*



THE

SECOND EDITION

(GREATLY ENLARGED)

OF THE

fruit, f lotim-, unit ®%etaMe (iSariicu.

IB3T IE- IB. HEY1TE.

ADELAIDE :

DEL S. WIO-G- & S0 2T.

1877.

WEBB, VARDON, AND PRITCHARD, PRINTERS, GRESHAM STREET.

PREFACE.

The favorable reception which met the First Edition of this little treatise, compiled by me in compliance with numerous enquiries for a guide book to amateur gardeners, far exceeded my expectations, not only because when writing it I was well aware of the difficulties I had to encounter when attempting to lay down in a concise form general rules for the cultivation of plants in a colony like ours, which in the hill and plain districts possesses two almost totally distinct climates, but also because I was diffident to do so, not having been long enough in South Australia, though for a series of years in the adjoining colonies. The fact of the First Edition having been disposed of during a very short period, and numerous expressions of approval and satisfaction with my first attempt —(which I am sorry to say abounded with typographical errors)—emboldens me to offer a Second Edition, which I trust will meet with the same kind indulgence accorded to the first.

Independent of a careful revision of the latter so far as regards errors caused by the printers, I have endeavored to make the work more complete by adding considerably to it, and the new edition will be found to contain fully one-third, if not one-half, more matter than the first.    ,

Being a foreigner, and having compiled the whole without the aid of any one, I have to apologise for idiomatic peculiarities which may be found in the construction of the book, some of which will, I have no doubt, be found in the Second Edition as well as in the first. Experience, however, has taught me that these will be overlooked ; and I beg to recommend the following pages to the same favorable notice of amateur gardeners and others which they accorded to the first.

E. B. HEYNE.







INTRODUCTORY

THE CLIMATE OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA,

Though frequently, and not without cause, cried down on account of its aridity (during a portion of the year at least), offers nevertheless many advantages to the horticulturist, who by a little care and foresight may not only succeed in cultivating numerous plants which remind him of his European home or other countries in the colder regions, but also side by side with them many of the more tender forms belonging to semi-tropical or even tropical zones. True enough the scorching blasts of our hot summer winds, which threaten to destroy all vegetable life, will cause many a disappointment to him who attempts to introduce new forms of Flora’s children to our gardens, but when we consider the vast field from which we may select, there is but little fear that ultimately success will crown our efforts in many instances by acclimatising plants which are now considered unsuitable to our climate. Failures are besides not always due to absolute unsuitability, but very often to improper treatment or.carelessness. Plants tenderly reared under shelter, or those of which the healthy growth has been irretrievably ruined by too long confinement in small pots, are carelessly planted out, and, in too many instances, left to take care of themselves, or at the best but irregularly attended to afterwards; what wonder then if they perish with the beginning of summer! In selecting pot-grown plants, those only should be chosen which show a vigorous healthy growth, and the roots of which (except with soft-wooded or herbaceous plants, where it cannot always be avoided) have not formed a dense mass, whilst also proper assurances, readily obtainable from every respectable dealer, should be given that the plants have not, for some time at least before planting out, been grown in houses or frames, but been properly hardened off by exposure.

As this little work is chiefly intended to guide the amateur gardener, but not to teach the experienced professional man,

I think a few words on the preparation of the soil, on planting,, sheltering, watering, and other operations connected with gardening in general, may not be out of place, before we review the details concerning particular plants and their treatment, as. many an amateur is frequently quite in the dark on what appears to be a thing not worth mentioning to a trained gardener.

SOIL.

Much of the success of new plantations depends on the soil and its preparation. So far as the former is concerned, amateur gardeners have but rarely much choice, as in selecting a spot for a homestead, other circumstances generally limit bim to a certain locality, let the soil be what it may. Where obtainable, deep black alluvial soils, or the almost equally fertile volcanic ones, should be chosen. Friable loam resting on clay, or even sandy land resting on the same subsoil, may also answer, and be gradually improved. Stiff clays and barren sands should be avoided, though even these, by manuring, &c., may be gradually rendered fertile. Gravelly subsoil, overlaid by a thin layer of soil, is generally too dry for our hot summers.

PREPARATION OF SOIL.

All garden ground should be properly trenched at least eighteen inches deep. Where the subsoil is of a tolerably good kind it is best to bring it up to the surface, placing the top spit in the bottom; should the former, however, be clay, gravel, or otherwise of a very inferior kind, it is merely loosened to the required depth, and left in its position. Trench or subsoil ploughing will answer for vineyards or orchards.

In planting trees, holes only are frequently sunk for the reception of each tree, without improving or loosening the soil between them. Though much expense may be spared by this method, it caii scarcely be recommended, except in localities where the soil is naturally deep and loose. Otherwise these holes act as receptacles for surface water, rendering the whole soil a soft mud in winter, which gets baked and hard in summer. Wherever for economy’s sake such holes are to be used this should be done proportionate to the depth of good soil, avoiding sinking into the clay of the subsoil. If the good surface soil is so shallow that it becomes necessary to go into the clay, provision must be made for draining the holes.

MANURING.

Whilst trenching, well-rotten manure should be added where required. A layer of coarsely-broken bones placed at the bottom of the trench will be found very useful for the cultivation of fruit-trees and vines, or ornamental shrubs and trees. Sand, or, better, ashes, and in some instances lime (chemical analysis alone can show where it should be applied) will improve clayish soils ; well-rotten stable dung, or vegetable or animal matter will benefit sandy lands. Seaweed, of which thousands of tons might be collected near the sea-coast, laid up in heaps to decay, ranks among the best of manures, and might be obtained in almost unlimited quantities by parties living near the coast.

COMPOST.

While speaking of manures, a few words may be said on the compost-heap. Collect in some corner of the garden all weeds, leaves, and other refuse from the garden or house, which, spread between layers of soil, are allowed to decay. To hasten this, and also to help to enrich it, keep such heaps damp by pouring soapsuds over it, and slops from the kitchen, &c. The whole should be turned over and well mixed once or twice during the year, after which it will be mostly fit for use.

HOTBEDS.

Simple as it is to make these, a few words on the subject may yet be of use to some amateur gardeners.

Frames, as described before, of convenient size (from two to six “ lights” or sashes each) having been provided, obtain fresh stable dung, counting, say, two loads or thereabouts for each “ light.” Spread this evenly on the ground in layers, and tread it firmly down, so as to make the whole a heap raised from 18 inches to two feet above the ground. If the dung is dry, thoroughly water it. If the frame is deep enough, place it at once on top of the manure, and fill the inside with about six inches of good rich soil, if plants are to be grown in the frame without pots, or with sawdust when only intended for pots. The manure will soon get heated, and at the same time emit a strong ammoniacal smell. Allow the latter to escape by opening the sashes, and examine the manure by pushing a stick into the middle of the bed, which, when drawn out, will show the amount of heat in the manure. When the first (generally excessive) heat and the effluvia are over the bed is ready for use.

Tan, as obtained from our tanneries, will also suit, and for many purposes be preferable, as it creates a more even and lasting heat.

Permanent frames are generally placed over pits, walled up with concrete or bricks and sunk in the ground, which are filled with dung or tan.

Hotbeds raised above ground in which the heat begins to fail may be renewed for a time without disturbing the bed itself, by having a mantle or thick layer of fresh manure placed all around them.

DRAINING.

Draining garden land is of as great importance here as elsewhere. The natural fall of the ground having been ascertained, dig out the main-drains to a depth below that of the trenched ground. Earthenware drainpipes, though the most expensive at first, will be found the best in the long run. Far less expensive, and yet answering equally well for a series of years, are drains dug into the ground and partly filled with branches or stones, over which the soil is filled in. The latter will certainly gradually wash in and stop the drain, but by opening and refilling they can easily be rendered effective again.

IRRIGATION.

Combined with drainage, irrigation should be effected where it is possible, and provision made before planting is commenced by laying down whatever pipes may be required for distributing the water. Much benefit may be derived in many places by leading storm-water from adjoining roads, &c., into the garden, and arrangements for doing so should be made in laying it out.

For purposes of irrigation, the natural fall of the ground having been carefully observed, shallow trenches or gutters shout be dug out (after the surface has been properly levelled and planted) leading crosswise from whatever source of supply may be available over the ground, and having only sufficient fall to allow the water to run slowly through them; during its course it will gradually soak into the earth. By proper reticulation of these gutters, and temporarily stopping some of the branches, the whole of the ground can be readily and very efficiently irrigated. _ In the case of Orchards, it is generally more advisable to direct the irrigating gutter to each individual tree. Lawns, &c., can be irrigated by merely allowing the water to flow out of a hose, which has to be shifted from time to time, so as to spread the water over the whole surface, unless the more complicated and expensive apparatus introduced of late for irrigating purposes is preferred.

PLANTING.

Much depends on the "fB9Sner*Tfi which this operation is performed, and want of ultimate success might be frequently traced to want of skill or attention in the first instance. When planting trees or shrubs, especially those which lose their leaves, or which will bear transplanting without a ball of earth attached to the roots, care is required in the first instance to lift them carefully, so as not to damage or bruise the roots, and especially to preserve the fibrous ones. With a sharp knife cut all damaged parts away, and shorten the tap root as well as the frequently rather long lateral ones. This done, and a hole of sufficient size having been made, spread the roots carefully out, gradually fill the hole with loose soil, gently shaking the tree whilst this is done. Before quite full, water freely, so as to make the whole soil in the hole a puddle, which will settle firmly round the roots. By no means adopt the old plan of treading the soil round the newly-planted tree.

Most evergreens, even after they have attained a good size, can be transplanted. Open a trench all round, leaving (according to the size of the plant) a diameter of from one foot to four or five feet for the soil adhering to the roots. This ball is then undermined, and, where the soil is loose, firmly tied together with matting, after which it is removed to its new place. As the roots must necessarily be damaged to a certain degree, it is generally advisable to shorten the branches in proportion to ensure success. Watering transplanted trees must of course be attended to. In planting out shrubs or trees which had been grown ip pots, the roots of which are generally twisted, or even matted together, the main roots at least ought to be straightened out. Plants where this is neglected are apt to get strangled as the tree gets bigger.

Smaller seedlings and many herbaceous plants are put in with a dibber. The ground having been dug and levelled, make a hole with a short pointed stick, about one-and-half to two inches thick, in which the roots are dropped, the soil being afterwards gently pressed against them. Whatever may be planted, care is always required not to set them too deep, this frequently proves fatal, or at least detrimental, to the success of the plant. In most cases the depth at which they were growing before can easily be noticed on the stem, and this should not be exceeded when they are transplanted.

The same care in spreading out the roots is required when potting plants. When shifting them from a smaller into a larger one knock the ball of roots and earth out of the former, remove the crock from underneath, and the twisted roots liaving been loosened as much as possible, set the ball into the new pot pressing the fresh soil firmly round the sides. s By scraping some of the top soil away, and replacing it with fresh and more fertile stuff, potting may sometimes be avoided for a time. Care must always be taken to provide sufficient drainage for pot plants, by placing some crocks or the like in the bottom of the pot.

MULCHING.

Mulching, or covering the ground round each plant with a layer of short litter, which prevents a too rapid evaporation and change of temperature near the roots, is almost always a necessity for newly planted trees and shrubs.

Regular and thorough walmng^feioiild also be applied as


soon as dry weather sets in. The custom of daily sprinkling a little water, scarcely sufficient to penetrate an inch or two into the ground, does generally more harm than good. If the weaTher is not too dry and hot already it induces the plant to form roots near the surface, which, indeed, may retain its vigor for the time; as soon, however, as summer has fairly-set in, most plants so treated will fail so much more rapidly. When watering trees, &c., open round each a shallow hollow, which, filled once or twice a week with water, so as to thoroughly soak the ground, will, except in excessively dry weather, he generally sufficient—mulching as directed above having been applied.

STAKING AND TYING UP.

All newly planted trees, &c., should at once be firmly tied up to a stake; if left to be swayed about by the wind the roots are apt to be broken off as well as the branches.

PROTECTION OP STEMS OF LARGER TREES.

When larger trees, especially those with bare stems, or which have been grown in very sheltered positions, are transplanted to more open ones, it may be advisable to protect their stems by tying straw, &c., around them.

SHELTERING.

When planted, it may be advisable to give each one of the more tender kinds a little shelter during the first summer. Branches of any of our native trees will be found to answer for this purpose much better than placing casks or tubs around them. Whilst the former shade and shelter the plant they cover, they also allow a current of air to pass round it, which gradually hardens it; casks, though open on top, confine the plant too much, and tend to draw it up and render it, if not more tender, at least quite as susceptible as when first planted.

LAYING OUT GARDENS.

It would be impossible to give directions for sketching out gardens of any kind, as the situation, the taste of the owner, and many other circumstances must be considered. Where the extent of ground will allow it, separate the kitchen garden and orchard from the flower or pleasure garden. Vegetables may be planted between fruit trees, provided the latter are sufficiently far apart. It is best to divide the kitchen garden and orchard into square blocks of convenient size, intersected by rectangularly-running walks, whilst flower gardens may be laid out as fancy directs. To divide small plots in front of houses into a number of small beds, or to try to imitate on a small scale plans adapted for larger gardens, is generally not considered 'advisable. Whatever shape of the beds may be adopted, let the plan on the whole be simple, and so that a full view of the flowers, &c., in front may be obtained from the windows. Different of course would it be where a large extent has to be laid out, as there gracefully winding paths, edged by flower-beds or shrubberies, or leading through lawns adorned by groups or single specimens of trees, &c., would be in place, arranged in such a way that each turn presents new attractions.

HEDGES.

Not only for protection, but also to give the whole a more cheerful appearance, gardens should be surrounded by hedges to hide the but rarely really ornamental fences. A well-formed and kept hedge should not only be of uniform thickness and height, but it should also be clothed with foliage from top to bottom. To attain in the first instance, and also to maintain it in such a state, requires care and attention from the first year of planting. Put the -plants intended to form a hedge in one row (or sometimes two), about a foot apart, and shorten them at once to about six inches from the ground, according to the size of the plants. Where quickly-growing plants are selected, a second pruning or shortening of the plants is required before the second growth commences, which generally takes place about the middle of summer; under any circumstances this has to be done early in the following spring, and it has to be repeated annually,— shortening branches on top as well as on both sides, gradually increasing the size of the hedge. By these means numerous laterals will be formed, which, with hard-wooded plants, form ultimately a more or less impenetrable barrier against the encroachment of animals, or at least preserve the foliage down to the ground. Where it is intended that the hedge shall occupy the place of a fence, it will be found advantageous to put the plants in the ground slantwise in opposite directions, so as to form a kind of lattice-work, then, by cutting the bark at the points where each crosses the other, and firmly tying the parts together, the plants will soon unite in the same manner as a scion unites with the stock in grafting—forming an impenetrable barrier. Hedges may fairly be divided into two classes— First, those which are purely ornamental, and suitable chiefly for pleasure-grounds or for flower-gardens, where they may also act as breakwinds; and secondly, those which are intended, when full-grown, to serve as fences or divisions. There are many ornamental and densely-growing shrubs which are capable of withstanding the pruning to which they must be subjected when used for hedge purposes, and amongst those

suitable for the first-class mentioned above the following may be named:—

*Hakea eucalyptoides, q. Aberia Caffra, s. Pittosporum eugenioides, q. “    tenuifolium, q.

“    undulatum, q.

“    Collensoi, q.

*Myrtus communis, ju.

*    Eugenia myrtifolia, m.

*    Several kinds of Koses,&c., q. Cotoneaster microphylla, s.

sSCydonia Japonica.


*Polygala myrtifolia, q. ^Genista Spachiana, q.

*    “    canariensis, q.

*    “    linifolia, q.

*Berberis Darwinii, s. *Ceanothus (Willemetia)

Africanus, q.

“ rigidus. s. Euonymus Japonicus varie-gatus, m.

Ligustrum vulgare, ir.

“ sinense, m.

Those marked * produce handsome flowers.

For the second class of hedges the following plants may be named as suitable:—


Olives, s.

Evergreen Buckthorn (Bliamnus alaternus), q. Cypresses of various kinds Holly (for the Hills), s.


Osage orange, m.

Sweet Briar, q.

White Thorn, s.

Several kinds of Acacia, q. Lycium horridum, q.

In the above list I have marked quickly growing sorts with ■q. ; those of medium growth, m. ; and slowly growing kinds, s.

Almonds, or any other of the numerous hedge-plants, might be chosen for the fruit andkitchen-garden, unless there the more economical plan of covering the fences, &c., with fruit-trees and vines trained on trellisses is preferred.

KITCHEN GARDEN.

Whilst for the Orchard alone soil of medium or even rather inferior quality may suffice, care should be taken to choose the best that can be obtained for the Vegetable Garden, or (as even the best in certain localities is not sufficiently good) to make it so by manuring and repeated working. The whole should be thoroughly trenched to a depth of at least eighteen inches—for root-crops, such as carrots, parsnips, &c., two feet will not be too much. Manure the ground thoroughly with whatever kind of manure (but always well-rotted) may be available. No part of the garden will show more quickly the beneficial results of irrigation, and where this can be applied it should never be neglected. Combined with irrigation, or in fact under any circumstances, should be drainage of the ground, as most vegetables will suffer if planted in undrained land. Wherever the quality of the subsoil will allow, it should be well mixed with that on the surface, so as to render the whole as nearly as possible of the same quality—a matter of special importance for the cultivation of root-crops, subject, of course, to the remarks on trenching, as made above. Though the ground may have been trenched when the garden was first laid out, it will be found very useful to repeat this operation every four or five years, as the plants grown there (always in close proximity to each other) will, even when manure is regularly applied, soon exhaust the surface soil,, which is partly renewed by the above operation. Changing of crops should as a matter of course he adopted, planting all gross-feeding plants—all belonging to the cabbage-tribe, for instance—immediately after manuring. As stated before, it is most convenient to divide the kitchen garden into square blocks. The edgings bordering the walks may be formed of thyme, sage, marjoram, savory, hyssop, balm, and other potherbs, which, though they may not be quite so ornamental as many of the ordinary edging-plants, will nevertheless answer quite well for the purpose. All those just named can be readily propagated by cuttings put into the ground early in the season, or by division of the roots. As happens but too often, owners of small gardens, whilst endeavouring to make the most of their ground, crowd fruit-trees and vegetables so much together that neither of them are able to come to perfection. Where fruit-trees must be planted in the kitchen garden, set them at least sufficiently far apart—21 to 30 feet distance will never be found too much, and even scarcely sufficient when the trees have attained their full size. Some corner of the ground should be set apart for the compost-heap and liquid manure tank or casks ; both, but especially the latter, form a very important part in vegetable growing. A few frames, made of stout boards nine inches wide, with rough board covering, or, instead, large pots made on purpose, will be found very useful for forcing seakale, rhubarb, &c.; whilst narrow frames about twelve inches wide and six high, to be covered with single panes of glass laid flat on, serve for protecting and fostering early cucumbers. A sufficient number of thin stakes, six to nine feet long, should be provided for supporting tall-growing peas and beans. Where forcing of vegetables is to be carried on, several light frames are required, to be placed over the hot-bed containing the plants. For descriptions of such frames, see “ Frames,” amongst that portion of this work relating to the Flower Garden.

We now proceed to give a few hints on the cultivation and treatment required by the various kinds of vegetables generally grown here.

ASPARAGUS.

This well known and deservedly-esteemed vegetable is found in its wild state especially near the sea-coast, or in plains containing salt. Unfortunate though it be for the culture of many other plants, saline soils abound in the neighbourhood of Adelaide, and many of these localities might serve for plantations of Asparagus. The ground should be fresh and damp, but naturally (or artificially) thoroughly drained to a depth of from two to two and a half feet, and trenched to the same depth. Place at the bottom of the trenches a thick layer of well-rotten cow or stable dung, and cover this up with the ordinary soil, also enriched by the same manure. For the sake of convenience, it is best to divide Asparagus plantations into beds of about four feet in width, intersected by paths from eighteen inches to two feet wide. In each of these beds plant three rows of Asparagus, allowing about a foot from plant to plant, and nine inches from row to row, placing the crowns of the plants from three to four inches below the ground, and carefully spreading out all the roots. During the first season after planting none of the shoots should be eut, but after the second summer’s growth, providing the plants are vigorous and healthy, a few dishes may be cut, the produce then increasing yearly with the age and strength of the plants. In cutting Asparagus for the table care should he taken not to injure the crown or roots, both being apt to rot when so damaged. Even old and well-established beds must not be weakened too much by a too-prolonged cutting of shoots. To fix a time at which to cease would be impossible, as this depends on circumstances ; when a sufficient crop has been gathered, allow the shoots to grow up, and flower, and seed, and cut them down close to the ground late in autumn, when quite ripe and yellow. Then fork the bed carefully over, so as not to injure the roots, give a good top-dressing of well-rotten manure. In spring' the ground is again forked over, and kept then and during summer free from weeds. Where the soil is not naturally saline a sprinkling of salt mixed with the manure will be found very beneficial. Beds properly formed and attended to will keep in bearing for a series of years, providing they are not wilfully destroyed by too severe and prolonged cutting of the stalks. Seeds, which are produced in great quantities, offer easy means of propagating Asparagus. One-year-old seedlings are preferable for planting in their permanent positions to older plants. Asparagus may be obtained some time before the ordinary season in spring by forcing it. As this, however, greatly weakens the plants, it is best to select old and nearly worn-out beds for forcing, which are afterwards taken up. Place a rough frame around the bed and cover it with boards. On these and round the sides a thick layer of fresh stable dung is placed, which, as it gets heated, imparts warmth to the plants inside, and they soon start into growth. Should the surrounding manure get cold, some more has to be applied, so as to keep up as much as possible an even temperature. Evaporation being very small during the winter months', when forcing is resorted to, watering will be but rarely required,

BEANS.

Two genera of plants, quite distinct from each other, supply us with what is generally known as beans ; one (Vicia Faba, a kind of Yetch), gives the so-called Broad Beans; and several species of Phaseolus, the various French and Kidney Beans.

Broad Beans require a tolerably rich and not too light soil. The early varieties {vide below) may be sown in May and June, or earlier, according to the season; later ones, July or even August, and, as a chance crop, a few more of the former about September. The ground having been well and deeply dug and levelled, draw double drills about six inches apart, and one and a-half to two inches deep, allowing at least three feet between each set of drills, and sow the seeds in these, say six inches from seed to seed. If the weather is dry, and the ground light and high, soaking the seeds prior to sowing will hasten their germination. In wet undrained land the seeds are apt to rot. Keep the ground between the rows free from weed's, and open by occasional hoeing or forking, and draw the earth up to the stems when they are about six inches high. When growing vigorously, as frequently happens during the damp winter months, broad beans will not set well; to remedy this, break off the top of each shoot as soon as they have fairly commenced flowering. The following are the best varieties :—

1.    Mazagan, early, hardy and prolific ; the plant remains

rather small; so does the

2.    Dwarf Fan, which is, however, less prolific.

3.    Long Pod, one of the best varieties for early and general

crops ; pods very long and tender. There are several

varieties of Long Pods.

4.    Johnson’s Wonderful, similar to the last, but said to be

more prolific.

5.    Broad Windsor, the Lest for general crops ; pods very

large.

6.    Green Windsor, a variety of the last, remarkable for the

fine green colour of its seeds when cooked.

Kidney or French Beans.—Unlike the last, French beans are rather tender as regards cold and heat. Early sowings being thus impossible, whilst late-sown crops (on the plains) are apt to suffer from heat and drought, we shall generally have to depend for our main supply of this favourite vegetable on gardens in the hills. Sufficient may nevertheless be raised on the plains to supply the wants of amateur gardeners, who should not be deterred from growing beans by reading the above remarks. Select a rich spot with deep and loose soil,, and sow the beans successively at intervals of about a fortnight from the end of August till September or the beginning of October. The ground should be thoroughly worked, fresh, but not wet. Though none of the kinds of French Beans will stand in swampy soil which is undrained, they yet require a liberal supply of water during the warm weather, and provision should be made for irrigating ground devoted to the culture of Beans.

Dwarf varieties are sown in drills one and a half to two inches deep and about two feet apart; for runners greater space, not less than three feet, should be allowed. Keeping ground open and free from weeds, earthing the plants up as recommended for Broad Beans, and stopping their shoots in case they grow too much without setting, form the chief point of after-culture. Mulching in dry weather and watering well repay for the labour and trouble this operation causes.

All tall varieties, of which there are a great many, should be provided with stakes from seven to nine feet long, to support the twining shoots.

Amongst the numerous varieties known I only mention the following:—

Divarfs.

Pale Dun    Sword Bean (one of the

Negro    best, with long and

Governor Denison    broad pods; very scarce

Robin’s Egg    here).

Tall sorts.

Caseknife (Painted Lady)    Butterbean (White Dutch).

A great favourite at home, not only as a vegetable, but also on account of its ornamental flowers, is the Scarlet Runner. It is less esteemed here, as it will not bear well. Annuals at home, they are perennials here, and form thick tuberous roots, which, though the plant dies down every winter, starts up again in spring. The second year they generally bear much better.

Another perennial variety which lias been strongly recommended is the Madagascar Bean. ^Experiments made on a small scale with its cultivation have only partially succeeded.

An excellent variety commonly grown on the Continent of Europe, but rarely seen here, though it succeeds admirably, is the Pearl Bean, which, though it forms only small pods, produces an abundance of them in thick clusters. They are very tender, and well-flavoured.

The Long-podded or South Sea Island Bean is a very useful sort to grow. Its pods attain often two to three feet in length, and they are of excellent flavour. The plant is a long climber, and it requires frequent watering.

Amongst a different genus—Dolichos—numerous species are found which produce edible pods. They require treatment similar to that named for ordinary French Beans.

All beans should always be gathered as soon as they are fit. If left to ripen on the plant there will be no more young ones formed.

BEET.

Two kinds only of Beetroot are cultivated in the vegetable garden—the Red (the turnip-shaped root of which is eaten) and the Silver {(which yields leaves used as spinach). Of both, several varieties are known. Each requires a very deep, fresh, and well-manured soil, thoroughly worked to a depth of at least 18 inches. Land on which celery, cucumbers, or melons,

B

or other plants requiring strong manuring have been grown, will be found well adapted for beetroot. If none of this class. should be available, and freshly-manured ground has to be taken, put the manure at the bottom of the trench, in order to induce the taproot to penetrate to the greatest possible depth without forking or branching. August and September will be found a good time for sowing the main crop, whilst for winter use a few may be put in after the first autumnal rain. Put the seed eight inches apart in drills 18 to 24 inches from each other; two or three seeds are generally put in each place. Should all grow the weaker plants are then drawn out and used for planting where vacant places may exist. In transplanting, care should be taken to put the taproot straight, without twisting or bending, into the ground. Hoeing to keep the ground open and free from weeds is the only after-culture they require. Larger roots of the Bed Beetroot may be obtained by allowing the plants more space. The leaf-stalks of all the varieties of Silver Beet may be used as Asparagus by bleaching them the same as Seakail by earthing them up. Silver Beet is especially to be recommended as a summer vegetable on account of its [hardiness. Varieties producing red, white, or yellow stalks are the most common.

BEOGCOLI.

Similar, but in many respects superior, to Cauliflower, Broccoli should be much more frequently grown than it is. They are hardier than Cauliflower, less subject to blight, and they come in after the former are done. Amongst the great many varieties, the Walcheren and Granges, early, are those best suited for our purpose. Sow the seeds broadcast on rich garden soil about February or March in a well sheltered position, watering them if the weather should (as most likely it would) be dry. As soon as the first rains have come in autumn, put the young plants out two feet apart each way, selecting a deeply-dug and thoroughly-manured piece of land. As they grow up, keep the ground loose and free from weeds, drawing the soil round the stems. The heads will show about October or November, after the general crop of Cauliflowers is over.

BORECOLE (or KAIL) AND BRUSSELS SPROUTS.

Both of the above are vegetables highly esteemed on the Continent of Europe, but rarely grown in South Australia. They require a similar treatment to Cabbage, being sown in nursery-beds early in autumn and then transplanted in rows about 18 inches apart on well manured and dug ground. As the plant grows up, some of the leaves, which are formed in abundance on the stem, may be stripped and used as greens. When the stems have attained a fair size, say a foot or eighteen inches, cut the crown of leaves off, which is also used as a

vegetable ; numerous sprouts, which in Brussels Sprouts take the form of small heads, appear then on the stem, which are gathered when required. A second sowing may be made about July or August, which, being transplanted as soon as the plants are sufficiently large, will yield a supply of greens during the summer, if water is available to keep them growing.

CABBAGE.

Next to potatoes, Cabbages are probably the most generally cultivated vegetables, and we cannot wonder at finding a very great number of different varieties of them. The following deserve special notice, viz.:—

For Early Crops.

Early York    Little Pixie

Sugarloaf    St. John’s Day

Vanack (rather small    but    Battersea (a little    later

firm heads of fine flavour)    but much larger).

For Medium Crops.

Large York    West Ham '

Enfield Market    Red Dutch (pickling)

London Market    Bullock’s Heart

East Ham For Late Crops.

Drumhead    Flat Dutch.

(Both of these form very large firm heads.)

Cabbages, like cauliflowers, kales, and other plants of the same family, require a very rich and well manured, rather loose and damp, but properly drained soil, and an open situation. To obtain a succession of them, sowings should be made from February (in sheltered positions capable of being irrigated) until July or August. Plant the seedlings out when sufficiently strong. For the early smaller sorts, such as Early York, Sugarloaf, &c., 15 inches distance from each other will suffice ; larger ones—St. John’s Day, Enfield Market, London Market, Flat Dutch, <fec.—two feet to two feet six inches should be allowed. Transplanting should, if possible, be always done in dull damp weather. Remove the plants carefully (so as not to damage the roots) from the seedbed, which, if the ground is dry and hard, requires to be well soaked with water before pulling them up. Plant them at once, taking care to place the taproot perpendicularly into the ground, without bending or twisting it, watering each after planting. Much of the success of cabbage-growing depends upon the plants being kept in vigorous healthy growth ; if once checked, the blight (aphis) is sure to make its appearance, and in many instances in such a way as to overpower the plant, which will scarcely recover. Selecting well-developed plants which have not been grown too closely together whilst in the seed-bed, planting them only

in properly-prepared and manured land, and maintaining tlieir vigor by watering, if tlie weather is dry, until they are established, are the best remedies, or rather preventives of blight. Earth the plants up as they grow larger, and keep the ground open and free from weeds by hoeing and forking, and keep up their vigorous growth by stimulating them with liquid manure. Should blight nevertheless appear, syringing the plants over with a weak solution of Gishurst’s Compound, one to one and a-half ounces to the gallon of water, may be recommended to amateur gardeners for checking its progress. When manuring for cabbages (or, in fact, for any other vegetables), only thoroughly rotten manure should be used. If undeeomposed vegetable matter, such as fresh stable-dung, Ac., is taken, especially for root-crops, the roots are apt to be burned as soon as they reach the manure, which will thus do more harm than good. Bonedust, superphosphate of lime, or some of the guanos found on the Australian coast, all of which are rich in phosphates, will be found to act most beneficially. Peruvian guano, used as a top-dressing, or dissolved in water as a liquid manure, greatly stimulates to a more vigorous growth. Seedling plants, pulled up and heeled in for a few days in a warm and sheltered position, where they can be watered and attended to, will rapidly form numerous new short fibres, ivhich, when planted out give the plants at once a fair start.

Besides the Cabbages mentioned above may be named the several varieties of Savoy, which require exactly the same treatment. The hest of these are the Dwarf Green Curled, for early, and the Drumhead for later crops. Sown early in autumn, and planted out about May, they will be fit for use early in spring.

Amongst Cabbages, as well as among other plants which are generally cultivated, numerous varieties are now grown of greater or less merit, and almost daily new ones are brought out. Those named above, though they are older varieties, are not only well known and esteemed, but they also have been proved to be adapted to our climate. Nevertheless other varieties may be found of equal or even superior merit, which might be substituted for what has been named above.

CAPSICUM.

Sow towards the end of August or in September in pots or in a frame rather thinly, and plant out (when no more frosts are to be feared) in rows two feet apart. About October seeds may be sown in the open ground on the spot where they are to grow. Capsicums, though generally treated as annuals, will stand for several years, forming then small bushes. They like a tolerably rich, loose soil, and rather warm situation. The varieties most generally grown are the small Chilies and Birdseye

Peppers, and the ordinary Long and Heart-shaped Capsicums. In addition to these several others may be found, as, for instance, the Cherry Peppers, with round fruit, and several producing variously-shaped fruits of a yellow colour.

CAPE GOOSEBERRIES.

This fruit is obtained from a perennial herbaceous plant, easily propagated by division of the roots, or by seeds, a great many of which are contained in each berry. Sow the seeds early in autumn or in spring in pots or in a sheltered position in the open ground, in any ordinary garden soil, and transplant (as soon as the plants are sufficiently large) in rows two feet apart. Autumn-sown plants will probably produce the first season. Each following autumn, after all the fruits have been gathered, cut the whole of the stalks down close to the ground, and fresh ones will appear in the spring. On the Continent of Europe another species of this plant, producing fine red-coloured fruits, is found. It has the same flavour, but a much handsomer appearance.

CARROTS.

The deep, rich, black alluvial soils found near creeks, &e., generally produce the largest and finest carrots, but any light and deep well-enriched garden soil will answer for their cultivation, provided it has been thoroughly and deeply worked. Land manured for a previous crop suits better than when freshly manured. Sow in shallow drills, 12 inches apart for Early Horn and other small varieties, and 18 inches for larger-growing sorts. A few of the former may be sown about May, continuing then up to July or August, or in favourably situated localities as late as September. When the plants are above ground thin them out in the drills so that they stand a few inches from each other. Larger varieties, such as Altringham, &c., require more space. As the seeds are covered with numbers of stiff hairs, which makes them stick close together, it greatly facilitates their being sown evenly to mix them by thoroughly rubbing with dry sand—a practice especially to be recommended when broadcast sowings are attempted. For early crops, the Short Horn, a small but exceedingly tender variety, maybe recommended, the Intermediate and Altringham for a general crop, whilst the latter and the White Belgian suit best for field culture. Where the soil is shallow only the shorter varieties should be sown.

CAULIFLOWER.

