-

£ H. /ax


The


Good Housekeeping Toddlers'


Toddlers are fun—but they do bring problems* and worries to their parents. This little book, written by a team of experts in collaboration with the Good Housekeeping Children’s Doctor, sets out to solve the problems and increase the fun.


The National Magazine Co. Pty. Ltd. Sydney




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3 E R U





//


THE FOUNDATION (AND PRESERVER) OF BEAUT V

CONTENTS

Page

5

17

, 35

47

53

81

93

106

-    129

-    134

-    136


Chapter I: The Toddler's Day ..................

Change from babyhood to toddler—the toddler’s routine—sleep and rest—bath and toilet—learning to be clean.    —

Chapter II: Nursery Diet from 2-5 Years ............

General principles of diet for small children.proteins, fats, carbohydrates and the principal vitamins— specimen: menus with recipes.

Chapter III: Development of Intelligence ......

The normal standards—the two-year-old—the three-year-oldspeechthe four-year-olddevelopment through playtoys—the role of the grown-ups.

Chapter IV: Physical Development ..................

Signs of progress—weight and height—secondary dentition—dancing arid singing—outdoor games and exercises.

Chapter V: The Toddler's Clothes ..................

Kniting for the toddlerinstructions—making garments—diagrams and directions.

Chapter VI: Understanding Your Child ............

Consistency in treatment—the mother’s responsibility f‘ Don’t ”—the problem of punishment—questions and answers.

Chapter VII: Psychological Difficulties ............

Temper and jealousy—symptoms of “nerves”personality problems—mental development.

Chapter VIII: Nursery Ailments and First Aid ......

throat troublesinfectious diseasesthe nursery first-aid chest.

Chart of Stages of Development ............ 128

See How They Grow ......    .................. 130

Index ..................................... 135

3


Avoiding illness—digestive upsetsear, nose and

He is iucky because h i s parents don't believe in luck, but believe in giving him a sound, practical start on the road to success.


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The parents contribute a small regular sum which, supplemented with bonuses, will provide a substantial sum to aid his education and start him on his career.

Is your child getting this chance?

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The Toddler’s Day

IN springtime we are often amazed at the rapid growth of the plants, trees and hedges. The buds burst forth and, before \ve have had time fully to enjoy the delicate promise of early spring, the whole panorama has changed — branches are no longer visible and green leaves are everywhere.

It is just the same with our babies. Between the ages of nine months and two years amazing growth takes place. The relatively immobile baby becomes the toddler—he learns to talk and sing; he learns to feed himself, to recognise the objects in his home, to pick out his favourite toys and to play with them. Then he makes friends with animals, and later with other children, and he has decided ideas as to what he likes and what he wants to do. In fact, he becomes a very active and often quite vocal member of the household, all in the space of a few months!

Many mothers have said with a sigh: "He’s growing up too fast." That is a feeling most of us have. We should like a little longer time in which to enjoy this lovely experience of seeing and helping our baby grow from dependence to independence. Too often we have so much to do that we cannot find time to "stand and stare,” or to enjoy introducing our babies to some of the interesting things about them. In order that we - may plan our days well, and understand some of the complex changes through which baby is passing, this book is written. We all want our children to become men and women of strong character and sound moral judgment; therefore we are anxious to lay good foundations in their early years.

The Toddler’s Routine

Let us think of some of these foundations: a healthy body,, a healthy way of thinking and an adventuring spirit are perhaps the three essentials. Routine, diet and exercise are the chief ways in which a healthy body is developed.

To some mothers the word routine has become a bugbear. They have planned a meticulous programme for themselves and their children and have, perhaps, become exhausted and irritable because it was too much for them to carry out. Yet routine has a place in the toddler’s programme, just as it had in the new baby’s day. A certain amount of routine gives the child a sense of security. He likes to be able to know what is going to happen during his day. He likes to be able to share in the routine of the household, and when he is older he will love to help mother in some of her jobs.

PLANNING THE DAY

Here are some programmes for children of different ages_‘ They are intended as a guide rather than as hard-and-fast rules, and mothers will naturally adapt them to their own circumstances. It is important to remember that the household should not revolve round the todler, as perhaps it sometimes did round the new baby.

One Year to Eighteen Months

7 a.m.

If baby awake, hold out. Give orange juice. (If awake earlier, train to play quietly in cot. If asleep do not wake to give fruit juice.)

8 a.m.

Breakfast.

Toilet (for bowel action). Wash hands.

8 a.m.—10 a.m.

In play-pen (out of doors when possible). Sunbath in the warm weather.

10—10.30 a.m.

Give piece of apple or fruit juice. Put on "pottie-chair.”

Wash hands.

10.30—12.30 p.m.

Morning sleep. Have cot or basinette outside when possible.

Dinner. Afterwards encourage toilet. Put back to sleep or to quietly rest or play in cot. Play out of doors with toys in play-pen or outing in pram or stroller. ”Mothering”-time, and exercise and fruit juice. Sunkicks when weather is suitable. Sponge or bath.

12.30—1 p.m.

2 p.m.—-4 p.m.

4    p.m.—5 p.m.

/

5    p.m.

5.15 p.m.

5.45 p.m.

to

6.30    p.m.

6.30    p.m.

10 p.m.

7 a.m.—8 a.m.


8.30—10.30 a.m.


10.30 a.m.


12.30—1 p.m.

1.30    p.m.—3 p.m. 3 p.m.

4.30    p.m.

5 p.m.

5.15 p.m.

5.45 p.m. to

6.30    p.m.

6.30    p.m.

10.30    p.m.


Tea.

Toilet. Wash hands.

"Fathering”-time (must not be made overexcited with romps).

Tucked in for night.

Lift for toilet.

Fruit juice or piece of apple. Wash and dress. Out in play-pen until breakfast. Toilet.

Play in play-pen or when baby grows out of this he can play round the house or in the garden.

Drink of orange juice or piece of fruit. Follow this with a walk or if preferred let baby sleep till dinner-time.

Dinner.

Either sleep or play in cot or play-pen. Afternoon walk.

Fruit juice. "Mothering”-time. Toilet. Wash hands.

Bath.

Tea.

Toilet. Wash hands.

Wise ''fathering”-time. Bed-time stories. Tuck in for night.

Lift for toilet.

Eighteen Months to Three Years

The routine here is much the same as in the earlier time-table, but a little more time will be given to playing and less to sleeping. Try to keep on with two sleeps a day until baby refuses to oblige, then continue either the morning or the afternoon sleeps whichever suits your own programme and baby’s disposition best.

At this age baby may be able to tell you when he wants to use the pot. Until he can do so, keep to the routine outlined in the first time-table.

Three to Four Years

Wash and dress.

Breakfast.

Play in house or garden.

Drink of orange juice or apple. Walk.

Dinner.

Rest in bed, when he may sleep. Play in garden, or walk. Tea-supper.

Play and story time.

Bath.

Good-night.


7.30— 8 a.m.

8 a.m.

8.30— 10.30 a.m.

10.30    a.m.

10.45—noon

12.30    p.m.

1—3 p.m.

3—4.30 p.m.

5    p.m.

5.30— 6 p.m.

6    p.m.

6.30    p.m.

Sleep and Rest

You may find that it is best for the three-to-five-year-old to have a rest before dinner, rather than after. If so, do not hesitate to change the time-table. Do remember that these routines are meant for your guidance and help. Experience will tell you how far they are suited to the toddler and you.

You may have to change the time-table occasionally, to fit in with special circumstances. Suppose, for instance, that your toddler eats a poor tea on occasions; then you will be wise to give him some supper, even though he comes in the three-to-five age group. As your child grows older he may object to being "organised.” If this happens, it is still wise to insist on one or two essentials, especially the rest time, but let him develop his own line when he can without impairment to health and character.

Mothers of more than one child will probably find that with the second and third it is not possible to keep to a hard and fast routine. But if at all possible it is good to get the essentials, such as meal-times and rest periods, at regular intervals during

the day—and remember, the one great essential is that each child should have his share of your undivided attention for some time during the day.

Amount of rest and sleep required: Children differ widely in the amount of sleep they require, and at various periods of their lives their requirements alter. Once the toddling stage is reached, round about 18 months, baby will need plenty of rest and sleep because he is using a great deal of energy in walking and picking himself up after his falls. In the eighteen months to three-year period it is wise to aim at 12 hours’ sleep at night, or even longer, and a good sleep of 1-| to 2 hours during the day. In addition there should be times when baby sits in his pram and plays, or is taken for a walk in the pram, to rest his legs.

Roughly speaking, it is never wise to let baby run round for more than 1 to 1% hours, as he will only get overtired, and if he is very heavy the bones of his legs may become bowed. It is always wise to alternate periods of activity with periods of rest. If baby will not sleep he will often play in his cot or high chair or pram, and this will rest his limbs.

As your toddler grows older you may have to drop the midday sleep, as it sometimes means he will not go to sleep at a reasonable hour at night. It is still a good plan to let him have a rest, either in his cot or on a camp bed in the garden. Supply him with some books and perhaps a few bricks or games, so that he is kept occupied and happy. Every youngster up to the age of five, and even after, if you can carry it out successfully, needs a rest during the day. And if you notice that yours tires easily, do not hesitate to use a push chair or pram for occasional shopping expeditions or walks, as this does rest the body.

Going to Bed

It is wise to insist on a regular bedtime, and this should be adhered to, even when exciting visitors are arriving. Children between the ages of four and five should be in bed by 7 p.m. This means beginning the process about 6.15 p.m., when all toys are put away and a quiet story is read. This is followed by a bath or wash, teeth cleaning, and so to bed. See that your toddler has all he wants, then say "Good-night,” quietly and firmly. It is wise to avoid romping, games and heavy meals just before bedtime.

In hot weather it is often difficult to get children to go to

sleep. Try to keep the bedroom as airy as possible, and if it is a very sunny room do not hesitate to draw the blinds. The mattress should be firm, and the only covering a sheet or light blanket. A tepid bath just before bedtime helps to cool the body.

A sleeping suit or one-piece pyjama is the best night wear for "the toddler, as there are no tight strings round the tummy and no fear of the body becoming uncovered.

You will probably find that as your toddler reaches the age of two-and-a-half to three years he will be able to go all through the night without lifting. It is wise to experiment from time to time to see if he is ready to be left. Should he wet the bed do not scold him, but just continue to lift him for another two or three months and then try again.

Fresh Air and Sunshine

Roughly speaking your toddler cannot have too much fresh air, but he can have too much sunshine. As long as he can use his pram out-of-doors for his rest or sleep, it is wise to let him continue, but as he grows bigger, he will not be comfortable in the pram and will sleep better indoors. Very active youngsters are often too interested to settle down to sleep out-of-doors, but they do seem to understand when they are firmly placed in a cot, with the sides up, and left alone.

Toddlers cannot be left out in their prams in any weather, as a tiny baby often is, because they are too active, and uncover themselves easily. A sleeping bag is of great use when baby reaches this active stage and can be worn either during the day or at night-time.

Even in very cold weather your youngster can be safety taken for his outing. It may be wise to protect his head and ears from a frosty wind by providing him with a woollen helmet or pixie cap. Foggy weather is not good for any young child, and walks in heavy rain are not exactly attractive, but rainy weather will not hurt your child provided he has adequate protection.

During the spring give your youngster all the fresh air he can get, and gradually acclimatise him to sunshine, so that when the really sunny days come you will be able fo let him wear a minimum of clothes and revel in the sunshine.

