITHMETIC.    /

(Time allowed two hours.)

1.    Write down in words in a separate line the value of each figure in the number—70006050040'320105.

2.    (a) Write in words the meaning of each of these expressions :—

i-§xf + T\; |-§x(f + T3T); (*-*)(* + *);£=!•

(b) Reduce each of them to its simplest form.

3.    (a) Express the following statement^ decimals and signs The excess of 6 tenths over 75 ten-thousandths is multiplied by 8 hundredths and to the product is added twice the remainder after subtracting from 4 hundredths the quotient obtained by dividing 8 millionths by 1 thousandth. (b) Reduce to a single decimal the arithmetical expression of the foregoing statement, (c) Find the value of this decimal in ounces, pennyweights, and grains, when the unit is a cental (100 lbs. avoir.).

4. &n