Like cabbages and other plants of that class, cauliflowers require a rich, fresh, not too light soil, freshly manured prior to planting. Sow the seed broadcast in nursery beds, com-jnencing about February, where irrigation can be applied, so as to have the plants ready for transplanting as soon as the first rains fall in autumn, and continue at intervals up to the end of June. Plant out the same as cabbages when the plants have three or four leaves formed. Small varieties—Early London, Alma, &c. — should have no less than 18 inches space allowed ; larger-growing ones require two feet to two feet six inches. The plants require the same treatment as cabbages. Should dry weather set in about the time they begin to show their flower-heads, apply a liberal watering and liquid manure to stimulate their growth ; if this is neglected, they will, to use a technical phrase “ button”—remain small and useless. When the heads are nearly formed, bend one or two of the surrounding leaves over them as a protection against sun, &c. If left fully exposed, they are apt to turn yellow and become unfit for the table, by growing out even quicker than generally is the case. For the earliest and latest sowings choose the Early London and Alma ; for others, the Walcheren and Large Asiatic or Lenormand’s.

CELERY.

Few plants require more care and attention to bring them to perfection than celery. It demands a very deep, damp, and very richly manured soil, which is not too stiff. Well-rotted cowdung or stabledung will answer best. Where practicable, plant celery always in the lowest part of the garden where irrigation can be applied, but where the ground is nevertheless properly drained. Sow the seeds in a sheltered, well prepared, and manured spot of the garden thinly about March, covering them slightly with earth mixed with sifted manure, and beat the surface gently down. When the young plants have made their first rough leaf it is better, though not absolutely necessary, to prick them out singly three or four inches apart. A second sowing may be made about June, which requires the protection of a frame or bell-glass ; and, where the ground is sufficiently moist for summer culture of celery, a third about August. For the final planting, dig out trenches 12 or 16 inches deep, 18 inches wide, and 5 feet apart from centre to centre, place on the bottom of the trench 4 or 5 inches of well-rotted manure, and mix it well by digging with the soil. Plant in the centre in rows nine to twelve inches apart, and water well after planting. As the plants grow up, commence gradually to fill up the trench, drawing the soil towards the plants, but so as not to let any fall into the heart, and continue doing so earthing up until the soil between the original trenches is drawn against the plants, the stalks of which will become tender and blanched. Application of liquid manure and irrigation during dry weather are almost a necessity for the production of good large celery, and even where plenty of water is available; its culture during the summer months is very precarious on the arid plains around Adelaide.

On the Continent a variety which forms thick turnip-shaped roots, which is occasionally mentioned in English catalogues as Celeriac, is largely cultivated and used for salads, and for flavoring soups, Ac. Eaise the plants as directed above, and plant out on richly manured land, in drills 18 inches apart, shortening the taproot prior to planting. After a few months, rub off all fibres round the outside of the tubers, leaving only the roots growing straight downwards, and slightly earth up. Water with liquid manure. Water is as much required by this variety as by that grown in trenches.

CHIVES.

This useful little perennial will thrive in poor soil, yielding abundant supplies of leaves for culinary purposes. Plant in rows six to nine inches apart; propagation by division of the roots. Where the soil is very poor cover it in autumn or the beginning of winter with a layer of well-rotted manure, which is carefully forked in in Spring. Once established in the ground chives will stand for a series of years without requiring any attention or care beyond manuring as stated and digging between the rows. They may be planted as edging to borders.

CRESS.

For salads, the different kinds of cress are most useful, and, as their culture is very easy, a small spot should be reserved for them in each garden. The annual common garden-cress may be sown in any month from March (or sooner if sufficient moisture can be supplied) until September, in a warm situation in the garden. Successive sowings at intervals of a fortnight should be made to keep up the supply. If not used for edgings, sow in drills rather thickly, about six inches apart. The American cress, a perennial used for the same purpose as the former, is sown in the same way, but when bushy the heads are cut down to induce a stronger growth. It requires at least nine inches from row to row. Watercress can only be grown where sufficient moisture can be applied throughout the year. Plant it near a pond or watercourse, so that the roots are constantly in water. Cuttings so planted will strike readily, and this mode of propagation is easier and quicker than sowing seeds.

CUCUMBER.

Light but rich and rather damp loamy soil is what cucumbers like. Select a warm situation, sheltered, if possible, against hot winds, and thoroughly pulverize the ground, which should be well manured with old decomposed manure. Begin sowing in drills, four to five feet apart, about the beginning of September, sheltering the seeds and young plants by placing boards about six inches wide on each side of the drills, which are covered on top by panes of glass. During the warmer part of the day give air by temporarily removing the glass, which, together with the sides, is removed when no more frost is to be feared. Continue sowing at intervals until end of October; the later sowings will not require protection as described. Train the vines alternately at each side of the drill. Laterals, whieh appear in quantity on all healthy plants, are stopped at the fifth or sixth bud, as soon as fruit has set, but the main shoot is allowed to grow undisturbed; by continuing this stopping of the secondary laterals, increased crops of fine fruit may be obtained. During the growth of the plants they should be regularly and plentifully watered and supplied with liquid manure ; both being requisite to secure full and good crops.

Cucumbers, as well as melons and French beans, suffer frequently by the attacks of red spider, thrip, or green fly; if not checked in time these little pests will ultimately destroy the plants. A mixture of quicklime and flowers of sulphur applied to plants so affected is generally effective. This may be applied as a powder, or, what is better, in a liquid state, boiling the lime for some time, and adding to this the sulphur, which, though it will not dissolve, gets suspended in the fluid. The preventive, however, is to keep up a vigorous healthy growth by irrigation and liquid manuring.

Any one possessed of a frame with glazed sashes may produce cucumbers much before the ordinary season by making up a hotbed of several loads of fresh stable dung, on which, after the strongest heat is over, the seeds are sown in a bed of good fertile garden soil, at least six inches thick. The plants will soon make their appearance, and they are, so far as training, &c., is concerned, treated as prescribed, care being taken not to crowd the branches too much. Whenever the weather allows, give plenty of air by raising the sashes, and especially in warm sunny days syringe the foliage morning and evening. If this is neglected red spider and other insects of that class will soon increase to such an extent as to destroy the plants. Forcing in this way may be carried on from June until the ordinary outdoor crops commence. If the hot-bed fails to keep up sufficient heat it may be renewed for a short time by placing 'some fresh dung round the outside.

Amongst the great number of varieties the following may be recommended:—Long Prickly, Stockwood, Early Frame, Sir Colin Campbell, Long Bidge, and Short Prickly.

EGGPLANT.

Treatment of this vegetable, which is but rarely used as such here but frequently so in America, the same as capsicums.

The white, purple, and striped are the varieties more generally grown, and deserve attention even as ornamental plants only.

GAELIC.

Offsets from the bulbs, planted at the beginning of winter in rows about 12 inches apart, placing them one inch deep in the well-prepared, tolerably rich soil, will succeed quite well and produce a fair return. They must be kept free from weeds, and the surface of the ground kept loose and open by occasional hoeing. When the leaves fade in summer, dig the bulbs up and preserve them, after having been dried in an airy dry place.

HERBS.

Perennials, such as thyme, sage, marjoram, savory, lavender, hyssop, &c., are easiest propagated by cuttings or division of the roots planted early in autumn in any ordinary garden soil. Where raised by seeds the latter should be sown at the same time, or in case of need in spring, in boxes or nursery-beds, from which the plants are bedded out as soon as they have attained sufficient size. Annuals and biennials, carraway, chervil, dill, parsley, &c., &c., are sown at intervals, from the end of May up to August, in drills. Parsley may be used as edging in the kitchen garden.

HORSERADISH.

A rather light, sandy, but damp soil is required for producing good sticks of horseradish. Dig out trenches, two feet wide and two feet deep, and place at the bottom a layer, six inches thick, of well-rotted manure mixed with soil, plant on this pieces of the roots 8 to 9 inches long, and fill the trench up with the poorer sandy soil taken out of it. When taking the roots up be careful to remove all of them, as each piece will grow, and the plant may become an annoying weed.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE.

Two seasons are required to bring them to perfection. Plant the small tubers in spring in rows two feet apart, about 18 inches from each other in the row. Keep the ground between them open and free from weeds, and select a tolerably rich damp spot for their culture.    .

KOHLRABI.

A very delicious vegetable to which scarcely sufficient attention has been paid as yet in Australia. Sow early in autumn, and again later in the season, and plant out like early cabbages on rich loose soil, applying liquid manure and, should it be required, water. Earthing up the plants before the heads are formed is absolutely required.

LEEKS.

Any ordinary, not too heavy, but rather light, sandy soil, properly enriched by a thorough manuring with rotten dung,

will serve for the cultivation of leeks. Sow from April to June in drills, and transplant without cutting or otherwise mutilating the roots, as soon as the seedlings have attained the size of a quill. Plant out in shallow trenches from four to six inches deep, nine inches apart in the rows, which must not be less than one foot from each other. As the plants grow up draw the earth gradually towards them until they are filled level with thq surface of the bed. Some recommend shortening the leaves, a practice which seems scarcely advisable when we consider that the leaves are essential for nourishing plants, which cannot be expected to grow with vigor when they are damaged or removed.

LETTUCE.

In some of the hill gardens lettuces might be had almost all the year round by selecting for summer crops the damp flats, &e., and for the winter the drier hill-sides. On the plains they can only be sown from the time the first rains commence, in autumn, until September. Sow the seeds broadcast, but not too thickly, on a properly-prepared bed of rich loose soil, and transplant the young seedlings when they have made two or three leaves, allowing at least one foot from plant to plant. ' To obtain good lettuces the plants must be kept quickly growing by applying water and stimulants, such as liquid manure. When stunted in growth the heads not only remain small but instead of being crisp and tender, as they ought to be, the leaves get hard and bitter, and almost unfit for use. As lettuces grow much more rapidly than many other vegetables which require planting out, it is a good plan to plant them in intermediate rows, between cabbages, cauliflowers, kohlrabi, &c., or, later in the season betvreen rows of cucumbers. Numbers of varieties have been raised, of which the following may be recorded :—

Of cabbage lettuces the Malta, Neapolitan; White Silesian, Tennisball, and Drumhead; and of Cos lettuces the white and brown. All are greatly improved by a liberal supply of liquid manure and water.

Several other plants are cultivated at home, like our lettuces, for the purpose of supplying salads. Amongst these I may name—

ENDIVE,

A plant nearly allied to the true lettuce, wdiich requires the same treatment. Like the Cos varieties of the lettuce this does not naturally form fine heads, and it becomes necessary to loosely tie together the tops of the leaves when they are almost full grown ; by these means the inner ones get bleached and tender.

CHICORY

Yields also an excellent salad when the young tender leaves (which ought to he bleached) are used. The plant is exceedingly hardy and requires hut little attention when grown for the purpose named.

CORN SALAD.

A small annual, not rare in Great Britain and other parts of Europe, is much esteemed by many, and is a very useful addition to the vegetable garden, as without much trouble it yields well and very early in spring, or with us probably in autumn after the first rains. Sow the seeds of these plants broadcast as soon as rain begins to fall, and cut the plants when they have made a few leaves.

MELON (SWEET OR ROCK).

This delicious fruit requires the same treatment as cucumbers, and, as full instructions have been given in the paragraph treating of them, reference to it may be made. There is an almost endless number of varieties, hybrids often but little differing from each other. ’ A number* of very exquisitely flavoured ones are found amongst the green flesh varieties, whilst those with yellow flesh are preferred by a great many. Melons may be forced the same as cucumbers.

Few other plants besides those belonging to the natural family of Cucurbitaceas (cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and all kinds of gourds) are more liable to produce hybrids if different varieties, or even true species are grown side by side, and the greatest care is required to prevent hybridisation, where seeds are to be saved. Not only that the best of each kind must be kept for seeds, but particular attention is required that no other varieties are growing (or at least flowering) at the same time in the neighbourhood. The fruit itself will not show any traces of hybridisation having taken place; this only affects the produce of plants raised from seeds so affected.

To fully understand this subject I must refer to a paragraph on hybridisation in another portion of this little treatise.

WATER MELONS AND PRESERVING (OR PIE) MELONS.

Choose tolerably fertile soil, which is not too dry, and sow on it the seeds about eight feet apart. For convenience sake, holes about eighteen inches deep and two feet in diameter are dug at the distance just named, into which, after they have been filled with good soil, three or four seeds are put. The long trailing shoots are aftewards trained over the open space between the holes. September is a good month for commencing to sow water melons.

MUSHROOMS.

Easy as the culture of mushrooms is, but few of the very few who have attempted it as yet have been successful, chiefly, I imagine, because they neglected to follow out instructions laid down by experience. Form a bed of horsedroppings, which having been collected are turned over several times to allow excessive heat to escape, and to give the whole an even temperature. Tread the mass firmly down, and spread, or rather insert in it, pieces of mushroom spawn, obtainable at any seedman’s shop, of the size of a nut, cover the surface of the bed over with two to three inches of fine mellow soil, which requires to be gently beaten down with the back of a spade, and water the whole well over with a fine rose. Never allow the bed to get very dry, but shelter it from heavy rains or other excessive wet, and from exposure to hot winds or the powerful direct rays of the sun. Any shed or cellar will answer for mushroom culture. Beds properly prepared will commence bearing about five or six weeks after seed, or rather spawn, has been put in, and continue to produce for three to four months after, when a fresh bed has to be made. A considerable trade in artificially raised mushrooms is carried on in most of the larger cities in Europe, where special houses are built expressly for the cultivation of this^vegetable. In these, boxes, about 18 inches deep, are placed, one over the other, but so that sufficient space is left between them to allow the gathering of the fungi and the necessary forming and working of the beds. The boxes are filled with manure as directed, and sown with the spawn. Light, as well as strong currents of air, are excluded from mushroom-houses, and, (as for instance in the catacombs of Paris), cellars are frequently used for this branch of horticulture. Except where special facilities exist, the autumn, winter, and spring months will be found to be best adapted for mushroom culture in so dry a climate as that of South Australia.

MUSTARD.

Sow and treat the same as garden or curled cress.

ONIONS.

Light but fertile loam or sandy, well but not freshly manured land, produces generally a fair crop of onions provided it has been properly trenched, and is sufficiently damp, without, however, containing stagnant water. Commence sowing for green or spring onions after the first autumn rains, and for a general crop about June or July. For larger crops the seed is mostly put in broadcast, and the plants, when they appear, thinned out by hand; a much better plan, however, is to sow in drills, about nine inches apart, thinning the plants so as to allow a space of three to five inches between them, as it is so much easier to keep the ground free from weeds and open by hoeing—operations absolutely required for the production of fair crops of onions. A very good and frequently adopted plan of raising bulbs of larger size is to plant the young onions out when they have attained the thickness of a small quill. Plant them in rows as recommended for sowing. The practice of shortening the roots, though often advised, appears to be a very useless and unnatural one, as it is sure to check, for a time at least, the growth of the young plant. Transplanting may be carried on up to the end of August. It often happens in damp seasons that the bulbs will not ripen, but continue to grow; to prevent this and hasten maturity tread the crown of the leaves gently down. When properly ripe, take the bulbs up and spread them out to dry, before the leaves, &c., are removed, and store them for future use, keeping those with a thick fleshy neck apart, as they will not keep well. When sown thickly broadcast, and allowed to grow and ripen, small onions fit for pickling will be obtained. The varieties more generally grown are the White and Brown Spanish, the Globe, and James’s Long-Keeping onions. Amateurs frequently imagine that a particular variety only produces the so-called Spring Onions, which is by no means the case, as the young plants of whatever sort it may be will do for this purpose. To obtain very early in the season a supply of green onions, plant bulbs of previous season’s growth which have grown out early in autumn, and use the leaves and stalks as they may be required. A very useful kind of onion which comes to perfection much earlier than any of the varieties named before is the

Potato or Underground Onion.—Instead of forming a single bulb, a bunch, often containing six or eight, is produced, each of which can be used as a common onion. Their flavour is similar to that of the latter, but milder. Unfortunately they will not keep long. Propagate by dividing the roots and plant each offset about one inch underground in similar soil to that recommended for the other varieties.

Tree Onions, so called, produce a double crop. Besides the bulbs at the base, identical in flavour and appearance with the Potato Onions, they produce, instead of seeds, a bunch of small onions which, besides being suitable for pickling, can be used as ordinary onions. Plant them singly, in good fresh ground, early in autumn or winter in drills about a foot apart, and keep the soil between them open and free from weeds. Though all may not produce “tops” a certain crop of bulbs at the base may be relied on.

PARSLEY

May be sown from the time the first rains have fallen in autumn until August. The plant is a biennial, which in the second season runs to seed and becomes then unfit for use. It likes a rich, deep, and loose soil.

PARSNIP.

The main crop should be sown in drills, 15 to 18 inches apart, about June or July; but put in a few sooner for earlier crops. Select deeply-worked rich soil which is not too dry, and treat the crop the same as carrots. When fresh manuring precedes the sowing, the manure should be put in at the bottom of the trenches to prevent the roots from forking or branching. The hollow-crowned parsnip is the best variety that can be grown.

PEAS.

Ground on which cabbages, cauliflowers, potatoes, &c., have been grown will answer for the cultivation of any of the varieties, none of which require particularly rich soil, as long as it is only well worked and drained. For the earlier winter crops select rather light and dry ground, as the seed is apt to rot out if placed in too wet a bed; to prevent this, small ridges are thrown up for receiving the seed where only stiff and wet soil is available. Commence sowing some of the earlier varieties in April, and continue then at intervals up to August, or even for a chance crop to September, when early kinds may again be put in. Always sow in drills, allowing for the earliest dwarf sorts two feet between them, whilst taller growing kinds require from three to four feet. Though causing more labour, sticking all taller growing sorts should not be forgotten, not only because by doing so the trouble of picking the pods is greatly lessened, but chiefly because they will yield far more if properly attended to in that respect. When the young plant is well advanced, earth them up, and keep the ground between the rows open and free from weeds. By regularly picking the pods as soon as they are fit (the same as with beans), and not allowing them to ripen, the yield may be increased and prolonged. For late-sown crops irrigation will be found very beneficial.

The following are some of the favourite sorts—

Early Varieties. Daniel O’Rourke Essex Rival Beck’s Prizetaker M‘Lean’s Advancer “ Little Gem Rising Sun (tall) Burbridge’s Eclipse


Later Varieties. Yorkshire Hero Veitch’s Perfection Climax Spider

Queen of Dwarfs Champion of England (tall) Cresswell’s Marrow Blue Seimetar  Prussian.

POTATOES.

Potatoes planted in autumn or early winter should be placed on rather dry, loose, and moderately rich soil—those for the

general sirring crop require rather moister and fresher land— stiff clays or soil liable to cake and get hard will never answer for potato-growing ; but even naturally poor sandy land, provided it be sufficiently enriched by manure (always decomposed), often produces excellent crops. Some of the colonial guanos, which are rich in phosphates, have proved amongst the best of fertilizers for potato crops, even superior to the much more expensive Peruvian. The apparent want of success when using the former seems to be mainly due to the fact that instead of ploughing or digging it under it has been mostly used like Peruvian as a top dressing; in this form its effectiveness will rarely appear, as it scarcely contains a trace of the easy soluble ammoniacal combinations which are found in the latter. Peruvian guano is generally dug in (unless when used as liquid manure or as a topdressing for plants above ground), or, for potatoes, sprinkled in the drills, the sets being placed on the guano. The ground having been properly prepared, plant in drills 18 inches to two feet apart, selecting small potatoes or larger ones cut in pieces (for ground which is not too darhp), each of which must have at least one developed eye. Earth the plants well up when they are above ground. On the plains the earlier kinds may be planted from March to June, later sorts up to August. Winter frosts are apt to destroy some of the earlier crops. A simple remedy (applicable where small beds only are grown) of making the •effects of ordinary frosts harmless to all plants liable to suffer through them is to thoroughly water the leaves and stems covered with white frost or otherwise affected by it early in the morning before the rays of the sun have had time to fall on them. Amongst the great many varieties known the following can be recommended—

For Early Crops.

Fluke and Ashleaf Kidney    Prince Regent

Early Rose (very prolific and Purple Eye good)    Pink Eye Kidney (Pheasant

White Rough    Eye).

For Medium and Late Crops.

Sydney Red    Pink Eye

Late Rose    Brown’s River.

Change of seed, so as not to grow the same seed on the same ground for two or more seasons running, is greatly to be advised.    .

PUMPKINS.

When speaking of the cultivation of the cucumber it was stated that all plants belonging to that family (viz., pumpkins, melons, and all gourds, as, for instance, trombones, .marrows, &c.), were gross-feeding plants, which can scarcely be supplied with too much manure, provided there is moisture enough to keep up a vigorous growth. Select a warm, not too heavy, soil, deeply dug, and very liberally manured with well decomposed animal manure. Sow in clumps, three to six seeds in each, from eight to ten feet apart. Should all the seeds germinate, leave three of the strongest plants, and train the vines, which will soon be formed, regularly around, observing, as regards pruning them, the same rules as recommended for cucumbers. Being rather tender, sowing should not be commenced before the end of August, nor later than November, the latter being still in time where water is available for irrigation. Supply liquid manure and water during the summer months, both being necessary to obtain fruits of large size. All kinds of gourds require a similar treatment.

RADISH.

Light, but tolerably rich and thoroughly pulverised soil are the main conditions for the culture of any of the varieties of radishes. Sow thinly broadcast at intervals from early in autumn until spring to ensure a succession of this pleasant vegetable, covering the seed slightly in with the rake. The Eed and White Turnip and the Long Red Radish are those more generally grown. Besides these the Yellow Turnip and Long White, and the Early Erame deserve to be grown, as well as the Black Spanish, a sort which grows to the size of a turnip, and which requires much more room in the bed than the other sorts. Peeled and cut in slices, and left standing mixed with salt, it is preferred by many to any of the common sorts. The recently-introduced Java Radish yields seedpods which often attain two feet in length, and which are eaten instead of the roots of the others. It is sown two to four seeds together, in rows about four feet apart. Earth up the young plants, and allow them to run to seed, tying the stems, which are liable to be blown down by the wind, to a stake. Collect the pods, when well formed, but before they are ripe.

RAPE.

To obtain a very early supply of greens, sow early in autumn a small bed broadcast with rape, cutting the young plants when sufficiently large.

RHUBARB.

Amateurs will always find it best to procure young plants-one year old instead of propagating by seeds. Rhubarb will scarcely succeed on the plains, but wonderfully well in the rich, damp, hill districts. Plant in deeply-trenched, well-manured ground in rows, allowing at least three feet each way between the plants. During the first season only a small supply of leaves should be pulled, to prevent the plants being weakened too much ; the full harvest commences with the second season after planting. Cut the flower-stalks off as they appear, and during the summer keep the ground between the plants open and loose, mulching around the roots. Cover the bed in autumn with a good layer of well-rotted manure, lightly forked in so as not to injure the roots, and carefully dig the bed in spring. Rhubarb may be forced, so as to be available very early in the season, by placing some of the older roots rather closely together in a stout frame covered by boards, fresh stable-dung being placed around and on the top of the frame in a layer not less than 18 inches thick. Roots so forced are generally weakened so much as to become useless for future cultivation. Single plants standing in the bed can be forced by covering them up with a cask or forcing-pot, the same as used for Sea-kale, surrounded by and covered with manure.

SAVOY.

Vide Cabbage, the treatment for this vegetable being the same.

SEA-KALE.

As the name indicates already, this plant is found wild in Southern Europe, near the seashore. When cultivated it likes a deep, damp, and rather rich soil, not objecting to its being saline. Sow the seeds in autumn, and plant out in spring, in properly-trenched nursery-beds about one foot apart. In , the following autumn plant on deeply-trenched and manured beds four feet apart in patches three to four plants to each, so as to bring the roots a few inches below the ground. Cover the surface in winter with manure slightly forked in, and dig carefully in spring the same as recommended for Rhubarb. When the plants are well-established, cover each patch over with a forcing-pot or cask, surrounded by manure, so as to force and bleach the young shoots, which are used when nine to twelve inches long, like Asparagus.

SHALLOTS.

Plant the offsets early in autumn, in rows six inches or less apart, selecting a fertile, well worked soil. The young shoots, which will soon appear, are used green instead of onions. When grown as a general crop for the sake of the bulbs, select rather loose, tolerably rich soil, and plant about from June to August, in rows at least a foot apart, covering the crowds of the bulbs about one inch with soil. Hoe during the summer so as to keep the ground open and free from weeds, and take the bulbs up when the leaves fade, preserving them in a dry place the same as onions.

SPINACH.

Select a rather light but fertile soil, one which has borne a c

crop already, for which manure was applied, and sow, after it has been deeply dug, in rows 18 inches apart. Thin the plants out, so as to allow at least six inches between them in the rows, and allow them to develop their leaves, which are fit for use when nearly full-grown. Time of sowing, from March to August. Of the two varieties generally grown—viz., the round and the prickly-seeded spinach—the latter is generally preferred for winter, the former for summer culture. Some other plants are frequently grown for the purpose of using the leaves for spinach. We have thus the

NEW ZEALAND SPINACH,

A perennial plant, which should he sown in spring, in drills two feet apart each way. Allow the plant to get well-established, and then cut the young branches when required.

Several kinds of Atriplex (Orage) and Chenopodium furnish the so-called

TEEE SPINACH.

Sow them early in spring, four feer apart, and cut as required.

A native plant, Tetragonia implexa, found frequently on our coast, yields an excellent substitute for spinach. As it seeds but sparingly, cuttings should be struck from it in a cold frame, and these planted out in rather sandy soil. The plant, which is a perennial, spreads over a large tract of land with its trailing branches, and it is well-adapted for covering stumps of trees, stones, &c., with its pretty bright-green foliage.

The use of the leaves of Silver Beet instead of Spinach has been spoken of before.

STRAWBERRY.

Although Strawberries properly belong to the Orchard department, yet, as they are chiefly cultivated in the kitchen garden, I insert directions in this place. Our arid plains will, on the whole, be found to be but ill-adapted for the cultivation of these delicious fruits, which require the fertile soil and cool damp climate of the hills to bear full crops and come to perfection. Where strawberries are, however, to be grown in gardens on the plains, the small but highly-aromatic so-called Alpine variety, of which red and white ones may be obtained, should be selected, as it will stand a much greater amount of drought than any of the larger kinds, and produce almost all the year round. Strawberries require a well-trenched, deep, and fresh, but always well-drained soil of average quality, resting, if possible, on clay. Before planting give a good supply of manure. For planting, select the strongest well-rooted runners, which appear in great numbers on old plants, and which, especially during dry weather, are induced to form roots by loosening the earth under them, and earthing them

slightly up. About May or June remove all that are well-rooted to the bed prepared for them, and plant in rows from 18 inches to two feet apart (according to the sort), and 15 to 18 inches from plant to plant in the rows. Keep the ground open and free from weeds, and earth the plants up as they get stronger. In spring and summer remove all runners—except when wanted for increasing stock—as they appear, and mulch well during the summer. Irrigation should be applied where practicable, as it will increase the yield. In autumn, after the leaves begin to fade, manure with thoroughly-rotten manure well dug in. Strawberry-beds should be renewed every third or fourth year, as the plants get less productive when too old. To protect the fruit from getting soiled by lying on the ground, spread clean straw along the beds, or lay tiles on each side of the rows for the fruit to rest on. Slugs, being very fond of ripe strawberries, will commit sad havoc amongst them. Numbers of these pests may be caught and destroyed by laying flat tiles, cabbage-leaves, &c., amongst the plants, under which they will hide during the day, which allows of their being gathered and destroyed without much trouble. Besides the two varieties of the Alpine strawberry, which are of all others the most fertile, and which, though their fruit does not surpass in size that of the common wild one found in forests at home, can nevertheless be recommended, the following sorts of large-fruited ones deserve to be grown :— British Queen    Queen Victoria    Sir Joseph Paxton

Cockscomb    La Marguerite    Trollope’s Victoria

SWEET POTATO.

It is much to be regretted that the cultivation of this fine vegetable has as yet been almost entirely neglected in South Australia. Planted at the proper season, and in suitable localities, it is certain to do well. The plant is a perennial Convolvulus, the trailing almost succulent stems of which send ■out roots at the joints on which the tubers are formed. Select a warm, rich spot, deeply-trenched, of rather loose sandy soil, which requires to be well-drained and manured, and plant about October, when no more frosts 'are to be feared, in rows three to four feet each way. Train the leading branches regularly over the ground, and pinch out laterals where too numerous. Peg down the joints, or slightly cover them with earth to induce formation of roots, which soon begin to swell to tubers. By careful attention to pegging-down, tubers (some of which I have seen to weigh four or five pounds) will be formed at each of the joints. Watering, and an occasional supply of liquid manure, will be required during the summer. Where water is available, these plants will do well on the plains. Propagation is easy by means of cuttings, selecting the tops of the branches in autumn; they strike readily in sandy soil, and the plants may be preserved during winter in a rather dry place where no frost can touch them. The smaller tubers may be preserved until spring in nearly di’y sandy soil; when placed into heat to force them on, several shoots will soon appear, which, as they grow very rapidly, will soon yield a sufficiency of cuttings. Tubers intended for preservation must not be bruised or cut, as they are very apt to rot. Dig up the tubers in autumn as wanted, and preserve them in dry sand.

TOMATOES.

Tomatoes require similar treatment to that recommended for Capsicums and Eggplants. It is safest to sow the seeds about August in pots or boxes under the shelter of a frame, and to plant out when no more frosts are to be feared. Sowing in the open ground, on the place where they are to grow may be done toward the end of September or beginning of October, care being taken to keep the seed-beds sufficiently moist to make them germinate. Though a great number of varieties (red and yellow, of various shapes) are known and cultivated, most of them are more curious than useful, and most growers here prefer the old Large Pied, which is exceedingly prolific and well-flavoured.

TURNIP.

Friable, tolerably rich soil, which, having been previously manured for some other crop, should be thoroughly pulverized by deep digging, and the surface levelled and made fine. Sow the seed broadcast very thinly, or in drills about 8 to 12 inches apart. Cover slightly with the rake, and thin out as soon as the plants are sufficiently strong to handle. Turnips may be sown at intervals from the end of March until September. The red-top American and Early Six-Weeks amongst the white, and the Orange Jelly, and others of the yellow varieties, are best for the earlier sowings; White Stone and Lettuce-leaved for a general crop. Of the ordinary Turnip the following may be considered the best for general cultivation, viz., Early Six Weeks, Red-top American, Green-top Stone, Snowball, White Stone, Golden Ball, Orange Globe, and Orange Jelly. Of Swedish turnip, Laing’s Purple-top Garden Swede is the best. These should be sown in spring only, earlier sowings being apt to run to seed, without forming tubers. By carefully attending to planting out, without breaking or twisting the tap-root, Swedes may be transplanted.

TROMBONES.

Trombones, Vegetable Marrows, and all other kinds of

Gourds, Pie or Preserving Melons, Water Melons, and all other plants belonging to the same tribe will do under similar treatment as recommended for Pumpkins and Melons, time of sowing being the same; the two last named sorts are satisfied with less richly manured ground providing only there is moisture enough to maintain a vigorous growth.

YAMS.

Like sweet potatoes, Yams have as yet been but rarely grown in the southern colonies of Australia, though judging by the few experiments made, and the success which attends their culture in Algeria, where the climate is similar to our own, w© may hope to be as successful here. They require a thoroughly drained, but, nevertheless, damp, fresh, and very deep, loose, richly-manured soil, which should be capable of being irrigated. Cut the Yams into pieces, each of which must have a portion of skin, which is sufficient even when no eyes are visible. Having powdered the cut sides over with charcoal, plant in rows 3 to 4 feet apart, about 18 inches from plant to plant, placing the set skins upwards about 3 inches underground, covering them over with very loose soil to enable the germ to break easily through. As the plant is tender, plantations should not be made, before the beginning of October. As the shoots appear give to each plant a stout pole, on which they must be trained. If the vines are allowed to trail on the ground but small tubers will be formed. Irrigate freely during dry weather, mulching around the plants, and keeping the soil between them open by frequent hoeing or forking. In autumn, when the leaves begin to fade, cut off all the stems—they will serve as fodder for cattle—and then carefully dig up the tubers, a very laborious task, as many varieties will penetrate 2 feet and more into the ground. Most form small bulbilles in the axils of the leafstalks ; these may be preserved for propagating the plant the following season.

The yield of Yams in Algeria seems to be almost the same as that of our potatoes, as several varieties are said to produce there almost two tons weight of tubers per acre, the smallest yield out of twenty varieties cultivated being eleven cwt.

Many, and amongst them those which produce the largest tubers, require a more tropical climate than that of South Australia, for which the so-called Chinese Yam is the one to be recommended. Though its tubers are rather small, they are of excellent flavor, and all experiments made hitherto with its culture have proved satisfactory.

Many other plants which might be grown here successfully could be added to the list given above in order to vary our

vegetable diet, or to add to the luxuries of the table. We might name several plants yielding tuberous roots brought to market on the Continent of Europe (especially in France), under the name of Groundnuts, which are there considered great delicacies. They are obtained from

Cyperus esculentus—a true Reed Grass—and from Chcerophyllum bulbosum—a plant belonging to the same natural order as the carrot, parsnip, &c. Both may be propagated by seeds, which the latter especially produces in quantity, or by planting the small tubers. Both require a rather light, not too rich soil.

From the vast prairies of the Western States of North America a tuberous plant has been introduced to Europe known to botanists as Ullucus tuberosus, which is said to be equal to potatoes. A trial might be made with its cultivation here, where, should it succeed, and the report of its fertility and usefulness not be exaggerated, it might become of importance. Its culture is said to be easy, and it can readily be reproduced by seeds or tubers, which are stated to thrive on inferior soils.

The Earthnut or Groundnut (Arachis hypog£ea) which is so extensively cultivated in California as an oil yielding plant, furnishes a nut of a very pleasant flavour. Its peculiar mode of growth renders it very interesting to the observer. A sandy but not too dry soil is best adapted for its culture. Sow the seeds about October in shallow drills 2 feet apart, and keep the ground between them open by occasional hoeing.

Chicory, the young tender leaves of which, bleached in the ordinary manner, are used as a salad.