This process of acclimatisation is all-important, and a mother who puts her child nearly naked in the strong sunlight without this process of gradual hardening is asking for trouble. A

child’s skin is very tender, especially if he has fair or reddish hair, and the experiment may end in painful red shoulders and arms, and sometimes even blistering. Even when the child has been introduced to the sun gradually it is important to limit his stay in strong sunlight if the day is really hot. A sun hat is always advisable to protect the head.

It is not necessary to take your child for a walk in order that he may get the fresh air—playing in the garden does just as well and is much less tiring to the mother.

Sunshine plays an important part in establishing your child’s health. The cells of the skin react to certain rays and a form of Vitamin D is made which is then absorbed into the blood stream and distributed round the body, acting as a preventative agent against rickets. Ultra-violet rays are not necessarily contained only in bright sunlight, but corfte through to some extent in all but very dull or foggy weather.

Therefore, when you have a choice, do not let your child play indoors when there is a chance of taking him out of doors, or of letting him play in the garden, even if he does get in a mess and pull up father’s favourite flowers!

Bath and Toilet

Your younster will now have reached the stage where he has an evening bath in the big bath, and he will thoroughly enjoy it. The water should be moderately hot, except in very hot weather, when, as has been said, it will be wise to have it cooler. Some children will enjoy a cool sponge down after the warm bath, and this is thought to be a good thing because it closes the pores of the skin and prevents cold-catching. Many books advocate cold sponging, but I have yet to meet the child who really enjoys it, and most that I know object very strongly. However, as they grow older and begin to take an interest in the process of "hardening,” they may make up their minds to grin and bear it, and may even assist.

For the evening bath use a good super-fatted soap, and with your soapy hands go into all the folds of the child’s skin, paying special attention to the hands, ears, the parts in between the legs and the feet and toes. A separate flannel or sponge should be kept for the face.

You will soon be able to interest your child in “the process of washing, dressing and undressing, and it is surprising what

a feeling of satisfaction he will get when he can wash his dirty knees himself. Let him undress himself, too, as far as he can. It will take a little longer, of course, but as it is all part of the education in independence, try to be patient. It will be well worth while in the end.

Care of the Hair

Boys and girls both improve in appearance if their hair is properly looked after. First and foremost this means adequate brushing, using a brush with good stiff bristles. Your baby brush will probably be very little use after baby is nine months old, so get a good bristle brush to replace it. Later on, as the hair gets really thick, a brush with good bristles mounted on a rubber pad is probably best. The hair should be well brushed each evening after the bath, and again in the morning as a part of the dressing process.

Adequate cutting also helps the hair to grow well and evenly: Your little boy will probably start attending the hairdresser when he is 9 months to a year old, unless you fancy the longer style of hair dressing. Your daughter may wait a little longer, but there comes a time in most children’s lives when the hair gets very straggly. Then it really needs well cutting; afterwards the mother can trim it herself from time to time until it becomes necessary to cut it properly again.,

Washing the toddler’s hair is sometimes a difficulty, as many children of two to three years object strongly. However, with the aid of soap bubbles and a mirror to show him how funny he looks when his hair is all soapy, this difficulty may be overcome. If you have continued trouble, try washing the hair in the bath. You will have to make bathtime a little earlier than usual, to give the hair time to dry before bedtime, but it is certainly a pleasanter process from the toddler’s point of view. Soap the head, then let the child lie back with his head in your hand and rinse thoroughly with the other.

When your child reaches the age of three years he will probably need his hair washed every two or three weeks. Do not do it too often, as there is the danger of robbing the hair of its natural oils. Some mothers find that, if the hair is well brushed each day, it keeps quite glossy and nice if it is only washed once every month. On the other hand there are children who have

too much natural oil in their hair and consequently it becomes very greasy if left for more than a week.

Care of the Eyes

There is no need for any special treatment for the eyes if they are normal, and bathing with boracic lotion need not be continued after baby is three months old. If at any time the eyes become bloodshot, or there is a slight sticky discharge, treat by bathing the eyes with boracic lotion, using cotton wool swabs, and by putting white vaseline on the lids after the evening bath. Remember that it is very easy to infect one eye from the other, so never use the same swab twice.

Care of the Ears

At bath time the outer portion of the ears should be carefully washed and dried. The rest of the ear should be left strictly alone. Discharge from the ear is not normal, and if this is present a doctor should be consulted.

Care of the Nose and Throat

If you live in a town, especially where there are mills or factories and a good many smuts in the air, it will be necessary to clean out your child’s nose from time to time, using a wisp of cotton wool, firmly rolled round. If the air is clean it will only be necessary to do this occasionally, or when the child has a cold.

For the throat, try to teach your' youngster to gargle with ordinary cold water. Most children find this great fun, and if they have learnt to do it in health, it proves a very useful asset when ill.

Care of the Teeth

a. Preparing for good teeth. The diet of the expectant mother must contain plenty of calcium and vitamins. If you breast-fed your child and had an adequate diet yourself before his birth, you will have laid the foundation of good teeth for him. See that the proper ration of cod liver oil and orange juice which he had as a baby is continued throughout childho*od.

’ b. Foods which help in the formation and health of teeth. Hard crusts or rusks to bite are a great help when the teeth are coming through. Try to keep up the crust-eating habit throughout childhood. Hard apple also helps, as does raw carrot. Vegetables, salads, tomatoes, butter and milk all help to keep the teeth fine and healthy.

c. Regular brushing. Decay is usually the work of tiny organisms which thrive on food left in, and in between, the teeth. Hence it is really essential that all children should brush their teeth well every night just before going to bed. Do not allow anything to be eaten after the teeth have been cleaned. Ideally the teeth should also be cleaned immediately after breakfast and dinner.

Remember to teach your child to brush the teeth up and down, as well as from side to side, so that the bristles get in between the teeth. Toothpaste should only be used very sparingly ; it is the brushing that is important.

Learning to be Clean

Every mother wants to get her little child clean* as quickly as possible, if only to rid herself of the many nappies to be washed. She is inclined to be worried and rather affronted if the child refuses to oblige exactly as she wishes.

The child, for his part, soon finds out how' anxious his mother is that he should oblige, and often makes up his mind to be obstinate, because he wants to    show    his independence.    Be

prepared for this, and give him    the chance to    pass water    half

an hour after each meal, and then again about an hour later.

By a little observation you will be able to find out how often your child needs to pass water, and after he reaches the age of two years, or even earlier in the case of girls, he will be able to tell you when he wants to pass water. If he screams and stiffens every time he is held out, as many children do between the ages of nine to eighteen months, you    will    be wise    to stop holding

him out, except occasionally, for    three    or four    weeks and    then

start again. Try to teach him how to ask for the "potty” or how to tell you he wants to pass water, and do not fail to praise him when he does manage it.

Once your child has become fairly dry during the day you may expect him to show signs of being dry at night. When you are trying to let him go all through the night, do not forget that you must get him to pass water the minute you hear him waking up in the morning, as often in these half-awake minutes the deed is done. Later he becomes more accustomed and can

hold his water until he is really awake, and by the time he is three or three and a half he should be able to get out of bed and pass water without any help from mother.

The "big job’’—emptying the bowels—is also a matter where the understanding mother will not expect too much from her toddler. Until a child has all his teeth through, say at two and a half years, he is not entirely reliable. But before this, when the motions are of normal consistency, he should be able to indicate when he feels the urge to pass a motion. Try to develop a definite time for this job, after breakfast or dinner, and if you have a docile child you will be able to establish a habit which is rarely broken right from babyhood. Some children are more awkward and you may have to be very firm, and even for a time he content to have no response. But most children hate to dirty themselves and soon learn to co-operate.

Do avoid scenes; it is better to give the child his own way for the time being than to have him a nervous wreck after a great struggle has taken place.

Some children get quite frightened when they are constipated, and will not make the effort to pass a hard motion. If this is so, give plenty of liquid paraffin and possibly a suppository. Continue the liquid paraffin until the motion is soft and easy to pass, and then the child’s fear will also pass.

Remember that constipation is due to faulty diet and too little water and do not learn to rely on purgatives, but find out what is lacking in the diet.

Do not treat the training of a child to be clean and dry in his habits as a major problem of life, because that is apt to give the whole affair undue importance. Remember that during the first two years of his life he has an extraordinary number of things to learn, and he may be very quick in other directions. With patience, your little one will develop these habits normally and naturally in time.

i lot depends on diet!


^ ARE /


From the moment the first    ‘

steps are taken, food needs are greatly increased, energy must be sustained and strength built up. . . . Eta Peanut Butter, delicious, easily digested health food, is recommended |^5i by doctors, dietitians and clinics as ideal for children from 15 months old and onward. . . . Make sure



ETA

PEANUT BETTER

Ask for it by name

Chapter II


Diet from two to five years

; Z"1 ROWTH in body and character is the key word of the first

I'*'-' five years of a child’s life, and correct growth depends upon correct diet. If we want our children to grow sturdily and to have a sunny disposition, we must feed them properly.

I Food nourishes the muscles and bones of the body and ensures l that the blood is kept in a healthy state. A well-fed child will I nearly always be a happy child.

In order that a child may be well fed, it is important to know something of the nature of foodstuffs. Broadly, foodstuffs can |be divided into:—

1. Those that build up the body tissues, either by forming | new tissues, as in growth, or by replacing worn-out tissues, i This food class can be called "builders.”

2. Those that provide the body with heat and energy— "burners.” Nearly all types of food contain some amount of 5each class of food, but not in equal proportions—thus a food containing mostly carbohydrate or sugar is predominantly a "burner,” whereas a food containing much protein is predominantly a body "builder.”

In order to give our children a well-balanced diet, we must know something about the various basic types of food, and what is meant by the terms protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins and mineral salts.

Proteins: the Body Builders

i Proteins are the main body builders. They have rather a complex nature, but when absorbed into the body from the intestines they have already been broken down by the digestive juices into more simple states, and from these the tissues of the ” body are built or replaced.

18    DIET FROM TWO TO FIVE

Proteins are contained in meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese—and to a much smaller extent in butter, vegetables, and starchy foods. Peas, beans and lentils—or pulses as this type of food is usually called—have a high percentage of protein, and can therefore be used occasionally in the place of meat or fish. Food containing a high percentage of protein is not very easily digested and should therefore be given in fairly small amounts, well I cut up.

Carbohydrates: the Burners

Carbohydrates provide the child with heat and energy in the | main, therefore they belong to the class of "burners.” The starch and sugar of which this type of food is mostly made up are acted upon by the digestive juices and split up into simpler forms, and as such are absorbed into the blood stream and carried round the body. The simple sugars are further split up into water and carbon dioxide, during which process heat and energy are given off. A store of starch and sugar is kept in some parts. of the .body, so that there is a reserve from which heat and energy may be derived in states of emergency. Even so, it is always wise to have some extra, easily-absorbed carbohydrate, I such as barley sugar or chocolate^ before any severe physical exercise.

All sweet and starchy foods, such as bread, cake, potatoes, syrup, jams, honey and cereals, contain a large proportion of carbohydrates. Of the vegetables, all green vegetables, pulses and root vegetables contain some carbohydrate, especially in the case of the root vagetables.

In order that the proteins and fats taken in the diet may be properly absorbed and broken down in the body, it is necessary | that a sufficient quantity of carbohydrate be taken to provide the . energy necessary. Thus the reason for eating potatoes, vegetables and a pudding with the meat or fish that we usually j have at dinner.