_ Hops, the young shoots of which are bleached as previously directed, and eaten as a substitute for asparagus.

Maize.—In America especially the cobs of this plant are roasted and eaten before the seeds are fully ripe. Though all varieties can be so used, Darling’s Sugar Corn (Maize), or Cobbett’s Corn are considered best. Sow it in spring’ on fresh and loose fertile soil, in drills about four feet apart.

Nasturtium.—The seeds of this well-known and very ornamental plant are pickled or otherwise preserved before they are fully ripe, and used instead of capers.

The unripe seed-pods of the Ochro (Hibiscus esculentus) are much esteemed as a vegetable. The seeds must be sown late in spring (the plant being tender when young, as regards frosts and wet), on rich loose soil. Keep the bed well watered when the plants are once established, and encourage a luxurious growth by keeping the ground open, and by occasionally applying liquid manure and water.

Portulac and Iceplant, both quickly-growing annuals, which

have to be sown on light dryish soil, over which they rapidly spread. They yield a pleasant substitute for spinach, which becomes so much more valuable for cultivation in the plains, as both will succeed in very poor dry soil. The first-named plant grows wild in the interior, and many an old bushman will testify to its usefulness as a vegetable.

The true Caper-plant seems to thrive very well in our gardens. It is a perennial, which, when once established, will grow for a series of years. Sow the seeds in pots or boxes early in spring, under shelter of a frame, and plant out in rows three feet apart, in rich damp soil. The plant requires cutting back every year. As it produces very ornamental flowers, some plants of it might be introduced into the flower garden.

Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius), a highly-esteemed vegetable, which is largely grown in French and several other European gardens. It produces tuberous roots, which are boiled and eaten, as well as the young leaves, which require bleaching. Cultivation similar to that of carrots and parsnips. It can be forced, the same as rhubarb or sea-kale.

The climate of our hilly district is so very different from that of the plains, that we may naturally suppose rules applicable to the culture of gardens situate in the latter will but rarely suit the former. Fresh and cool even in the midst of summer, and possessing besides an excellent soil, consisting frequently of rich vegetable matter, an almost inexhaustible supply of water, many plants which will not succeed on the plains will do admirably in the hills—as has been stated when speaking of the different kinds of fruits and vegetables— whilst others, which on the plains can only be grown during the winter and spring months, may be sown or planted in the hills in the middle of summer. Comparatively excessive wet and cold prevent, in a great measure, the cultivation of hill gardens, or at least those situated in deep gullies or so-called swamps during [the winter months, which for most things can only be used from about the end of September until the wet weather sets in again. Directions, given above, as to the time of sowing and planting apply thus (except where specially stated) chiefly to plain gardens, as difference of months, so far as precocity of climate is concerned, exists between the hills and the plains. By a proper adjustment of cropping, vegetables, and also flowers, &c., may thus be obtained throughout the year, the produce of the hills coming in when the drought of summer renders culture on the plains, though not impossible, at least very difficult.

THE ORCHARD.

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Fruit-trees of all kinds thrive, as is well known, in South Australia, where in most seasons they produce abundant crops of finely-flavoured fruit. Their growth, luxuriant everywhere, becomes occasionally so much so when growing in the damp sheltered gullies of our hills that the time at which they ought to commence bearing fruit is greatly retarded.

ROOT-PRUNING.

In cases like this root-pruning may be resorted to. Bare for the purpose some of the main roots, and cut off one or two of them a foot or two from the stem. Should a repetition of this operation be required at a future period, select roots situated on the opposite side of the plant. Operations like these cannot, however, be recommended as a general rule, as they will always weaken the tree, and they should only be resorted to in exceptional cases, where longevity and general health of the tree is not so much considered as earlier production of fruit.

TRENCHING, OR PREPARATION OF SOIL.

Above all, as stated in the introductory remarks, garden ground should be properly trenched, and I beg again to recommend this operation, combined with draining and irrigation if possible, for orchards and vineyards intended for the production of table grapes. When practicable, all trenching should be done some months before planting, as the ground will always improve by admitting a current of air through it, and otherwise exposing it to the influence of the atmosphere. In case of need, though by no means to be recommended, holes, say 18 inches deep by three feet in diameter, may be dug in untrenched land for each tree; if possible, especially where the subsoil is of a clayish nature, narrow drains, made as directed above, should be dug from hole to hole to carry off stagnant water, which is apt to collect in the holes during the winter rains, and which renders the soil hard and sodden as soon as dry weather sets in. Manuring, except in poor soils, is generally not needed for the first seasons; if required, well-rotted manure, of whatever kind it may be, should only be used.

Bones, coarsely broken (or in the shape of bonedust), placed at the bottom of the trenches (or holes), are amongst the best of manures for vines and fruit-trees. Applied in sufficient quantities they will supply nourishment to the trees for a series of years, without stimulating to excessive growth.

TIME OF PLANTING.

Commence planting as early as possible ; May and June may be considered best, though, in case of necessity it may be continued as late as August. Early planting has many advantages. Trees, though apparently dormant—which is especially noticeable iii those having deciduous leaves—are, nevertheless, not altogether at rest. In transplanting, some of the tender fibres of the roots will always be damaged or destroyed, and new ones have to be formed before the tree begins to grow again. This will take place at once, if transplanted early, whilst the ground is still warm and moistened by autumnal rains; and before the cold and wet winter sets in the plant is established, and commences to grow vigorously with the first approach of spring. If delayed till later in the season there is but little inducement for the formation of new roots until the spring sun warms the ground again ; but then warm and dry weather may set in before the tree has time to get established, and though it may not die, it will in most cases receive so severe a check in its growth that its vigour may be destroyed for years to come, if not for ever.

PRUNING NEWLY-PLANTED TREES.

Damaged or bruised roots must be cut away with a sharp knife, or shortened till only sound wood remains. A close relation exists between the roots and the branches, and the former having been broken, &e., the latter should, with newly-planted trees, always be cut back. If this is neglected the upper eyes only will break, as the sap has a natural tendency to flow more freely towards the top, the lower ones remaining dormant. Cut, therefore, all leading branches (of young trees) back to from three to six eyes, which will induce them to break regularly, and to form strong healthy shoots in their new position.

SELECTION OF TREES.

Trees one or two years old are always preferable to larger and older ones. In selecting trees for an orchard, choose such as have a clean straight stem, healthy and vigorous shoots, and (a sure sign of health), a smooth bark; proper care must of course be taken to prevent damage to the roots in taking them up, or allowing them to dry by long exposure. Two-year-old trees should have from four to six branches standing as regularly as possible at the height you intend to see the future crown commence. Each of these is shortened as directed before. Trees one year old from the graft have generally only a single shoot, which is cut back to the height required ; all side shoots, except those needed for the formation of the main branches, are broken off as they appear. The summer shoots thus remaining are left undisturbed, except when growing with very great luxuriance ; in this case they may be cut back about Christmas, when laterals will appear, the strongest of which, or rather those best situated, are selected and allowed to remain. It would lead too far to give here full instruction about the method of pruning each kind of tree in after years, as each sort requires a different mode of treatment. Suffice it to say that the crown, which commences (half standards or even bush trees being generally preferred in Australia), from two to three feet from the ground, should be informed of from three to five regularly placed main branches, it should be kept open in the centre, and supplied all round with sufficient laterals to shelter, by their leaves, the fruit they cover without hindering free circulation of air. When once formed, but little pruning is resorted to in colonial gardens beyond thinning out the branches and removing watershoots, &c. By proper attention during the spring and summer, breaking out unnecessary shoots, or shortening with the finger and nail those remaining, but little need to be done in winter with the knife, and the trees will soon show by their healthy appearance how much more preferable a regular system of summer pruning is to the almost antiquated one of mutilating trees with the knife and saw. Trees on trellises, or those which are wanted to grow in a certain regular shape, require, of course, different treatment. For the former the main object is to have the whole of the wall or trellis evenly covered with fruit-bearing branches ; this is best effected by training the main branches at right angles from the stem in a horizontal direction, and induce the formation of laterals from these.

Where a regular system of pruning is followed, care should be taken to induce not only the formations of fruit-bearing spurs, such as are made by apples, pears, &c., but also of new wood, a matter of special importance with peaches and other stone fruit, which only bear fruit on the spring wood.

GRAFTING.

As fruit-trees can now be obtained at an exceedingly low price, amateurs will scarcely trouble themselves to raise what they may require. Should such, however, be the case seedling stocks of the kinds which are to be grafted should always be taken in preference to suckers.

Though not absolutely necessary (for some kinds of fruits at least), it is always safest to plant the stocks in nursery rows a season before they are to be grafted so as to have them fully established when this operation is performed. When full standard trees are wanted, such as are chiefly grown in orchards at home, several years are needed to train the stock to the required height, as these are grafted on the crown. Trees of this description being however rarely seen in Australia, we need not refer to them, but treat only of half standards, or bush trees. For these it is best to insert the graft an inch or two below the surface of the ground, and to train the stem from a shoot obtained from sub-graft. Various modes of grafting are in use, some of which may be briefly described. In tongue or split grafting, the stock is cut off at the required height, smoothed with a sharp knife, and slightly split in the middle; cut the scion wedge shape, so that the thick end commences close under an eye. This is inserted in the split Qf the stock, taking care to place it so that the bark of the scion and stock meet exactly. Tie the whole firmly together, and put grafting wax on a mixture of clay, and cow dung all over the wounds.

Bark-grafting can be performed by cutting the stock as before, but, instead of splitting the stem, merely opening the bark by a longitudinal cut and inserting in it the scion (cut also wedge-shaped, but only removing the bark on one side, opposite an eye.)

A very easy and useful method of bark-grafting consists in removing the bark of the stock, which does not require at first to be cut off for this purpose, only so far as to be covered exactly by the scion, which is cut underneath an eye in a slanting direction, and firmly tied on to the stock.

Many other methods are in use, but, whichever may be adopted, it must not be forgotten that it is most essential in all cases to make the bark of scion and stock meet exactly, and not only during the actual operation of grafting, but also afterwards, to prevent the drying-up of the wounded places. Quickness of manipulation prevents the former, and grafting wax or clay afterwards, the latter.

In budding, single eyes only (separated from the scion so that a small piece of bark, generally cut in the shape of a shield, adheres to it), are inserted into a T-shaped cut made into the bark of the stock so that the top end of the bark in the eye joins to the cross-cut of the stock.

All grafting operations must be performed in spring, when the sap begins to rise. Budding can only be done when the sap is sufficiently up to allow the bark of scion as well as of the stock to separate freely from the wood, which is either in spring or a second time about Christmas.

Trees budded in spring are cut off above the eye, to make it shoot; those budded in summer do not generally start before the next following spring. A number of eyes may be inserted into the branches of a tree.

Budding is on the whole best adapted for stone fruit, and grafting for those which bear pips.

Though shoots springing from the stock above or below the graft (or bud) must be removed, this should only be done gradually as otherwise, especially with larger trees, the excess of sap thrown to the scion is apt to choke it.

Orange-trees are generally grafted in spring, about October, when the sap is sufficiently up. Any of the modes described will do.

Grafted orange-trees require to be covered over until the scion has taken. Glass bottles, of which the necks have been cut off, answers well for the purpose of covering them. They will take readily when budded.

Vines are grafted always in spring and underground. The earth having been removed to a depth of several inches round the stem, the latter is cut off with a saw (the cut being smoothed with a sharp knife), and split through the middle, the scion is then inserted as described before, being left sufficiently long to allow one or two eyes to be above ground after the earth has been replaced around the plant.

Many of the smaller fruits, such as gooseberries, currants, raspberries, &c., do not require grafting, being simply propagated by cuttings made in the usual way early in winter in the open ground, or by division of the roots (stools), whilst others, nuts for instance, are best raised from seeds.

GRAFTING WAX.

Grafting wax may be made as follows :—Take one pound of beeswax, half a pound of turpentine, quarter of a pound of resin, and two ounces of linseed oil, and mix the whole by warming the substances over a gentle charcoal fire. Stir it well up till all is thoroughly mixed. Allow the impurities to settle at the bottom, and pour the remainder in moulds, where it will cool and harden. It will keep for years, and can always be softened by the heat of the hand. Beeswax and turpentine, half a pound of each, and a quarter of pound of linseed oil, thoroughly mixed, will form a thickly fluid mass, used when wanted with a brush.

PLANTING.

In planting, always allow sufficient room between the trees, especially when (as is mostly the case in small gardens) vegetables are to be grown between them. Eighteen to twenty feet is the least space required; 25 to 30 for stronger growing sorts. The roots and branches having been pruned as directed above, open a hole where the tree is to stand, and spread the roots in it carefully and regularly out, so that the neck is a few inches below the surface—(deep planting damages the trees)—cover the roots gradually with good loose soil, gently shaking the tree whilst this is done so as to settle the soil round them. When the hole is nearly filled up, give to each tree several buckets of water, making the soil in it a regular puddle, as this will wash in between all the rootlets. Treading the soil firmly down, as practised by many, should be avoided. To ensure regularity in planting long lines, it is advisable to mark the place for each tree prior to the opening of the hole by a stake which serves afterwards for tying-up the tree. The latter (tying-up) is particularly necessary when large trees having full crowns are planted, as the unavoidable shaking about of the tree is very apt to cause damage to the roots, not counting the danger of its being blown over altogether. Though older trees can be transplanted, there is but rarely any real advantage gained by it, as such trees will generally suffer so much that they seldom regain the necessary health and vigour so essential in fruit trees especially.

DISEASES OF FRUIT-TREES.

Amongst the diseases which affect fruit-trees, the American blight, confined to apples, is probably the worst. Numerous remedies have been recommended against it, many of which, though they may destroy the disease, damage the trees. The simplest and least dangerous one is to wash all affected parts with urine, or a strong lotion of salt-water, and to apply the same to the roots, which are partly bared for the purpose, as there the main seat of the pest will be found. Strong decoctions of tobacco, lcerosine, sweet and other oils are likewise occasionally applied, but the latter especially are always more or * less injurious to the plant, by stopping the pores in the leaves and bark. Some fruit trees are frequently affected by a large white scale (different from that found on orange trees), which causes the bursting of the bark and a flow of sap greatly detrimental to the health of the tree. Bubbing the scales off when first observed will generally remedy this evil. Want of drainage in the soil often causes diseases of trees, which under such conditions cease to grow strong and vigorously, and show instead of smooth bark and healthy properly developed leaves, numerous excrescences on the former, and curled misformed abortions instead of the latter. Stone-fruit, and amongst these peaches especially, suffer most, and if the primary cause is not removed in time the tree will get cancered and become worthless. Favourite choice trees, which after a series of years have exhausted the soil, will cease to form fresh wood, and become unproductive. Cutting them back to the main branches and enriching the soil may renovate them, though on the whole it will generally

T>e found much better to root them up and plant fresh trees. Either by accident or the ravages of caterpillars &c., the sap is often caused to exude, and thus to damage the tree. All wounds should he carefully attended to, by being plastered over with grafting wax, tar, or clay, so as to prevent the exuding of sap, and induce the tree to form fresh bark over the wounded part. The brown scale which is so often found on orange trees is removed by syringing (or where the trees are small washing them) with a solution of Gishurst Compound.

VARIETIES OF FRUIT.

The number of the varieties of fruits which are now found in our gardens is so large that the amateur especially is apt to become bewildered when he takes up a nurseryman’s catalogue for the purpose of making a selection. Though a difficult, and probably also a thankless task to endeavour to aid in choosing the better sorts, as not only indiviudal tastes, but also soil, situation, and many other circumstances will have to be considered, I will, nevertheless, make an attempt to do so, well aware as I am that such a list will be open to much criticism, and will always be a very imperfect one.

ALMONDS.

This is one of the most hardy of trees, which will stand with impunity the most severe heat of our summers, even in the most exposed situations, and in inferior soils, provided only they are not swampy. They are readily propagated by seeds, ihe stocks thus obtained requiring budding with some of the • better varieties. These trees are well adapted for being planted as a break wind around gardens. Being generally very prolific and their produce always marketable, these plants can be strongly recommended for general culture. Where larger plantations are to be formed it is essential to give plenty of room between the trees, so as to allow at all times a free current of air between them. If crowded together they will not produce good crops. The following are the best varieties of the soft-shell kinds, the only ones which should be cultivated :—Brandis, Jordan, Paper-shell, and Sultane; the latter a small but exceedingly good variety.

APPLES.

They like a deep, rich, and fresh soil, conditions which are not often found combined on the plains, for which they are on the whole less adapted than for the hills. Nevertheless, many sorts thrive well on the former, and bring fair crops. Stronggrowing as they are, apple-trees but rarely, at least when in a healthy state, produce before the third or fourth year after planting, but then they continue to increase in fertility as annually fresh fruit-spurs are formed. Apples are best grafted on seedling apple-stocks. As stated before, apple-trees are very much subject to the attacks of the American Blight, which affects many sorts to such an extent that, if not checked in time, the trees will soon become worthless. The main seat of this evil is at the roots of the tree, and fortunately we have in the Majetin apple a sort which remains perfectly free from the attacks of this pest. Other sorts when grafted on blight-proof stocks remain nearly free from blight, and, should it make its appearance on the branches, it can soon be extirpated by the means indicated before. The following are sorts which can be ecommended:—

Early Dessert.

Early Harvest    Devonshire Quarrenden *—

Juneating    Beinette Bouge    Hative

Medium Dessert.

Cox’s Orange    Pippin    Court de Wick

Strawberry Pippin Medium Kitchen.

Lord Nelson Alexander

Bedfordshire Foundling Dunn’s Seedling Late Dessert,


Bibstone Pippin

Mob’s Boyal Maidens’ Blush — Beauty of Kent

Cleopatra or Pomme du Boy Scarlet Nonpareil Adonis Pearmain    Golden Beinette

Late Kitchen.

Stone Pippin    French Crab    —-

■— Wellington    Winter Majetin

Northern Spy

Mob’s Boyal, Lord Nelson, and Maidens’ Blush, are most excellent apples for drying. Some of the above sorts, though •classed amongst kitchen varieties, are also excellent, as dessert fruits, and so vice versa Cleopatra, for instance, stands at the head of late dessert apples, but it is one of the best—if not the best—kitchen sorts. Northern Spy and Winter Majetin are blight-proof.

APRICOT.

This excellent fruit is quite at home on our plains, where it grows with great vigour, and mostly bears abundant crops. Though naturally best adapted for deep strong soils, it succeeds here also on inferior ones, provided they are properly drained, as apricots, like all other stone-fruits, soon decay when there is stagnant water near the roots. They bear on last year’s wood and sometimes on fruit-spurs. Though they will stand grafting or budding ?on almond, peach, or plum stocks, they succeed best on seedling apricot stocks. Varieties :—

Moorpark    Angoumot’s Hatif

Oulin’s Early Peach    Kaisha

Eoyal Orange    Eiver’s Large Eed

The first named is by far the best for general use, but the others are well deserving cultivation, both for the sake of variety and the difference in the time of ripening.

CHEEBY.

Scarcely adapted for gardens on the plains, as their productiveness there cannot be depended upon. In the cooler and moister hill districts they appear to be more at home, and they thrive there even in poor and dry soil, on the:slopes of hills, &c. They bear generally on two-year old wood. Buds or grafts placed on seedling stocks are always to be preferred to suckers, which are frequently produced in great quantities. For dwarf trees, which are very useful for temporary plantations between the rows of permanent orchards, stocks of Mahaleb cherry are to be preferred. Varieties :—

Werder's Early Black Early Biggarreau Early Purple G-uigne Early Lyons Heart of Midlothian    Biggarreau    (Common)

Black Tartarian    “    Ludwig’s

Belle d’Orleans    “    Napoleon

Bedford’s Prolific

CHESTNUTS.

For the plains, exposed to hot winds and lengthened droughts, these trees can scarcely be recommended, as they will but rarely do well in localities like these. In the cooler and moister hill climate, however, they succeed well, and begin to bear fruit tolerably early, increasing their crops year after year. Unlike other fruits, chestnuts do not require to be grafted, and young plants raised from seeds will always reproduce fruits like those of the parent plant. The seeds should be sown as soon as they are ripe, as they will not germinate if kept during the winter. No pruning required beyond that needed to keep the tree open in the crown.

CUBEANT.

A favourite fruit, which, however, will not succeed on the plains or in much exposed places. In sheltered positions in the hills, where the climate is cooler and damp, they thrive in great perfection and bear well, even when growing on poor stony soil. They bear on fruit-spurs standing on last year’s wood. Propagation by cuttings. Varieties :—

Black    Eed Dutch

White Dutch    Brussels

Currants being only shrubs, and not trees, but little pruning is required by them, and this should be done with the view of keeping the plant in regular shape, and for the reproduction annually of sufficient new wood to keep up a succession of fruit-bearing shoots.

PIG.


Figs grow with the greatest luxuriance almost anywhere on the plains; though best in rich damp soils, they are satisfied with poor and even shallow soils. They will not stand much pruning, which should also be avoided because they produce their fruit on the summer-shoots. Propagation by layers and cuttings. Varieties :—

Brown Provence    Violet Grosse

White Provence    Early Violet

Brown Turkey    Black Ischia

White Marseille

LOQUAT,


Not only useful on account of its pleasantly acid fruits, which are produced whenever sufficient moisture exists in the ground, but also because it is an evergreen tree. They succeed admirably in loose, fertile, and not too dry soils, on the plains especially where means for irrigation exist. Seeds, which are obtainable in great quantity, are best for propagating, but superior varieties, such, for instance, as the stoneless one, may be produced by grafting or seedling stocks. There is but a very limited selection of sorts obtainable, and these even appear to be merely sports, and not permanent varieties. One of the best, though rather scarce, is a stoneless one.

GOOSEBERRIES


Will only succeed in the hills, as the drought and exposure of the plains, except in very sheltered positions, prevents the proper development of the summer-shoots which produce fruit. They grow well on the sheltered slopes of hills, where the soil is tolerably fertile and not too dry. To obtain very large berries proper attention must be paid to pruning, and the bushes should be grown on richer land, and be irrigated if the weather sets in dry before the fruit is perfected. Gooseberries strike readily from cuttings, and this is the only method of propagating them. A large number of varieties, some of very large size, is found in collections. The following are some of the largest and best:—

Antagonist, w Cheshire Lass, w Conquering Hero, R Crown Bob, General Graham, a


Bockwood, y Slaughterman, b Smiling Beauty, w


Abbreviations—g, green ; R, red ; w, white ; y, yellow.

Snowball, w Snowdrop, w

D


Heart of Oak, g    Symmetry, y

Lady Leicester, w    Thumper, g

Leveller, g    Warrington, r

Lord Crew, g    Waterloo, w

Ploughboy, r    White Eagle, w

Roaring Lion, R    White Smith, w.

The above are large-fruited sorts, which are always to be preferred to the common small varieties.

MEDLARS,

A straggling-growing deciduous shrub, which is satisfied with poor soil and exposed situations, though, as may readily be imagined, more favorable circumstances will help to bring the bush to greater perfection. It requires but little pruning except to keep it in shape. Propagation is best done by seeds, the seedlings do not require grafting. Suckers are sometimes produced which will do for planting out. The fruits are not fit for consumption until they have been laid upon straw for some time to become soft, but even then they are flavourless and pot of much account.

MULBERRY.

The only sort which is cultivated on account of its fruit is the black. It forms a strong-growing shrub of fair size; being rather difficult to strike from cuttings, black mulberries are generally propagated by grafting on the white, or by layers. They require but little pruning, especially as, being naturally of a straggling habit, it is very difficult to force them by training, &e., into a certain shape. Fruit is produced, when the tree is sufficiently old, in abundance on last year’s wood.

Though scarcely to be reckoned amongst fruit trees, a few words may, nevertheless, be said here about the

White Mulberry, which yields the only food for silkworms, and which promises before long to become of the utmost importance to Australia, where sericulture bids fair to become a staple industry. The White Mulberry thrives well in almost any locality, on the plains or in the hills. Where the soil is not too poor it grows with the greatest luxuriance; its propagation by seeds or cuttings is easy, and its after culture exceedingly simple. Being adapted for cultivation as a standard tree, or as a bush, it may, in the latter shape, be grown as a hedge plant, and thus, without taking up much room, yield returns, which, after a few years, afe pretty considerable, through the silkworms feeding on its leaves, and prove of advantage to the crops growing in fields surrounded by them, as it is well known that shelter will always act beneficially. According to calculations based upon careful observations and statistics in Italy, but according to the opinion of practical silkgrowers much below the real figure, a 50-acre block of land, subdivided by mulberry hedges into four parts, and surrounded on the outside by the same, would yield, after having been planted seven years, £10 2s. 6d. annually, after ten years, £50, and after twenty-five years, when the trees would have attained their full size, £122, no small return for an investment which at first starting requires but a very small outlay of capital, very trifling expenses for after culture, and even if ample space is allowed on each side of the hedge in the place indicated, only about two and a half acres of land out of the fifty.

NUTS.

Satisfied as they are with poor soils, provided it is not too dry and exposed, nuts have proved themselves well-suited for many localities in the hills, where they yield fair crops after a few years. On the plains nuts will not succeed, and their cultivation there cannot be recommended, as even if the plants should live, their crops would be so small that the room they occupy could be far better employed. Nuts are propagated by seeds, cuttings, or layers, or by suckers which are produced in sufficient numbers where the plants have once been established. As they produce fruit from the old wood, care must be taken in pruning, an operation which should be but sparingly performed with nuts. Several varieties besides the common hazel are known and cultivated. The Filbert, Cobnut, and Cosford’s are reckoned among the best.

OLIVES

Promise the same as the white mulberries to become of the greatest importance to South Australian cultivators. Almost any kind of soil will suit them, though it will readily be understood that when planted in tolerably good ground, the health and vigour of the plant, and naturally also the yield of berries to be obtained from them, will be materially increased. Olives, as stated before, form an exceedingly fine hedge, though, grown as such, but little or no fruit can be expected from them. Standard trees should always be chosen where fruit is desired. In these, care is required to prevent overcrowding of the trees in their crowns, and all pruning should tend to keep these open.

Besides the common, rather small-fruited Olive, a number of varieties, the fruits of which are far larger and better flavoured, have been introduced to South Australia. The latter are propagated by grafting on seedling stocks raised from the ordinary sort, or by layers, or truncheons (cuttings). For the latter, select strong stout branches, which are buried horizontally in the ground. They then send out shoots from the eyes and at the same time roots. After a season (sometimes two) these truncheons are taken up, and being cut between the eyes, a number of plants may be obtained from one of those truncheons.

ORANGE TRIBE.

to be cultivated:—

Bahia, or Navel    Bio

Blood, or Maltese    Sabina

Emperor of Mandarins    Siletta

Canton Mandarin    , St. Michael

Queen    Paramatta


All varieties of this excellent fruit grow with the greatest luxuriance and vigour on the plains around Adelaide. They like a well-drained, deep, and rather rich but not too loose soil, which should always be properly trenched. Irrigation in summer is essential to .their doing well and producing full crops of properly developed fruit. Under conditions like these they produce abundant crops of fruit quite equal to any imported. The propagation of oranges, and all other varieties belonging to this tribe, is easiest and quickest by grafting or budding on seedling stocks ; layers will also take and form good trees. When properly treated they will, during the first season after grafting, make strong shoots, and probably show the laterals which are to form the crown hereafter. Summer pruning, or the breaking out of all unnecesary shoots, will be be found of the greatest importance in orange-culture, and should not be neglected, as the tree sometimes will not stand sharp pruning with the knife. Trees, though densely furnished with leaves, should never be crowded in the crown, but always be open in its centre. The best time for transplanting is early in autumn, after the first rains, or if that time has been missed, about August, when the soil begins to get warm again. Plantations made in the middle of winter do not generally succeed so well, especially when sickly oranges (and other trees of the same tribe) begin to flower and produce a few fruits when quite young, they soon get so exhausted that, after a few years, during which but little or no growth is made, they die out. To prevent this, never allow young trees to flower for a year or two after they have been planted, and, should this not be sufficient, cut the plants back, to induce, fresh growth. All orange trees suffer much by the attacks of a scale, which firmly attaches itself to branches and leaves, rendering the whole tree black by their exudations. Thorough washing with a solution of Gishurst Compound or a strong decoction of quassia and soft soap will cure it. The following varieties deserve especially

Amongst other fruits belonging to the same tribe, and requiring the same treatment, the Lisbon Lemon, Sweet Lime, and some of the varieties of the Shaddock, and perhaps a few trees of the Seville or bitter Orange, and Citron might be

planted together with the above. Oranges should be properly manured and regularly watered to ensure a succession of full crops. Plant them in favorable localities, not less than twenty feet apart.

PEACH AND NECTARINE.

These resemble each other so much in habit, general appearance of the tree and fruits (those of the latter being smooth and shining, whilst the former are hairy), and manner of treatment, that they may be taken together. Both are of rapid vigorous growth, well adapted for the plains, and satisfied with inferior soil and exposed situations, as long as the ground is drained, and there is no retentive subsoil. Peaches commence bearing when very young, and they are in most cases so productive that, being overloaded with fruit, it remains small. To ensure really fine fruit, it should annually be thinned out, allowing only a certain number, proportionate to the size and strength of the tree to remain. Peaches and Nectarines flower on last season’s wood, a fact which should not be forgotten when pruning them, an operation rarely resorted to in South Australia, and almost needless, after the crown of the tree is formed, where summer pruning is regularly attended to. Peaches and Nectarines succeed best when budded on their own stocks ; Almonds, Plums, and Apricots may answer when none of the former are available, but trees grafted on the latter never equal those on the first-mentioned stocks. Varieties :■— Peaches.

Early Silver    Alexandra Noblesse

Early Beatrice    Grosse Mignon

Nonpareil    Italian Bed

Evandale Favourite    Bed Nectarine

Merri-merri    Comet

-»— Boyal George

Nectarines.

Violet Hatif    Albert Victor

Pitmaston Orange    Elruge

Hunt’s Tawny.

The above are arranged according to the time at which they ripen.

PEAR.

Hardiness, fertility, longevity, and variety and excellence of fruit have rendered pears deservedly general favourites. They require strong, deep soil, and if possible some shelter, though even in exposed gardens on the plains pears succeed quite well, and produce fair crops. Most being strong-growing, pear-trees should not be planted less than 25 feet apart. They bear on separate fruit-spurs formed on old wood, which in pruning should be duly noted. Whilst young, they generally grow so much to wood that few or no fruit-buds are formed. By cutting them sharply back, as is frequently done, the growth becomes still stronger. To remedy this evil, and induce them to set fruit, root-pruning, as before described, may be resorted to. When once full-grown they remain productive for a long time, and cease then to make much fresh wood. The same as for other fruit-trees, summer-pruning must also be strongly recommended for pear-trees. Unlike apples they are but rarely affected by diseases. Pears should be grafted on seedling pear stocks, or on pieces of roots taken from older trees; if grafted on quinces or hawthorn their vigorous growth gets destroyed, and they do not last long. Amongst the almost endless number of varieties, the following may be selected as deserving recommendation:—

Early.

Doyenne d’Ete    Jargonelle    ■—*

Citron des Cannes

Medium.

Beurre d’Amanlis “ d’Bose « d’Diel

Beurre de Banzy Chaumontel Glout Morceau


Duchesse d’Angouleme Marie Louise Gansel’s Bergamot

Late.

Passe Colmar Winter Nelis    -

Uvedale’s St. Germain.


The last-named variety is probably the largest pear known, but it is only fit for cooking purposes.

Though generally speaking pears should be grafted on pear stocks, it may be mentioned that Glout Morceau, Beurre d’Amanlis, and Gansel’s Bergamot succeed very well on the quince; when grafted on these the trees will generally bear much earlier, but it must also be stated, do not live so long.

PLUMS.

Those pleasant summer fruits will grow on almost any kind of soil, provided it is not too stiff and clayish or swampy. Exposure to cold or hot winds, though they should be avoided, if possible, will not prevent the culture of these trees, which, under favourable circumstances, generally produce tolerably good crops on fruit-spurs formed on two-year-old wood. Some of the sorts bear rather irregularly; in pruning care has to be taken not to inflict severe wounds by the cutting off of larger branches, as these plums, like other stone fruit-trees, are very apt to suffer by the exudations of sap, which ultimately causes cancer. 'When trees which are on the whole not very long-lived get exhausted, which is easily noticed by their not forming any new wood, stir the soil round the roots, and apply some properly rotten manure, and water during the summer, slightly cutting back last year’s summer-shoots during the winter. Plums are very apt to send up quantities of suckers, which are often used as stocks; for this purpose suckers should always be rejected as long as seedlings are available, as the latter remain more free hereafter from suckers. The following are some of the better varieties :—

Goliath

Prince Engelbert Jefferson Washington Kirk’s Plum Vermont Damson Shropshire Damson.


Elver’s Early Prolific Early Orleans Violet Hatif Early Blue Violet Diamond

White Magnum Bonum Coe’s Late Bed Green Gage

QUINCES.

These rapidly-growing trees succeed well in any ordinary garden soil in the hills or on the plains. They are easily propagated by cuttings put into the ground early in the season. They should not be much pruned except for the purpose of thinning them out. Where sufficient room is available, quinces may be planted for hedges, or rather as breakwinds ; though less productive in this shape than when grown as single specimens, the yield will nevertheless be sufficiently large. There are not many varieties of quinces known as yet, which are chiefly distinguished by the shape of their fruits, some resembling apples, and others pears. I may name the Portugal and the common large quince as deserving.    ,

RASPBERRIES.

This pleasant fruit can only be grown in the hills, where it attains great perfection. The plant sends up annually a number of strong shoots, known as canes, which produce the fruit. The strongest of these are left; weaker ones, and all last year’s canes which have borne fruit already, have to be cut off, as they will not produce a second time. They are propagated by division of the roots (stools) which are planted three to five together, about five feet from clump to clump. Nearly allied to the raspberry is the

Bramble or Blackberry, which also is only adapted for the hills, where even in inferior soils they thrive and bear with the greatest luxuriance. Except removing the suckers and thinning the branches, they require but little after attention. Propagation by suckers or division of the roots. Several new large fruited varieties have recently been introduced to European gardens, some of which have found their way to South Australia, as for instance the fine Lawton Blackberry.

VINES.

It would almost appear unnecessary to speak of the vine when we see it flourish in all directions, and on all kinds of soil around us. A regular system of pruning is absolutely necessary for the culture of vines, which will soon cease to bear fruit if this is neglected. The one most generally adopted consists in training them in gooseberry fashion—that is, allow a single shoot about nine inches to one foot in height, and train laterals at this distance from the ground. All summer shoots of the previous season are shortened back to two or three eyes each, removing them altogether where they stand too crowded or when too many for the size and strength of the vine necessitate the removal of some. For very strong plants one or two rods each with six to ten eyes may be left, winch are bent backwards and thus produce abundant crops. When grown on trellises or wires, the main branches are trained along the wires, the laterals from these being shortened back to spurs as above.

A method not as yet generally adopted here, but greatly praised as being most excellent, is strongly recommended by some Continental writers on the culture of the vine. I quote the following information on this subject from a pamphlet published in Austria: —Suppose a vine-cutting has made in the second or third year one or two strong shoots, cut off all others and bend those remaining straight, but so that the branch, which is shortened to from eight to twelve eyes, is fixed with its end below the horizontal line to wires or stakes. By doing so all the eyes on the branch break with equal strength; the summer-shoots are allowed to grow up to two or three eyes above the last bunch, where they are broken off. All laterals are removed as they appear. The leaves attain by such treatment such a size that they sufficiently shade the fruit. During the summer all shoots springing from the stem of the vine direct are rubbed off except two, which are allowed to grow without being stopped. When pruning season comes on, the whole of the branches, both summer-shoots and two-year old, which supported the crop are cut off close to the stem, and those left during the summer are bent down to take their place. The yield of grapes is greatly increased by such treatment, whilst vignerons at home will have observed that instead of weakening the plants it rather tends to strengthen them. Whatever method is adopted in pruning vines, care should always be taken not to allow too much wood on the vines, to prevent exhaustion and overcrowding. The spurs, if spur-pruning is followed, should stand regular round the outside of the plant, so as to leave the inside of the bush open. Stopping the summer-shoots should not be done before the fruit has properly set, and the secondary laterals, which break out in great abundance after stopping, should he rubbed off, except where they are required for shading the bunches. Some sorts, for instance, Carbinet, Zante Currant, &c., will not bear under spur-pruning, but require rods with from six to ten eyes. Attention may he drawn here to a great mistake frequently made by amateurs in training vines on trellises. Instead of bending the rods as nearly as possible horizontally to induce them to break at all the eyes, they mostly tie them up, more or less in a perpendicular direction, which causes the upper eyes alone to break and form shoots, all the lower- ones remaining dormant, or producing only weak unproductive branchlets. Vines, especially sorts of table grapes, should be manured from time to time. Well-rotten stable-dung, bone-dust, or some of the colonial guanos will be found most beneficial. Wine grapes require less manure than other varieties.

Unfortunately, the Oidium, that dreadful disease which has laid bare many of the most promising vineyards in Europe, has found its way to Australia. A small fungus, which shows itself at first in the shape of minute filaments on the leaves and the young shoots, appearing sometimes early in the season shortly after the buds have burst, sometimes much later; it soon spreads so much that the plant gets from the number of the fungi an appearance as if it were covered by fine cobwebs, the berries are attacked, and their growth being checked, they burst and dry up, and the whole crop of the season is lost, and that of the following one greatly endangered, as even if Oidium should not show itself again, the wood which has to produce fruit the following year gets stunted and diseased to such a degree that at the best a poor crop only can be expected. Whenever Oidium makes its appearance, or even if it has only been observed in the neighborhood, immediate steps should be taken to stop its progress, and it is very fortunate that we possess in flowers of sulphur a perfect remedy or even preventive. The whole plant is dusted over with sulphur twice, or, even if the disease is very virulent, three times a season, which has proved at home as well as here in Australia, to preserve vines from the attacks of this fearful disease. The simplest and quickest mode of applying sulphur is by means of bellows specially constructed for the purpose. By using these a great saving of time, labor, and sulphur will be effected. The first sulphuring should be given when the buds have fully opened, a second after the fruit has set, and, where required, a third when the berries have attained the size of a pea.'

The following are the sorts which may be recommended for amateur gardeners:—

Abbreviations used—t, Table; w, Wine grapes.


Black Barbarossa, t Belas Bianca, Black Cluster, w'


‘ Frontignae, t w ‘ Hamburg, ‘ Morillon, t w ‘ Prince, t


“ St. Peter, t Blue Cibebe, Chasselas, t w Crystal, t

Golden Hamburg, T Gouais, t w Grand Turk, Grenache, w Hermitage, w


WALNUT.


Lady’s Finger, t

Madeira, t w

Mataro, w

Muscat Hamburg, t

Muscat of Alexandria, T w

Raisins des Dames, t

Reisling, w

Sultana, for Raisins

Sweetwater, t w

Teret, t w

Ulliade t w

Verdeilho, w

Wantage, t

White Morillon, T w

Wortley Hall, t

Zante Currant, for Currants.


These handsome and useful trees are succeeding but rarely on the plains. They require a fresh, deep, and not too poor soil, such as is common in the sheltered glens of our hills, where the tree is at home, and produces well. They are rather slow of growth, and require from six to eight years before they produce. Knife-pruning should be avoided as much as possible, which is an easy matter when finger-and-thumb, or summer-pruning, is properly attended to. There are several kinds of walnuts grown in European gardens, amongst which the tender-shelled and the large-fruited are reckoned the best; both are, however, exceedingly scarce in the colonies, so that, for the present at least, we shall have to be satisfied in cultivating the common Walnut, which, in favourable localities, bears fair crops of medium-sized fruit. Propagation of the common sort by seeds ; special varieties are grafted.


Having shortly reviewed the leading fruits commonly found in our orchards, a few words may be said on some others which might be introduced, and which, as there is but little doubt of the attempt being successful, would add to the variety of fruits available for our table.

Bananas have before this been tried, and to all appearances they are suited for sheltered positions on the plains, as well as in the hills. They require a rather damp rich soil, which should in all cases be properly trenched. Bananas are propagated by suckers, numbers of which are produced by old plants after they have done fruiting. Each stem flowers only


once; this done, cut it down, and remove the suckers for fresh plantations. Plant them six to eight feet apart. They generally flower the second year. Should suckers appear before (which often happens), they may either be taken off at once or be allowed to grow on the spot; in the latter case, the whole plantation will soon become a thicket, showing plants of all ages. Many varieties of the two main forms—the tall-growing Banana (Musa paradisiaca), and the dwarf Plantain (Musa Cavendishi)—are grown in tropical countries ; the latter would appear to be more suitable to us, not only because it is more hardy, but also because its dwarfish habit shelters the leaves from being damaged so much by the wind, since its stem is seldom above six to eight feet, whilst the Banana grows 15 to 20 feet. The fruit of the Plantain is smaller, but better flavoured than that of the Banana.

Guavas, forming handsome small trees or shrubs, which after a few years produce abundant crops of fine-flavoured fruit, which can either be eaten raw or made into jellies. The plant requires a rich, rather damp soil, and succeeds well either on the plains or in the hills.

The Kaffir Apple (Aberia Caffra) yields a fruit well adapted for jam or jelly making; the plant is perfectly hardy, and thrives well here. Being rather stiff and thorny it can be used as a hedge plant.

Several kinds of Diospyros (amongst which D. Kaki is the best), give excellent fruits well worthy of cultivation.

We also must mention Hovenia dulcis; several kinds of Rose Apple (Eugenia)—for instance, Eugenia Mitchelli, E. Jambosa, E. uniflora, all of which produce well-flavoured fruit in more or less abundance, and the small Eugenia Ugni from Chili, of which large crops of small but highly aromatic berries may be collected. The last-named forms small shrubs, all the rest small or medium-sized trees. They succeed in any ordinary garden soil, treated like Oranges.

Several kinds of Passion Flowers, which are cultivated already in some of our gardens, produce edible fruits better known as Granadillas. Passiflora edulis, P. quadrangularis, and P. Decaisneana (the last yielding the largest fruits) deserve special attention. All are climbing plants, adapted for covering walls, &c. They require a fertile and not too dry soil, and some shelter against cold winds. Placed in conditions like these they are well able to withstand the hot blasts of our summers, and afford shelter and plenty of pleasantly sweet fruits if trained over summer-houses.

Judging of the few specimens of the stately Date Palms which may be seen around Adelaide, would point to this noble tree as being also more adapted for general cultivation for the purpose of obtaining tbeir nourishing fruits. Unfortunately the tree is slow of growth, and as male and female flowers are not produced on the same tree, a greater number of them would have to be produced to secure fertilisation of the flowers. But even independently of the fruit they yield, Date Palms deserve to be grown as ornamental trees alone; their stately forms introduced to our parks would add a special charm to the scenery. As they will grow well on soils impregnated with salt, which unfortunately abound near Adelaide, it might supply ornamental and useful trees for localities otherwise almost unfit for cultivation. Seedlings can easily be raised from the stones obtained from dates as they are brought to market, which, being generally only sun dried, germinate freely.

As fruit of all kinds is generally over-abundant in Australia, preservation of it becomes often (if not a necessity, to prevent actual waste) at least highly desirable. Thrifty housewives will be better able to give recipes for making jams and jellies, and I may safely leave this matter in their hands, as well as that of drying fruit for future consumption, which in our sunny climate but rarely presents much difficulty, as most of them, thinly spread out on sheets of iron, boards, &c., will dry up quickly enough. Care should always be taken, when fruit-drying is attempted, to keep external moisture, such as rain or dew from it, as this will not only retard the process, or even prevent it altogether, but also give the fruit a bad colour.

Kernel fruit, such as Apples and Pears (keeping varieties), as is well known, can be kept for a long time in a fresh state. Gather these when properly ripe, carefully preventing their getting bruised or otherwise damaged, and place them in thin layers on straw in a dry but airy room. If kept till late in the season, it may become necessary to pick the fruit over from time to time, removing all rotten or otherwise damaged ones, which, if left, would soon destroy the others.

Soft fruits, such as Plums, Cherries, &c., cannot be preserved so easily. By adopting the following method, however, a few of them may be kept for several months:—Select properly ripened, but not overripe fruit, and pick them carefully, so as to preserve the stalks and to prevent all bruising. When gathered, drop each separately into melted beeswax, so as to coat the whole surface over thinly but sufficiently to exclude all air; when cooled, wrap each separately in paper, and preserve them in a cool dry place. When wanted for use, the wax peels off easily.

Oranges and some of the choicer sorts of Apples or Pears may be kept if packed between layers of bran, so that they do not touch each other, the greatest care being always taken to prevent bruising or otherwise damaging the fruit. Grapes can be preserved for some time in a similar way. Sorts should be selected which have loose bunches (Muscat of Alexandria, Chasselas, and similar ones), shaking the bran well between the berries. Single bunches hung up in the fruit-room, so that they cannot touch each other, will keep for a long time when the end of the stalk is sealed up or otherwise closed. The rods referred to when speaking of pruning of vines, which generally produce most abundantly, are well adapted for preserving the grapes. Cut them off the tree, and stick the cut end into a potato, hanging the whole up in the fruit room.

Currants are dried in the same way as other fruit, by being placed in the sun on sheets of iron, &c., being covered over during damp nights

Eaisins can be made of suitable grapes hung up in single bunches in the sun, but sheltered against wet. In some parts of Southern Europe, where raisin-making is carried on to a large extent, it is customary to dip the grapes before they are hung up for drying into a lye made from the ashes of vine-prunings.    _    .

The same is done with Figs intended for drying. This process is said to prevent the skin becoming hard.

THE FLOWER GARDEN.

In the Introductory Remarks a few words have already been said about laying out Flower Gardens, the ground plan of which should always be in keeping with the buildings they are to beautify. To do this effectually, good taste in sketching it out is not the only thing required, but also some knowledge of the habits and mode of growth of plants, so as to place each in its proper position. How ridiculous, for instance, does it look to see tall-growing trees or wide-spreading shrubs planted in the front row of a shrubbery, whilst graceful dwarfer ones are almost hidden from sight in the background, as may be seen but too often ; or to see trees which ought to be feathered to the ground with branches, like the beautiful Norfolk Island Pine or Californian Cypress, planted in small front gardens, which before many years are overspread so much as to prevent the cultivation of any of the smaller plants—so much more appropriate for places like those referred to, appears perfectly absurd. A low hedge of some ornamental foliage or flowering plants, sufficiently high to hide the fences without shutting off totally from view the street or landscape in front, should enclose the garden. The same end may be obtained by planting a narrow border of miscellaneous shrubs which do not exceed the desired height. Taller sorts should be placed towards the background where bare walls, &c., have to be hidden from view, placed in such a way as to gradually decrease in size towards the front, which is finished by one or several rows of annual or perennial herbaceous plants. Centre beds in front of houses are best planted with regularly-growing flowering shrubs, or, in large gardens, with trees of such a height as.may be proportionate to the size of the ground, which may be surrounded by smaller flowering plants.

Persons not sufficiently acquainted with the habits and growth of plants, frequently experience much difficulty in selecting such as are adapted for centre plants, or for being placed on lawns, &e., as single specimens. For both purposes

dense and compact growing kinds should be selected, or at least such as can easily be kept within bounds by the use of the knife.

In submitting the following list of sorts suitable for the purpose, I am well aware that many more might be added, as I only mention some of those which are easily obtainable.

Acmena floribunda, l “ Kingii, l


Euonymus japonicus var., m Fugosia (Langunaria), Hibiscus, Maradarnia, m Myrtus, m Pittosporum, Podalyria, Punia nana, m Eaphiolepis ovata, Schinus molle, l Statice, s Templetonia, s Virgilia, l


For larger beds, as centres of groups or as single specimens, Araucarias Cupressus, several Junipers and other Conifers are particularly well adapted—all being exceedingly graceful and ornamental. Amongst evergreen shrubs and smaller trees I name the following which possess the requisite qualities, and which may be selected for either single specimens or for centres of groups in flower gardens. As the names of all will reappear amongst the list of hardy shrubs given in another part of this book, I abstain from describing here the color of their flowers or height, merely denoting by S small plants suitable for beds of small size, and by L those adapted for larger groups, whilst M stands for medium-sized plants:—

Adenandra uniflora, s Arbutus, l Aralia crassifolia, M Btekia plicata, s Berberis Darwinii, m. Ceanothus rigidus, m. Ceratonia siliqua, l Chorozema, s Daphne, s Deutzia, s Diosma, s


Dracaena (several), l and m Yucca, m Escallonia, s and m

The view from the window, in front of which such centre beds in small gardens are generally planned, should in no instance be confined too much by too tall or too spreading-growing plants. Verandah-posts may be aptly decorated by climbing plants, which, trained in graceful festoons, but not in thick masses to hide the building or darken the rooms inside, from post to post, help to make up the beauty of the grounds. Paths, proportionate in width to the extent of the garden, properly gravelled, so as to allow their being used even in wet weather, must be formed. The effect of the whole is greatly heightened when they are lined by edgings of suitable plants or by ornamental edging-tiles. It may not be out of place to mention a few of the plants adapted for edgings :—Daises, Violets, Oxalis, the annual Virginian Stocks, several of the smaller bulbous or tuberous rooted plants, Sternbergia, Babiana, Ixia,, Tritonia, and other similar kinds of low growth but short duration are occasionally used, though scarcely to be recommended, the former dying down as soon as the dry weather commences, and the latter disappearing altogether as soon as the bulbs have' ripened. Thrift, some of the smaller Statice (occiden-talis, bellidifolia, &c., for instance), Chinese Pinks, the Perennial Candytuft, variegated and Lemon Thyme, Spergula piliferas (for moist situations), and Camomile stand our climate much better, and remain green throughout the summer. Edgings properly kept greatly add to the beauty of the garden. Shoots of the common English Ivy trained along the line of the edging have only of late years been employed very effectually in France, instead of planting edging plants. A very pretty edging is formed by the dwarf Fairy Bose, which strikes easily from cuttings. The well-known and very handsome English Box, which is so frequently seen in European gardens, will unfortuntely not do well on our dry plains, though well adapted for the hill gardens, where, strange to say, it is but rarely found as yet.

In laying out smaller gardens it is always best to trench the whole of the ground, and to mark out and form the walks afterwards, the whole having been previously levelled. In forming the walks, the soil is removed for a depth of a few inches, the crown or centre of each one being slightly raised, the whole having been well rolled or beaten down, gravel is spread on them. Where the -walks are wider it is best to lay a foundation of broken stones, on which the gravel is placed. Paths and walks of this kind are apt to be infested by weeds of various kinds, the destruction of which not only causes much labor, but is in some cases even almost impossible. To prevent this, a rather expensive but very efficient method is sometimes employed, it consists in forming the surface of the path of cement or concrete. To destroy weeds having creeping root-stems or tubers (Sorrel, Oxalis, &c.) the saturation of the ground with gas tar, strong milk of lime, or other similar substances, will be found effectual. In places where the ground is sloping, at the least narrow surface drains should be formed at the sides to prevent the storm water damaging the walks.

Common bricks—one laid flat in the bottom, and one on each side laid in a sloping direction in the ground, so that the upper edge comes level with the surface of the walk—form very neat drains for some of the broader main walks.

For narrower paths, half-round drain-tiles are used, made by potters or brickmakers, which, being sold at very reasonable prices, are within the reach of every one.

It need scarcely be repeated that the ground for flower-gardens must in every instance be thoroughly trenched and improved by manuring, or even for groups of plants of certain kinds be specially prepared by removing the original soil and filling the vacant place up with whatever may be required by the class of plants required to be grown there. Provision must be made for irrigation, as in so dry a climate we can only hope to keep up a display of flowers by supplying them liberally with water.

For larger gardens lawns may be introduced with much effect. Though most, if not all, the grasses usually employed for such a purpose in Europe fail here during the summer, we have the very pretty Couch-grass, which stands our climate quite well, and keeps green throughout the summer. Seeds of this grass being very uncertain, the best mode of propagating it is to obtain sods in sufficient quantities to divide these and plant the roots singly. The grass grows wild in several places around Adelaide. A still easier and quite as efficient a mode is to chop the whole of the roots up into pieces one or two inches long, and to sow these over the ground, covering them well up, and rolling the surface after it has been properly levelled. Almost on every knot of the creeping stem roots will be produced, so that even these can be used. Couch grass is best adapted for forming croquet-grounds. For such the equally handsome and hardy Buffalo-grass, which makes beautiful lawns, is not so well adapted, being stiffer and rather coarse in the blade. Both are much improved by receiving a top-dressing of good soil mixed with rotten manure every autumn, and by being frequently and regularly cut down with the scythe, or, better, by a small mowing-machine. The Buffalo-grass is quite as readily propagated as the Couch by cuttings. Both Couch and Buffalo-grass require frequent and close mowing to keep them low and tender. Though, as stated above, either will answer for the formation of croquet-grounds, neither is equal for that purpose to the beautiful Bye-grass, which unfortunately, however, will not stand our dry summers, except where it can receive a regular and abundant supply of water.

The tedious labour of mowing can be greatly shortened, whilst at the same time the work is done more regularly and evenly by a hand-mowing machine, which, at a comparatively slight outlay can now be obtained here, and should be found in every garden where lawns are to be kept tidy.

Arrangement of Plants according to Colour.—In planting herbaceous and other plants, except in mixed borders, the colours of the flowers should be taken into consideration as well as the height to which they grow. How very successfully

E

a regular system of bedding-out for forming ribbon borders or regular designs maybe carried out in Australia has been shown in the Botanic Gardens, where the elegant groups of Verbenas, Pelargoniums, Ac., formed by Dr. Schomburgk in various parts of the garden, but especially around the recently-erected magnificent Palmhouse, cannot fail to attract the notice and admiration of everyone. Besides those just named Lobelias, Cinerarias, various Pentstemon, Stocks, Alyssum, numerous annuals (such as Gomphrena, Portulaeca, and a host of other smaller plants), are well adapted. To procure immediate effect a number of the above are grown in pots until nearly in bloom, when they are planted out to the places intended for them.

Foliage plants, or such as are grown specially for the sake of their ornamental foliage, have not as yet received the attention they deserve. Planted either as single specimens on lawns, or in groups together, they are often quite as ornamental as flowering plants. Groups thus formed of semi-tropical or tropical iplants, such as Dracan^as and Cordylines, hardier Palms, Hedychlum, Cannas, Yuccas, the large-leaved Bananas, Aralias, Panax, Botryodendron, and interspersed with graceful Bamboos, of which several varieties will succeed, and other plants of similar appearance, should not be wanting in large gardens, which could also be varied by massing together taller-growing Cacti, Opuntia, Aloes, Agaves, and other succulents. Smaller plants of the same class, to which may be added Mesenbryanthemum, Sedum, Sempervivum, Crassula, Ac., are well adapted for being planted in rockeries. In forming these, stones, roots, trunks of trees, &c., only should be used, but not, as may too often be observed, pieces of coral, shells, and other marine productions, which, being totally out of place in such a position, only offend the eye. Many condemn even the introduction of such objects to fresh-water basins or fountains. Stalactites obtained from caverns in limestone formations have been very successfully employed for forming grottoes and rockeries, and as they are now available here they should be introduced by parties intending to form rockeries, for which they are admirably adapted.

It would lead too far to furnish a list of shrubs and trees suitable to our climate. The advice of experienced men should be obtained when making a selection. Most Pines, Cypresses, and other Conifers and Taxads will thrive or even luxuriate with us. I only need to mention the rapidly-growing Californian Pinus Insignia, P. Halepensis, P. Pinaster, and a host of others; and Cupressus Macrosarpa, C. Goveniana, C. Torulosa, C. Funebris, and others; to Cedars, Araucarias, Junipers, Podo-carpus, Taxus, Frenela, Thuja, Taxedium, &c., specimens of which should not be wanting in any large garden.

Evergreen shrubs and trees of other families should he planted in preference to those having deciduous leaves, though some of the most ornamental of the latter may also be introduced with advantage. Amongst the former many of the native plants of Australia deserve more attention than they have generally received. Such will be found amongst the genera Acacia, Acmena, Agonis, Boronia, Eriostemon, Sterculia (Brachychiton), Brachysema, Chorozema, Daviesia, Bosshea, Pultanaea, Eurybia, Grevillea, Banksia, Dryandra, Epacris and other genera belonging to the same families; Hakea, Indigofera, Pittosporum, &c. A host of others from different [countries could be named did we intend to furnish a nurseryman’s catalogue. The following genera supply us with plants ornamental as well as suitable, which can be recommended, viz.:—Abelia, Aberia, Diosma, Adenandra, Bouvardia, Clianthus, Duranta, Lantana Pittosporum, Prostantliera,' Baphiolepis, Abutilon, Aloysia, Amorpha, Aralia, Arbutus, Berberis, Bouvardia, Brugmansia, Buddlea, Buxus, Catalpa, Ceanothus, Cineraria, Chimonanthus, Cistus, Chironia, Cytsius, Daphne, Diervillea, Erica, Erythrina, Euonymus, Fabiana, Ficus, Genista, Grewia, Habrothamnus, Hibiscus, Hypericum, Jasminum, Lagunaria, Laurus, Ligustrum, Lantana, Lonicera, Magnolia, Muraltia, Myrtus, Nerium (Oleander), Photinia, Platanus (handsome deciduous tree), Podalyria, Pasonia, Polygala, Protea, Punica, Bhus, Bibes, Spiraaa, Tamarix, Veronica, Viburnum, Vinca, Vigilia. The genera just enumerated comprise the plants more generally grown by nurserymen, and though the list might have been swelled to a far [greater length, the above may suffice. Most of the species belonging to the genera named are hardy, and well suited to the climate.

Selection of Hardy Shrubs and Trees for Outdoor Planting.

Though I have named just now some of the genera which supply us with plants for our shrubberies, a more detailed list, giving specific names as well, may be useful when selecting from nurserymen’s catalogues, and I add therefore the following:—

Abbreviations :—S, summer-flowering ; sp. spring-flowering. In marking the colours of the flowers in this list it must be borne in mind that the main colours only are noticed. Unless otherwise mentioned, the plants named are to be understood as evergreen shrubs.

Abelia rupestris, white and pink, 2 to 4 ft., s.

“ uniflora, white, 3 ft., s.

Abutilon (numerous), mostly yel. and orange, 3 to 8 ft., sp. and s. Acacia cultriformis, dark yellow, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

“ salicina, dark yellow, 6 to 8 ft., sp.

Acacia vestita, dai-k yellow, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

“ leyophylla, yellow, 10 to 14 ft., sp.

“ Drummondi, yellow, 2 to 3 ft., sp.

“ (many others), yellow, 1 to 20 ft., sp.

Acmena fioribunda, white, 14 to 20 ft., s.

“ Kingii, white, 10 to 20 ft., s.

Adenandra nniflora, white, 2 to 3 ft., s.

Alonsoa, scarlet, 2 to 3 ft., s.

Aloysia citriodora (Lemon-scented Verbena), white, 4 to 6 ft., sp. Amygdalus Persica (Double-flowering Peach), yar. pi., white, red and scarlet, 10 to 12 ft., sp. Deciduous.

Aralia papyrifera, white, 10 to 12 ft., s.

“ Sieboldi, white, 12 to 15 ft., s.

“ crassifolia, white, 10 to 12 ft., s.

,— Arbutus (Strawberry-tree), white, 10 to 12 ft., s.

Arduina, white, 6 to 8 ft., s.

Bambusa nigra, 10 to 12 ft.

“ arundinacea, 20 to 40 ft.

■—• Banksia (Honeysuckle), many species, yellow, 4 to 20 ft., s. Baekia plicata, white and pink, 3 to 4 ft., s.

Berberis Darwinii, orange, 5 to 6 ft., s.

“ Fortunei, yellow, 5 to 6 ft., s.

“ japonica, yellow, 4 to 6 ft., s.

“ aquifolium, yellow, 3 to 4 ft., s.

—— Bouvardia, several kinds, red or white, 2 to 3 ft., s.

Boronia megastigma, brown, 2 to 3 ft., s.1

Brachychiton acerifolium, scarlet, 20 to 30 ft., s. Ev. tree.

lieterophyllum, pale yel., 20 to 30 ft., s. Ev. tree. Browallia Jamesoni, yellow, 4 to 6 ft., s.

Brugmansia arborea, white, 8 to 10 ft., s.

“ Knighti, yellowish, 8 to 10 ft., s.

“ sanguinea, orange red, 4 to 6 ft., s.

Buddlea globosa, orange, 6 to 8 ft., s.

“ Neemda, pale yellow, 8 to 10 ft., s.

“ madagascariensis, orange, 8 to 10 ft., s.

“ Lindleyana, blue, 8 to 10 ft., s.

Callistemon salicifolium, yellow, 6 to 8 ft., s.

“ (several others), red, 6 to 8 ft., s.

iCalycanthus, brown, 4 to 6 ft., s. Deciduous.

Calycotrix, white, 3 to 4 ft., sp. y-'—Cantua dependens, crimson, 3 to 4 ft., sp.

“ pyrifolia, yellow, 3 to 4 ft., sp.

Catalpa syringifolia, white, 15 to 20 ft., sp.

;■ Ceanothus divaricatus, blue, 10 to 12 ft., sp.

“ tliyrsiflorus, blue, 10 to 12 ft., sp.

“ rigidus, blue, 4 to 6 ft., sp.

Cerasus ilicifolia, white, 10 to 12 ft., s.

Ceratonia siliqua, yellow, 15 to 20 ft., s.

Cercis siliquastrum, pink, 6 to 8 ft., sp. Deciduous.

Oestrum aurantiacum, orange, 8 to 10 ft., sp., s., and autumn.

“ diurnum, white, 4 to 6 ft., sp. and s.

Chorozema orange and yellow, several kinds, 2 to 3 ft., sp. Chironia linifolia, pink, 1 ft., sp. and s.

“ decussata, pink, 2 ft., sp. and s.

Cistus (many sorts), white and pink, 3 to 6 ft., sp.

Clianthus puniceus, scarlet, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

“ Dampieri, crimson, Sturt’s Pea, 3 to 6 ft.

Correa (many sorts), red or yellow, 2 to 4 ft., sp.

Coronilla, yellow, 2 to 3 ft., sp. and autumn.

Crataegus, double-flowering, (many sorts), white, red, scarlet, and pink, 8 to 10 ft., sp. Deciduous.

Cuphea platycentra, red, 1 ft., sp.

“ jorullensis, orange, 3 ft., sp.

Daphne (many sorts), pink and white, 2 to 6 ft., sp.

Deeringia celosioides, variegated foliage, white, 6 to 8 ft., sp. Deutzia (many sorts), white, 2 to 4 ft., sp. Deciduous. Diervillea, pink, 2 to 4 ft., sp.

Diosma, white, 2 to 4 ft., sp.

Diplacus glutinosus, yellow, 3 to 5 ft., sp.

“ puniceus, red, 3 to 5 ft., sp.

Duranta, blue, 6 to 8 ft., sp. and s.

Echium candicans, blue, 3 to 4 ft., sp.

Epacris (many sorts), white and red, 2 to 3 ft., sp.

Erica (many sorts), all colours, 2 to 6 ft., sp. and s. Eriostemon (many sorts), white, 2 to 12 ft., sp.

Erythrina, crimson and scarlet, 4 to 10 ft., s.

Escallonia, white and red, 4 to 10 ft.‘ s.

Eugenia Ugni, white, 3 to 4 ft., s. •

“ myrtifolia, white, 8 to 10 "ft., s.

Euonymus japonicus variegatus,    6 to 8 ft.

Euphorbia splendens, red, 4 to 5 ft., s.

Eupatorium melissodorum, white, 1 to 2 ft., sp.

Fabiana imbricata, white, 4 to 6 ft., sp.

Eelicia angustifolia, lavender, 1 to 2 ft., sp.

Caffrorum, white, 6 to 8 ft., sp.

Forsaythia, yellow, 3 to 4 ft., sp. • Deciduous.

Fugiosa Patersoni, pink, 10 to 20 ft., s. Evergreen tree. Goodia lotifolia, yellow, 6 to 8 ft., sp.

Grevillea (many sorts), white and orange-yellow, 2 to 30 ft., sp. Grewia occidentalis, pink, 8 to 10 ft., s.

Habrothamnus-(several sorts), red, 8 to 10 ft., s.

Hakea eucalyptoides, red, 10 to 12 ft., s.

“ gramatophyllya, dark pink, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

“ suaveolens, white, 6 to 8 ft., sp.

Hakea (many others), white, 4 to 10 ft., sp.

^ Hibiscus splendens, red 6 to 8 ft., s.

“ syriacus, white and red, 4 to 6 ft., sp. Deciduous, j “ (many others.)

Hymenosporum flarum, yellow, 10 to 12 ft.

Iochroma tuhulosa, blue, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

Jasminum (many kinds), yellow and white, 3 to 10 ft.

Justicia Adhatoda, white, 4 to 6 ft., s.

“ (other sorts), 2 to 6 ft.

Kerria, yellow, 2 to 3 ft., sp. Deciduous.

— Lantana (many varieties and colours), 2 to 6 ft., sp., s., and a. Leucadendron (several sorts), 8 to 10 ft.

Lavandula Staschas, blue, 2 ft., sp.

Ligustrum (several kinds, some deciduous), white 4 to 10 ft., sp. Lotus Jacobasus, dark brown, 2 to 3 ft., sp.

Magnolia (several kinds), white, 4 to 18 ft., sp.

Menziezia polyfolia, pink, 1 ft., sp.

Muraltia Heysteria, blue, 2 ft., sp.

Myrtus, white, 4 to 6 ft., s.

Nerium (Oleander), white and red, 6 to 10 ft., s.

Paulownia imperialis, white, 10 to 15 ft., sp. Deciduous. Philadelphus, white, 6 to 8 ft., sp. Deciduous.

Photinia serrulata, white, 10 to 12 ft., s,

Pimelea decussata, pink, 2 to 3 ft., sp.

“ (several others), white, yellow, and red, 1 to 4 ft., sp. Pittosporum undulatum, white, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

“ Tobira, yellow and white, 4 to 6 ft., sp.

   eugenioides, brown, 8 to 10 ft., sp.;

   tenuifolium, brown, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

“ Colensoi, brown, 6 to 8 ft., sp.

“ crassifolium, brown, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

Plumbago capensis, blue, 8 to 10 ft., s.

“ Larpentas, blue, 1 ft., s. Deciduous.

Podalyria sericea, pink, 3 to 4 ft., sp.

“ styracifolia, pink, 6 to 8 ft., sp.

Poinsettia pulcherrima, red, 3 to 4 ft., s.

Polygala (many kinds), pink, 4 to 10 ft., s.

Protea mellifera, yellow and white, 8 to 10 ft., sp. Prostranthera nivea, white, 8 to 10 ft., sp.

“ rotundifolia, dark blue, 3 to 4 ft., sp.

Prunus sinensis, many colours, 4 to 6 ft., sp. Deciduous. Psoralea (many sorts), blue, 6 to 8 ft., sp.

Punica (Pomegranate), several kinds, red, 4 to 10 ft., s. Eaphiolepis indica, white, 10 to 12 ft., sp.

“ ovata, white, 3 to 4 ft., s.

Roella ciliata, blue, 1 ft., s.

Rubus indicus plen. (double flowering raspberry), white, 2 ft., sp.

Eussellia juncea, red, 3 to 4 ft., s.

Scuttellaria oblonga, blue, 1 ft., sp.

Salvia splendens, red, 2 to 3 ft., s.

Sehinus molle, greenish yellow, 15 to 20 ft.

Spiraea (several sorts), white and pink, 1 to 8 ft., sp. Deciduous. Statice arborea, blue, 2 ft., s.

“ Dicksoni, pink, 2 ft., s.

“ Halfordi, blue, 2 ft., s.

Swainsonia (several kinds) pink and red, 2 ft., s.

Tamarix Gallica, pink, 8 to 10 ft., s. Deciduous.

Tecoma velutina, yellow, 10 to 12 ft., s.

“ fulva, orange, 10 to 12 ft., s.

“ capensis, red, 10 to 12 ft., s.

Templetonia, red, 3 to 4 ft., sp.

Ulmus sinensis, 8 to 10 ft.