The Importance of “Fats”

Fats have a very important part to play in the building up and repair of the body tissues. Like the carbohydrates they provide some of the energy and heat needed to keep the body active and warm. They also have a high vitamin content and, when

absorbed into the body, they form part of the food stores which can be used in a time of emergency.

The fatty foods are butter, cream, cheese, bacon fat, meat fat, suet, egg yolk and dripping. Vegetable rats, such as oils and nuts, are also useful, and the oils contained in fish, such as cod liver oil and halibut oil, are essential if the body is to be maintained in health, especially as they contain large amounts of vitamins A and D.

Once again the proper digestion of fatty foods depends upon the energy provided by the carbohydrate class of food. Some children find fats difficult to digest, and if this is the case it is wise to give them in very small quantities at every meal, and always with a good carbohydrate cover.

When planning meals it is important to provide enough carbohydrate, but not to forget that proteins and fats are vitally necessary if the body is to be healthy.

The Principal Vitamins ,

These important food substances have only been discovered quite recently, and our knowledge may be still further expanded. At present there are known five main classes of vitamins, called Vitamins A, B, C, D and E.

Vitamin A: This is the protective vitamin which helps to keep the blood-stream free from infection. It also helps the eyesight, assists in maintaining the health of the skin and the membranes lining the mouth and nose and promotes growth. It is found chiefly in spinach, carrots, animal fats and oils, eggs, milk, butter, cod-liver and halibut oils.

Vitamin B: There are several known varieties of Vitamin B, and probably still more to be discovered. This vitamin has some influence on growth and weight; it also helps to keep the nervous system in a healthy state, and complete absence of it in the diet leads to a disease known as Beri-Beri, which exists in some Eastern countries. Vitamin B is found in yeast, cereals, Marmite, wholemeal bread, spinach, tomatoes, milk and eggs. To a less extent it is found in oranges, lemons, grapefruit, apples, heart, liver and kidneys, potatoes and carrots.

Vitamin C: Vitamin C also helps to keep the membranes lining the mouth and nose in a healthy state, and its absence causes a


From Babyhood Onwards

Vegemite may be included in an infant’s diet from the age of six months—and in some cases earlier. It is an acknowledged safeguard against vitamin B deficiencies.

A delicious, highly concentrated extract of yeast, Vegemite is a rich source of the vitamin B complex elements of the yeast—the vitamins Bl, B2 and Aneurin (the anti-pellagric factor).


These three vitamins are essential for normal growth and good health —so remember! Though Vegemite is still in short supply in the shops, the manufacturers are able to make a certain amount available for children and for those who need it medicinally.

VEGEMITE

KRAFT WALKER CHEESE CO. PTY. LTD.

THE PRINCIPAL VITAMINS    21

disease known as scurvy, in which the gums become soft and bleed easily, and the limbs are painful.

Vitamin C is found in all fresh fruits, uncooked vegetables and milk. Cooked vegetables lose much of their Vitamin C [ content; if, however, the water in which they have been cooked is used in making gravy or soup or as a drink, the loss is not ; so marked.

Milk which has stood in bright sunlight for some time loses I its Vitamin C content. That is why it is so important to store ; milk in a cool, shady place.

Vitamin D: This vitamin plays a great part in the absorption of calcium and the proper formation of the bones. Its absence causes rickets. It is found chiefly in egg yolk, butter, cream, most fish oils, especially cod-liver and halibut oils.

Vitamin E: Has to do with the proper development and function of the sex glands. It is found chiefly in wheat grains, lettuce leaves, and oils, bananas and oranges.

All the vitamins are found in abundance in food that has "life,” whether it be animal or vegetable life. Vegetables and salads, animal and vegetable fats, yeast, eggs, milk and butter— I all these are either living or are closely associated with a "living” substance.

Mineral Salts

Mineral salts are all-important to the body, and consist of

I such elements as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium and potassium. They are found chiefly in milk, vegetables and fresh fruit. Calcium, phosphorus, Vitamin D and sunlight together help to form strong, healthy bones.

Calcium is often difficult for the body to absorb unless taken with Vitamin D.

What the Toddler Should Eat

Now that we have considered the various types of foodstuffs, it would be as well to plan how our children are going to put these foodstuffs to their best use.

The child who eats a lot is not necessarily a well-fed child, because it is very important that a child should receive a good all-round diet, and not be stuffed up with buns, cakes and biscuits.



Ford Pills are marvellous for Indigestion, Constipation, Stomach Trouble, Rheumatism and Overweight.

Ford Pills contain the concentrated extracts that give you the valuable laxative properties of fruit to keep you well in Nature's way.

Start a course of Ford Pills to-day.

Food should always be given to children in the form in which it is best digested, and also in which it contains a good proportion of the all-important vitamins.

Fried foods are not often well tolerated, and should not be given until the toddler reaches the age of four years old, and then only sparingly. When possible, steam or stew the food, if it must be cooked; roasting is also allowed so long as the small toddler is not given the hard, outside part.

Meat: The best meats for toddlers are beef or mutton—veal and pork are more difficult to digest and should always be very well cut up. White meat such as chicken and fowl is quite permissible and rabbit is also good, so long as it is really tender.

Offal: Liver is a very valuable food, and can be given either lightly fried or cooked in a casserole. Sweetbreads and tripe which have been gently stewed are also quite well tolerated. Kidney is rather less easily digested, but can be given to the older child, either stewed or fried and very well cut up.

Fish: White fish steamed in water or milk is the most acceptable type of fish. Steamed filets of whiting, bream or small mullet are all suitable for children of the toddler age.

Milk: A pint of milk a day is enough for most children. If you find that your child likes more and can tolerate it without having any digestive upsets, then let him have it. The majority of children get all the milk they require if they have a good cupful at breakfast and tea and the rest in their pudding or on a cereal. The toddler should always be given boiled milk, especially in the summer weather. In winter, if reliable bottled and pasteurised milk can be obtained, it is not necessary to boil it when the child is three years or over.

* Butter is a very valuable food and source of vitamins—ideally Jib. increasing to Jib. should be allowed for each child per week. Margarine is not so good as butter, although the, vitamins have been added to it and its composition kept up to a high standard.

Cheese: Most toddlers love cheese, and it is a really good food. Give it thinly sliced or grated, in sandwiches, on Vita-brits, or with salad. Cooked cheese is not so easily digested, but as the toddler grows older he will like macaroni cheese, and cauliflower cheese. Cream cheese is good to use from quite an early age, as a filling for sandwiches.

Bread: Wholemeal is the best. White flour has been very much refined and thereby loses much of its food value. The war has shown that children will take brown bread without any fuss when no white is offered.

Cakes and biscuits should be given sparingly and should always be of a good quality. Home-made cakes and biscuits (wheatmeal, vita-weat and bran or oat-cake) are the best to give.

fams, Honey and Syrup: All these sweet things have a part to play in keeping the child healthy, and being particularly full of easily absorbed sugar, are useful as sources of energy.

Green Vegetables: Spring greens, cabbages, sprouts, cauliflowers and spinach are all good for toddlers. Do not over-boil them or use too much water when cooking, and save the water in which they were boiled to use with stock in soups and gravy. Raw cabbage, lettuce and watercress can be used in salads or to fill sandwiches, and if finely chopped or minced they are very well tolerated. Peas and beans (both broad and runners) can be given to the toddler .and are usually much appreciated.

Root Vegetables: Carrots, turnips and swedes are all useful, but the carrot is by far the best of these and can be given either cooked or raw. Onions and leeks must be given with discretion. Celery is another acquired taste, but many young children like it, especially a crisp piece to nibble.

Once children are over a year old it is wise to stop sieving their vegetables. Cut them up if necessary, mash, or serve them raw and grated.

Fruits: The apple is very well tolerated, either raw or cooked, and stewed apple and custard or junket makes a very good second course at dinner time. A piece of raw apple at the end of each meal helps to keep the teeth free from decay. Bananas are usually very well liked, but the child is apt to gulp them down and it is often best to mash the fruit well first. Oranges, grape fruit, pears and plums in moderation are all good fruit for children to have. Strawberries, raspberries and gooseberries are also permissible, but must be given carefully in the initial stages, and sieved if the pips prove indigestible.

Tomatoes: It may be necessary to skin and sieve tomatoes, but as the child grows older he will become more tolerant. They can be given raw or cooked.

Eggs: These are very good food, and any child above the age of one year should be able to enjoy and tolerate a whole egg two or three times a week. Eggs are best given lightly boiled, poached, coddled or scrambled. Fried eggs are not so good for the younger ones, but your child of four or five will probably like them very much.

Drinks-. The main drink of a child should be water. Always allow the tap to run well before filling the jug or cup, so that the water is fresh and there is no fear of lead poisoning. Milk has already been considered, as it ranks as a food. Water can be given between meals and is especially necessary if a child is constipated or the weather warm. Weak tea, made from half milk and half weak tea, is allowed if the child prefers it to milk.

A child needs about three tumblers of water every day; it can be given flavoured with orange or other fruit juice, if preferred.

Having considered the most common foods in use to-day, let us think about the problem of mealtimes and serving up. Try to let mealtimes be leisurely and happy; there must be corrections if the child is to learn manners, but do not nag at him. Always give the child a little less than you think he will eat, and do not overcrowd his plate, then he will get into the habit of making a "clean plate” and ask for a second helping.

Serve the meals up as attractively as you can, and do not give the child any little extras in between meals, as nothing is more likely to spoil his appetite.

The following menu suggestions will help you to plan meals for a week at a time. You will note that the dishes in the Two to Four Years Chart are simpler than those given for the Four to Five Year child; otherwise the diet is much the same, except, of course, in the quantities given. Recipes for the starred items are given immediately following the menus, and are arranged alphabetically for handy reference.

It is suggested that for the Two to Four Year olds a drink of fruit juice can be given on waking, with a rusk or hard biscuit if the child is hungry.

Sun. Sat. Fri. Thurs. Wed. Tues. Mon.


Milk.    Portion from joint.

Porridge.    Potatoes and vegetables,.

Boiled egg, bread and butter. Fruit tart.


Baked fish with parsley sauce.* Milk.

Potatoes. Greens.    Cream cheese sandwiches.

Baked custard.    Fruit loaf.*


Boiled rabbit.*    Milk.

Mashed potatoes and carrots. Beetroot sandwiches.

Milk pudding and stewed fruit. Bread and butter, jam or honey.


0


ONE WEEK’S MENU SUGGESTIONS Two to Four Years

(Recipes for the starred items are given immediately following these menus) Breakfast    Dinner    Tea


%


Cocoa made with milk. Porridge with sugar and milk. Rusks and butter.

Milk.

Scrambled egg. Bread and butter.

Cocoa made with milk. Fried bacon and bread. Bread.

Milk.

Poached egg.

Bread and butter

Milk.

Cereal.

Stewed prunes.

Bread and butter

Cocoa made with milk. Fried bacon.

Bread and butter Raw apple.

Cut from the joint. Potatoes. Greens. Steamed sponge pudding. Custard.

Stewed liver.

Potatoes. Spinach.

Vanilla Creams* and fruit,

Semolina cheese souffle.* Mashed potatoes.

Queen of puddings.*

Scotch broth.*

Mixed vegetables.

Apple snow.*

Milk.

Egg and lettuce or cress sandwiches.

Jammy-face biscuits.*

Milk.

Scone and butter. Gingerbread.

Marmite sandwiches. Fresh fruit.

Scone.

Milk.

Date sandwiches. Flake oatcake.*

Milk.