Veronica (many sorts), white, blue, and red, 1 to 6 ft., sp. and s. Verticordia, pink, 3 to 4 ft., sp.

Vitex litoralis, white, 4 to 6 ft., s.

Wigandia, blue, 8 to 10 ft., s.

LIST OF HARDY PALMS.

The following have been proved to be suitable for cultivation here in the open ground, where, though slow growing during the first year or two, they will succeed well after being once established. Their habit of growth renders them well fitted for being planted as single specimens on lawns, or for centre plants in larger beds or groups :—

Areca monostaeliya    Latania Borbonica

“ sapida    Phoenix    dactylifera

Chamasrops Fortunei    “ farinosa

“ humilis    Sabal Palmetto

Corypha Australis    Seaforthia elegans

Cocos plumosa    Alexandra.

When planting shrubberies, the height to which each plant is likely to grow and its habit, whether it is spreading or erect, should be ascertained, so as to place each in its proper position and sufficiently far : apart. Some regard should be shown to the colour and shape of the leaves, which, when blended together in a group, should form a pleasing mixture of light and dark.

Much may be done by grouping certain classes of plants of similar habits together. To one of these—the succulents— reference has been made already. Independent of the frequently most gorgeous flowers produced by many species of Cacti, the very grotesque forms presented by others, interspersed with Aloes, Bonapartias, Crassulas, Eocheas, and similar kinds, present a most pleasing appearance. Amongst plants belonging to other families, but equally adapted for the same purpose, I may name the graceful Cape Heaths (Ericas), which are particularly well adapted for the dry climate of our plains. Though many of them will succeed in ordinary garden soil, it may be advisable to replace this with a mixture of peat and sand where greater numbers of different sorts are to be planted out together. Azaleas, Rhododendrons, and Camellias, to which might be added the beautiful Kalmias, Menriezia Ledum and several other plants requiring the same treatment are unfortunately more difficult to manage in the arid climate of our plains. In the moister hill districts they will succeed most luxuriantly, and no garden in such localities should be without them. The peaty soil so common in such localities, or even black alluvial ground mixed with sand will suit them very well without further preparation when they are planted out. With the numerous varieties of Camellias, Rhododendron, and Indian Azaleas, most of our florists will be familiar; not so however with the American (Pontic) Azaleas, which are decid-ous, and which develop their flowers very early in spring. Many very ornamental varieties are known, few of them however have been introduced as yet to Australia.

Ordinary properly-prepared garden soil will answer for most of the shrubs generally grown. The borders containing them should, not only for neatness sake, be kept clean from weeds, but also kept open by occasional hoeing or forking. It has been proved by experience that, though the very surface may dry up a little more, plants growing in soil which is always kept open and porous by hoeing or forking will do much better even in hot climates than where it is allowed to get hard and sodden. Well-rotted manure should be applied in winter, and dug in wherever the soil is not naturally very rich. The same rules which were mentioned when speaking of fruit-trees, as regards too deep planting, apply to ornamental shrubs and trees, many of which suffer even much more readily when planted too deeply. Mulching should always be resorted to, at least with newly-planted trees, &c. Pruning is only (except with some very straggling-growing kinds—Buddlea, Tamarix, &c.), resorted to to keep the shrubs in proper shape, and in a few instances, as with Erythrina, Brugmansia, &c., to induce their more freely flowering.

Even some of the more tender plants, which require the protection of a house in winter, might be introduced in our gardens during the summer by plunging the pots containing them in the open ground, removing them again when the cold weather sets in.

PROPAGATION.

The propagation of flowering shrubs and trees is effected— First, by seeds, which as a general rule should he sown early in autumn, planting the young seedlings in nursery beds, or the more tender ones in pots, which, besides, has the advantage of rendering their transplanting afterwards more easy and certain whenever they have attained a sufficient size. Those in pots as well as in the open nursery will require attention, watering, &c., during the summer. Pot-grown plants, which during the summer months should be plunged up to the rim of the pot in sand, sawdust, ashes, or something of the kind, are apt to root through into the soil below. To prevent this they should be lifted from time to time.

Second, by cuttings. All soft-wooded, and many of the more hard-wooded kinds, will strike readily from cuttings placed early in the season in sandy soils. Generally, cuttings succeed best when made of well-ripened summer shoots, nine or twelve inches long, cut with a sharp knife square under an eye, and placed in nurserybeds in the open ground so that only one or two eyes remain overground. For some of the more difficult striking sorts it may be an advantage to leave a small portion of the old wood to the lower end of the i cutting. Very soft herbaceous cuttings, like those of Fuchsias, Lantana, Heliotropes, &c., will only succeed when covered over with a bell-glass, tumbler, &c.

Where artificial heat, obtained by hot beds or any other means is available, most cuttings will strike much more;quickly and easily. Practice alone will teach which sorts require heat and to what extent.'

Many of the hard-wooded plants often remain for months without forming roots ; at the lower end of the cutting a thick, almost tuberous, swelling is formed (callus) from which the roots spring. Such cuttings, placed after the formation of the callus into a middling heat, strike almost at once.

Pentstemons (of which a very large number of most beautiful varieties are now available, and all of which suit our climate, where they flower almost throughout the year), Antirrhinums, the perennial Candytufts, and several others, strike freely from cuttings made in the ordinary way as described above, and this is the only method of propagating true and well-established varieties ; the same applies to Verbenas, Petunias, &c.

Layering—an easy method of propagating, especially hard-wooded plants. Slightly cut the branch to be layered below an eye to about half-way through, and split it for a very short way up before it is fixed in the ground.

Grafting or budding will be found very useful in many instances, either for an actual increase of any particular

variety, or as is often required in ornamental gardening, for obtaining standard or half-standai’d trees. We only need to refer to Eoses, Eose-Acacias, the Purple Cytsius, the Weeping Ash, Elm, Sophora, and to many other plants of the same habit.

Perennial herbaceous plants present us a varied assortment, both in regard to colour and form of plants, of a highly ornamental character, many of which deserve far greater attention than they have hitherto received. They are satisfied with ordinary garden soil, and, on the whole, with very little

(attention. Sow the seeds in autumn, and plant out to permanent places in the following spring. To save labour of transplanting a sowing maybe made during the winter, and even in spring on the spot where the plants are to grow, thinning them out when they are of fair size. Most can readily be divided by cutting the generally many-crowned roots in as many parts as may be wanted, leaving each, one or several buds. Perennials send up annually flowerstalks from the root; cut these, after they have done flowering (unless seeds are wanted), close to the ground. Some few only, such as Pents-temon, some Statices, &c., need not be cut back so much, but require only the removal of the actual flowerstems. Without attempting to offer a complete list of deserving plants of this class, the following may be recommended on account of their hardiness, ornamental flowers, and suitability to our climate:—

Acanthus, white and pink, average height, 2 ft.

Achillea millefol. rub. (Eed Millfoil), pink, 1ft.

Agapanthus, blue, 2 ft.

Agrostema coronaria, purple, 1 ft. 6 in.

Alyssum saxatile, white, 6 in.

Althaea rosea (Hollyhock), all colours, 4 ft. to 6 ft. Amphicome Emodi, orange, 1 ft.

Ammobium alatum (Everlasting), white and yellow, 2 ft. Anchusa capensis (Cape Forgetmenot), blue, 1 ft. Anthericum, white, 2 ft.

Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), all colours, 1 ft. to 2 ft,

Aquilegia (Columbine), all colours, 2 ft. 3 in.

Arctotis grandiflora, yellow, 1 ft.

A n’xM/V— Argyranthemum, white, 3 ft.

, Armeria (Sea Pink or Thrift), pink, 1 ft.

Aster (several species), pink and blue, 1 ft. 3 in.

Baptisia Australis, blue, 2 ft.

Beilis perrennis (Daisy), 6 in. ■

Calla /Ethiopica, white, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Campanula medium (Canterbury Bell), blue or white, 1 ft. 6 in.

Canna (Indian Shot), red and yellow, 3 ft. 6 in. to 5 ft. Centaurea Feuzlii (and others), mostly pink or white, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Centranthus, red and white, 1 ft.

Cheiranthus (Wallflower, perennial stock)

Clielone, red, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Clematis, many kinds, blue or white, mostly climbers Chrysanthemum, all colours, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Calandrinia grandflora, umbelleta, purple, 6 in.

Convolvulus mauritanicus, pink, 6 ft., trailer Coreopsis longpipes, and others, yellow, 1 ft. to 2 ft. Delphinium Chinense, Formosum (Larkspur) blue, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Dianella, blue, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Dianthus (Carnation, Piccotee, Pink, Sweetwilliam, and other sorts), all colours, 1 ft. 6in.

Dianthus barbatus (Sweetwilliam), all colours, 1 ft.

Dianthus capitatus (Chinese Pink), 6 in.

Dianthus plumarius (Feather Pink), 6 in.

Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove), pink or white, 2 ft.

Digitalis canariensis, yellow, 2 ft.

Funkia (several kinds) blue or white, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Gaillardia, red and orange, 1 ft. to 6 ft.

Geum coccineum, scarlet, 2 ft.

Gypsophila, white, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Hedysarum coronarium (French Honeysuckle), purple, 2 ft. 3 in.

Helianthemum, 1ft.

Helianthus (Sunflower), yellow, 4 ft. to 6 ft.

Hypericum (several kinds), yellow, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Iberis sempervirens (Candytuft), white, Gin.

Iris, many kinds (Sword Lily), chiefly white or blue, 2 ft. 6in. Isotama, blue or white, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Lathyrus latifolius (Perennial Sweetpea), pink, climber. Liatris, pink, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Lobelia erinus, &c., blue, 6 in.

Lupinus, many species (Lupine), blue, white, or yellow, 6 in. to 2 ft.

Lychnis chalcedoniea, scarlet, 2 ft.

Mysosotis (Forget-me-not), blue, 6in.

Obeliscaria, yellow, 3 ft.

Paeonia arboria (Tree Paeony), pink or white, 2 ft. 4 in. Pseonia officinalis (Paeony), purple, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Pentstemon, all colours, chiefly red, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Phlox, all colours, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Phygelius Capensis, red, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Primula elatior (Polyanthus), all colours, 6 in.

Primula veris (Primrose), yellow and other colours, 6 in.

Prunella grandiflora, blue, 1 ft.

—    Pyrethrum, all colours, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

—    Salvia, blue and red, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Statice, mostly blue, 1 ft. to 4 ft.

Tritoma, orange, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Veronica, several kinds, blue or white, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Viola (several), violet

ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS.

Allied to perennial herbaceous plants in general appearance, variety of colour, and, to a certain extent in the mode of treatment required, are the Annuals and Biennials, plants which in the first season (except with biennials), produce # flowers and seeds, after which they die. Though numerous already, each issue of European seedsmen’s catalogues contains always new kinds of these elegant plants, recently introduced, which (at home at least) are sure to find admirers in all quarters. Unfortunately the taste for cultivating plants of this class is not so general amongst Australian gardeners as it ought to be. Unfortunately I say, not only because an almost endless variety of colour and shape may be found amongst these often exceedingly graceful plants, but also because by a more general introduction to our gardens, and by proper attention to the time of sowing, &c., they might be kept gay for a far longer period than is now the case. Granted that Annuals will not last very long during warm weather, and that after they have done flowering they soon begin to look shabby and decayed, we should not forget that bulbs and many other plants share the same fate. Annuals offer the advantage that they can be removed at once after their show of flowers is past, and the ground so become vacant can be occupied by bedding plants kept ready for the purpose—an advantage not offered by plants of a more permanent kind.

The culture of Annuals is easy, and adapted for the very smallest cottagers’ garden, as well as for that surrounding a mansion. They require a fertile or even rich, loose, and well-prepared soil, and sufficient moisture to maintain the rapid development of the plant. With few exceptions the seeds require to be sown on the spot where they are to grow. The best plan is, after the ground has been dug and levelled, to form with the hand very shallow flat-bottomed basins in which the seeds are sown in the ordinary manner, covering, small seeded sorts especially, very slightly. On the importance of shallow sowing, I shall have to say a few words in the Appendix. Should they come up too thickly, thin out what is not wanted. The time of sowing commences with the first

autumnal rains, and ends late in spring. To maintain a show of these flowers it is advisable to sow at intervals of, say a fortnight to three week. Some (Stocks, China Asters, Wallflowers, &c., for instance), must he sown in boxes or nursery beds, from which the seedlings are transplanted to their final position ; whilst others of a more tender nature—(Balsams, Bhodanthe, Thumbergia, some of the ornamental cucur-bitaceous plants, Ac.,) should be sown under shelter in pots, and planted out afterwards; or if, as in the case with some kinds just named, they are suitable for pot-culture, single potted and grown as pot plants. The remarks made about the difficulty of furnishing lists of really handsome and suitable plants, when speaking of Perennials, apply still more to Annuals and Biennials, the number from which to select being so much larger. I will, nevertheless, make an attempt, naming (where numerous species of the same genus are cultivated) the generic name alone. In describing colours the ground or main colour only can be mentioned, or where the colour has been affixed to a generic name the one shared by most of the species. In mentioning the average height, due allowance must be made for differences arising from greater or less vigour of the plant. Plants of the hardy class may be sown at any time from April to August or even September. The success of those sown so late as September on dry ground depends on the season. Those belonging to the tender class should only be sown in spring:—

Adonis autumnalis, 1 ft., scarlet; hardy.

Acroclinium roseum, 1 ft. 6 in., pink and white; hardy.

Agathaea spathulata, 9 in., blue ; hardy.

Agrostemma cocli-rosa, 1 ft. 6 in., pink ; hardy.

Amaranthus candatus, 3 ft., purple; hardy.

Amaranthus tricolor, 2 ft.; tender.

Amaranthus, other species, 3 ft. to 4 ft., red; hardy; good foliage plants.

Angallis, 6 in., red or blue ; hardy.

Anoda, 1 ft. to 2 ft., all colours; hardy.

Antirrhinum, 1 ft. to 2 ft., all colours; hardy.

Arctotis breviscarpa, 9 in., all colours; hardy.

Argemone, 2 ft., yellow or white; hardy.

Asperula azurea, 6 in., blue; hardy.

Aster Chinensis, 1 ft. to 2 ft., all colours ; hardy.

Bartonia aurea, 1 ft., yellow; tender.

Blitum capitatum, 2 ft., scarlet; hardy.

Blumenbachia insignis, 2 ft., red; tender.

Browallia, 2 ft., blue or white; hardy.

Calandrina grandiflora, 2 ft., purple ; hardy.

Calandrina umbellata, 6 in., pink; hardy.

Calceolaria pinnata, 1 ft., yellow; hardy.

Calendula, 1 ft. to 2 ft., yellow; hardy.

Callichroa platyglossa, 1ft., yellow; hardy.

Campanula, 1 ft. to 3 ft., mostly blue; hardy.

Carthamus tinctorius, 3 ft., orange; hardy.

Celosia (Cockscomb), 1 ft. to 2 ft., red or orange; tender. Centaurea cyanus, 2 ft., blue; hardy.

Centaurea Americana, 4 ft., whitish; hardy.

Centaurea moschata, 4 ft., all colours; hardy.

Centauridium Drummondi, 3 ft., yellow; hardy.

Centranthus macrosiphon, 1 ft. to 2 ft., pink; hardy. Cerinthe, 2ft., yellow and pink; hardy.

Cheiranthus maritimus (Virgin Stock), 9 in., pale blue; hardy.

Cheiranthus annuus (Ten-week Stock), 1 ft. to 1 ft. 6 in.; all colours; hardy.

Cheiranthus Cheiri (Wallflower), 2 ft. to 3ft., all colours; ' hardy.

Cheiranthus incanus, 2 ft. to 3 ft., all colours ; hardy.

Chlora gentianoides, 6in., orange; tender.

Chrysanthemum tricolor, and several others, 1 ft. to 2 ft., all colours; hardy.

Clarkea, 1 ft. to 2 ft., white or pink; hardy.

Cleome, 3 ft., white ; tender.

Clianthus Dampieri (Sturt’s Pea), 2 ft. to 4 ft., scarlet; hardy. Clintonia pulchella, 6 in., blue; tender.

Collinsia tricolor, 1ft., violet; hardy.

Collomia coccinea, 2 ft., scarlet; hardy.

Commelina ccelestis, 2 ft., blue ; hardy: tuberous Convolvulus tricolor, 2 ft., blue; hardy.

Coreopsis, 1ft. to 3 ft., orange or yellow; hardy.

Cosmidium, 2 ft., orange; hardy.

Cosmos bipinnatus, 3 ft., pink ; hardy.

Cynoglossum linifolium, 1 ft., white ; hardy.

Datura, 2 ft. to 4 ft., white, yellow, orange, and purple; tender.

Delphinium (Larkspur), 1 ft. to 3 ft., all colours; hardy. Dianthus Carthusianorum (Sweetwilliam), 1 ft., all colours; hardy.

Dianthus Chinensis, 1 ft., all colours; hardy.

Dianthus Heddewigii, 1 ft., all colours; hardy.

Didiscus coeruleus, 3ft., blue; hardy.

Erysineum Peroffskianum, 2 ft., orange ; hardy.

Escholtzia, 2 ft., yellow; hardy.

Eucharidium, 2 ft., pink; hardy.

Euphorbia variegata, 2 ft., white; hardy.

Eutoca, 1 ft., blue ; hardy.

Gaillardia, 1 ft. to 3 ft., red or orange; hardy.

Gaura, 3 ft., white ; hardy.

Gillia, 2 ft. 6 in., white or blue; hardy.

Glaueium, 2ft., red; hardy.

Godetia, 1ft., pink; hardy.

Gomphrena (Globe Amarants), 1 ft., all colours ; tender. Grammanthes, 6 in., orange; tender.

Gypsophilla elegans, 6 in., white ; hardy.

Hebenstreitia, 1 ft. 6in., white or yellow; tender.

Helenium, 2 ft., yellow ; hardy.

Helianthus, 6ft. to 8ft., yellow; hardy.

Helichrysum bracteatum, 2 ft., all colours ; hardy. Helipterum, 2 ft., white ; hardy.

Hibiscus, many kinds ; some tender, mostly hardy Aumea, elegans, 4 ft., red ; hardy.

Iberis (Candytuft), 1 ft., violet or white; hardy.

Impatiens (Balsam), 1 ft., all colours; tender.

Ipomasa (climber), all colours; tender—a great many very beautiful species and varieties are in cultivation. Ipomopsis elegans, 3ft., all colours ; hardy.

Isotoma, 1ft., blue; hardy.

Lasthenia, 1ft., yellow; hardy.

Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet Pea), climber, all colours; hardy. Lavatera trimestris, 2 ft. to 3 ft., red; hardy.

Leptosiphon, 6 in., yellow or blue; hardy.

Linari, 1 ft. to 2 ft., blue or yellow; hardy.

Linum grandiflorum, 1ft. to 2 ft., scarlet; hardy.

Loasa lateritia, climber, orange; tender, sw* Lobelia erinus (many varieties), 6 in., blue; hardy.

Lotus Jacobasus, 2 ft., brown; hardy.

Lupinus (many species), 6 in. to 3 ft., mostly blue; hardy. Malope grandiflora, 3 ft., red; hardy.

Martynia, 4ft., orange; hardy.

Mesembryanthemum tricolor, 6 in., red; tender. -Mimulus grandiflorus, 1 ft., yellow and brown ; hardy. \ Mirabiiis (Marvel of Peru), 2 ft., yellow, white, or red; hardy.

Nemophila insignis, 6 in., blue ; hardy.

Nemophila atomaria, 6 in., brown ; hardy.

Nemophila maculata, 6 in., white and brown; hardy.

Nigella (Love-in-the-Mist), 1 ft., blue ; hardy.

Nolana, 6in., blue; hardy.

Nycterina, 6 in., white; hardy.

Obeliscaria, 2 ft., yellow; hardy.

CEnothera rosea, 6 in., pink; hardy.

Papaver officinale (Poppy), 2 ft., all colours; hardy.

— Perilla nankinensis, 2 ft., red leaves; hardy; foliage plant

Petunia, 1 ft. to 2 ft., all colours ; hardy.

Phacelia, 1 ft., blue ; hardy.

Phlox Drummondii, 2 ft., all colours; hardy.

Platystema californicus, 6in., yellow; hardy.

Podolepis affinis, 6 in., pink; hardy.

Polycalymna Stuartii, 2 ft., white; hardy.

Portulaca, 6 in., all colours; tender.

Eeseda odorata (mignonette), 1ft.; hardy.

Rhodanthe, 1ft., pink; tender.

Salpiglossis, 2 ft. to 4 ft., all colours; hardy.

Salvia coccinea, 1 ft., scarlet; hardy.

Sanvitalia procumbeus, 1 ft., yellow; hardy.

Scabiosa, 1 ft. to 3 ft., all colours ; hardy.

Schizanthus Grahami, 2 ft., pink; hardy.

Schizanthus retusus, 2ft., blue; hardy.

Schizopetalum Walkeri, 2 ft., white ; hardy.

Sedum coeruleum, 6 in., blue ; hardy.

Senecio elegans, 2 ft., all colours ; hardy.

Silene (many species), 1 ft. to 3 ft., white and pink ; hardy. Solanum, ornamental foliage plants, 3 ft. to 6 ft., hardy. Sphenogyne, 1ft., yellow; hardy.

__. Statice (all handsome), 1 ft. to 3 ft., white or blue; hardy.

Tagetes (African and French Marigolds), 1 ft. to 3 ft., yellow; 1 hardy.

Thunbergia, climber, yellow; tender.

Trachelium coerulem, 3 ft., blue ; hardy.

■, |t» Tropseolum majus (nasturtium), climber or dwarf varieties, yellow and brown ; hardy.

Tropaeolum canariense (Canary Creeper), climber, yellow; tender.

Valeriana rubra, 2 ft., pink ; hardy.

Veronica glauca, 6 in., blue; hardy.

, Viscaria oculata, 1 ft., red; hardy.

Waitzia, 1ft., yellow; hardy.

Xeranthemum, 2 ft., pink; hardy.

Zinnia elegans, 2 ft. to 3 ft., all colours ; hardy.

Note.—In the above list, which might have been greatly enlarged, several perennials will be found; as they do, however, quite as well treated as annuals, they have been included.

ORNAMENTAL GRASSES.

The cultivation of these often exceedingly graceful plants has become quite fashionable at home, where scarcely a seedsman’s catalogue will be found which does not contain a large selection of them. Their culture is the same as that of other annuals or perennials, and their introduction to our gardens, where most will succeed admirably, is highly desirable. I

give herewith, a list of some of the more ornamental sorts. All possess the advantage of being easily preserved in a dry state for making up bouquets at seasons when fresh flowers are scarce; and for this purpose such grasses and a variety of everlasting flowers are extensively cultivated on the Continent of Europe, where a large trade is carried on in bouquets of dried flowers and grasses. The latter are frequently artificially died, thus heightening the variety of colours and the effect produced when worked up into wreaths and designs.

Though I have enumerated amongst the list of herbaceous plants (Annuals and Perennials) several of the Everlasting flowers, it may be advisable to add a more complete list of such in a separate form, which will be found after that of ornamental grasses.

Cois Lachryma Cyperus, many kinds Eryanthus Ravenme Trestina, many kinds Gynerium Leptochloa gracilis Panium, many sorts Penusentum

Stipa    “

Uniola latifolia.


Agrostis, numerous kinds Andropogon “

Avena sterilis Briza maxima  minima

Bromus brizaeformis and others

Chloris, all sorts

Eleusine

Lamarkia durea

Lagurus ovatus


List of Ornamental Grasses.

List of Everlastings.

Acroclinum    Humea elegans

Ammobium    Ixodia alata

Chrysocephalum, many kinds Rhodanthe, many kinds Gnaphalium    “    ** Statice    “

Gomphrena (Globe Amaranth), Tricholasena rosea many kinds    Waitzia aurea

Helichrysum, many kinds    Xeranthemum

FOLIAGE PLANTS.

In modern gardening a new feature has been introduced, by adding to the plants cultivated formerly, comprising only such which had more or less ornamental flowers, others which excel by the beauty of form or color of their leaves, or their general habit. Many of the hardy Palms, Dracaenas, Cordylines, and other tropical and sub-tropical forms which will stand in our climate, belong to this class.

Amongst herbaceous plants, or permanent shrubs of more northern types, there are also a number of very graceful forms, which, grown as single specimens or in groups are in many cases quite as ornamental as those referred to before,

F

though their forms may be more homely than noble Palms or others belonging to foreign climes. I need only refer to the fine large-leaved Wigandia, to Bocconia, many very handsome Bicinus, the variegated Maize, Chamsepeuce, Cineraria can-didissima and maritima, Amaranthus salicifolus tricolor, and many others, several kinds of Atriplex; Golden Bronze tricolor, and silver variegated Pelargoniums ; to numbers of Solanums, which excel by the handsome and often grotesque forms of their leaves or their colours ; and to a host of others which possess the same qualities, amongst which last and other Succulents, Bonapartas, Yuccas, and other plants of a similar habit, should not be forgotten, as when grouped together the effect produced by them is always pleasing.

BULBS AND TUBERS.

At certain seasons these present a most brilliant display of flowers, rendering gardens gay and in some instances fragrant with their delicious perfume. They all require a rather light and loose but fertile soil. Properly-decayed cow-dung is generally considered best adapted for manuring beds intended for the culture of Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocus, Narcissus, &c. Plant these early in the season from April to May or June, covering the bulbs lightly with earth. Crocus and some of the early varieties of Tulips (Due Yan Tholl) are particularly well adapted for forcing. Plant for this purpose three to six bulbs in a six-inch flower-pot filled with a mixture of light warm leaf-mould, sand, and manure, and place the pots in a frame or house close under the glass, watering them moderately. A great variety of oxalis mostly very brilliantly-coloured are well adapted for cultivation in the open ground, where they succeed even if it is not specially prepared for bulbs.

Hyacinth can be grown and forced in water alone without any soil. Select strong good bulbs and place these on the rim of the well known and more or less ornamented Hyacinth glasses, so that their lower end just touches the water. To keep this fresh a few pieces of charcoal should be thrown into it. Boots will soon be formed which gradually almost fill the glass, which from time to time has to be re-filled. These glasses should be kept in a frame, house, or even a room, near the light.    -    ~    ^

- Gladiolus, Spar axis, Ixia, Babiana, Watsonia, Spanish Iris, Pavonia, and a host of others of the same tribes, succeed admirably with us in the open garden. To bring them to perfection, enrich the soil by manuring, and attend to watering whenever the weather sets in dry. Though it is always best for them to be planted early, they may be kept out of the ground until July, or even August, provided due attention is paid to them afterwards. By thus planting later in the season, the time of

flowering may be much lengthened, as those planted in the early part of autumn will have passed away when the others come into full bloom. Gladioli especially are adapted for late planting.

Ranunculus and Anemone, of which some hundreds of varieties are now cultivated, require, like the last, a fertile, rather loose soil. Plant them from March to July, about half an inch deep in well-prepared ground, and attend to watering them at their flowering-time in spring. It has been recommended to plant the tubers from six to nine inches deep in the ground, as by this means the flowering season is said to be much lengthened, and much finer bloom is to be obtained. Not having tried the experiment, I merely throw out the above suggestion as being well worthy of a trial. My informant, a successful grower of Ranunculuses and Anemones, assures me that it has always proved a success with him.

Bulbs and Tubers, as mentioned above, should be taken out of the ground when they have properly ripened—a state readily observed by the dying off of the leaves. In the case of Gladiolus, &c., cut the flower-stems close to the ground, take the bulbs up carefully, and preserve them in a cool dry place until planting time comes round again.

True Lilies and other Liliaceous plants, such as Amaryllis, &c., which (excepting the ordinary white kinds) are better for the hills, require a rather heavier but equally fertile soil, and moderate supply of water. Some of the finer varieties, such a L. auratum, giganteum, L. Thompsonianum, <fcc., will succeed best treated as pot plants. It is best to leave the bulbs of all the Lilies in the ground, as they would suffer if allowed to dry like other bulbs or tubers.

Any of the kinds mentioned can be propagated by offsets, or small bulbilles which are formed at the base of the old bulb or tuber. Lilies increase in the same way. Ranunculuses and Anemones multiply rapidly by forming every year a quantity of strong tnbers, which mostly flower the following season. Propagation by seeds is practicable, though scarcely advisable for amateurs, as two or even three years will pass before the seedlings flower.

As the limits fixed for this little pamphlet will not admit of giving detailed instructions how to cultivate each group of garden plants, some few of the more striking ones have been selected, of which a few words will be said in the following lines :—

CARNATIONS, PICCOTEES, PINKS.

These will succeed in any ordinary garden soil which is not too stiff or poor. To obtain really good flowers a tolerably sheltered position, having fertile loose soil, should be selected.

Plant out during the winter or early in spring, and attend to watering in summer. Carnations, Piccotees, and other perennial Dianthus, are propagated by layers put down after flowering, or by cuttings put in in spring, or autumn where shelter is available. Chinese and other Pinks, Sweetwilliams, the beautiful Dianthus Heddewigii, and others of the same habit, are propagated by seeds.

CHRYSANTHEMUM.

These charming flowers are the more valued because they appear at a season when scarcely anything else blooms in the garden. They are easily grown in any ordinary garden soil, which when naturally poor should be slightly manured. Propagation is effected by division of the roots or by cuttings made about January. Chrysanthemums are apt to run up too tall and straggling. To prevent this, and induce them to branch out and flower more freely, pinch them back in the early part of the season, or, better still, cut them back altogether about Christmas. Cuttings made at the time stated will flower well in pots. Supply them with liquid manure to ensure vigorous growth. Though these cuttings must be kept in a cool frame until they are struck and established, they require afterwards as much air and light as possible to prevent their drawing up, and it is best to placethem quite exposed in the open air until they flower, attending to them by regular watering, &c. Several cuttings are generally placed in each pot.

cyclamen.

These exceedingly pretty plants were very rare a few years ago, but now they are by no means uncomrhon. They are tubers, which like others of their kind, require their season of rest. Eepot in rich and not too sandy soil about January or February, and keep the plants in a sheltered position, moderately watered, increasing the quantity given as the plant progresses. Where shallow frames are available, they should, be placed under these, as this will help to increase the number and beauty of the flowers. These having passed away, gradually decrease the quantity of water given until it reaches a minimum, when the leaves have died off. Seeds are generally produced, and offer the only safe means of propagation. Many of the Cyclamen have beautifully variegated leaves.

DAHLIA.

Our arid plains are unfortunately ill adapted for the cultivation of these beautiful flowers, which will only succeed in the damp and cooler climate of the hills. They require a deep, rich, and rather moist soil, always properly drained. A liberal supply of liquid manure during their growth and flowering season will help to procure large, well-formed, and richly-coloured flowers. Plant the tubers about September, allowing to each only one shoot,

which, as it grows up should he tied to a stake. In autumn or the beginning of winter cut the stem down to the ground, and take up the tubers, which are preserved in sand in a dry place. To ensure uniform growth, it is advisable to place the tubers in a frame for a few weeks before planting, until the eyes have sprung. Propagate by division of the tubers or by cuttings, for which the shoots springing from the tubers direct suit best. Cuttings require bottom heat.

FUCHSIA.

Though many of the more tender kinds are less adapted for growing in the garden, there are numbers suitable for such positions. Select good fertile garden soil, enriched where needed by an admixture of well-rotted manure, and plant in spring. Fuchsias will only succeed when sheltered against hot winds and the direct rays of the noonday sun—a fact which should not be forgotten in selecting spots for their cultivation in the open ground. They require plenty of water, and, to obtain them perfect, liquid manure before and during the flowering season. Cuttings made of soft young shoots, and placed under cover of a hand-glass, will strike readily at almost any 'season. Though the flowering season may be retarded, the shape and appearance of the plant is greatly improved, and the number of flowers increased, by pinching back the young shoots, in order to induce a more bushy habit. Small plants just struck from cuttings are always preferable to older and larger ones.

PELAKGONIUM.

Many of the innumerable varieties, especially of the Zonales, are well adapted for bedding out in the garden. They require rich loose soil, and a regular watering, with an occasional application of liquid manure. Few plants are better adapted for bedding out than the Zonale Pelargonium. The flowers of , all are most brilliant, the leaves in many instances ornamental in themselves, being well-marked with a more or less distinctly-coloured zone, and, except the tricolors, they are all very hardy, and well suited to our climate. Of late years double-flowering varieties of different colours have been introduced, which are equally hardy with the single ones, and otherwise quite as easy of cultivation, and should not be omitted in any collection. Cuttings put in in sheltered positions in the open ground will strike readily. Select well-ripened summer shoots for cuttings. Differently-coloured varieties budded on a single stem of some tall-growing sort so as to form standards with stems three to five feet high, will be found very useful for adorning gardens. In autumn Zonales should always be cut back rather closely. Where this is neglected the plants get straggling and unsightly, and produce inferior flowers.

HOLLYHOCK.

These fine flowers, which succeed quite well with us, have not received the attention they deserve. Sow in deep rich soil early in' autumn, in nursery beds, and transplant into soil of the same kind in spring. Treated like this, many of the plants will show flowers during the first summer, which is hut rarely the case when sown in spring.

LARKSPUR.

Sow like other annuals at intervals from autumn to spring, in ordinary good garden soil. Thin the plants, so as to leave from six to nine inches’ space for dwarf sorts ; 12 to 15 inches where the taller-branching sorts are grown. Collect seeds when ripe. The beautiful perennial Delphiniums, the seeds of which are more difficult to obtain, must be planted in rather sheltered damp positions, in soil which is rather stiff but fertile. They are best propagated by division of the roots.

PANSY.

The heat and drought of our plains is not best suited for the culture of these charming little plants, which require a cool damp atmosphere, and rather moist soil. By proper-selection of sites and by artificial sheltering tolerably good flowers may nevertheless be produced on the plains. Though Pansies adapt themselves to almost any soil, they will do best in rather loose, not retentive, 'and tolerably rich soil. Sow them from March to July (the first-sown ones make generally the strongest plants, which flower best), and plant in permanent positions when sufficiently strong. Attend well to watering during the summer, and supply them occasionally with liquid manure. They are perennials, which can be propagated by cuttings placed under cover of a hand-glass in spring or autumn, in sand or very sandy soil.

PETUNIA.