Bread and butter. Jam. Sponge cake.

SPECIMEN MENUS


ONE WEEK’S MENU SUGGESTIONS

Four to Five Years

Breakfast    Dinner    Tea

Oatmeal porridge and milk. ' Slice from Sunday joint.    Wholemeal toast and dripping',

g" Egg, poached or scrambled.    Potato and salad (potato baked Madeira cake,

g Bread and butter.    in jacket).    Milk or cocoa.    .

Milk.    Fruit tart.

Sat. Fri. Thtjrs. Wed.


. Uncoooked cereal with sugar White fish, u and milk.    Potato and mixed vegetables.

C Rasher of bacon and, when poss-Stewed fruit, custard, ible, tomato.

Toast and butter. Milk.


. Bacon and little fried vegetable. Portion from joint, g Wheatmeal bread and butter. Potato and mixed vegetables. GQ Milk.    Bread and butter pudding.


Grilled bream or other fish. Bread and butter.

Milk.

Stewed fruit.

Boiled egg.

Wheatmeal bread and butter. Milk.    .

Cream of wheat.

Bacon and fried bread.

Bread and butter. Jam. Milk.

Oatmeal porridge and milk. Scrambled egg.

Toast and butter. Milk.

Irish stew.*

Green vegetable.

Apple charlotte.

Stewed rabbit.

Potato and mixed vegetables with little butter.

Chocolate semolina whip.*

Baked fish souffle.*

Potato. Greens.

Raspberry sponge.

Golden cheese pudding.*

Fruit fool.*

Cheese and lettuce sandwiches. Peanut butter cookies.*

Milk.

Stewed fruit and junket.

Bread and butter. Jam.

Milk or cocoa.

Brown bread and butter. Watercress.

Fruit buns.*

Milk.

Custard cup. .

Toast and butter. Jam.

Milk or cocoa.

Marmite or Bovril sandwiches.

Watercress. '

Home-made cake. Milk.

Cereal arid milk.

Bread and butter, jam or honey. Sugary apple muffins.*

Cocoa.

DIET FROM TWO TO FIVE


APPLE SNOW

1 lb apples    Little lemon flavouring ■

\ pint condensed milk (diluted) \ 02. gelatine, dissolved in Sugar to taste    \ gill of water.

Peel, core and slice the apples and stew to a pulp with a very little water. Beat until smooth, sweeten to taste and allow to cool, then add lemon flavouring. Dissolve the gelatine in the water and stir into the warmed milk. As soon as it is quite cold and just beginning to thicken, whisk briskly with an egg whisk and when very light and spongy but not quite set, fold in the apple pulp lightly. Pile into a glass dish and decorate if liked.

BAKED FISH SOUFFLE

\\ 02. flour    2-4 02. flaked cooked white fish

\ pint milk    1 egg

Salt and pepper    1 teaspoonful baking powder

Blend the flour with a little of the milk. Heat the rest of the milk and when boiling pour on to the blended flour, stirring. Cook for two or three minutes. Add the flaked fish, season and beat in the egg. Lightly fold in the baking powder. Turn immediately into a greased piedish and bake in a moderately hot oven (425°F.) for about 30 minutes until well risen and browned. Serve at once.

BAKED FISH WITH QUICK PARSLEY SAUCE

1 lb. v/hite fish    1 or 2 tablespoonsful finely

About \ gill milk and water    chopped parsley

£ 02. margarine or butter    Pepper and salt

Wipe the fish and fillet, or slice into cutlets if necessary. Lay in a fireproof dish with the liquid poured round and cover with a greased paper. Bake in a moderately hot oven (400°F.) for 15-20 minutes according to thickness. Drain and dish the fish. Add a piece of margarine or butter and seasonings to the liquid in the baking-dish, and stir in as much finely chopped parsley as the liquid will hold. Reheat, and pour round the fish.

BOILED RABBIT

1    rabbit    •    Cold water to cover

2    Spanish onions    Salt

To coat:    pint onion sauce made from half rabbit liquor

and half milk.

To garnish: Bacon rolls. Chopped parsley.

Prepare the rabbit, joint and blanch it by immersing in hot water. Barely cover with boiling water, add salt and onions and simmer very gently until tender (1-1^ hours). Drain the joints and coat with onion sauce. Garnish.

CHOCOLATE SEMOLINA WHIP

2 02. semolina    | 02. sugar

\ 02. cocoa    A few drops of vanilla

Pint of milk    essence

Blend the cocoa with the milk, put into a saucepan and bring to the boil. Sprinkle in the semolina and cook, stirring well, for 7-10 minutes until thick. Add sugar to sweeten and a little vanilla essence. Whip well until cold, and serve in individual dishes.    '

FLAKE OATCAKE

6 02. rolled oats    £ teaspoonful salt

2 tablespoonsful sugar    1 egg

1 teaspoonful baking powder 2 02. fat

Mix all the dry ingredients together. Melt the fat in a saucepan and stir into the dry ingredients with the egg. Place mixture in a shallow 8-in. tin, sprinkling the top with rolled oats. Bake in a moderate oven (400°F.) for about 30,minutes until golden brown. Cut into triangular wedges or fingers while hot and leave in the tin until quite cold.

FRUIT LOAF

8 02. flour    | teaspoonful mixed spice

2-3 02. lard    1 teaspoonful baking powder

4 02. dried fruit    . 1 tablespoonful golden syrup

1 egg    A little milk or water

Rub the fat into the flour until like breadcrumbs. Add all the dry ingredients. Warm the syrup in 2 tablespoonsful milk or water. Cool and add the egg. Stir lightly into the cake mixture, adding more liquid if necessary to give a dropping consistency. Turn into a greased loaf tin and bake in a slow oven (350°F.) for 1^-2 hours.

FRUIT FOOL

^ lb. fruit (such as rhubarb, Sugar to sweeten or honey gooseberries, prunes, Little "top of the milk” .if etc.) possible \ pint fairly thick custard

Cook the fruit with as little water as possible, until quite tender. Sweeten and put through a fine sieve. Make the custard and, while it is still warm, whisk the fruit puree into it. Continue whisking until cool, but not cold, stir in "top of milk,” and put into fruit glasses. Serve very cold, decorated with cream, if possible.

GOLDEN CHEESE PUDDING

2 or 3 slices stale bread 2 eggs .    _

| pint milk, or milk and stock Salt, pepper and mustard

Arrange the diced vegetables in the bottom of a fireproof dish, sprinkle with the chopped onion and cover with half the cheese, coarsely grated or cut in thin pieces. Cover with the slices of bread cut in neat fingers, then with thin slices of cheese. Beat the eggs, add milk which has been heated to boiling point, and seasoning and pour over the bread. Bake in a moderately hot over (375-420°F.) for about f hour until set and nicely browned.

IRISH STEW

|-1 lb. neck of mutton    \ lb. onions or leaks

2 lb. potatoes    Pepper and salt

Cold water

Wipe the meat and divide into chops or neat pieces. If the chops are very fatty, remove a little of the fat and use it for rendering down. Skin the onions and cut in thin rings, or if

leek is used, wash and shred. Scrub and peel the potatoes and cut in slices ^-in. thick, reserving four whole ones. Put alternate layers of potatoes, onions, meat and seasoning in a pan, place whole or halved potatoes on top, add sufficient cold water to come halfway up the meat and vegetables, cover and bring very slowly to boiling point. Simmer gently for l\-2 hours, then serve very hot. In a good Irish Stew the delicate flavour of the potatoes and onions combines pleasantly with that of the mutton. No other vegetables should be added.

JAM MY-FACE BISCUITS

3 oz. margarine (or butter)

2 02. sugar

1 egg    .

A few drops of vanilla essence

Jam f


7 02. flour

\ teaspoonful baking powder Pinch of salt Milk or water to bind r filling


Cream,together the fat and sugar until soft and creamy. Gradually beat in the egg and vanilla essence. Sieve in the flour, baking powder and salt, and add sufficient milk or water to make a stiff dough. Roll out to -|-in. thick and stamp out into rounds with a two-inch cutter. Then divide these biscuits in half, place one half on a greased baking sheet ready for the oven, and with a small cutter stamp out two rounds to represent eyes and one for the mouth. Place on a greased tray and bake in a moderately hot oven (380°F.) for about 20 minutes until evenly browned. Cool on a rack and spread the plain biscuits with jam and cover with the "faces.”

RASPBERRY SPONGE

1 packet of raspberry fruit 1 or 2 egg whites jelly crystals    Pinch of salt

Hot water (almost boiling)

Place jelly crystals in a basin, add hot water to make the whole one pint. Stir until dissolved. Leave until just thickening. Beat egg .whites and salt until stiff and gradually beat into the jelly, whisking all thoroughly together. Pour into a wet mould and put into ice-chest to set. Make custard with yolks of eggs.

It’s time for Cornwell’s

Every day she should have Cornwell’s Extract of Malt. It’s wonderful what a world of difference delicious -Cornwell’s can make to the general health of growing children. Each spoonful supplies strength-giving vitamins to tuiid up nerves, good rich blood, and a sturdy body.

i

Sun, sea and fresh air—children need these after the long winter months. Add a simple, natural diet arid a happy home and you have the perfect recipe /or heMthy, well balanced child,hQQd»

Plate i.

KNITTING


Attractive diamond-patterned frock for Miss Two-Year-Old, with knitted knickers to match.


(Bottom left) Cosy dressing - gown in stocking-stitch for the toddler 0/2-3.


(Bottom right) Make him this warm pullover when he. is five.


Directions for making on pages


late iii


. USEFUL RECIPES    33

QUEEN OF PUDDINGS (STEAMED)

\ pint milk    2 tablespoonsful sugar •

1 egg    2 tablespoonsful jam

3 oz. breadcrumbs    Little vanilla essence

Beat the eggs, add the milk and the sugar and vanilla essence. Pour on to the breadcrumbs and stand aside to soak for hour. Place.the jam in the bottom of a greased basin and pour in the pudding mixture. Cover with a greased paper and steam gently until set—about 1 hour. Turn out on to a hot dish..

PEANUT BUTTER COOKIES

6 02. flour

1    02. cooking fat or margarine

2    02. peanut butter    .

2 02. sugar


| teaspoonful baking powder Pinch of spice £ teaspoonful nutmeg 1 egg, fresh or dried


1-2 tablespoonfuls milk    v .

Cream the fat, peanut butter and sugar well together. Beat in the egg. Stir in the remaining dry ingredients together with enough milk to form a stiff dough. Roll out -|-in. thick and Cut into rounds,- prick well. Place on greased baking sheet and bake, in a moderate oven (375"°F.) for 8-10 minutes. Makes 20 biscuits. '    ’    ■

SCOTCH BROTH

1 lb. scrag end cr middle neck 1 grated carrot

or knuckle of mutton 1 tablespoonful pearl barley 1 small carrot, turnip and Seasoning onion or leek    1 quart water

i teaspoonful chopped parsley Potatoes, about 1 lb. .

Wipe the meat and cut into neat joints or leave whole. Cut the vegetables into small dice. Place the meat, washed barley and salt in a pan with the water, bring slowly to boiling-point, skim. Add vegetables. Simmer 2 hours at least, adding grated carrot and potatoes 1 hour before serving. Turn potatoes after \ hour. Add chopped parsley to broth before serving. Serve joints separately with a little broth over, and put potatoes round them.    .