Pew of our generally-grown ornamental plants are better-adapted for rendering gardens gay and resplendent, even during the summer months, than Petunias. Perfectly hardy as they are, they adapt themselves to almost any kind of soil, provided it is not too poor or too stiff and retentive of water. Sow the seed in pans or boxes from April up to the end of August, and plant out to permanent positions as soon as the young seedlings have formed three or four proper leaves. Even very late-planted Petunias will succeed and flower freely if occasionally watered until they are established. If left to themselves, especially on fertile soils, they are so rank of growth that their branches, which then only flower at the ends, become unsightly and cover a large piece of land. Cut them then well back, which induces fresh shoots and flowers to be produced. Propagation by seeds, as above, or by cuttings which strike under

cover of a liand-glass in sand. Cuttings are apt to damp off if kept too moist. The double-flowering varieties of Petunias are equally suitable for planting out; they are at the same time well adapted for pot-culture. For the latter purpose the young plants should be placed in seven or eight inch pots, in a cool shady place, but exposed as much to the light as possible, to prevent them running up. Pinch back and peg down all main shoots, as carelessness in doing this is sure to produce drawn-up, unsightly plants.

PHLOX.

The treatment of the annual Phlox Drummondi, which may be sown from autumn until spring, differs in nothing from that of other annuals. Perennial Phloxes, which, by their charming and varied colours, add so much to the beauty of gardens, are nevertheless but rarely grown by South Australian gardeners, demand a stiffish, well-enriched soil, dug or rather trenched, and, (though they want plenty of moisture), proper drainage at the bottom. Though scarcely to be called tender they will suffer if exposed to the full force of hot winds, or to the scorching midday sun, and some spot sheltered against both should be provided for them. Supply moderately with liquid manure, and with plenty of water before and during flowering. Propagation by division of the root or by cuttings.

PORTULACA.

The great variety and brilliancy of colour, their easy culture, and free blooming, render Portulacas deservedly great favourites amongst gardeners. They are annuals which require to be grown afresh every year. Sow in spring in pots, &c., and plant out to permanent positions, where they will soon establish themselves without further attention.

PENTSTEMONS AND ANTIRRHINUMS.

Of the former, numerous species and varieties are now found in gardens at home, where they are largely cultivated. Many of the best varieties have been largely introduced here, where they have become general favourites. The Antirrhinums, or Snapdragons, are too well known to require further notice. Both like a rather stiff, not too poor soil, and moderate supply of moisture. Where the latter is obtainable, they will flower during the greater part of the year. Propagation by seeds or cuttings. Antirrhinums will strike freely in the open air, if put into the ground very early in spring, so will most of the herbaceous Pentstemons. Later in the season they require shelter and protection of hand-glasses.

ROSES.

No garden will be considered complete unless it contains a few Boses at least, and yet their success on the plains is always

very precarious, as at the time they flower the first hot winds of the season will frequently destroy the most promising show of flowers which has been saved from the destructive attacks of the aphis. All kinds of Eoses (there are upwards of 100 true species, and many more garden varieties known) like a well-drained, loose and permeable, but fertile soil, which requires annual manuring to ensure health and vigorous growth and free blooming, both being increased by watering where this can be applied. Though the plants are hardy enough, their flowers are easily spoiled by heat, and for this reason places which are sheltered as much as possible should be chosen for the formation of a Eosary which should always be placed in well-trenched, and drained land. All kinds of Eoses will strike j from cuttings if planted in the open ground nursery in the f early part of winter. Select well-ripened summer shoots, six to nine inches long, and place them into the ground, so that only one or two eyes remain uncovered. Mulching and watering such nursery beds become imperative as soon as dry weather sets in. In the following autumn most of the cuttings will be ready for planting out to permanent places. As some of the varieties do not strike easily (Cloth of Gold for instance), or where standards are wanted, it is often much more convenient to increase these varieties by budding. For stocks, the Dog Eose or Sweet Briar are generally preferred. Budding may be done in spring as soon as the sap flows freely enough to allow the bark to be readily separated from the wood, or about Christmas, when a second rise takes place. Eyes put in at the latter period frequently remain dormant until the following spring, unless they are forced into growth by cutting the stock above the eye, when the flow of sap is directed to it, and makes it spring at once. All beds containing Eoses budded in summer should be freely watered. A very pretty effect is produced by budding different varieties of Eoses on the same stem. Standards of different heights, properly arranged in groups, and interspersed with flowering plants of smaller habits, can be used very effectively in planting gardens. Eoses flower always on the young wood. To ensure thus free blooming it becomes necessary to prune the plants regularly. By properly attending to this operation, China Eoses and some others may be kept flowering a great part of the year. The pretty little Fairy Eose can be used for forming edgings, and some of the taller growing kinds as hedge plants, whilst the graceful climbing Eosa multiflora, the yellow and the white Banksia, and a few others, count amongst the most ornamental climbers we have. Eoses are unfortunately attacked every year by thuusands of small aphides, which often destroy their blooms entirely,

Their ravages may be checked by syringing or washing the plant all over with a solution of Gishurst Compound, using 11 or 2 oz. to the gallon of water. A decoction of Quassia will answer the same purpose. After the application of either of these substances, syringe the whole plant over with clean water to remove the remains of soap, &c., sufficient time having been allowed for the remedy to kill the aphis. For a more complete list of varieties any nurseryman’s catalogue can be consulted.

I content myself with giving here a few names of the more deserving ones out of each group of Roses:—

Hybrid Perpetual.

Alfred Colomb, bright red"*’**"’

\0


Charles Lefevre, crimson, with darker centre Comtesse d’ Oxford, bright carmine red Lady Emily Peel, white, shaded with carmine 'lJMB Dr. Andry, dark red »«*»    */2/    ~

Ellie Morell, light rose    ^    ^ *■ NtrJ- 1

Etienne Levet, carmine red    rut?    C •

Fisher Holmes, scarlet, shaded with crimson    2/-    '

Francois Premier, red, shaded Geant des Battailles, crimson *»**

Glorie de Duchier, purple, shaded with crimson John Hopper, rose colour, with darker centre «***

Lord Raglan, dark crimson

Louis Van Houtte, scarlet, shaded with blackish crimson Madame Chirard, clear rose colour

Madame la Baronesse de Rothschild, clear pale rose, shaded with white

Madamoiselle Bonnaire, white, with rosy centre Marguerite de St. Amard, flesh colour Marquise de Castellaine, bright rose Paul Neron, dark rose —*Prince Camille de Rohan, maroon Princess Mary of Cambridge, pale rose Souvenir de Dr. Jamies, bluish violet Eugene Appert, bright scarlet, shaded Victor Verdier, carmine, shaded with purple. “*

Noisette Roses.

Cloth of Gold, yellow Selina Forrester, pale yellow.

Tea Roses.

Cheshunt Hybrid, carmine

Devoniensis, pale yellow

Gloire de Dijou, yellow, shaded with salmon

Madame Berard, light salmon colour ‘

Mareehal Neil, deep yellow •«•**

Moss Hoses.

Deuil de Paul Fontaine, deep purplish red

Luxemburg, red —* i—" White Bath Moss

Madame William Paul, light red. -

Climbing Roses.

Climbing Devoniensis    Banksian, white "

Banksian, yellow    Fortuniana, white

^ Leopoldine d’ Orleans, white, shaded with rose. —•

With the above names of Boses I have given as near as I can some idea of the colours. The whole of them are good growers and free bloomers, and produce flowers of good substance ; and I believe that they are the best varieties grown.

VEEBENAS.

The great hardiness, facility of cultivation, and variety of colours have deservedly rendered Verbenas general favourites amongst gardeners, and few plants are better adapted for forming parterres or ribbon-borders, &c. They bloom freely in almost any kind of garden soil, without any special care being devoted to them, though it cannot be denied that in ordinary rich properly-prepared soil, and when attended to during the summer by occasional watering and liquid manuring, their brilliant flowers will not only be produced in greater numbers and perfection, but by so doing their flowering season may also be prolonged. Verbenas strike easily in autumn or spring from cuttings placed in a shady position in sandy soil in the open air. To hasten their forming roots they may be put under glass in a warm frame. Treated like this they are, however, apt to rot, and great care is required in watering. When struck, plant them at once in their positions, or, what is preferable, in small pots to get them established first. To prolong their | flowering, cut them down after the first main flowering is over, f A second and, when the season is favourable and water for irrigation obtainable, a third set of flowers may be obtained by repeating this operation.

It is advisable to renew Verbenas annually, by putting young i plants in the place of old ones, since plants more than one J year old will rarely produce such large and brilliantly-coloured ' trusses of flowers as younger ones.

Though we have already an almost endless number of varieties, of all colours or markings, new ones, which often surpass known kinds in brilliancy, shape or markings of flowers or the size of the trusses, may be obtained by raising seedlings; for this purpose the best sorts should be selected as stock plants, carefully hybridising the two parent plants from one of which seeds are desired.

OPEN-GROUND NURSERY.

Reference has frequently been made in the preceding pages to plants which can be struck in the open air. Select for the purpose of striking plants under such conditions a light sandy soil, which has been thoroughly trenched and pulverized, manuring it slightly with thoroughly decomposed manure. Though freshness and a little moisture are highly desirable, provision must always be made to carry off all stagnant water from the subsoil, and at the same time for irrigation during summer. Prepare the cuttings (in most cases) from well-ripened last season’s wood by cutting them square close under an eye, leaving to each, except very long-jointed, six to eight eyes. Plant these with a dibble, or by opening with the spade a trench, so that only one or two eyes remain above ground, taking care to bring back the soil firmly (but without pressing or treading it down) around the cuttings, and level the soil on the surface between the rows, which are made from 12 to 15 inches apart. During the summer all the cutting-beds should be mulched, and regularly watered. Positions which are sheltered against hot winds and, if possible, against the direct midday sun, answer best. All cuttings should be put in early in the season, always before the sap begins to rise again, the success depending mainly on the early season of making cuttings. Many permanent and evergreen deciduous shrubs and trees, such as Roses, Spiraoas, Habrothamnus, Hibiscus, Laurestinus, Oleanders, Abutilon, Weigela, Brugmansia, Box, Plumbago, Buddlea, &c., can thus be readily multiplied.

Having shortly reviewed plants adapted for open air culture (plants suitable for cultivation in our gardens), distinguishing permanent shrubs and trees or other plants adapted for forming borders or groups from those which have deservedly become general favourites, and which are comprised under the term of “ Florist’s flowers,” a few words may be said on the cultivation of plants suitable for pot culture and their treatment under glass or in the open air. Before doing so, a few notes on climbing plants and creepers may be welcome to many, plants of this class being largely used for merely decorative purposes, trained on pillars, or for the formation of summer-houses, shady walks, &c. Except when grown in pots, the plants to be named will succeed in ordinary garden soil, properly trenched and- prepared as recommended for permanent shrubs and trees of any other kind. Watering and enrichment of the soil by manure must also here be resorted to when a luxuriant vegetation is required. Most of what will be named being perennials, it would lead too far to say how each kind can be propagated. Where seeds are obtainable they will always afford the readiest means of

doing so ; otherwise layers, suckers, or cuttings must be tried. The latter will be found in many cases a tedious and rather difficult task:—

Evergreen,medium—Adhatoda cydoniaefolia, blue and white; very pretty, rather tender.

Deciduous, tall—Ampelopsis hederacea (Virginian Creeper),

' fine foliage ; hardy, rapidly strong growing.

Evergreen, tall—Arauja (Physianthus) albens, white; hardy, good foliage.

Evergreen, tall—Aristolochia gigantea, brown ; fine foliage, rather tender.

Evergreen, small—Aristolochia sempervirens, brown ; fine foliage, hardy.

Deciduous, tall—Aristolochia sypho, brown, very large foliage ; suffers by hot winds.

Evergreen, tall—Bignonia chirire

Evergreen, tall—Bignonia Chamberlaynii | All very showy Evergreen, tall—Bignonia capreolata    fine flowering

Evergreen, tall—Bignonia Lindleyana    |    climbers.

Evergreen, tall—Bignonia venusta    J

Evergreen, tall—Bougainvillea, crimson, mauve, &c.; several species of similar habit, all very showy; rather tender in exposed situations

Evergreen, tall—Boussingaultia baselloides, pink ; rapidly growing, very hardy

Deciduous, medium—Callistegia pubescens, white, similar to Convolvulus, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Cannavallia Bonariensis, pink; very ornamental, rapid growth

Evergreen, tall—Cannavallia obtusa, rose and white; very ornamental, rather tender, scented flowers Deciduous—Clematis, mostly blue or white; many species grown, all ornamental and showy, mostly small or medium growth

Evergreen, tall—Cissus capensis,foliage only; rapid growth, very handsome leaves, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Cissus Antarcticus, foliage only; rapid growth, very handsome leaves, hardy Evergreen, small—Clitoria ternata, blue, very pretty; rather tender

Evergreen, small—Clitoria ternata, white, very pretty; rather tender

Evergreen, tall—Cobaea scandens, violet; rapid growth, herbaceous

Deciduous, tall—Dioscorea batatas, foliage; rapid growth, herbaceous, damp situation

Evergreen, tall—Disemma coceinea, scarlet; rapid growth, similar to Passion-flower, very hardy Evergreen, tall—Dolichus lignosus, pink; rapid growth, very hardy

Evergreen, medium—Ecremocarpus scaber, orange; rapid growth, very showy, hardy

Evergreen, medium—Ficus stipularis, foliage; for covering damp, shady walls, &c.

Evergreen, tall — Gelsemium nitidum, and sempervirum,* yellow; handsome foliage, large flowers, hardy Evergreen, tall—Hardenbergia digitata    ) Blue, very

Evergreen, tall—HardenbergiaComptoniana '-pretty ; hardy, Evergreen, tall—Hardenbergia monophylla j rapid growth Evergreen, medium—Hardenbergia monophylla alba, white, very > pretty; hardy, rapid growth, well-adapted for pillars

Evergreen, tall—Hoya carnosa, white; rather tender Evergreen, tall—Hedera (common Ivy), foliage ; in several varieties

Deciduous, tall—Ipomoea hederacea Deciduous, tall—Ipomoea limbata Deciduous, tall—Ipomoea Learii Deciduous, tall—Ipomoea digitata Evergreen, medium—Jasminum gra


All colours; very rapid growth, hardy, and handsome

_    ile, white

Evergreen, tall—Jasminum grandiflorum, white Evergreen, medium—Jasminum officinarum, yellow Evergreen, medium—Jasminum revolutum, yellow All these are sweet-scented, hardy, and very pretty Evergreen, tall—Kennedya nigricans, dark brown; rapid growth, handsome foliage, hardy Evergreen, tall—Kennedya rubicunda, scarlet; rapid growth handsome foliage, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Kennedya Marryattse, scarlet; rapid growth, handsome foliage, hardy

Medium—Lonicera (Honeysuckle); many species, all ornamental, mostly yellow, white, or pink flowers, hardy Evergreen, medium—Lophospermum,‘pink, several varieties of different shades ; rapid growth, hardy Evergreen, small—Manettia glabra, scarlet, very pretty; wants shelter from hot winds

Evergreen, medium—Mandevillea suavolens, white, very pretty; wants shelter from hot winds Evergreen, medium—Maurandya, pink, white, or violet;

several varieties, all pretty and hardy Evergreen, tall—Menispermum canadense; rapid growth, handsome foliage, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Passiflora alata    1 Light blue ; tall,

Evergreen, tall—Passiflora Decaisneana ]-    rapid growth :

Evergreen, tall—Passiflora edulis    J    edible fruits

Evergreen, medium—Passiflora kermesina, purple; tender Evergreen, tall—Passiflora racemosa, scarlet; rapid growth, though rather tender: one of the handsomest of all Evergreen, tall—Passiflora coerulea, dark blue; hardy, free blooming

(There are many other species beside those named,1Sprite hardy enough for outdoor cultivation, all of which are more or less ornamental, either by the graceful form of their leaves or the beauty of their flowers.)

Evergreen, medium—Pelargonium’ scandens, white (Ivy-leaf Geranium) ; rapid growth, hardy (Of this pretty plant there are numerous varieties, amongst which some with variegated foliage have been raised, and these, though not so strong-growing as the species named above, recommend themselves as creepers.)

Deciduous, tall—Periploca grseca, brown; hardy, ornamental

Evergreen, medium—Petrea volubilis, blue; rather tender Deciduous, medium—Quamoclit vulgaris, scarlet or white ; annuals, very graceful, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Rhynchospermum jasminoides, white, scented; ornamental foliage, almost hardy Deciduous, tall—Rosa Banksise, white or yellow; pretty climbing rose, hardy

Deciduous, tall—Rosa multiflora, white; pretty climbing cluster rose, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Solanum jasminoides, white; graceful habit, hardy

Evergreen, small—Sollya heterophylla, blue; well adapted for pillars, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Senecio scandens, yellow (Cape Ivy), hardy Evergreen, tall—Tacsonia, scarlet or pink ; several species, all quickly grown, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Tacsonia Van Yolxemii, crimson ; one of the handsomest of the group; rather tender Evergreen, tall—Tecoma australis, yellow or white ; strong growth, handsome, hardy

Evergreen, medium—Tecoma capensis, scarlet; good for pillars, handsome, hardy

Evergreen, medium—Tecoma fulva, orange; good for pillars, hardy

Deciduous, medium—Tecoma grandiflora, orange ; rapid growth, hardy

Evergreen, tall—Tecoma jasminoides, white and pink; rapid growth, very handsome

Evergreen, medium—Tecoma velutina, yellow; good for pillars, hardy

Evergreen, medium—Tecoma stans, yellow; good for pillars

Deciduous, small—Thunbergia _ alata, dark yellow; very ornamental, sheltered positions

Deciduous, tall—Tropseolum aduncum, yellow ; annual, canary-creeper, rather tender

Deciduous, medium—Tropseolum majus, yellow to orange (Annual Nasturtium)

Deciduous, tall—Tropseolum pentaphyllum, red ; tuberous, pretty foliage, hardy

Evergreen, small—Vinca major, blue (Periwinkle), hardy

Deciduous, tall—Wistaria, blue; very fine, rapid growth, hardy

Deciduous—Numerous climbing plants belonging to the cucumber tribe, but producing small, often very ornamental fruits, have of late been grown in European gardens. Their graceful foliage and well-coloured fruits render them deservedly great favourites.

CULTIVATION OP PLANTS IN POTS.

Whilst comparatively few are in a position to enjoy the pleasure which may be derived from the cutivation of gardens, the culture of pot-grown plants may be undertaken by everybody, even if the space they have available for the purpose is confined to the window-sill, or to a small shelf in the yard. Placed under artificial conditions as they are, pot plants always require much more care and attention than those in the open ground to bring them to perfection, and the skill and industry of the cultivator will be shown at once by the state of his plants in pots.

One of the main requisites for successful pot-culture is a sufficient supply of suitable soils of different kinds. The following should be available where an assortment of plants is to be grown :—

LOAM.

Friable soil obtained from grass-land by taking the top spit, which should be laid up in heaps and turned over at least

once in the year, and left for one season previous to its being used. Ordinary (but not clayish or too sandy) garden soil may answer in want of ground especially laid up as mentioned.

PEAT.

The decomposed but yet fibrous remains of vegetable matter which accumulates in some of the swampy places in the hills, laid up as previously directed. Peat-soil used as freshly dug up will be highly injurious to many plants, as it contains humic acid, which is gradually absorbed by exposure to the air. Some of the dark, black humus, found in the same localities and treated in the same manner, will also be found exceedingly useful for mixing up soil for potting.

LEAEMOULD.

As the name indicates, this soil consists chiefly of leaves and thoroughly decomposed vegetable matter. Unfortunately, (as the soil is much required for the culture of many pot-plantsy our native trees are too rich in tannin, a substance which prevents the rapid decomposition of their leaves, &c., and the soil ultimately formed, remains impregnated with this substance, which is injurious to the growth of plants, unless withdrawn from it by long exposure to the influence of the atmosphere. The best and readiest substitute obtainable may be obtained by allowing sawdust of deal wood to decompose.

COMPOST.

Soil obtained from the compost heap, as described in the introductory remarks, is very useful for pot plants.

SAND. .

Absolutely necessary for mixing with the above. Sharp sand from which earthy and other mineral matters have been washed out suits best. Much of the sand round Adelaide (except that washed together in creeks, &c.) contains lime, which has to be washed out before it is fit for use.

MANURE.

Thoroughly decomposed manure is required for enriching potting-soil as occasion may arise. It is best to keep the various kinds of manure separate.

POTTING SOIL.

Good potting soil, mixed according to the requirements of the plants which are to be grown, should be tolerably fine, free from stones, &c., and loose, so as not to cake under any circumstances. A proper admixture of sand will generally prevent the latter.

SHELTER SHEDS.

Even pot plants which are ordinarily hardy require shelter against hot drying winds and the rays of the sun ; and those coming from warmer climates against cold, &c. Various contrivances for affording ,the former have been applied. The

simplest and best, so far as the former are concerned, appears to be to shelter them by bamboos or branches of trees fixed upon frames of the requisite size and height. Instead of bamboos, especially where more permanent structures are required, thin laths may be used. Whatever is employed, attention should always be paid to the fact that bamboos (or other materials) must lay from north to south, so that when the sun rises its rays will not fall always during the day on the same spot, whilst others would remain nearly always shaded, which would be the case were the covering fixed on so as to run east or west.

Thin calico, used as covering, may serve for some plants which require a greater amount of shade and shelter, though on the whole its use cannot be recommended, not only on account of its greater cost and want of durability, but also because in dull cloudy days especially it shades the plants underneath too much.

The bamboos look neatest, and if they are not placed too closely together they answer best, as they admit a current of air, and an always equal and sufficient amount of light. Too dense a shade, caused by too close packing of covering over such houses with creepers, acts (except for some few plants such as Ferns) injuriously on the plants, which get drawn and sickly. If in exposed situations, bamboo houses should be provided with moveable canvas blinds on the north and northwest side. The inside is fitted with conveniently-sized beds filled with sawdust, ashes, tan, or sand, in which the pots are plunged.

A very good shading may be provided for glass-houses and frames by making of reeds or slender bamboos a kind of loose matting, which, as occasion arises, is rolled over the glass, the same precaution in fixing the bamboos as regards their position being taken as was recommended for bamboo houses.

WATEBING.

Many, I have no doubt, will smile at the idea of devoting a special paragraph to a subject apparently so simple as watering a few pot plants. And yet proper watering is one of the most essential things in plant growing. Frequently I have been asked, “How often have I to water my plants—every day, or at what times ?” It is perfectly impossible to state how often pot plants have to be watered ; their state of growth, habits, and above all, the weather at the particular time, will have to be consulted. Pot plants should, as a general rule, never be allowed to get thoroughly dried up at the roots, which, combined with the ordinary attention paid to them, is best avoided by plunging each pot up to the rim into saw-

G

dust, sand, ashes, or any similar substance, as directed in another part of this work, as this not only prevents too rapid evaporation but also tends to keep the temperature of the ground covering the roots more even, but equal care is required not to water them indiscriminately, whether they are dry or wet, and thus to sodden the ground and cause rotting of the roots. More plants I fully believe are destroyed every year by overwatering than by neglecting watering at all, as, with few exceptions, most plants are far more likely to recover from the effects of occasional neglect than from a constant soaking with water. In watering, examine each pot to see whether it is dry or not, and water only the former. Very little experience will suffice to show whether the pot is actually dry or not, when pots of smaller size only have to be dealt with. Large ones, or tubs, or boxes will show by gently knocking at their sides in what state the soil inside is, as when dry the sound will be clear and sharp, and the reverse when still damp, though perhaps the surface may be dried up. Vigorously growing plants, or such as are in bloom, require generally a more liberal supply of water than those not actually growing, whilst many, succulents and bulbs or tubers, for instance, require particular care in not overwatering them. The former should at all times be watered but sparingly, as they are very apt to rot out when receiving too much moisture. In starting bulbs or tubers into growth commence with slight watering until the leaves are developed, water them more freely till after flowering, and gradually decrease till the bulbs have ripened. Particular care is required by most other plants which have to be watched according to the state of their growth, regulating the quantity of water supplied according to the vigour and health of each individual plant.

For cultivation of plants inside of rooms the use of saucers under each pot becomes frequently indispensable for cleanliness sake. Objectionable as they are, on the whole their use cannot always be dispensed with, and where this is the case I would beg to advise placing the pot containing the plant on some crocks or pieces of wood laid flat in the saucer, so as to allow the water always to be applied from the top, to percolate through the soil and collect in the saucer, from which it can be removed. Under no circumstances (except when cultivating swamp plants) allow the water to stand in the saucer, which is sure to lead to destruction of the roots.

Whether saucers are used or not, always thoroughly water each pot which may require it, but abstain from half-watering or merely sprinkling over the surface.

GLASS HOUSES,

of whatever size or shape they may be, should always be so

constructed that the plants receive as much light as possible, not only from above, but also from the sides. They should never, unless for growing tall specimen plants, be too high, as plants will do much better when placed near to the glass ; and provision must be made by having moveable sashes or other contrivances on the top and sides for admitting and maintaining a current of air. The floor, which, during warm weather at least, has to be kept damp, should be paved or covered with flags or tiles. Though span-roofed houses, or those of which the roof slopes from a horizontal ridge on two sides, are to be preferred for plant growing, lean-to’s, built against a wall and having glass only on top and in front, and perhaps on the two ends, may answer amateurs equally well, and, being' cheaper to erect, they will probably be preferred by many. For cheapness sake, houses may be erected in the following way, answering all ordinary purposes quite as well as the more expensive ones, which are furnished with separate sashes all over. Erect the frame of the house of the size required (using deal timber), which is placed upon brick or concrete walls two feet six inches to three feet high (the sides may also, instead of being of brick, be closely boarded), and groove the edges of the uprights and rafters, and fixing them between stiles, the same as used in ordinary sashes. The top and sides can be glazed in the usual way. As freshness and moisture are very important for maintaining the health of plants in houses, their floor is often sunk one or two feet below the surface of the ground, which prevents the necessity of erecting walls above ground. Tables two feet six inches to three feet high (the height of the brick or boarded side wall), and about the same width, are fixed in front and at the sides of the house, the centre being taken up by a similar but wider one, or by stepping stages, which enable the plants to be brought still nearer the glass. All tables, &c., on which plants are to stand, should be covered with sand or sawdust, &c., these substances retaining more moisture, which gradually evaporates. They also prevent the draught from underneath when air is given, which would be caused were the pots to stand on battens, as is frequently the case. Provision for admitting air to houses constructed as above is easily made by leaving in the side walls open spaces provided with shutters, and near the ridge a board six or nine inches wide, hung on hinges at the ridge, and opened or shut by means of a quadrant, &c. The top, and in exposed situations also the sides, require to be shaded during part of the day. Canvas fixed on rollers, which are let down when needed, is usually adopted. Whitewashing the inside of the glass may do for the same purpose, but as it excludes light always, it is not so good for the plants. Where water at high pressure is available, a pipe pierced with numbers of fine holes run round the house will be found useful for cooling it during the summer. Care should of course be taken to prevent the spray of water from falling on the plants whilst the sun is on them.

ARTIFICIAL HEAT.

Though artificially-heated houses will be rarely needed by amateurs, a few words may be said about liotwater apparatus, these being the most suitable for hot houses. The principle on which they act is very simple. A pipe fixed to the top of a boiler is brought very gently rising through the whole or part of the house, leading at its end into a cistern or trough, which has to be considerably higher than the influx of the-pipes, and open on top to allow room for expansion of the heated water. From the bottom of this cistern a pipe leads back to the bottom of the boiler. As the water gets heated the warm particles rise through the flowpipe to its highest point, whilst the colder ones being heavier fall as it were to the bottom, and return by the lower pipe to the boiler. Instead of closed pipes for the whole length, shallow troughs or tanks open on the top may be used, into which the flowpipe is led. The return pipe is either fixed at the end of the tank opposite to the boiler or, as is frequently done, a division of the tank running from one end to nearly the other, is fixed in one half of which the flowpipe leads, whilst, the return pipe coming back from the other half on the side nearest the boiler, the necessary current of water is established. These tanks are placed underneath the tables in the house, and covered with slates, &c., on which sand, sawdust, or the like is put for holding the flowerpots. A gentle but regular and permanent bottom heat may thus be obtained, which is so essential for propagating numerous plants or for the cultivation of many tropical kinds.

Properly made boilers of various shapes are requisite for larger houses, for which either saddle or tubular boilers are most suitable, as they effect most saving in fuel and quickness of action. For small houses, however, such as are most likely to be used by mere amateurs, an ordinary oil can even may serve for a boiler, whilst the tanks described above can be built of cement, so that the actual outlay need not be very great. A heating apparatus, sufficient at least for a small propagating place inside a house, can be made on the same principle as described, but heated by gas.

Hand or bell-glasses (or instead, a few tumblers or panes of glass for covering over boxes or pots) are requisite for striking cuttings, &c.

FRAMES

.•are. formed by enclosing spaces of the requisite size all round with walls of brick or concrete, or with sides formed of good stout boards. Where boards are used it will be found most convenient to make them so that they can be shifted from place to place. The front should always be a little lower than the back wall, so as to give the covering a slight incline. An eastern or southern aspect will generally answer best. It frequently adds to the efficiency of frames to sink the space enclosed a little into the soil. The bottom of all should be formed of concrete or cement to prevent worms getting into the pots from the ground underneath. The size of these frames must be regulated by the number of plants which are intended to be grown. From 5 ft. to 6 ft. in width will be found very convenient.

Frames and glass-houses of whatever kind they may be must be provided with covering to shelter the plants underneath. Canvas fixed on rollers, which is let down when required, for shading or shelter against heavy rains.

For striking cuttings, or bringing up more tender plants, sashes of convenient size (about 3ft. 6 in. wide by 6 ft. long), glazed in the usual manner, should be used. In glazing these, as well as glass houses, care must be taken to allow a little lap to the panes of glass from, bottom to top, to prevent the often very dangerous drip, which is unavoidable with improper glazing.

The sashes are made to slide up and down on cross bars fixed on the frames, not only to facilitate placing the pots in them, watering or otherwise attending the plants, but also for the purpose of giving air when required.

PROPAGATION OF GLASS HOUSE PLANTS.

A few general remarks on the propagation of glass house plants must suffice, as it would lead too far to refer to single genera, &c. Seedlings raised under glass should be placed as near to the light as possible, and receive (except plants coming from the torrid zone) as much fresh air as possible. Though a sufficient amount of moisture must be supplied to them, they are very apt to damp off by excessive watering, or by being kept in too damp an atmosphere. Never force seedlings by keeping them too close. It will cause them to draw up, and to get sickly or perish. Single pot them as soon as they are sufficiently strong, keeping the plants so transplanted close and shaded until they are established, after which they are gradually hardened off.

Cuttings require generally a close, damp atmosphere, and it is best to cover them over with a bellglass or pane of glass as directed before. Prepare them as directed above, and

place them in sand or sandy soil. Where bottom heat is-available, it will generally hasten the formation of roots, though many even tropical plants will strike without it. Soft herbaceous, hut not too unripe shoots, will on the whole strike best, many exceptions to this rule however occurring. Several hard-wooded plants, such as Camellias, Azaleas, &c., should be kept in a cool frame, until the sap exuding from the lower end of the cutting has formed a spongy mass called callus; place them then in heat, when roots will generally appear very quickly. As soon as they are well rooted, single pot all cuttings, and treat them until they are established like seedlings. Gloxinias, Gesnerias, and several other plants can be increased by the leaves; small bulbs being formed rapidly at the ribs if placed in heat.

TREATMENT OE PLANTS UNDER GLASS. '

Plants kept in the house must as a matter of course be regularly watered whenever they get dry. Syringe the foliage all over in the evening and in the early morning, and keep up a damp atmosphere by keeping the floor and space underneath the stages damp. The latter may be devoted to the cultivation of Ferns, which, being mostly found in cool and shady places when growing wild, will do much better there than when exposed to the full and direct influence of light and sun. Climbing plants may be planted in beds specially prepared for them underneath the stages, and trained against the back wall, or on the rafters, &c. House plants must be repotted from smaller into bigger pots. It is much better to do so gradually than to place a small and perhaps weak plant at once into a fullsized pot, except when very rapidly growing sorts are grown, which are likely to fill the pot in a short space of time with roots: The best time for shifting is in spring before the plants start again into fresh growth. Apply liquid manure from time to time, using it most freely for plants which show signs of a vigorous growth. Though any kind of manure which will dissolve will answer for making liquid manure, guano is the cleanest and readiest made. Use about 4 ozs. to a gallon of water, as it is best to make the liquid rather weak and use it more frequently.

Many of the plants which are generally grown here in pots will do much better during the summer plunged in the open air, shaded by bamboos, &c., than if always kept confined in houses. If the latter cannot be avoided, give as much air as possible, except when hot winds are blowing, when by closing shutters and keeping the floor damp the temperature inside a house may be kept considerably lower than outside. All pots kept outside, in whatever place it may be, should be plunged to the rim in sawdust, &c., to prevent their too rapidly drying up, and to keep the temperature of the soil more even and cool than could be the case when left exposed. Pot plants, especially those kept under glass, often suffer much by various small insects, particularly by small red spiders, thrip, scale, mealy-bug, and green fly (an aphis similar, if not the same, to that affecting cabbages.) When it is intended to smoke a house, get some thoroughly good charcoal, which will only smoulder but not emit any flames or smoke, and burn on this tobacco stalks or tobacco dust, not sheepwash or such which has been damaged by turpentine, tar, or other substances used by the Customs department for making tobacco unfit for use. To make smoking effective the whole house should be entirely filled with tobacco smoke. It will not affect scale on plants, which has to be cured by washing as directed above. Fresh air and regular syringing are the best preventives against these pests. Syringing or washing with a solution of Gishurst’s Compound (using lj to 8 ozs. to the gallon of water)_or a decoction of quassia, and filling the house on a damp night with tobacco-smoke, provide a sufficient cure for them.

Well-grown pot-plants should be regularly furnished with branches, so as to form a dense bush on a small scale. To obtain plants of that shape attention must be paid to their training by pruning or rather pinching off unnecessary shoots, or stopping them, to induce their branching out. Some acquaintance with the habit of each kind will soon show the attentive grower where and when to cease stopping and pruning. Evergreen shrubs as well as tuberous-rooted plants require some rest during the year, when less watering and stimulants and heat should be applied.