FRUIT BUN

£ lb. self-raising flour 1| 02. lard

1    02. margarine or butter

2    02. sultanas or other fruit


| teaspoonful spice 2 02. sugar

\ gill milk or water (approxi mately)


Rub the fats into the flour, adding the sultanas, sugar and spice. Mix all these ingredients into a stiff paste with a little cold milk or water. Place the mixture in small heaps on a greased baking tin and cook in a hot oven (425°F.) for about 20 minutes.

SUGARY APPLE MUFFINS

02. flour

1-J teaspoonsful baking powder i teaspoonful salt i teaspoonful cinnamon $ teaspoonful nutmeg


2 02. margarine or butter 1 eSS

1    cupful milk and water

2    02. finely chopped apple

3    02. sugar


Cream the fat with 2 02. 0/ the sugar until light and creamy. Beat in the egg by degrees. Sieve together the dry ingredients and add them gradually, together with the milk, to the creamed mixture. Fold in the chopped apple, fill greased muffin rings or a round tin with the mixture. Sprinkle the remaining sugar, mixed if liked, with a little cinnamon and nutmeg, over the top of the muffins. Bake in a hot oven (425°F.)' for 20-25 minutes.

VANILLA CREAMS

02. custard powder    Sugar to flavour (about ^-1 02.)

1 pint milk    Vanilla essence

Blend custard powder w'ith a little of the milk. Heat the rest of the milk and, when boiling, pour on to the blended custard powder, stirring well. Add sugar and vanilla essence to flavour, return to saucepan and bring to the boil. Whip over cold water until cool. Then pour into glasses. Serve cold, decorated with whipped cream, if possible.


Development of Intelligence

\JI7 HEN we talk about our children, we constantly use expressions like "My eldest girl was very forward in walking," or "John was rather late in being clean.” When we do this, we are applying standards to the development of our children and are judging the children by them. We acquire these standards from immediate experience of our own and friends’ children and from a general store of knowledge.

These standards are quite useful as a rough-and-ready guide, but it is possible now to get far fuller and more exact standards of children’s behaviour and achievements from the careful work of experts. Child psychologists, notably in America, have most patiently observed, tested and recorded the responses of a great number of little children at different age levels and from their results have been able to work out "norms” of achievement for these different ages. Of course there is no suggestion of trying to standardise children, of saying that children "ought” to have reached a certain level by a certain age. It simply means that we now have scientific knowledge of what is the common level of achievement for average children at each age.

The Normal Standards

It is useful to have a working idea of these normal standards for several reasons. The child will develop according to his own nature, but the parents want to give him the right atmosphere in his home in which to develop freely. If we are equipped with knowledge, we shall know what we can reasonably expect

him to do on his own, neither making him too babyish and dependent nor yet asking him to manage tasks which are still beyond him and which would only discourage" him when he failed.

Moreover, I think it helps to give us patience and understanding if we can realise that a good many of the phases through which a small child passes—his self-assertiveness, his constant questioning, sometimes his dreaminess—may. be a necessary and normal part of his development and are not just annoying habits or characteristics we have to fear. A very concrete use of our knowledge and one on which I shall have more to say later in this chapter, is that it helps us to select and provide the most suitable kind of play material for children of each age to develop their abilities and to enjoy themselves.

It must be understood that in describing the characteristics of different ages we are speaking of a kind of abstract child, formed from hundreds of living examples. Do not expect your I own two or three year old to fit exactly into this picture—of course he won’t, but it will give you a working idea of what it is usual to expect at these ages.

The Two-Year-Old

The two-year-old child has emerged from babyhood andf stands secure on his own feet. He still very much enjoys move-| ment for its own sake and he needs it to perfect his balance. He I can now run as well as walk, he can walk (not just crawl) up andl down stairs alone and he can kick a ball. He is learning to use I his hands much more deftly than he could a few months ago;; he can now turn the pages of a book one by one instead of turning over a whole lot together. He can manage to hold a cupl in one hand and he uses a spoon confidently at the proper angle. I

By now he begins to help a little towards dressing himself: he* knows the right place to put his arms and legs, and he can pull off his socks. It is good that he should be not only allowed, but encouraged, to use all these abilities. He will enjoy them,! they are play to him and are excellent training in independence and self-help. Even if it takes a little longer at first for the baby to help himself in dressing and undressing, it is obviously better for him to get into the way of doing everything, for. himself which he is able to do. If you don’t take advantage of these early attempts at independence, the child vftll lose the zest tor

them and you will find him relying on you long after he ought to be quite independent.

If you give a two-year-old a pencil and draw a horizontal line, he can usually imitate it. This actually is quite an achievement; a year-old baby can manage a downward stroke, but not a horizontal one. In the same way, your two-year-old can not only build a tower with as many as six bricks, but he can use the bricks long-ways to make a train, a skill he can rarely attain until this age.

He is able to snip with a pair of blunt, round-ended scissors and he will enjoy doing it. Let the child have tools he can use as soon as he can manage them; he is far more likely to learn quickly to use them properly. By two years, the child has usually achieved bladder control in the daytime. It should be remembered, however, that this is not only a question-of intelligence and muscular development—toilet control may be hindered by emotional disturbance.

Language develops rapidly round about the age of two years. The jargon or babble in which the slightly smaller child delighted has practically all disappeared by the time the child is two. Whereas at a year old he normally could only say about two words besides da-da and ma-ma, at two years he can command an average of three hundred words. Of course, some are far more important than others. Some will mean a whole sentence to the child, as when he says Down,” which may equally mean that he wants to get down or that his toy has fallen down. Other words are little more than repetition of what he has heard and have not much meaning for him. He learns by imitating and repeating, even mimicking, and it is important that he should have enough opportunity to hear clear speech around him so that he has plenty of material from which to learn.

At this age he likes to listen to nursery rhymes and simple stories with plenty of repetition. If he is given a picture book with single, clearly drawn objects in it, he will be able to name most of them. He is beginning to show a dawn of reasoning power, as when he fetches a chair and climbs on to it to reach something he wants. Do not underrate this sort of activity. It involves a real mental process to combine the idea of the chair with the thing which the small child wants.

He Is still engrossed in himself, but he begins to show a little social feeling. He can, for instance, show pity! "Poor dolly.”

he may say if the doll falls. He shows a certain sense of disgrace j if he has had an "accident,” where as previously he was quite unconcerned. You should be careful not to exploit or exaggerate this, or you may implant a feeling of guilt in. the child in the effort to teach him to be clean.

The very young child is practically not aware of other people as separate from himself ; the people around him have meaning only in so far as they affect the baby himself and he has no sort of real awareness of himself as distinct from them. At two years the child is just beginning to separate himself from the rest of his surroundings and realise his own identify as one j among others.    r r

It is common at this age for a child to appear to be more selfish than .when he was a little younger, but usually this is just a phase in his development and simply means that he is asserting his new-found identity. It will pass as he grows stronger and needs less to assert himself. Children of two may enjoy playing in the company of other children, but they rarely play with them in a real give-and-take way; most of their play is solitary or simply along the same lines as another child’s play. So do not expect your two-year-old to be too sociable!

The Three-Year-Old

The three-year-old child has become much more skilful in the use of his limbs. He should be able to balance on one foot— quite a difficult feat for a child of this age. He enjoys riding a tricycle and it is good for him to have the fun and independence which a machine of his own gives. If he is given pencils or crayons, he can draw recognisable objects, though sometimes he may not decide what they are until after they are drawn—or he may change his plan of what he is doing halfway through the drawing and what began as a bowl will end as a pond! With his building blocks he can make fairly elaborate structures and he can use the bricks in an imaginative way.

Normally the child of three is growing independent in managing himself and is even helpful in a small way in the house. He can generally, if he is encouraged and is given time, undo his own buttons (except the ones at the back) , untie, though probably not tie up, his own shoe laces, and attend to himself at the toilet. He can pour water out carefully ;with very little spilling and can help to set the table.

/

These efforts at self-help and service are always well worth encouraging, even at the expense of a little trouble, for they do lay a good character foundation and the child w^l take a pride in what he can do for himself. It is .worth remembering that good habits are most easily formed when they are based on pleasure; a child who is given every chance to develop his budding skill enjoys doing things for himself and others and the habit of independence and then of helpfulness becomes Hatural to him.

Speech-. It is in the realm of speech that the three-year-old makes the most marked advance and this is of the greatest importance to him in the whole of his mental and social development. On an average he has a working vocabulary of about 1,000 words and with these at his command he can now talk in proper sentences. Language has become a real instrument which he can use.

At this age most children show’ the keenest desire to put a name to everything they see; they are trying to reduce their knowledge to some sort of order. You constantly hear the three-year-old say, "Where does this go?” and "What is that for?” This is natural to their age, they want to fit things into their right place—they are, in fact, beginning to get some idea of the relation between one thing and another, instead of seeing things separately or only in relation to themselves, as babies do.

Of course, the little boy or girl of this age still has a lot to learn about the use of words and he helps himself by dramatising. You will hear him talking to himself, playing many parts; he is the milkman, he is a soldier, she is a mummy, or even the cat. You smile at the childish quaintness, but the child’s games are reaily serving the purpose of teaching him to deal with language. He uses words he has heard and by re-enacting them he gains mastery over them and makes them his own.

His increasing skill in talking not only gives the three-year-old child more control over his surroundings; it also helps to make him more sociable. Language has become a real means of communication and he responds to the spoken word. It begins to be possible for his mother to reason a little with him, though it is a mistake to expect a child of this age to be too reasonable.

IShe can often gain his co-operation, too, by distracting him with friendly talk.

.......... tional outbursts to which he was r re subject a year ago; he may still sometimes hit the table against which he has knocked himself. Such outbursts are becoming rarer now, however, and he often vents his annoyance in words rather than in screaming, which in itself marks a considerable advance.

It is important to remember that the ability to think clearly depends in a very large measure on having a command of words. Thus it is only when the child really begins to talk that he can think before he acts and so adapt his behaviour to what is required of him, instead of just obeying his impulses.

As he increases in sociability, so the three-year-old naturally likes to play more with other children and needs companions of his own age for part of each day. Three is a charming age, and in a child who is developing satisfactorily it is essentially a sociable and amenable age, when the child delights in pleasing those it loves.    ,

The Four-Year-Old

We are coming to the close of the 'toddler” stage wheel we arrive at the four-year-olds. These small people are very conscious that they are not babies, that they are big boys and girls. typical child of four, who has been allowed enough scope and encouragement, loves to shovr off his little feats of adventure and daring. "Watch me!” and "See what I can do!” are common expressions at this age, as the child climbs walls and fences, swings high or careers down a slide.

In the house, he is becoming nearly independent; he can fasten up his buttons and he needs little help in his general physical management. His drawing has progressed and by now he should be able to draw a recognisable man, even if a crude one. He usually becomes interested in letters and numbers and looks forward to the time when he will be going to school.

Speech: Most mothers will agree that the four-year-old never stops chattering and seldom stops asking questions! But although his flow of speech may become exhausting, yet the child is obeying his natural impulse to perfect his speech through practice. It is amusing to hear serious four-year-olds using long words and colloquial expressions, sometimes comically misapplying them, but they should not be laughed at. The child is ' increasing his vocabulary and learning to be grown-up—a common ambition at this age.

In some ways the four-year-old may not seem quite so delightful as he was a year ago. He has lost something of his naivete and his amenable ways and has become rather more dogmatic and perhaps self-assertive. It is a natural phase and should never be looked on sentimentally. It is part of the process of the child’s increasing awareness of his own individual self. His sureness of himself should not be over-estimated, either, just because he tends to talk a lot and perhaps show off. Much of it is just words and the four-year-old is quite liable to sudden, unreasoning fears and bouts of dependence on his mother. Even while you encourage your four-year-old’s initiative and independence, do not snub him or refuse your protection when it is needed.

Development Through Play

We have discussed in some detail the standard achievement we can normally expect at different ages in the "toddler stage. But if the child is to develop his capacities to the full, he must have tools to use, space to use them in and the right atmosphere surrounding him. The child has his own inborn impulses to develop, but it is the parents’ responsibility to provide him with the right kind of materials and background.

In these early years he matures through play. He develops his senses through the materials he handles, he increases his physical skill in outdoor games, his mental growth is stimulated by the right kind of toys. And this is not all, for the foundations of his character are laid in his play—-through it he can develop independence and initiative, his healthy creative imagination is given scope. Above all, he can get a grasp on problems and situations of family life by playing them out and bringing them, as it were, down to his own level. If he is weak and small in reality, he can feel himself strong and powerful in the game which he creates, and this has a real importance in helping a small child to put up with his own disabilities.

When l describe the different kinds of toys which children need, you y/ill see the various purposes which good toys serve. Since toys do play such an important part in a child’s mental life, it is obvious how necessary it is that the kind of toys he is given should be the right ones.

Most children will find plenty of opportunities for wholesome exercise if they are given the chance. Climbing fences, balancing on walls and fallen trees, swarming up the banisters, all serve a useful purpose in season. Very small children are not reckless, they are very cautious (which is different from being timid), and if they are allowed to experiment out of the way of real danger at an early age, it is surprising how agile and how safe they will become. A well-trained child can be trusted to use his physical skill to the best advantage.

Much play material has been devoted to sense training, to teaching children to judge shapes, colours and weights, for example. Certainly toddlers need some practice in sense training and play material can help. The "posting box" for different shaped and coloured pieces of wood and a simple type of jig-saw puzzle are two good toys, but it is not necessary to have too many of this type. Children can do equally well with homely articles, like cotton reels of different sizes, little coloured sticks cut into different lengths, large beads, small bakelite beakers, even smooth pebbles, used match sticks, a few small cardboard boxes and tins with lids are all good play material and are easily provided. An assortment of such articles can be kept together, and by using them in spontaneous play the child’s senses are naturally trained.

Toys That Form Character

Since play is the child’s natural means of self-expression, it is through his play that he learns to form his character. Here it is most important that he should have the best kind of material at his disposal. We want our children to grow up self-reliant, with initiative and an urge to create, not bored, destructive and dependent. Cheap mechanical toys have very little value; they call for no initiative and are easily broken. That is the type of toy which does not help to build character. The best kind are bricks, sand and water, small tools for use in the garden and house, things like a trowel, round-ended scissors, a hammer, crayons and paper. Even children still in the toddler stage can be entrusted with materials like these, if they are instructed how and when to use them. For the development of imagination, they need a few dolls and animals, some simple dressing-up properties, an engine for the boys and again sand.

Suitable Play Material

To provide suitable play material for the children is excellent, but more than that is needed. They must have a place where they can play freely and a friendly atmosphere around them. A nursery school is designed and equipped especially to meet small children’s needs and in many cases it is a great benefit for toddlers to spend part of their day there, playing with well-selected toys, meeting children of their own age and receiving training from specially qualified adults.

There will still be a great number of children, however, who spend their pre-school days at home and then it is the mother’s responsibility to provide the right environment. It is not easy for her; she is occupied with the care of the house and one must acknowledge that there is often a conflict between the purposes of grown-ups and of little children. Inevitably the children interfere with the progress of their mother’s work; they make a lot of noise and a lot of mess and they*constantly make demands for assistance.

Difficult as it is sometimes to keep an even temper, yet it does help if the mother has an underlying realisation that the home is for the people who live in it and that the children s play is essential to their development. She is less likely then to look on it as an interference with her own more serious business, as she is sometimes tempted to do. There are times, as every sympathetic mother knows, when she must sacrifice some of her own convenience for the sake of the child s development. The little girl wants to help in the house, the boy wants to use tools and they must have opportunities to do so. At times they need to share the interests of the grown-ups and to be in the same room with them, but naturally they should not be encouraged to depend on grown-ups for their amusement. It is a good thing if they can have a room of their own where they can play and keep their toys, undisturbed by outside interference.

Play material, as we have seen, serves many purposes. First of all, it helps the physical development of the growing child, improves his balance, the co-ordination of his limbs, and strengthens his muscles. Obviously, outdoor material is best for this purpose. The child who has in his garden a swing, a see-saw and, best of all, a climbing frame, is indeed fortunate. It is not always possible to have them at home, but the local park usually has quite a good apparatus.

It is a mistake to give a child too many toys He becomes bored if he is overloaded, the edge is taken off his inventiveness, and he is much more likely to be destructive with toys which he does not have to value. He needs a few strong, well-made toys which do not easily break and which he can go on using for years.

A lot can be achieved by way of home-made toys. These are excellent, for the children may help a little in making them. Odds and ends are by no means to be despised; it is good for a child to find his own play material out of his environment, providing he is not rifling his mother’s cupboards or his father’s tool-shed. Some traditional elaborate toys, such as a doll’s house, have little real value as a toy—unless the house is a real playhouse for the child; otherwise it is more a model to please the eye of the grown-ups.

The most essential toys for children between two and five years are a set of building bricks—if possible large hollow ones and smaller solid ones—a pysh-along and a pull-along toy, such as an animal to push and a truck which can be loaded to pull. A girl will need a doll’s pram with some covers, and a few dolls, which can be made at home. Nearly every little boy wants an engine, a strong wooden one if possible. A tricycle plays quite an important part in children’s growing independence. There should be a few well-selected books, picture books and simple story books. Sand is most necessary for all ages, and if a proper sand-pit is out of the question, everyone who has a garden at all can dig out a small pit and line it with bricks, filling it with sea sand or silver sand, which is much cleaner to use than builders’ sand.

Toys for Different Ages

Most of the toys which have been mentioned are useful all

through the toddler stage. There must, of course, be some grading of toys for the different ages.

Two-year-old children still need to perfect their balance. They will need a toy for pushing and pulling, for loading and unloading. They want sand, water, pots and a spade to play in the sand. In the house they will begin to build with bricks, to draw with pencil and crayons on large sheets of paper, and can be given clay for modelling. Already they want to help in the house, sweeping and dusting. They need dolls and animals

for make-believe games; both boys and girls play babies with dolls, and this is a necessary part of their development, for it means that by taking on themselves the role of parents, they are leaving the baby stage and separating themselves into individuals distinct from their mothers. The two-year-olds enjoy a picture book, preferably one in which objects are clearly and separately drawn.

The three-year-old needs a tricycle and it is worth while making an effort to procure one for him. He likes to play with a bail, and this is good training for hand and eye. The girl enjoys her pram and dolls’ clothes, the boy begins to show more masculine interests and prefers an engine (though if he wants to go on playing with dolls, there is no reason why he should not).

The children are now beginning to play in groups. On a wet day two or three children will play happily for a long time with an arrangement of chairs or boxes and covers, using them for all kinds of make-believe play. By now they need books with simple stories. They will enjoy music, too, but it is a mistake to turn on the wireless perpetually, thinking that this will encourage the child’s musical sense. The wireless should be used with great discrimination; a gramophone with nursery records is generally very popular.

Children of four-, who now want to imitate the grown-ups, love to play at dressing up. Even in the days of make-do and mend, it is generally possible to find something in which the children can dress to play family games or soldiers. These dramatic games generally keep them happily occupied for longer than almost any other game, and for this reason are particularly good indoor games for wet weather.

Still on the theme of being grown-up, the four-year-olds love to experiment with cooking and to hold tea-parties with their dolls and these games are educative as well as being of absorbing interest. At this age, you can give the children proper scissors and let them cut out pictures for a scrap book. If you can obtain them, miniature animals and figures for farmyards and armies are good material for imaginative play at this age.

The Role of the Grown-Ups

The role of the grown-ups in children s play is essentially that of sympathetic onlookers. Mother should be willing to give

help when it is really needed; she should show a friendly interest in what the child is doing, and if she is invited, she will sometimes join in a game of "let’s pretend” while she goes about her own work. It is a sound idea for the mother to set aside some time in the afternoon in which she is completely at her child’s disposal. It helps to build up his security and makes him more ready to play independently at other times when she is busy.

From the time a child reaches three years the companionship of other children is very important and adds greatly to the richness of his life. The children have the same standard of values, the same things are important to them, so that they strengthen and support each other and they spontaneously learn the lessons of sociability.

TOYS AND GAMES FOR DIFFERENT AGES

Age

Outdoor Games

Indoor Games

Two

Sand, water, spoons, pots (useful throughout the toddler stage). Truck or wheelbarrow for pushing and loading.

Large hollow bricks (sense - training • and imaginative play). Crayons and pencils, paper, clay for modelling. Picture book.

T Free

See-saw, swing, climbing frame (when possible). Tricycle. Engine, doll’s pram.

Smaller solid bricks. Story book. Dolls and animals.

Four to

Same as earlier ages, but

Dressing up clothes.

Five

more scope for climbing.

Bricks. Drawing materials, scissors, scrap book. Miniature animals and figures if possible. Help with cooking and household jobs.

M ■

Chapter IV



Physical Development

J T is right and natural that we should look for signs of physical -®- progress as our children pass through the toddling and pre-school period, although these signs are not as obvious as those we see in the growth and development of the baby from birth to the first birthday. Nevertheless they are there, and can be noted by the careful mother.

**•

Increase in Weight

Your youngster should gain weight, even though he is exceedingly active and growing rapidly. The normal child of two to five years of age gains on an average four pounds every year. This may not be gained quite evenly; very often he may put on more during the winter months than he does in the summer.

The charts on the next two pages are intended as a guide to measure your child’s progress. Do not worry if he does not conform exactly to the weights and heights given. But if your child is below weight, and fails to gain appreciably, do not hesitate to consult your doctor and revise your diet sheet and routine in accordance with his advice.

On the whole it can be said that boys weigh rather more than girls and are inclined to be taller. Growth in height does not occur steadily, but rather in spasms, and very often a child will suddenly start to grow rapidly when he reaches his teens, so do not expect too much from your youngster. There is plenty of time for him to spring up when he becomes a schoolboy.

.AVERAGE GAIN IN WEIGHT

Two-Five years of age; Weight at birth: 7 lbs.

Age

Weight

2 years

2 stone (28 lbs.)

2 years, 3 months

2 stone 1 lb. (29 lbs.)

2 years, 6 months

2 stone 2 lbs. (30 lbs.)

3 years

2 stone 4 lbs. (32 lbs.)

4 years

2 stone 8 lbs. (36 lbs.)

3 years

2 stone 12 lbs. (40 lbs.)

Many children will undoubtedly weigh a good deal more than these average weights. They may have been big babies, or their parents may be large people. Roughly speaking, by the time the child reaches the age of two he should be four times his original birth weight, and from the figure so obtained you can add on the yearly weight of four to six pounds and make out your own table.

Growth in Height

Growth in height should go hand in hand with the increase in weight. The average baby measures twenty inches at birth; by the time he reaches four years of age the twenty inches should have become forty. After this the child gains on an average two inches each year up to the age of twelve years. Remember to take the height measurement in bare or stockinged feet.

AVERAGE GAIN IN HEIGHT

Age .