Tuberous or bulbous plants, of which a considerable number is well adapted for pot-culture, require generally a very rich loose soil, and comparatively large pots. After their season of rest, re-pot them in fresh earth, giving plenty of drainage, and start them into fresh growth by moderate watering, and, for tropical plants, by planting them into heat.

As the plant advances and unfolds its leaves increase watering, and appply stimulants in the shape of liquid manure until it has come to perfection, producing either flowers or (as is the case with many foliage plants) those magnificent highly-coloured and large-sized leaves which are very justly admired.

After some time the leaves begin to fade and die gradually off; at this time watering must be gradually decreased until it is reduced to a minimum when the plant is quite dormant. Numerous Amaryllis, Gloriosa, Eunomia, Lilies and other plants of the same class will do under such treatment as well as Caladium (and other Aroidaceous plants) tuberous-rooted Begonias, Gesnerias, Gloxinias, Tydea, Achimenes, &c. The last-named being almost necessary for the adornment of plant-houses, which they render gay and resplendent with colour, may deserve a few extra notes regarding their cultivation. GLOXINIAS, GESNEKIAS, ACHIMENES, AND OTHER PLANTS OF THIS TRIBE

Plant single tubers of the two first-named and six to eight of the latter in tolerably large pots, which are thoroughly drained and filled with loose rich soil, a mixture of decayed vegetable matter, manure, and sand, and place them in bottom heat in the hot-liouse or frame, where they ought to he kept until they come into flower. These over, allow them to dry gradually off by supplying less water and heat. Keep them then quite dry until about June, when they ought to be started again as directed. Where no heat is available, plants of the above may, nevertheless, be grown, treating them as described. Then they mostly flower later and less luxuriantly than when grown in heat. The beautiful varieties of Caladium and other Aroidaceous plants, large-leaf Begonias, and tuberous-rooted plants like the last, will only succeed when grown in rather strong bottom heat and under a damp atmosphere. They require a compost of manure, loose loam, and sand. Liquid manure applied occasionally to the plsnts when once started into growth will increase the colour and size of the leaves. Like other tuberous plants, they require to he kept dry and at rest during part of the year.

Other varieties of Begonias, all of which strike easily from cuttings, will do in frames or houses without heat. Plant them in tolerably rich soil, and trim to full bushy plants before they are allowed to flower. Most Begonias are well adapted for culture inside dwelling-rooms, being hardy and not easily damaged by dry atmosphere or dust.

Most of the soft-wooded almost herbaceous shrubs, as, for instance, Coleus, Justitia, many Begonias, &c., which are fastgrowing, are best if struck afresh every spring from cuttings,

as old plants are apt to grow too straggling, which necessitates their being cut back very sharply in order to make bushy plants of them—a process which frequently fails, the plants getting checked so much as to become sickly.

Most of the plants belonging to this class strike freely if young, but well ripened wood is chosen for cuttings which, prepared in the usual way, are placed in pure sand or very sandy soil, being kept covered by a bell-glass or kept inside a house in a small propagating frame, until they are struck, after which they are single potted, and gradually hardened off.

For all fast-growing plants it becomes especially'desirable and in many cases absolutely necessary, to pinch young cuttings or seedling plants back during their first stages of growth, as by these means only it is possible to obtain well-grown bushy plants.

Even with the greatest care in lifting cuttings out of store-pots or boxes. it is impossible to always avoid bruising or otherwise damaging the tender roots, which invariably tends to check the rapid and healthy growth of the young plant, often to' such an extent as to cripple it for a long time. To avoid this it will be found very useful, instead of putting a number of cuttings in one storepot, to put one only in very small thumb-pots, after they are struck they are simply shifted into larger ones, an operation which will, or need .not, disturb the plant in the least.

CACTI.

Cacti and other succulents, some of which produce brilliantly-coloured flowers, whilst others, having insignifiant ones, are grown on account of the peculiar forms of their stems, require a sandy, but, nevertheless, not too poor soil, and, compared with other plants, a very scanty supply of water. Excessive watering is sure to cause their destruction, the same as the application of fresh manure. Keeping them nearly dry for a few months prior to their flowering increases the latter. Most will stand in the open air throughout the year, sheltered only during excessive wet or cold. All can easily be propagated by cuttings, which require to get dry at the part where they are separated from the parent plant before they are planted. Use very sandy soil for striking cuttings of any succulent, and water but very sparingly. Several kinds of Epiphyllum and Cereus, grafted on taller-growing species of the latter, form exceedingly pretty pot-plants. Aloes, Sedums, Sempervivum, Crassula, Kalanghoe, Bryophyllum, &c., require similar treatment as true Cacti.

The variety of form and colour found amongst plants of this class is almost endless, and, considering the little difficulty offered by their culture, it really appears to be strange that

more attention has not been paid to them, especially as our sunny dry climate suits, them exceedingly well. Many of the Sedums, some Cereus, Crassula, &c., are well adapted for basket plants, for which purpose their graceful forms and power to withstand drought renders them particularly suitable.

FEENS AND LYCOI’ODS.

These exceedingly graceful plants will only luxuriate when kept in shady places and in a damp atmosphere. Tropical species, of which a very large number are cultivated in gardens, must be kept throughout the year sheltered by glass-houses, where the necessary temperature and moisture is kept up. The more hardy ones from colder climes, and many of our native and New Zealand species, will succeed in the open air w^ien properly sheltered against hot winds and shaded. Bamboo-houses as described, rather densely covered or even overgrown by creepers, will do for the culture of them, where even the stately tree-ferns from the southern colonies of Australia will succeed. The latter being generally found in damp gullies only, it is advisable to fix moss all round the stem, and to keep both saturated with water. Epiphytical Ferns, some Orchids from New South Wales, and other plants of the same nature, placed between stem and moss, will (in suitable localities) flourish and soon overgrow the whole.

Ferns and Lycopods require a mixture of sand and peaty soil. When grown in pots, and intended for speciment plants, pots of rather large size should be used. Most ferns, however, will stand starvation in small-sized pots, which frequently comes very handy when wardian cases have to be filled. Proper attention to drainage of the pots must always be had. Where regular Ferneries are established it will always be found best to plant most kinds out in the open ground between the rocks or other material employed for ornamenting the groups. Epiphytical Ferns, of which many are known and cultivated, require for pot-culture soil as above, intermixed rather largely with moss, lumps of fibrous roots, rotten wood, &c., so as to render the whole a spongy loose mass.

Some, the beautiful Stagshorn and Elkshorn, for instance, do best when fixed with galvanized wire on a block of wood or piece of the trunk of a Fern-tree. This block must be kept moist by frequent watering, or by being placed in a saucer which is kept full of water.

Planted out, however, into the open but properly-prepared ground, into rockeries formed in a Fernery—(whether inside a glasshouse or under shelter of bamboos, where hardy kinds only are to be grown)—they will attain to a great state of

perfection, and, where room is available, I certainly would advise this method of culture.

Regular and frequent syringing of Ferns is absolutely necessary to preserve their health.

Ferns are mostly propagated by division of their rhizomes (roots, as they are generally termed). To raise them from seeds (spores), requires in most cases more care and attention than most amateurs are able or willing to bestow on them.

Ferns require peaty soil, mixed with sand to keep it open.

In European countries it has become quite fashionable to adorn drawing-rooms and parlours with glass cases filled with living plants, and few are better adapted for this purpose than Ferns. These cases, known as “ Wardian Cases,” are constructed of various sizes and shapes, and are more or less ornamental. The sides and top are formed of glass, which, being firmly embedded into the frames, renders the whole nearly air tight. The bottom is formed of jzinc or other metal, and constructed so that the pots containing the plants stand above the level, so as to keep them out of the water which may drain from them. Evaporation in these cases being reduced to a considerable extent, the moist atmosphere required by Ferns is easily maintained, and most of them will flourish. Though large pots are required for raising specimen plants of Ferns, most will stand being starved in small pots, in consequence of which a great variety of them can be grown in these “ Wardian Cases.”

BALSAMS.

Balsams require similar treatment to that recommended for Cockscombs. To obtain good strong plants, keep up a vigorous growth by using in the first instance some very rich soil and good-sized pots, and, when once established and growing freely, using liquid manure, and by keeping up a moderate degree of heat. Well-grown Balsams should be bushy, not too tall, and covered all over with flowers. Both Balsams and Cockscombs are annuals, and require to be sown afresh every year.

PETUNIAS.

Single or double varieties are well adapted for pot-culture. They are easily propagated by seeds, as stated before, or with greater difficulty by cuttings struck in sand under glass. Single pot the young plants, in good-sized pots, into a rich compost, and stimulate rapid growth, pegging-down and otherwise training the shoots, so as to obtain regular, bushy plants. If kept under glass, great care is required to prevent them drawing up.

DRACAENAS AND CORDYLINES.

Of these a great many species and varieties exist, showing

in many cases most brilliantly-coloured leaves, and always exceedingly graceful forms. They are amongst the most useful decorative plants for glass houses. Some require the stove or temperate house, whilst others are more hardy and will do in the ordinary greenhouse, or even the open air.

All require rich loamy soil, and, to grow good specimen plants, plenty of pot-room. During their growing season, a liberal supply of water and an occasional dose of liquid manure must be given. Unlike many other strong-growing plants, Dracaenas will bear starving in smaller pots, which process, though it stunts them in growth, enables the cultivator to confine the plants to a less space, and thus make them available for smaller houses.

Some of the varieties produce suckers, and can then be easily propagated by division of the roots ; most of them, however, require to be increased by cuttings, which need bottom heat to make them form roots.

PALMS.

Equally effective for decoration are Palms, which, though not producing flowers, are highly ornamental through the beauty of their leaves. Several kinds, as named before, are quite hardy enough for cultivation in our gardens, where they should be more frequently introduced than has been the case hitherto. But these, as well as a very great number of tropical forms, ought to find places amongst every collection of house plants. All require plenty of pot-room, good rich soil, and a plentiful supply of water during their growing season.

Syringe the foliage frequently, to keep them clean and fresh. Their propagation can only be effected by seeds, which mostly lie a long time in the ground before they germinate. Bottom heat is essential for raising tropical kinds.

*    COCKSCOMB (CELOSIA).

Sow the seeds in frames or under glass in spring, in a mixture of well-rotted manure, garden soil, and sand. Single pot when the plants are sufficiently large, gradually increasing the size of the pots when they require repotting. Keep the plants under glass, but always near to it, shading them as required, and giving plenty of air. Supply liquid manure.

CINERARIA, CALCEOLARIA, CHINESE PRIMROSE, MIMULUS.

Soil and general treatment of these pretty flowers similar to that of the last, but the best time for sowing them is autumn. Sow the last about March, and single pot as mentioned above. When well established in the pot all the plants just named will require much air and light. Additional sowings may be made later in the season. All except Chinese Primroses are annuals, or at least best treated as such. The latter will stand for

several seasons, being gradually repotted into larger-sized pots. Propagation by seeds.

CAMELLIA.

Though perfectly hardy for outdoor cultivation in hill gardens, these beautiful plants will only succeed on the plains when grown in very sheltered positions. They require a fertile, not too light soil, which, however, has to be kept open and loose by a proper admixture of sand. Whilst, when grown in pots, they easily suffer by over-watering, they are as readily damaged by being allowed, even if only once, to get thoroughly dry in the pot, as they are then sure to lose their leaves and die. Keep the pots properly plunged in sawdust in summer, as directed before, in a sheltered position, shaded against hot winds, syringing them during hot weather morning and evening. When in full growth an occasional supply of liquid manure will be found very useful. Propagation by cuttings kept first in sandy soil in a cool frame until a callus is formed, after which they must be brought into bottom heat. Camellias are also grafted on seedling stocks.

RHODODENDRONS.

These require similar treatment to that of Camellias, but more a peat soil mixed with the sandy heath ground. The remarks about watering and sheltering just made apply with equal force to Rhododendrons and to the nearly-allied Azaleas, which require a sandy heath soil mixed with peat. Both are hardy, and will do without the protection of glass, provided they receive protection enough against sun and hot winds. Propagate by cuttings, layers, or seeds.

ERICA (CAPE HEATH).

The same kind of soil as for Camellias and Rhododendrons will do for the very beautiful Ericas or Heaths, most of which being natives of South Africa, where the climate is similar to our own, will do remarkably well with us, either planted out in the garden or grown as pot-plants. The pots containing Heaths should be carefully attended to in watering, being equally apt to suffer by excessive watering as by being insufficiently watered, or by being allowed to get quite dry in the pot.

CYCLAMENS.

Tuberous plants as they are, Cyclamens should be potted in rich loose soil after their season of rest is over, and placed in a cool frame or house, where by moderate watering they are gradually started into growth and kept there till they flower, after' which they require less watering until 'the time of repotting comes, on again. Plant the tubers so as to be barely covered with soil.

FUCHSIAS.

The great facility with which Fuchsias can he propagated and grown, their variety of colour, and their graceful forms, have rendered them deservedly such favourites that few collections of plants can now he found which do not contain some of them. They require a rich but open soil—a mixture of ordinary garden soil, well-rotted manure, and sand will suit. Cuttings are easily struck in spring, placed in a cool frame or room in sand or sandy soil. Though old wood will strike, it is much better to select for cuttings the young tender shoots, which, placed under a hand-glass, generally get rooted in a fortnight (far less will suffice where bottom heat is available). Single pot them in small pots at first, and shift gradually into larger ones, keeping the plants in a cool frame with plenty of air, or what answers as well, in a bamboo-house, but well sheltered against the hot winds. Syringe and water freely, and stimulate to vigorous growth by application of liquid manure. As soon as the plants—which when healthy grow rapidly—branch out, pinch the branches back ; though, by doing so the flowering season is delayed a little, better-shaped plants and more numerous flowers are obtained. Cuttings struck about August, and twice or even thrice pinched back, will under proper treatment form fair-sized flowering plants

(towards autumn. The flowering season over, water less, and allow the plants to ripen their wood, during which time they gradually lose the greater part of their leaves. After having been at rest for some time, repot in fresh soil, cut them well back, and start a fresh growth by placing them, if possible, for a short time in a gentle heat. Young plants are generally preferable to older ones, except where large specimen plants are wanted', and the old plants are only kept until a sufficient supply of cuttings has been obtained. Fuchsias suffer easily by hot winds or great heat, and should always be properly shaded and sheltered. They require, when in full growth, a liberal and regular supply of water. Once getting thoroughly dry, they mostly lose their leaves, and they are done for the season. If kept under glass, syringe very freely, and keep up damp atmosphere and free circulation of air. Either being neglected, red spider, thrip, &c., will soon make its appearance, to the great detriment of the plants.

PELARGONIUMS.

Even more easy of culture than the last, and quite as ornamental and showy, we cannot wonder that these plants have also become great favourites with gardeners. Like Fuchsias, they require well-enriched open soil, plenty of air and water when growing, and frequent syringing (except when in flower). Cuttings taken from properly-ripened summer shoots will strike

Ill

freely in loose sandy soil; but as they are apt to rot if kept too moist, it is best not to keep them covered by band-glasses, but in the open air in shady positions or cool frames, watering but sparingly. Though cuttings will take at almost any season, it is best to put them in in autumn or towards the beginning of winter. Being far less tender than Fuchsias they succeed (some of the tricolors and a few others excepted) in more exposed situations, and they require less shading. To' ensure fine bushy plants, pinch back the laterals, and never crowd the plants too much together, giving them as much light and air as possible, and liquid manure whilst growing. After they have done flowering, allow the shoots to ripen gradually, sup- . plying less water, and cut the plants well back, repotting them j, into fresh fertile soil. The time at which this should be done depends greatly upon the season at which flowers are desired. The sooner they are started into fresh growth the sooner will flowers be obtained. February to April are the months recommended for the large-flowering and fancy kinds ; a later period, or even the , early spring for zonales. By hybridisation an immense number of varieties, more or less distinct, have been obtained. The principal classes under which they may be brought are the following :—

First—Large-flowering or Show varieties.

Second—Fancy or French (more or less irregularly-spurred flowers).

Third—Zonale; flowers more regular, spur less distinct, leaves showing a well-marked brown or reddish zone (with some a very dark one). The varieties belonging to this class deserve special attention, being exceedingly hardy and free-blooming. With many varieties obtained by repeated crossing the zone in the leaves disappears, the habit and general appearance of the plants will nevertheless always clearly show their origin from true Zonales. As sub-classes of these we have :—

Fourth—Golden-leaved, gold and bronze, gold and variegated, and tricolored varieties, in which the chlorophyll (microscopic globules of coloring matter), which produces the green colour of plants, has been changed, and which present sometimes beautifully-marked foliage. As all such changes indicate a diseased state of the plant in which they occur, we cannot wonder at finding that they are far less vigorous than those in their normal state, and the propagation and cultivation of plants belonging to the above classes is far more difficult. They suffer much more readily by overwatering ; and cuttings, especially of varieties which have lost most of their normal colour, will not strike so easily (witness, for instance, the beautiful Mrs. Pollock). Tricolours, especially in summer, or

wlien fully exposed to the sun, will lose the brilliancy of their colours. They require less nourishment in the shape of manures, as by inducing a more vigorous growth they are apt (like all other variegated plants), providing the plants are sufficiently strong to stand over-feeding, to lose their variegation, and to produce leaves of the original green colour. By starving them the variegation mostly returns.

Fifth—Double-flowering sorts have of late been raised of various colours. They are equally hardy with the singleflowering kinds, mostly strong-growing, and quite as easy of cultivation.

The Show and Fancy varieties, all the Tricolors and other variegated sorts, and the Double-flowering ones, are particularly well adapted for pot-culture. Zonales, though they also form showy pot-plants, suit better for bedding out.

AQUATIC PLANTS.

Though few amateur gardeners will find room for cultivating aquatic plants, a few remarks may nevertheless not be out of place in this short treatise. But little trouble is caused by their culture. If grown in large basins, such as surround, fountains, the bottom is filled for about 12 inches with rich loam, into which the plants are placed in the ordinary way. Though the water will at first be a little muddy, it will clear itself after a short time. Aponogeton, several Nymphieas (generally known as Waterlilies), Damasonium, Alisma, Butomus, Cyperus, Papyrus, and others, and a variety of Potamogeton, Ac., are plants adapted for such purposes, whilst the beautiful Arolla rubra, Biccia, Lemna, &c., which only float on the surface of the water, without rooting in the ground, are well adapted for outdoor basins, as well as for smaller aquariums kept indoors. The curious Valisneria spiralis can also be strongly recommended for the smaller aquarium. Though goldfish and other aquatic animals will feed upon these plants, their growth, when once properly established, is generally so vigorous that the damage done by the fish, &c., is soon repaired without permanently injuring the plants.

Arolla and the two others named with it will die down in winter but reappear in spring, and when it is desired to increase or transfer them to other places, nothing else is wanted than to take the required number of plants floating on the surface from one vessel and transfer them to another. During winter the spores fall to the bottom, and, though less certain at that season, they may also then be removed by scooping up some of the mud which contains the spores.

BASKET PLANTS.

Basket or hanging pot plants, when properly grown, add

much to the beauty of greenhouses, or help to adorn verandahs and the windows of drawing-rooms. The baskets are generally made of galvanized or other wire, of sizes and shapes as fancy may direct; equally or more effective ones are formed of branches of wood, cones, &c., in a rustic style. For certain plants ornamental pots will answer better. In the baskets, ordinary flowerpots containing the plants are placed, which are surrounded with moss, not only for appearance sake, but also for the prevention of too rapid evaporation as well as for the maintenance of a more even temperature.

Great care and attention is needed to keep up a sufficient supply of moisture for plants grown in baskets, where, naturally, evaporation is much greater than in ordinary flowerpots, and it will be found best to thoroughly soak them in a bucket of water whenever required.

Numerous plants are adapted for being grown in baskets— in fact all which show a trailing habit, or even the less vigorously growing climbers can be used as such. Without attempting to furnish anything like a complete list of suitable kinds, I will merely enumerate a few of what can be readily obtained here, distinguishing those which always require the protection of a greenhouse or hothouse by having an asterisk (*) prefixed to their names :—

Tropasolum majus (Nasturtium Loasa


*Torenia Asiatica *    “ pulcherrima

*Hoya Bella “ carnosa Manettia glabra Medeola asparagoides *Tradescantia zebrina “ guinensis Saxifraga sarmentosa


“    cananense

“    tricolorum

“    Jaratti

“    azureum

Pelargonium peltatum and its numerous varieties, such as elegantissimum, Gem of the Season, Wilsurosea, &c.


Linaria Cymbalaria Russellia juncea Passiflora minima *    “ trifasciata

“ other varieties "iEschynanthus, several kinds Thunbergia

Convolvulus mauritanicus Vinca major variegata


Blumenbachia insignis Cereus flabelliformis Epiphyllum Musk

Sedum, several species Lycopodium denticulatum Kennedy a prostrata | Native 1 Dichondra repens j plants.


Besides the above, which are perennials, many purely annuals, such as Convolvulus, some Lathyrus, Nolana, &c., might be classed under the head of Basket Plants.

H

ORCHIDS.

These magnificent plants are as yet but rarely cultivated here, except perhaps by a few professional gardeners, and yet we may hope to see, perhaps not large collections, but at least some of those handsome flowers introduced amongst the collections of private growers. Almost all Orchids (and amongst them the kinds producing the most gorgeous flowers) are epiphytal, which means growing on other plants or rocks without having roots to fix them into the ground. Plants of this class require a damp atmosphere, and (being mostly tropical) during part of the year at least a considerable degree of heat. It will thus be readily understood that (some few species excepted) their culture can only be attempted by persons having hot houses at their disposal.

To imitate as much as possible their natural state of growth, these epipliytaPOrchids are fixed with galvanized or leaden wire on blocks of porous wood or pieces of Tree Ferns, surrounded by moss, and then hung up in the house, care being taken to keep up a moist, warm atmosphere, and at the same time to keep the moss damp by frequent syringing. Leaves and fresh shoots will develop themselves, which produce the flowers. These over (or, when none appeared, as soon as the growth for a season is completed), place the plants in a cooler house, and supply less moisture, until, with the approaching spring, they are started again into fresh growth.

As it is difficult in so dry a climate as ours, to maintain moisture, even in glasshouses, it has been found more advantageous to plant epiphytal Orchids in wire or other baskets, or in perforated pots specially made for the purpose, into a mixture of moss, pieces of wood, and a little soil, as these can be kept much more easily damp and fresh. By this means the roots (which by adopting the plan named first are generally formed above the moss) are not so liable to get sunburnt and otherwise damaged, and a more healthy growth will be obtained. As but very few Orchids are to be found in our nurseries, it would be useless to give a list of kinds to be recommended to amateurs, who, when once they wish to try their hands at the cultivation of them, will have to take what is available. All, however, being handsome, this matters but little.

A not inconsiderable number of Orchids are terrestrial, or growing in soil like other plants. Most of these are tuberous, and require treatment similar to that of other plants of that elass. Even with the greatest care and attention, however, the culture of terrestrial Orchids—of which a very great number is found in every part of the globe, many of them exceedingly handsome—remains difficult and precarious. If any amateur here desires to make an attempt with their cultivation, I would advise to begin with some of our beautiful native kinds, which in spring are plentiful enough everywhere, and after having succeeded with them to introduce others from foreign parts.

WINDOW GARDENING.

Having briefly glanced over the treatment of pot plants in general, a few words may not be out of place on a subject of some importance to amateurs who have neither space nor time and perhaps also not the means of indulging in flower gardens or green-houses and frames, but who nevertheless love to grow a few plants in their windows. Below a list will be found of plants suitable for parties so situated. Whilst following the general rules described as regards watering, potting, syringing, &c., I would here strongly advise them to discontinue the practice of using saucers under the pots, and keeping these more or less full of water. The roots of plants so kept are sure to suffer by being kept in a constantly swampy soil. Where, for the sake of cleanliness, saucers must be used, place the pot on a few pieces of wood, &c., so as to keep it about half an inch above the bottom of the saueer, raised above the surface of the water which drains through. When plants are to be grown outside the window, it is a good plan to get boxes made fitting the window-sill, into which the pots are plunged in sawdust. Potting soil of the proper kind not being always available, ordinary garden soil has often to be used ; unless this is naturally sandy and loose a proper proportion of sand has always to be mixed with it to render it so. Unless well decomposed manure is at hand, rather use none at all instead of fresh dung, and make up the deficiency by application of liquid manure.

The following list contains the names of plants of easy culture suitable for window gardening. Those marked “o” will stand well, except in very exposed positions in the open air ; all others will do inside rooms:—


.r— Clerodendron odoratum, o


All the plants named will flower when grown in pots with little trouble, or in some instances be ornamental by their foliage alone.


Aloe, o

Ardisia crenulata Begonia, many species Brachycome iberdifolia, o Browallia, o, annual Bryophyllum Cactus, all kinds, o Cineraria, o


Coleus Crocus, o Cyclamen, o Daphne, o Dracaena, o Euphorbia clava Euphorbia splendeus, o Fuchsia, o Hoya

Hyacinth, o Hydrangea, o Ivy

Justitia, many kinds Kalanghoe


Ligularia Kaempferi Lobelia, o

Lonicera reticulata, o

Lophospermum scandens, o

Maurandia, o

Mimulus, o

Mignonette, o

Musk

Manettia glabra, o Nierenbergia, o Petunia, o Primula sinensis Rochea falcata, o Russellia, o    .

Pelargonium, o Rhynchospermum, o Sedum, o Sempervivum, o Stapelia, o Stigmatophyllum, o Tropaeolum, o Tradescantia Veronica, o


HYBRIDISATION.

Plants, as well as animals, produce cross-breeds by hybridisation, which show more or less distinctly the characteristic marks of both parents, or as frequently happens, produce entirely new forms. It is by hybridisation almost alone that the endless numbers of varieties of flowers are obtained, numbers of which are daily swelled by either chance seedlings, or by artificial impregnation. To understand the latter, a short description of the principal organs of flowers is necessary.

If we examine a flower, the following organs will be found, -which, though appearing under a great variety of forms and size, can nevertheless be always easily discerned.

Mostly at the base of the flower (though sometimes surrounded by it) is the germen or ovary which encloses the embryo of the future seeds, and as this attains maturity, forms the seedpod or fruit of whatever kind it may be; either resting on the germen, or on more or less elongated and often divided styles, rests the stigma, an organ which at certain stages of

the flower emits a glutinous substance. Anthers are organs of various shapes which generally surround the germen in greater or less numbers, or sometimes only singly or few; these anthers are frequently supported by filaments ; they always contain a very fine powder called pollen, which, when the proper time has arrived, falls out of the anthers through pores or fissures which then open on the stigma, thus fertilising the ovulae in the germen, which produce then perfect seeds. When artificial hybridisation is intended, cut off with fine scissors the anthers of one flower before they have opened and shed the pollen, and bring on the stigma of the same flower, pollen from the paternal plant, which is, with small flowers at least, best done with a fine camel’s hair brush. Though not absolutely certain, a great deal depends on the character, so far as shape, color, substance of petals, &c., is concerned, in both of the parent plants, both of which should not only be as nearly as possible perfect in every respect, but also show certain peculiarities, which, when combined by hybridisation,Svould produce the desired result.

Most, if not all, the beautiful varieties of our garden flowers, such as Eoses, Fuchsias, Geraniums, Verbenas, &c., have been obtained by hybridisation as described. Many no doubt originated by chance, bees and other insects having performed the necessary operation when visiting the flowers in search of food. Others again are due to the careful selections of the parent plants which are intended for crossing; choosing sueh as are perfect in certain parts of their flowers.

Careful observation alone can teach us the art of hybridisation, as it often requires several generations of hybrids before the sought-for end is attained, and the patience of the cultivator is often severely taxed, as even amongst carefully hybridised seedlings numbers are found to be worthless and much inferior to either of the parent plants. As it is, especially in small flowers, often impossible (or at least very difficult) to remove the anthers without damaging the flower, the pollen of the one plant is then simply brought on the stigma by means of a fine camel’s hair brush. Hybridisation can only take place between nearly allied plants. True hybrids obtained as described, must be distinguished from sports resulting from peculiar conditions of the soil, or other circumstances. The latter cease wfth the removal of the conditions which produced them. As an example I only need to refer to the Hydrangea, the rose-coloured flowers of which may be changed to blue by impregnating the soil in which they grow with oxide of iron. True hybrids, i however, except when both parent plants were not original [species, but also varieties, can be reproduced often even from [seeds without changing their character.

Having now briefly reviewed the orchard, vegetable, and flower garden, a few words on sowing seeds may be said before concluding these remarks. Want of success in raising seeds causes frequent and bitter complaints, and the blame is invariably thrown on the seedsman who supplied them. Though perhaps old seeds may occasionally be palmed off by dishonest dealers, the practice of doing so is scarcely ever followed by respectable firms, and the fault, when unsuccessful in raising them, lies more frequently with the grower. Seeds require for their germination a suitable soil, a sufficient degree of heat, and though only a moderate, yet a regular and even supply of moisture. The seedbed should be composed of loose permeable soil which is not liable to cake or crack, and in it the seeds should be sown, covering them but slightly in proportion to their size. If sown too deep the germ cannot readily penetrate the overlying soil, and it perishes or gets sickly, or at the best, the time of germination is unduly prolonged. Many of the smaller seeds especially are thus lost by being covered too much, whilst as many perish through irregular watering. Seeds, as soon as they are put into the ground, absorb water, and commence to germinate, though beyond a slight swelling up, no outward signs of the changes that go on are noticeable. If then allowed to get suddenly dry, even if only for a short period, the tender germ shrivels, and otherwise perfectly good seeds fail. To ensure success in raising seeds, sow only in the soil adapted to the plant, taking care to make it as loose as possible, and cover, especially fine seeds, but very thinly (as a general rule, a covering of three times the thickness of the seed is considered sufficient for seeds regularly attended to), and water sparingly, but regularly.

--♦---

TABLE

Showing the Number of Plants required to Plant an Acre of Land, from 1 foot to 30 feet apart.

Distance.

Number.

Distance.

Number

Distance.

Number.

30 feet apart

48

14 feet apart

222

5 feet apart

1,742

28 “

55

13 “

257

4J “

2,151

26 “

64

12 “

302

4 “

2,722

24 “

75

11 “

360

3J “

S,55(5

22 “

90

10 “

435

3" "

4,840

20 “

100

9 “

537

6,970

19 “

120

8 “

680

2 “

10,890

18 “

134

7 “

889

It

19,360

17 “

150

6| “

1,031

1

43,560

16 “

169

6 “

1,201

15 “

193

5|

1,440

GARDENERS’ CALENDAR.

-4-

, JANUARY.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow Cabbage, Kail, Savoy, Cauliflower, and Celery in shady, sheltered positions, watering them regularly. Trim edgings of herbs, such as Thyme, Marjoram, &c. Where water is handy sow a few Radishes and Mustard and Cress. Supply liquid manure and water to Cucumbers, Melons, Marrows, and Pumpkins. Roughly dig up vacant ground, and trench new land.

Flower Garden.—Attend to watering newly-planted shrubs and trees, and flowering plants in borders. Bud Roses. Layer Carnations. Take up bulbs as they become ripe, and collect seeds. Trim hedges and edgings, and keep the grounds generally in order by removing weeds, stalks of dead flowers, &c. Put in cuttings of Chrysanthemums, for pot culture. Attend to watering, shading and syringing of pot-grown plants. During this and the following summer months, particular care must be shown to all pot-grown plants, whether they stand in the open air or under glass, watering them freely and syringing them all over every night. Soft-wooded, strong-growing sorts should receive an occasional dose of liquid manure. Shading them must not be omitted, nor must it be forgotten to admit air freely to glass houses, except during hot winds, when they are best kept close, keeping the floor damp. Cyclamens and other tubers may be repotted during January and February, and started into fresh growth.

Fruit Garden.—Bud Peaches, Almonds, Apricots, and other stone fruit. Collect fruit as it ripens. Attend to summer pruning of Fruit-trees and Vines, and to the watering of young recently-planted trees.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—Plant out Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Lettuce, and Celery where wate*r is available. Plant Potatoes, such as Fluke, Aslileaf, Kidney, Round, Rough, &c. Sow Radish, Lettuce, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Celery, Red and Silver Beet, Carrot, Parsnip, Turnip, Spinach, and French Beans—

Pale Dun, Caseknife, and Butter Beans answer best. Take up and store Onions.

Flower Garden.—Same as on the plains. Sow some of the quickly-growing hardy annuals to keep up a supply of flowers. Tie up and water Dahlias. Cut back Verbenas to induce fresh flowers.

Fruit Garden.—Same as for plains.

FEBKUARY.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Continue sowing Cabbages, Ac., as recommended for last month, and other operations mentioned there. Plant a few early Potatoes. Sow, towards the end of the month, some Turnips (early Swedes), Rape, and a few Radishes and Mustard and Cress, and water them freely.

Flower Garden.—Collect seeds as they ripen. Keep weeds under and the ground open by hoeing, Ac. Cut back Roses budded in December or early last month, and remove ties from them. Gradually commence to separate layers of flowering shrubs, Ac., when well rooted.

Fruit Garden.—But little can be done in the fruit garden at this season of the year, beyond gathering in fruit as it ripens. Prepare for the vintage by putting casks, &c., in order, and cleaning them and the press and other utensils thoroughly. Water Oranges and trees planted last season.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden. — Sow Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Celery, Kohlrabi, Turnips, Spinach, Lettuce, Radish, Mustard and Cress, and some early Peas, selecting damp spots, or such as can be watered. Transplant Cabbage, Cauliflower, Ac. Plant Potatoes; water Cucumbers, Melons, Marrows, Ac.

Flower Garden.—Operations similar to those recommended for the plains. Sow annuals, such as Godetia, Iberis, Lobelia, Ac. Stake and water Dahlias, Zonale Pelargoniums, and other bedded-out plants. Take up Gladiolus and other late bulbs. Water and shade pot plants.

Fruit Garden.—Fruits of all kinds will ripen fast, and require gathering in. Attend to drying and boiling down to jams whatever may not be required for immediate use, or unsuited for keeping until winter. Loosen ties of budded trees. Water trees planted in spring when standing in dry positions. Summer pruning must still be attended to.