Height

2 years

32-33 inches

3 years

36-37 inches

4 years

40 inches

5 years

42 inches (3<j feet)

Here again there may be deviations, possibly due to the type of parents and stock from which the child has come.

CHARTS OF AVERAGE GROWTH

49


It is always interesting to keep a record of the children’s heights, perhaps taken every 6 months, say at every birthday and each half-birthday. You will find space at the end of this book to keep these items, and this becomes specially valuable as a comparison when the second baby comes along.

Dental Progress

By the time the child reaches the age of two and a half years the first dentition is complete, and until the age of five to six years there is often very little to note. The "Six-year-old” molars, as they are sometimes called, usually appear between the ages of five and seven. Between these ages, too, the front teeth come out, and the second ones begin to show. Those in the lower jaw usually precede those in the upper jaw.

TABLE OF SECONDARY DENTITION.

and _ and 7 and

9    and

10    and

11    and 11 and 16 and


7    years

8    years

9    years

11    years

12    years 14 years 14 years

21 years (or later)


First molars appear between the ages of 5 Central incisors Lateral incisors First bicuspids Second bicuspids Cuspids (eyeteeth)

Second molars Third molars (Wisdom teeth)

Movement and Rhythm

A child of two should be walking well; he should be able to run fairly steadily, and make many complicated movements with his hands and arms, such as those required in the process of feeding himself, writing (or scribbling) with a pencil or crayon and building with bricks. As he reaches the age of three to three and a half years he is running really well, and can make some good attempts at jumping, throwing balls and modelling with plasticine or play wax.

Dancing: Little girls soon become interested in dancing, and both boys and girls can learn quite early in their lives to move in time to marches and dances. This rhythmic movement is

a great help to them while they are learning the finer control of their limbs and promotes a grace of movement. Money spent in sending your child to a good dancing class will not be wasted. Children between the ages of two and five need the type of dancing which gives scope for their imagination—one might almost call it "playing to music.” Ann Driver uses this type of dancing in her lessons to little children, to which so many people have listened during the B.B.C. broadcasts to schools.

Even children who do not go to a dancing class can learn the joy of moving to the tune and rhythm of music, and it is quite a good plan to have a time—perhaps after tea each day—when they can dance and jump and sing to music, while you play on the piano. If this is not possible, try to get some suitable gramophone records. These are more satisfactory than the wireless because they can be used at any time.

Singing'. Most children love singing, especially if it is done spontaneously. The mother can help a great deal, however-, to encourage a good ear for music and singing in tune by singing herself all the nursery rhymes and children’s songs she can remember at odd times during the day.

There are excellent records of nursery rhymes to be bought at most music shops, as well as good collections with a simple piano accompaniment, and these will provide amusement for many a half-hour. It is also fun to pretend that you are having a sing-song round a camp fire, and to sing quite unaccompanied.

The singing of hymns and carols is also interesting to the young child, especially when he is taken to church or Sunday School and finds that they are singing something he knows. Carol singing has a double joy because it reminds the youngster of Christmas, and also of the coming of a Baby, and he understands what he is singing.

Let there be lots of singing in your house, and, if you really cannot produce it yourself, you must let the gramophone and ^ wireless help you because singing helps your child in his speech, and also gives him great joy.

Outdoor Games and Exercise

Organised games have little part in the development of the young child. He has not the right mental attitude, being too much of an individualist, and he is still in the stage of learning

OUTDOOR GAMES AND EXERCISES    51

how to kick and throw a ball. On the other hand he loves outdoor play, and, when possible, will join in any of the nursery games, finding them even more fun when played on the lawn.

He also likes running and jumping, and will enjoy racing with the little ones, and trying to jump over a rope.

The roundabouts and swings provided in so many of our municipal playgrounds are usually a great source of amusement to the ordinary youngster, and, provided that he is careful, he can come to little harm there.

Gardening is also interesting to him. He can help to sweep up the leaves, and, if given a small spade or trowel, will certainly enjoy a good dig. As he approaches the age of five he will like to have his own plot of garden, and will be thrilled to grow seeds or bulbs. -

The toddler usually has plenty of exercise as he is so rarely still. This should be out-of-doors when possible, but do see that he gets plenty of rest. Walking will give the two to three-year-old nearly all the exercise he requires, and if .your child tires easily, do not hesitate to let him have some of his outings in a pram.

Exercises for Toddlers

Occasionally, when the child becomes more active on his legs, the mother notices that there is some slight abnormality of his legs or feet, such as flat foot, knock knee, or even bow-legs. These, when present in a slight degree, can be cured by special exercises, and when more markedly present exercise and massage will undoubtedly help, even when further measures are necessary. The exercises given here should only be done under medical supervision, or with the approval of your doctor or the doctor at the Baby Health Centre.

Flat Foot: The child who suffers from flat foot nearly always turns the toes out badly when walking and may complain of pain in the foot.

To correct’. Teach the child to walk with the toes pointing either straight forward or slightly inwards. This is much the best way of walking—our Victorian grandmothers were quite wrong when they insisted on their children pointing the toes outwards. It also helps if the child raises himself on tiptoe and walks on his toes for a little while every day.

Let the child learn to pick up small objects, such as a pencil or a marble, with his toes. Most of these small exercises can be played as games—such as walking on a line with the toes straight forward, then on tiptoe, and so on.

Knock Knee: Many children’s knees are rather protuberant on the inner side as they pass through the toddler stage, but if you find that the child is continually falling, and has some difficulty in balancing, it would be wise to have your doctor’s advice.

To correct: Wedging the shoes and massage of the legs usually puts this defect right quite efficiently, special care being given to the diet to see that adequate vitamins are taken. The following exercises can be done if the condition does not improve:—

1.    Sit on the floor, legs straight out in front and ankles to

gether, with a cushion between the knees. Gently, but firmly, press the knees down to touch the floor.

2.    From a standing position, practice heel raising and knee

bending movements, keeping the knees turned well out.

3.    Sit on a chair or stool with feet on the ground and knees

apart. Make clawing movements at the ground with the toes, one foot at a time.

4.    With hips firm, knees straight and pressed well back, walk

along a line.

Bow-legs: These are nearly always the result of rickets, and are not nearly so common now as they were fifty years ago. A baby’s legs are always slightly bowed, but as the child grows the legs straighten, until at eighteen months or so they are quite straight. The bowing is nearly always in the lower legs and may not cause any symptoms. It is treated by massage, splinting the legs, or, if severe, by operation. Naturally you would seek medical advice for this defect.

General Exercises

1.    Kick a ball along the ground, played with another person.

2.    Skip round the room, lifting feet and legs as high as possible,

and keeping hips firm.

3.    Keeping the feet and heels together, jump up and down

(with hands held by an adult).

4.    Sit cross-legged on the floor with head on knees. Gradually

uncurl, raising lower part of back first and head last.

A S babyhood is left behind the problem begins to arise as ^to how to dress this energetic youngster who never seems to be still, running from house to garden, warm room to chilly hall, without thought of change in temperature.

Should the toddler wear more or less clothes as he gets older? It must be remembered that it is just as dangerous to be overclothed as to be insufficiently clad. The ideal is still the same as that for the baby—three layers of wool, or woollen material, in cold weather, adjusted in the summer according to temperature, but always one layer of wool or silk and yvool next to the skin.

The mother will probably find that fewer knitted garments are necessary as the child gets older and that fabric garments begin to take the place of knitted woollies. But there is always a need for one or two woolly jumpers and cardigans, socks and gloves, while the mother who prefers knitting to sewing will probably continue to dress her little daughter in knitted frock and knickers, or her son in jersey and trousers. Patterns for these useful woollies are included in the following instructions, and the garments are illustrated on plates ii.-iv.

PULLOVER FOR THE TWO-YEAR-OLD

Materials: 2 skeins "Sun-Gio” 3-ply Fingering Wool in white and 1 oz. coloured; two No. 9 knitting needles; three small buttons. Tension-. 7\ stitches and 10 rows=l inch. Abbreviations-. k.=knit; p.=purl; st.==stitch; rep.=repeat. Measurments-. Length, 12 ins.; round armholes, 24 ins.; sleeve seam, 12 ins. (with cuff).

How to work the Popcorn Pattern: Cast on a number of sts. divisible by 4 and three sts, over.

1st row: in white, knit plain. 2nd row: k.2, purl to the last 2 stitches, k.2.    3rd row: k.3 white, *then with the coloured

wool work into the next stitch k.l and p.l three times, very loosely, to make 6 loops of colour, slip the left-hand needle through these loops (keeping the needle to the front of the right-hand needle and do not withdraw the latter), pass the white wool over the point of the right-hand needle and knit together all the 6 sts., k.3 white, rep. from * to the end of the row. Break off the coloured wool.

4tb row: k.2, purl to the last 2, k.2. 5th row: Knit plain. 6th row: Like the 4th row. 1th row: Knit plain. 8th roiv: Like the 4th row. 9th row: k.5 white, *with coloured wool work a popcorn, k.3 white, rep. from * to the last 2 sts., k.2.

10th to 1 Ath rows: Like 4th to 8th row. Then repeat continuously from the 3rd to 14th row.

Making the Pullover

Back: Cast on 74 sts., using white wool. Work in rib of k.l and p.l for 2 ins. (20 rows).

21 st row: Knit plain, increasing once in each 8th stitch, making 82 sts. 22nd row: k.2, purl to the last 2 sts., k.2.    23rd row:

Knit plain.

Repeat the last 2 rows until the work measures 7\ ins. Then at the commencement of each of the next 2 rows cast off 5 sts. for the armholes, and decrease 1 stitch for the pattern to fit. Continue without shaping, but working the popcorn pattern rows for another 4\ ins. Cast off 23 sts., knit the next 25 sts. and slip them on to a safety pin, cast off 23.

Front: Work exactly like the back until 3* ins. (five pattern rows) are worked above the armholes.

To shape the neck: k.33 in pattern, turn and work back to armhole edge, then at the next 4 neck rows leave unknitted before each turn 3 sts., 2 sts., 2 sts., 2 sts. Cast off the 24 shoulder sts. when the same length as the back. Slip the 9 sts. of the "turn” rows on to the needle and slip the next 5 sts. (the centre) on to the same needle, join up the wool and knit to the end of the row. Work back to neck, leaving unknitted in each alternate row 3 sts., 2 sts., 2 sts., and 2 sts. Finish shoulder as first one.

Sleeves: Cast on 38 sts. Work in rib of k.l and p.l for 3\ ins. Knit one row plain, increasing in each 6th stitch, making 44 sts.

2nd row: k.2, purl to the last 2 sts., k.2. 3rd row. Knit plain.

Repeat the last 2 rows but increase once at each end (inside of k.2 borders) every 6th row until there are 60 sts. Continue without shaping until the seam measures 12 ins. (including cuff). Cast off 5 sts. at the commencement of each of the next 2 rows, then cast off 1 stitch at the beginning of each row until only 24 sts. remain. Cast off.

Neck Band: Sew up right-hand shoulder seam. Commence at left-hand corner of neck (after slipping stitches on to one needle) and knit up one stitch through each edge loop. Knit stitches that were left at neck and knit up one stitch through space between each turn, knit up stitches at other side of neck and the stitches at back. Work in rib of k.l and p.l for -f in. Cast off.

To Make Up: Press all but ribbings lightly. Sew together side and sleeve seams. Join armhole points of left shoulders and sew in sleeves. Sew on buttons and crochet buttonhole loops at left shoulder.