MARCH.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Plant Cabbage, Cauliflower, Celery, Ac. Sow vegetables for early crops, such as Lettuce, Radish, Turnip,

Spinach, Carrot, Parsnip, Mustard and Cress, Onion, Leek, and Peas, a few Broad Beans, and also Cabbage and Cauliflower. Plant early Potatoes, Tree Onions, Shallots, and Garlic. Sow some of the hardier herbs (Thyme, Sage, Marjoram, &c.) Cut down stalks of Asparagus. Prepare ground for next month’s crops. Attend to watering newly-planted vegetables and seed-beds.

Floiver Garden.—Sow hardy annuals and perennial herbaceous plants. Put in cuttings of Pelargoniums. Plant early-flowering bulbs, such as Crocus, Hyacinth, Tulip, &c. Commence, towards the end of, the month, layering hard-wooded plants, and, should the weather be cool and damp, transplanting evergreen shrubs and trees, lifting each with a good ball of earth, and watering them thoroughly in their new positions. Separate plants layered last season from the parent plants prior to being removed. Cut back Pelargoniums. Sow Chinese Primulas, Calceolaria, Cineraria, Pansies, &c., in pots.

Fruit Garden.—Finish the fruit-harvest. Water Orange-trees. Remove suckers from fruit trees. Attend to the vintage. Remove remaining ties from budded trees.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow vegetables as on the plains, selecting drier positions on the slopes of hills, &c., as the so-called swamps will soon get too cold and wet for cultivation. Plant out Cabbages, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Celery, early Potatoes, &c., watering the young plants of the former if the weather should be dry. Hoe and earth up Cabbages, Celery, &c. Cut out runners of Strawberries, if previously neglected, leaving the strongest for propagation.

Floiver Garden.—Sow animals, as recommended for the Plains, and carry on other operations mentioned there. By cutting back Verbenas again an autumn show of flowers may be obtained. Commence dividing and transplanting perennials and evergreen shrubs and trees.

Fruit Garden.—The storeroom for preserving Apples and Pears for winter use will be filled during this month. Spread the fruit in thin layers on clean straw on shelves, rejecting all that may be bruised, as they will not keep. Proper attention must be paid to keep up regular ventilation in rooms where fruit is kept. Grapes in small quantities may be preserved for several months by cutting off the branch on which they grow, and fixing the freshly-cut end of it in a potato, hanging the whole up in a dry position.

APRIL.

PLAINS.    •

Kitchen Garden.—Gardeners will be kept busy this month. Sow all kinds of vegetables—Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, Kail, Celery, Turnip, Carrot, Parsnip, Peas, Broad Beans, Spinach, Mustard and Cress, Lettuce, Onion, Bed and Silver Beet, &c. Plant out Cabbage, Cauliflower, and Celery, and earth up those planted last month. Sow Parsley and other herbs. Give top-dressing of manure to Asparagus, Seakail, Strawberries, &c. Plant Potatoes. Take up Tams and Sweet Potatoes. Transplant and divide all kinds of herbs, renewing the edgings formed of them whenever it may be required. Dig and manure land for future plantations.

Flower Garden. — Continue sowing hardy annuals and perennials. Divide and transplant the latter, also evergreen shrubs and trees. Plant bulbs of early-flowering sorts. Propagate by cuttings Boses, Honeysuckle, Buddlea, &c., as they will succeed so much better if put in early. Dig and manure flower borders, and keep the garden generally in order. Renew edgings. Trench where not previously done, and lay out new grounds. Layer hard-wooded plants. Sow Primula, Pansy, Cineraria, Calceolaria, Mimulus, &c., and single pot the seedlings of former sowings of plants of that kind.

Fruit Garden.—-Prepare ground for receiving young fruit-trees and vines early next month. Though rather early, Peaches, Nectarines, and Cherries may be pruned towards the end of the month to fill up spare time.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow vegetables as recommended for the plains on dry sloping ground, and transplant Cabbages, &c. Supply top-dressing of manure to Asparagus, Rhubarb, Sea-kale, Strawberries, &c., and form new plantations of them. Plant Potatoes and Tree Onions, Garlic, Shallots, &c. Transplant and divide herbs.    .

Floiver Garden.—Sow hardy annuals and perennials, and carry on the same operations as regards planting bulbs, &c., as recommended for the plains. Dahlias will ripen towards the end of the month, when they may be cut down and the tubers taken up and preserved in sand. Lay out new gardens or borders, which should be planted early next month.

Fruit Garden —Attend to the storeroom, ventilating it and picking out all fruit which begins to rot. Prepare ground by trenching, &c., for new plantations. Plant stocks in nursery beds for grafting hereafter. Commence pruning Gooseberries, Currants, Raspberries, Mulberries, and other early-sprouting sorts, putting in the cuttings of the former, and of Mulberries.

MAY.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Continue planting Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Lettuce, Broccoli, &c., and. earth up previously planted ones. Sow Peas for a general crop, also Broad Beans, Turnip, Carrot, Parsnip, Spinach, Lettuce, Badish, Mustard and Cress, Onion, Leek, Silver Beet, &c. Plant Asparagus, Seakale, Potatoes, Shallots, Garlic, Onions, both the ordinary and Tree or Potato Onion. Sow herbs, such as Parsley, Chervil, Fennel, &c., and transplant and divide perennial kinds. Plant out Artichokes.

Flower Garden.—Continue sowing annuals and perennials ; transplant and divide the latter. Form new plantations of shrubs and trees, carefully lifting with a good ball of earth whatever has to be removed. In planting out pot plants it is a good practice to carefully untwist and spread out the roots, without breaking or damaging them. Plant Ranunculus, Anemones, Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcisses, Lilies, and bulbs and tubers. Transplant Roses and other deciduous or evergreen shrubs and trees, also climbing plants, &c., and put in cuttings and layers of Roses, Abutilon, Lonicera, and all other shrubs or trees which can be propagated by cuttings; the sooner this is done the better it is. Renew and dorm edgings, and plant hedges. Sow seeds of shrubs and trees. Continue repotting and cutting back Pelargoniums, starting some of them into growth. Attend to house plants, giving air when the weather allows it. Chinese Primulas, Cinerarias, Calceolarias, &c., may still be sown. Keep those potted off before vigorously growing, kept in cool frames close to the glass. Verbena cuttings may be put in, also Fuchsias and Pelargoniums.

Fruit Garden.—Plant all kinds of fruit-trees, vines, and especially Oranges, cutting well back all deciduous kinds. Prune fruit-trees, commencing with the sorts which burst first into leaf in spring. Sow Almonds, Peaches, Plums, Cherries, Apples, &c., to obtain stocks for grafting, and plant into nursery beds seedling stocks of last year’s raising. Dig between and round the roots of trees, manuring them where the land is poor.

hills. •

Kitchen Garden.—All kinds of vegetables recommended for the plains may also be sown on dry grounds on the hills, and transplant Cabbages, &c., in similar situations ; also Potatoes, Tree and Potato Onions, &c. Transplant Rhubarb, Asparagus, Seakail, Artichokes, Horseradish, and give top-dressings of well-rotted manure to older plantati.ons. Transplant Strawberries, herbs, &c., and propagate by division of the roots or cuttings. Drain and otherwise prepare new land for future cultivation.

Flower Garden.—Sow hardy annuals and perennials, also shrubs and trees, and transplant as directed for the plains. Lay out and plant new gardens or borders, the ground having been 'previously properly trenched, drained, and manured. Make cuttings and layers of all kinds of shrubs, trees, and climbers, both of such as will strike in the open air and under cover. Bed out Stocks, Phloxes, Wallflowers, China Asters, &c. Commence sheltering tender plants likely to suffer from night frosts.

Fruit Garden.—Plant all kinds of fruit-trees and vines, also Gooseberries, Currants, Mulberries, &c., and propagate the latter by cuttings. Plant fruit-trees and fruit-bearing shrubs, such as Baspberries, Blackberries, Nuts, &c., and sow seeds of the latter without loss of time. Commence digging between or around the trees, removing suckers, &c. Though weeds will most likely spring up and necessitate a second digging, early loosening of the soil near the .roots is very beneficial to the trees. Manure where required.

JUNE.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow Peas, Broad Beans, Turnips, Carrots, Parsnips, Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Radishes, Lettuces,.Onions, Leeks, Celery, and other hardy vegetables, and transplant those which succeed when so treated. Sow Red and Silver Beet and some Swedish Turnips. Though many of the latter are likely to run to seed, a few may succeed. Earth up early sown or planted crops. A commencement may be made with forcing Rhubarb, Cucumbers, Seakail, &c. Thin out Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips, and other root crops. Transplant and divide herbs, and make fresh sowings of them. Continue planting out Tree, Potato, and common Onions, Shallots, Garlic, Chives, &c., and plant Potatoes.

Flower Garden. — Make fresh sowings of hardy annuals, perennial, and ornamental shrubs and trees, and continue bedding out and transplanting as recommended for last month. Plant bulbs and tubers. Continue pruning Roses and other shrubs and trees, climbers, &c. Divide and transplant Chrysanthemums, perennial Phloxes, and other perennials, and continue laying out and planting new ground. Plant edgings of suitable plants, apd form lawns, croquet-grounds, &c. Commence repotting tuberous-rooted plants, such as Achimenes, Gloxinias, &c., and starting them into fresh growth. Attend to Pelargoniums, Cyclamens, Cineraria, Calceolaria, and other spring-flowering pot plants, giving them plenty of air and light, also liquid manure to rapidly-growing ones. Propagate by cuttings and layers.

Fruit Garden.—Continue pruning and planting as recommended for last month. Form hedges of suitable plants, and trim prievously-established ones. Continue digging between and around trees, manuring them where needed. Look after blight at the roots of Apple-trees, and destroy it as previously recommended.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—Earth up Cabbages, Celery, Cauliflowers, Broccoli, Savoys, &c., planted in previous months, and make fresh plantations of them in suitable localities; also additional sowings for future plantations. Sow Broad Beans, Peas, Lettuce, Turnips, Carrots, Parsnips, Radishes, Spinach, and other hardy vegetables ; also herbs of all kinds. Dig and manure Rhubarb, Seakail, &c. Sow Leeks and Onions, and plant Potatoes, Jerusalem Artichokes, Horseradish, Hops, &c. Thin out and weed root and other crops. Stick early-sown Peas, and top Broad Beans if they show no signs of regularly setting fruit. Commence forcing Rhubarb, &c., as recommended for the plains.

Flower Garden. — Operations the same as on the plains. Keep the ground in order by digging under all weeds and cutting down the remaining flower-stalks of herbaceous plants. Prune shrubs and trees. Plant bulbs, and lay out and plant new ground.

Fruit Garden.—Prune and plant as recommended for the plains. Look after fruit stored up for winter use, which requires occasional picking over to remove decaying fruits, these being apt to infect others. Ventilate it regularly. Plant, trim, and sow hedges.

JULY.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow later varieties of Peas, Broad Beans, also some more Radishes, Mustard, and Cress, Turnips, Lettuce, Onions (thickly for pickling), Red and Silver Beet, New Zealand, Tree, and Common Spinach, Swedish Turnips, &c. A few Carrots and Parsnips may also be sown. Thin out and weed former crops. Hoe and earth up Potatoes, Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Peas, Broad Beans, Celery, &c. In sheltered positions, which are not too wet and cold, sow towards the end of the month some French Beans (dwarf varieties, such as Pale Dun, Negro, &c., answer best), and continue forcing Cucumbers in frames, and Seakail, Rhubarb, &c., under pots or casks. Plant out Cabbages, Potatoes, Onions, and finish planting herbs. Sow Tobacco under shelter.

Flower Garden.—Sow hardy annuals and perennials, also in sheltered positions some half-hardy kinds. Finish planting bulbs and tubers, and continue bedding out and planting perennials and shrubs and trees. Eepot and start into growth Fuchsias, Caladiums, Gloxinias, Achimenes, &c. Propagate by cuttings Verbenas, Heliotropes, &c. Prune Eoses and other shrubs. Sow tender annuals in pots under cover. Commence towards the end of the month repotting Ferns, Begonias, Justitia, and other house plants likely to break early into fresh growth. Attend to bedding out parterres, ribbon borders, and designs. Early varieties of Eoses may be budded towards the end of the month, though the best time for doing so is after Christmas.

Fruit Garden.—Pruning and planting Fruit-trees and Vines will still form the main operations in this department. Dig and hoe in the orchard to destroy weeds and to keep the ground open. Destroy blight on Apple-trees. Many prefer this and the next month for planting Orange-trees, though, for reasons stated in the preceding pages, I consider the early part of autumn, April, and May more advantageous, or if the ground is not ready then would advise waiting till spring. Unless the season is very backward, Peaches, Nectarines, and Almonds may be budded towards the end of the month. Transplanting these and Cherries should not be delayed beyond July.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden. — Carefully dig and manure Asparagus, Ehubard, and Seakail. Earth up and plant out Cabbage, &c., as recommended for the plains, and attend to other crops as directed there. Sow Broad Beans, Peas, Carrots, Parsnips, Celery, Leeks, Onions, Lettuce, Eadishes, Spinach (of sorts), pot herbs, and other hardy vegetables. Also shelter by frames Cucumbers and Melons for forcing. Force Ehubarb, Asparagus, &c. Plant Potatoes and sow Chicory in rich, deep, and damp, but well drained, land. Top Broad Beans.

Flower Garden. — Operations the same as on the plains. Eoses will scarcely be fit for budding during this month in the colder hill districts. Sowing and planting as recommended here refers as a matter of course only to the drier parts of the ground. The almost invaluable swampy lands frequently met with in the hills are rarely available at this season, and become fit for cultivation during the summer.

Fruit Garden.—Planting and pruning as recommended for the plains forms also here the main operations. Though early transplanting cannot be too much recommended, it becomes sometimes necessary to delay it beyond the usual time. Trees taken up early in the season and merely laid in by the roots

(heeled in) will not come into growth so early as if left in the ground undisturbed until wanted. By occasionally taking them up and laying in again their time of rest may be slightly increased. Finish trenching new ground. Attend to the fruit stored up by removing all rotten or damaged fruit from among them. Admit fresh air to the storeroom when the weather is dry.

AUGUST.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow Peas, French Beans, Bed and Silver Beet, Swedish Turnips, Radishes, Lettuces, Turnips, Mustard and Cress, New Zealand Spinach, and as a chance crop some Carrots and Parsnips. Transplant Cabbages, Celery, and Onions. Plant Potatoes. Sow Cucumbers, sheltered as described in article treating on their culture; also Bock Melons. Thin, weed, earth up, and hoe Cabbage and other plantations. Sow Maize, Ochro, Ground Nuts, and others of the more tender kinds of vegetables. Prepare ground for the main crop of Cucumbers, Marrows, Pumpkins, Melons, Ac. Sow Capsicums, Egg-plants, Tomatoes, &c., under shelter. Transplant Tobacco.

Flower Garden.—Sow hardy and tender annuals such as Cockcombs, Balsams, Fuchsias, and other house plants. Finish planting late bulbs and tubers. Attend to bedding out Pelargoniums, Verbenas, Cinerarias, Pansies, Asters, Phlox, Ac. Finish pruning Boses and other shrubs, &c. Make cuttings of Verbenas, Carnations, and Piccotees. Planting season for shrubs and trees will close in the month of August unless special attention is paid to the plantations during the coming summer. Where this is done, the time for doing so may be prolonged till very late in spring with perfect safety. Bud Boses. Commence mulching Mulberry and other cuttings and seeding beds. Transplant into nursery rows seedlings of shrubs and trees of perennials. Trim hedges. Plants under glass must be looked to, giving them air when the weather allows it, and repotting them into fresh soil. Sow tender annuals such as Cockscombs, Balsams, Ac., under glass.

;■ Fruit Garden.—Finish pruning and planting the ordinary kinds of fruit-trees. Plant Oranges and other trees belonging to that tribe. Bud and graft all kinds of fruit-trees and vines. For covering the wound caused by grafting, underground stiff clay, not liable to crack, is generally used. Grafting wax above ground is used for covering over wounds caused by pruning, Ac.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—Manure and dig Asparagus and Rhubarb.

Earth and hoe Potatoes, Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Peas, Beans, <fec., and thin out root crops. Sow Broad Beans, Peas, Beet, Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips, Onions, Celery, Spinach, Leeks, &c. Transplant Cabbage, Cauliflowers, Leeks, Onions, Celery, and Lettuces. Plant Potatoes, and the last of Shallots and Garlic. Sow Cucumbers and Melons under shelter, also Capsicums, Tomatoes, &c. Sow a few French Beans in sheltered and rather dry positions.

Flower Garden.—Operations similar to those on the plains. Plant Dahlias towards the end of the month. Attend to bedding-out and propagating as directed there, and sow the more tender kinds of flowers.    ’

Fruit Garden —Though vegetation remains dormant for a longer period in the cooler hill districts, pruning and planting should also here cease with this month. Bud and graft as directed above. Plant out tender fruit trees, such as Guavas, Date plums, &c. Look to beds containing cuttings and transplanted seedlings, mulching them, and continue transplanting seedlings to nurserybeds.

SEPTEMBER.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow French Beans, Beet, New Zealand and Tree Spinach, Capsicums, Tomatoes, Cucumbers, Sweet and Water Melons, Marrows, Pumpkins, Trombones, and other Gourds, Ochro, Maize, Sorghum, and Millet; also a few of the earlier quickly-growing Peas, Radishes, Lettuce, Turnips, Mustard and Cress, Mangold Wurtzel, Swedish Turnips, &c. Finish planting Cabbages, Onions, and Potatoes. Plant Yams and Sweet Potatoes. Hoe and earth up previously-sown or transplanted crops, and thin and weed root crops. (Plantations or sowings of the hardy kinds of vegetables, such as Cabbages, Peas, and Beans, &c., made at this season of the year on the plains must always be considered a chance crop, their success depending on the weather.)

Floiver Garden.—Sow tender annuals, and some of the fastgrowing hardier sorts in the open border. Sow Balsams, Cockscombs, &c., for pot culture. Attend to Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, Cineraria, &c., in the frames. Continue bedding out Verbenas, Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, &c. Water recently-planted shrubs and trees, if the weather should set in dry, and commence mulching them. Dig or fork over borders, and keep these and the walks clean and tidy. Stake and tie up herbaceous and other plants, and train climbers. Sturt Peas sown now will flower in autumn. Clean Roses from blight. Attend to house plants, admitting air when the weather permits, and syringe them morning and night during warm days, shading them when the sun is hot on the glass.

Fruit Garden.—Grafting late sorts of trees must he finished early this month. Buds inserted last month, and early grafted trees, want looking after, rubbing off the shoots springing from the stocks. Cut back the stocks of budded trees to a little above the bud. Mulch recently planted trees. Finish planting Oranges.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—Most of the ordinary vegetables sown on the plains in June and July, can still he sown in the hill districts, and Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Onions, Celery, &c., be transplanted. Sow also French Beans, Capsicums, Tomatoes, Cucumbers, Melons, and other plants belonging to that tribe. Plant the main crop of Potatoes on dry lands, those for swamps being reserved for a later period. Sow Chicory. Plant out Tobacco, Yams, Sweet Potatoes, &c. Attend to growing crops, by hoeing, earthing up, thinning, and weeding, &o.

Flower Garden—Continue sowing tender and hardy annuals and perennials; also planting out bulbs for late' flowering. Plant Dahlias, the hardy tuberous-rooted Tropicolum penta-phyllum, and other similar plants. Bed out and propagate as recommended for the plains. Attend to pot-grown plants, watering and sheltering them, and pot off Balsams, &c. General operations for keeping the garden in order, the same as for the plains.

Fruit Garden.—Fruit trees in general should be looked to as previously directed, tying newly-planted ones to stakes, watering them, destroying blight, &c. Attend to grafted and budded trees and vines. Finish digging in the Orchard and Vineyard. The latter especially requires to be done by careful hands to prevent the buds or young shoots being taken off. Remove all suckers from fruit trees and vines.

OCTOBER.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Cucumbers, Melons (Rock and Water), Trombones and Marrows, Pumpkins, Tomatoes, Capsicums, Eggplants, Ochro, and other tender plants may still be sown, also a few French Beans, Radishes, and Red and Silver Beet. The seedbeds require attention, of course watering them when the weather is dry. Supply water and liquid manure to Celery, Cabbages, Kohlrabi, &c., and earth them up. Keep the weeds from growing crops, and the ground open between them. Water early sown Cucumbers and Melons, Marrows, Beans, &c., and prune the former.

Flower Garden.—Sow a few of the rapidly-growing annuals which will stand the drought of summer, such as Nolana, Ipomcea, Portulaca, &c. Bed out Verbenas, Petunias, Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, Zinnias, &c. Attend to watering, mulching, tying up and training of plants in general in the open ground, and to shading, plunging, syringing, and airing of all pot plants. Pinch back Fuchsias, Begonias, Justitias, &c. Start Caladiums, tuberous Begonias, Gloxinias, Gesnerias, Achi-menes, Ac., into vigorous growth by plunging them into brisk bottom heat, and keeping up a damp atmosphere. Destroy blight on Boses.

Fruit Garden.—Attend to summer pruning, rubbing off unnecessary shoots, and pinching back others. Remove suckers. Tie up the shoots of grafted and budded trees, and rub off shoots springing from the stocks. Thin out the fruit of heavily-loaded trees where really fine table fruit is wanted. Begin budding or grafting Orange-trees. Keep weeds under, the ground open, and trees planted during the past season watered and mulched. Should the weather prove very dry, an occasional thorough watering, especially of stone fruit-trees, will greatly improve the size and flavour of the fruit.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—The low-lying swamps, which could not be used during the winter, can now be brought into cultivation, and be cropped with any of the vegetables sown on the plains during the past months. Plant out Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Celery, Potatoes, Ac. Sow Peas and Beans, Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips, Bed and Silver Beet, Cucumbers, Melons, Ac. Water crops on drier situations, and supply them with liquid manure, and attend to earthing up, hoeing, weeding, and pruning of Cucumbers and Melons ; sticking tall-growing Peas, Beans, Ac.

Flower Garden.—Operations the same as on plains. The climate being cooler and moister, a greater number of annuals may still be sown, and many transplanted out of pots into the open ground which would not stand it on the plains. Plant Dahlias, late-flowering Gladiolus, Ac. Attend to pot plants as directed above.

Fruit Garden.—The work required during this month is the same on the hills as on the plains.

NOVEMBER.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—Sow a few Radishes, Mustard and Cress, and Celery, in damp sheltered positions. Supply water and liquid manure to growing crops of Cabbages and Celery, and earth them up. Dig up Potatoes and Onions as they ripen. Stop Beans, Cucumbers, Melons, Marrows, &c., and give them a liberal supply of liquid manure and water, also to Yams and sweet Potatoes. The former must now be staked.

Flower Garden.—Sow Portulaca, Ipomcea, and other plants suitable for the season. Take up flowering bulbs as they ripen. Train and tie up climbing and other plants. Water plants bedded out, and trees and shrubs planted last season, sheltering and mulching the latter. Cut back Verbenas and other bedding plants. Attend to pot-grown plants,'shading, syringing, and watering them, and supplying liquid manure to all rapidly-growing ones. Pinch back Fuchsias. All pot plants kept in the open air must be plunged at once, should this have been neglected before.

Fruit Garden.—Attend to watering and mulching of young trees, and to summer pruning of all. Loosen the ties of grafted and budded trees, which also require examination to remove shoots springing from the stocks or roots. Gather early fruits as they ripen. Tie up Vines. Graft or bud Oranges.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden.—Continue operations recommended for last month, the great moisture of the swamps enabling the gardeners to sow and plant anything adapted to our climate during the whole of the summer.    *

Floiver Garden.—The directions given above apply also to hill gardens, in which, however, a far greater variety of annuals may still be sown, and many bedding plants transferred to the open ground. Layer Carnations and Piccotees. Look to Roses to destroy blight.

Fruit Garden.—Operations the same as on the plains.

DECEMBER.

PLAINS.

Kitchen Garden.—The time for planting and sowing in plain gardens is over for the season. Take up Onions, Garlic, Shallots, &c., as they ripen, and collect seeds of Peas, Beans, Ac. Water Cucumbers, Melons, Pumpkins, Marrows, Tomatoes, and Capsicums. Remove all weedsi and the remains of vegetables, Ac., to the compost heap, and roughly dig over ground which has become vacant.

Floiver Garden.—Take up bulbs as the leaves die off. Collect seeds. Train and tie up Climbers and other plants. Water bedded-out and other plants, including shrubs and trees. Layer Carnations. Cut back Verbenas, Petunias, &c., to induce the formation of fresh flowers. Bud Roses. Water the open-ground nursery. Shade, shelter, and water regularly all pot-grown plants. Keep the walks and borders clean.

Fruit Garden.—Attend to watering of young trees, and remember always that by proper attention to summer pruning much time and labour will be saved in winter, and the health of the {trees preserved. Bud Peaches, Nectarines, Almonds, and other stone fruit as soon as the sap circulates freely to admit of it. Gather in fruit as it ripens.

HILLS.

Kitchen Garden— Continue sowing in drained swamps Broad and French Beans, Beet, Carrot, Parsnip, Celery, Lettuce, Badish, Peas, Spinach, Turnip, Cabbage, Cauliflower, &c.; and plant out Cabbages, Broccoli, Cauliflowers, and Celery. Attend to growing crops as previously directed. Plant Potatoes.

Floiver Garden.—Collecting seeds, taking up bulbs, staking and tying up, and watering plants, form also here the principal operations for the month, which are on the whole the same as for the plains. Attend to pot plants and to the nursery, by watering, weeding, &c.

Fruit Garden.—Attention to young trees, to summer-pruning and budding of stone fruits, is the only work required now in the Orchard, to which may be added the pleasant task of gathering in a plentiful crop of cherries and other early fruits.

INDEX

Page.

Pago

Aberia ... ...

59

Cabbage ...

19

Achimenes ... ...

104

Cactus ...

105

Almonds ... ...

46

Calceolaria ...

108

Anemone ... ...

83

Camellia ...

109

Annuals ... ...

76

Cape Gooseberry

21

Antirrhinum ...

87

Caper, true ...

39

Apples ... ...

46

“ substitute for

38

Apricot ... ...

47

Capsicum ...

20

Aquatic Plants ...

112

Carnation ...

83

Arachis ... ...

38

Carrot ...

21

Arrangement of Plants.

65

Cauliflower ...

21

Artichoke ... ...

25

Celery ...

22

Artificial Heat ...

100

Celosia ...

108

Asparagus ... ...

14

Centre Plants

63

Chserophyllum bulbosum

38

Balsam ... ...

107

Cherry ...

48

Bamboo House ...

97

Chestnut ...

48

Banana ... ...

58

Chicory ...

27

Basket Plants ...

112

Chillies ...

20

Beans, Broad ...

15

Chinese Primrose

108

“ French ...

16

Chives ...

23

“ Kidney ...

16

Chrysanthemum

84

Beet ... ...

17

Cineraria ...

108

“ Red ... ...

18

Climate ...

5

“ Silver ... ...

18

Climbers ...

91

Begonia^ ... ...

104

Cockscomb ...

108

Biennials ... ...

76

Coleus ...

104

Black Spanish Radish...

32

Compost ...

"4,

96

Blackberry ... ...

55

Conifers ...

66

Borecole ... ...

18

Cordyline ...

107

Bramble ... .. .

55

Corn Salad ...

27

Broccoli ... .. .

18

Creepers ...

91

Brdbs ... ...

82

Cress ...

23

Budding ... 42, 73

Cucumber ...

23

Page.

Cultivation of Plants

under Glass

... 102

Currants ...

... 48

Cuttings. ...

... 73

Cyclamen ...

84, 109

Cyperus esculentus

... 38

Dahlia ...

... 84

Date Palm ...

... 59

Diospyros ...

... 59

Diseases of limit Trees-. 45

Dracsena ...

... 107

Draining ...

... 8

Edging Plants

13, 63

Eggplant ...

... 24

Endive ...

... 26

Erica ...

... 109

Eugenia ...

... 59

Everlastings...

... 81

Isms •••

... 106

Eig ...

... 49

Elower Garden

... 62

Foliage Plants

66, 87

F rames ...

... 101

E uchsia ...

85, 110

Gardeners’ Calendar______ 119

Garlic ...

... 25

Geranium ...

... 110

Gesneria ...

... 104

Gladiolus ...

... 82

Glass Houses

... 98

Gloxinia ...

... 104

Gooseberry ...

... 49

Grafting ...

42, 73

“ Wax

... 44

Grasses, Ornamental

... 81

Lawn

... 65

Ground Huts

... 38

Grenadilla ...

... 59

Grouping Plants

... 71

Guava ...

... 59

Hedges ... ...

Page.

11

Hedge Plants, List of...

12

Heating ... ...

106

Heaths ... ...

109

Herbs ... ..

25

Hibiscus esculentus ...

38

Hill Gardening ...

. 39

Hollyhock .. ..

86

Hops ... ...

- 38

Horseradish... ...

25

Hotbeds ... ...

7

Howenia ... ...

59

Hyacinth ... ...

. 82

Hybridisation ...

116

Irrigation ... ...

8

Jerusalem Artichoke ...

25

Kaffir Apple... ...

59

Kail ... ...

18

Kitchen Garden ...

13

Kohlrabi ... ...

25

Dawns ... ...

65

Lawn Grasses ...

65

Larkspur ... ...

86

Layering'' ... ...

73

Laying out Gardens. ...

10

Leaf mould ... ...

96

Leek ... ...

25

Lemons ... ...

52

Lettuce ... ...

26

List of Basket Plants ...

113

“ Climbers ...

92

“ Everlastings ...

81

Ornamental Grasess ... ...

81

Loam ... ...

95

Loquat ... ...

49

Ly copods ... ...

106

Maize ,.. •••

38

Manure ... ...

96 ,

Tlanurm^ ... ...

6 .

Medlars ...

Page.

Page.

...

50

Potato ... ...

30

Melons ...

27

Onion ...

29

Mimulus ...

108

Potting ... ...

9

Mulberries ...

50

“ Soil.......

96

Mulching ...

...

9

Pot Herbs ... ..

25

Mushrooms ...

27

Pot Plants ... ..

95

Mustard ...

...

28

Preparation of Soil ..

6

Preserving Fruit ...

60

Nasturtium ...

38

Preserving Melon •••

27

Nectarine ...

53

Primrose ... ...

108

New Fruits ...

...

58

Propagating... 73

101

JNew Zealand Spinach...

34

Protecting Trees ..

10

Nursery, Outdoor

91

Pruning ... ...

41

Nuts ...

51

Pumpkins ... , ...

31

Onions ...

28

Quince ... ...

55

Orange, Tribe of

52

Orchard ...

40

Radish ... ..

32

Orchids ...

...

114

Ranunculus .

83

Oclivo ...

38

Rape ... ..

32

Ornamental Grasses

80

Raspberry ... ..

55

Red Beet ... ..

18

Palms ...

71,

108

Rhododendron ..

100

Pansy ...

86

Rhubarb ... ..

32

Parslev ...

29

Rock Melon ... ..

27

Parsnip ...

• ••

30

Root Pruning. ..

40

Passiflora ...

59

Rose Apple ... .

59

Passionflower

59

Roses ... .

87

Peach ...

53

Pear ...

53

Salsify ... ..

39

Peas ...

30

Sansl ••• ••

96

Peat ...

...

96

Savoy ... ..

. 33

Pentstemon ...

87

Seakail ... .

33

Pelargonium

85,

110

M .....

. 118

Perennials ...

74

Shallots ... ..

. 33

Petunia— ...

86,

107

Sheltering,.. ... ..

. 10

Phlfls ...

87

Shelter Sheds ..

. 96

Piccotee ...

83

Shrubberies ... ..

. 71

Pie Melon ...

87

Shrubs, List of .

67

Pines ...

66

Soft-wooded Plants ••

104

Pink ...

83

SpjL......

Sowing Seeda_ .

6, 95

Planting ...

8

44

.. 118

“ Time of

41

Spinach ... .

. 33

Plum ...

54

“ New Zealand .

.. 34

Portulaca ...

38

87

Staking ...

.. 10

Page.

Strawberries...

... 34

Succulents ...

.. 105

Surface Drains

... 64

Sweet Melon

... 27

“ Potato

... 33

Tomato ...

... 36

Tragopogon ...

... 39

Trees, List of

41, 67

Tree Onion ...

... 29

Spinacli...

... 34

Trenching ...

... 40

Trombone ...

... 36

Tuberous Plants

104, 82

Page,

Turnip ...

... 36

Ullucus ...

... 38

Vegetable Garden

... 13

Verbena ...

... 90

Vines ...

... 56

Walnut ...

... 58

Watering ...

9, 97

Water Melons

... 27

Window Gardening

.. 115

Yams ...

... 37


E. B. HEYYE,

SEEDSMAN AND FLORIST,

RUNDLE STREET,

OPPOSITE THE YORK HOTEL.

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VEGETABLE SEEDS, large and well-selected Stock of best quality and variety.

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FRUIT TREES, ORANGE TREES, VINES, FRUITING SHRUBS, &c., &c., always on hand during the planting season.

ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS and TREES, ROSES, and all other ORNAMENTAL PLANTS, FOREST TREES (including a large collection of Californian and other CONIFERS), ready for selection.

Country orders promptly attended to, and all Goods carefully packed for transmission to any part of Australia.

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Estimates for Laying Out and Planting Gardens given on application.

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In my endeavor to please my friends and patrons, may I again invite them to visit my NURSERIES, now pronounced by the public generally to contain the Largest, Choicest, most Varied, and Healthy Collection of

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PAYNEHAM NURSERY,

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(Opposite Eitch’s Corner.)

Manufacturers of the Largest Assortment of Confectionery in .South Australia, including Crystallized Jujubes and Pastilles, Pink, Pine, and Liquorice Jujubes, Sugar Candy, Scotch Mixtures, Crystallized Almonds, Burnt Almonds, Liqueurs, Yanilla Cream, Cocoanut Ice, &c.

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TAILOR AND CLOTHIER,

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ktew winter stock.

Now replete with everything suitable for Gentlemen’s wear.

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