FROCK AND KNICKER SET (Two Years)

Materials: 6 skeins "Sun-Glo” 3-ply Fingering Wool, two No. 9 knitting needles; six buttons; 2/3rd yds. elastic. Tension: 71-stitches and 9 rows=l in. Abbreviations: k.=knit; p.==purl; st.=stitch; rep.=repeat; wf.=wool forward; k.2 tog.==knit 2 sts. together. Measurements: Brock, length, 18 ins.; round below armholes, .24 ins. Knickers: centre front length, 10 ins.

The Frock

Front: cast on 139 sts. Knit 2 rows plain.

3rd row: k.l, ★ wf. k.2 tog., rep. from * to end of row.

4th, 3th and 6th rows:. Knit plain. 1th row: k.l, * p.4, k.l, p.3, rep. from ★ to the last 2 sts., p.l,    k.l.    8th    row: k.l, ★    k.3,

p.3, k.2, rep. from * to the last 2 sts.,    k.2.    9th    row: k.l, *    p.2,

k.5, p.l, rep. from * to the last 2 sts., p.l,    k.l.    10th row:    k.l,

★    k.l, p.7, rep. from * to the last 2    sts.,    k.2.    11 th row:    k.l,

★    k.4, wf., k.2 tog., k.2, rep. from * to the last 2 sts., k.2.

12th row: Like the 10th row. 13th row. Like the 9th row, lAth row. Like the 8th row.    15th row. Like the 7th row.

16th row: Knit plain. 11th row. k.l, purl to the last stitch, k.l. 18th row: Knit plain.

Repeat from the 7th row until the work measures 12 ins.

Armholes: Cast off 6 sts. at the beginning of each of the next two rows. Then decrease once at each end of every 2nd row until only 119 sts. remain. Note.—The skirt portion must finish with a complete pattern, so if the final pattern will not fit in, complete with several rows of smooth fabric.

Waist: With right side facing, k.l6, knit together each 2 sts. to the last 15 sts., k.l5.

Yoke: 1st and 2nd rows: knit plain.

Repeat from the 3rd row of the skirt until one full pattern repeat is worked (to 18th row). Continue repeating the 17th and 18th rows until the yoke measures 3j ins.

Neck: k.35, cast off 5 sts., k.35, turn.

On the first 35 sts. continue in smooth fabric and at the neck cast off (in alternate rows) 3 sts., 2 sts., 1 st., 1 st., 1 st., 1 st., 1 st. Continue without shaping at the neck, but at the armhole edge cast off 5 sts. each alternate row until all the stitches are worked off.

Commence again at the neck where the stitches were left and work the second shoulder to correspond with the first.

Back: Work exactly as given for the front until the row of holes is worked above the waist and 3 plain rows.

Placket: Work in pattern (from 7th row) on 35 sts. and k.6 for border. Slip the remaining stitches on to a safety needle and leave for the second side. Repeat pattern rows until another pattern is completed and working the k.6 border (each row) at the centre edge. Continue in stocking stitch, i.e., one row purl, one row plain (with k.6 placket border) until the armhole edge has as many rows as in the front. Cast off, from armhole edge, 5 sts. in each alternate row until 25 sts. are cast off. Cast off remainder.

Begin again" by knitting up 6 sts. over the base of the k.6 border and continue in the pattern on remaining stitches. Finish this side to correspond with the first, but making buttonholes every 8th row as follows: k.3, wf., k.2 tog., k.l (of border).

Sleeves: Cast on 51 sts. Repeat the first 4 rows of pattern.

5th row: k.2, increase in each stitch to last stitch, k.l, to make 75 sts. Repeat from the 6th row until one pattern is worked. Then, continuing in stocking stitch, cast off 6 sts. at the commencement of each of the next 2 rows. Cast off 2 sts. at the start of each row until only 15 sts. remain.

The Knickers

Cast on 75 sts. Repeat the first 5 rows of the frock. Then shape the work to give the lift to the centre of the leg piece as follows:

K.7, turn, p.6, k.l, turn; ★ knit the stitches of the last short row and 7 more stitches, turn and purl to the last stitch, k.l, turn; repeat from ★ until 35 sts. are worked in the last row, turn and knit across to the other side.

Shape 2nd side: k.l, p.6, turn, k.7; ★ k.l, purl the stitches of last short row and 7 more stitches, turn and knit back, repeat from ★ until 35 sts. are knitted back in last short row. Now continue across from edge to edge in stocking stitch with k.l at each edge of purl row until the outer edges measure 10-| ins.

To Lengthen the Back: Work the 35 sts. as given for the leg shaping, commencing k.7, turn, etc. (In the second leg commence with k.l, p.6, turn, etc.)

Waist: With the wrong side facing knit a row, then repeat the 3rd, 4th and 5th rows of frock. Cast off. Work the second leg to correspond.

Gusset: Cast on 3 sts. Work in stocking stitch and increase once in the centre of every 6th row until the edges measure the same number of rows as between the border at top and bottom of leg piece. Then decrease once at the beginning of each row until all the stitches are worked off.

To Make Up: Press each piece lightly under a damp cloth. Sew together side, shoulder and sleeve seams of frock. Gather the tops of the sleeve and fix the latter in the armholes. Add buttons.    «

Neck: Knit up 71 or 75 sts. round the neck and repeat the 2nd to the 4th row of frock. Cast off.

Sew together the borders of the two leg pieces of knickers, then sew together the legs at the waist borders. Pin the gusset in position, the long piece to the back, and sew all the seams. Thread elastic at the waist.

GIRL’S CARDIGAN (Three Years)

Materials: 3 skeins "Sun-Glo” Shrinkproof, 3-ply, in main colour; small quantity contrast ditto; 1 pr. each size 9 and 11 knitting needles; fine bone crochet hook, seven small linen buttons. Measurements'. Chest, 24 ins.; length, 12 ins.; sleeve seam, 9 ins. Tension: 7 sts. to 1 in. in stocking stitch. Abbreviations'. k.=knit; p.=purl; inc.=increase; dec.=decrease; st.—stitch; tog.=together; d.c.=double crochet; ch.=chain.

Back: With No. 11 needles cast on 84 sts. and knit in k.l, p.l, rib for 2 ins. Change to No. 9 needles and continue in stocking st. (i.e., 1 row plain, 1 row purl) till work measures 7\ ins. from commencement.

Shape armholes by casting off 3 sts. at beginning of next 2 rows, then dec. 1st. each end of every alternate row till 68 sts. remain. Continue without further shaping till armhole measures 1-3 ins. on straight, finishing on a purl row.

Increase on next row as follows: p.2, k.l, (p.2, k.l, p.l, p.l and k.l in next st.), rep. between () to last 5 sts., then p.2, k.l, p.2.    (80 sts.) Now work in rib as follows:—

1st row. k.2 (p.l, k.2) to end. 2nd row. p.2 (k.l, p.2) to end. Rep. these 2 rows till work measures 12 ins. from commencement. With right side of work facing, dec. across row as follows: p.2, k.l, p.2 tog., k.l to end (67 sts.). Cast off.

Left Front'. With No. 11 needles cast on 40 sts. and knit in k.l, p.l, rib for same depth as back. Change to No. 9 needles and work in stocking st. till armhole is reached, finishing on a purl row. Shape armhole as for back till yoke is reached. Inc. sts. as for back yoke, and continue in yoke rib till armhole measures 2\ ins.

Shape neck by casting off 3 sts. at front edge on every alternate row till 20 sts. remain. Continue till same length as back. Work last decrease row and cast off.

Right Front'. Work as for left front, but with shapings at opposite end of work.—i.e., armhole shapings will commence at beginning of a purl row.

Sleeves'. (Both alike.) With No. 9 needles cast on 38 sts. and work in yoke rib for 16 rows. Change to stocking st. increasing 1 st. each end of every 8th row to 50 sts., then every 4th row to 60 sts. Shape top of sleeve by dec. each end of every alternate

row to 44 sts. then every 4th row to 36 sts. Cast off. Work another sleeve to match.

Neck Border: With No. 11 needles, join on wool at front neck of right front; pick up and knit 115 sts., finishing at left neck edge. Work 8 rows in k.l, p.l, rib. Cast off in rib.

Left Front Border: Join wool at top of left front. With No. 11 needles pick up and knit 92 sts. right down front edge. Work 8 rows k.l, p.l, rib. Cast off.

Right Front Border: Join wool at bottom of right front. With No. 11 needles pick up and knit 92 sts. Work 3 rows in k.l, p.l, rib. 4th row: Rib 2 (cast off 3, rib 11) to last 6 sts., cast off 3, rib 3. 5th row: Rib 3 (cast on 8, rib 11) to "last 5 sts., cast on 3, rib 2. Work 3 more ro;ws in rib. Cast off.

To Make Up: Using contrast wool, smock front and back yokes, sleeve borders by sewing 3 sts. over 2 plain sts. on right side. Leave 4 rows in between each set of sts. and sew over alternate plain sts. in each set to give a smocked effect (see illustration on plate ii). Press stocking st. parts under damp cloth on right side. Sew up shoulder, side and sleeve seams. Press well.

Sew sleeves into armholes, easing fullness over shoulder. Make small pads to sew under fullness by working 18 ch. turn,

miss 2 chain, 1 d.c. in every st. to end. Work 4 more rows in d.c., fasten off.

Cover linen buttons with d.c. and attach to left front to correspond with buttonholes.

SUN SUIT FOR BOY OR GIRL (Three to Four Years)

Materials: 3 balls "Sun-Glo” Shrinkproof Baby Wool; two No. 9 knitting needles; two large buttons. Tension: 1\ stitches and 10 rows=l inch. Abbreviations: k.=knit; p.==purl; st.=stitch; rep.=repeat. Measurements: Length of leg at side seam, 11 ins.; round waist, 23-25 ins. when stretched.

Front: Cast on 100 sts. Work in rib of k.2 and p.2 for 3 ins.

Wide Rib: 1st row.—k.4, ★ p.4, k.4, rep. from ★ to the end of the row. 2nd row.—p.4, ★ k.4, p.4, rep. ftom ★ to the end of row.    ■

Repeat these 2 rows and increase once at each end of the 7th and every following 6th row until 116 sts. are on the needle.

Continue without shaping until the work measures 10 ins. at the outer edge.

To Divide the Stitches for the Legs: Work 58 sts. in the 4 and 4 rib, leaving the other 58 on a safety needle for the second leg.    v

Continue on the first 58 sts. and decrease once each following second row at the inner leg-seam edge until a half inch is worked (5 rows). Then still doing the decreasings shape to lengthen inner seam as follows:—

From centre edge rib to last 12 sts., turn and rib back, k rib to last 12 sts. of previous row, turn and rib back, repeat from ★ until there are 4 groups of 12 sts. and 6 sts. in last short row (by omitting last decrease). Work all on to one row again working in rib of k.2 and p.2. Rib for half an inch and cast off.

The Second Leg: Join up the . wool at centre where stitches were left and knit to correspond with first leg.

Back: Cast on 100 sts.

Work in rib of k.2 and p.2 for 3 ins.

To Lengthen the Back: Now .work xn rib of k.4 and p.4, shaping as follows: Rib 60 sts., turn, rib 20 sts., turn, ★ rib the stitches of last short row and 8 sts. more, turn, rep. from ★ until 16 sts. remain at each side. Then rib all the stitches again into one row.

Complete the back as given for the front.

The Bib and Straps: Cast on 52 sts.

Knit plain for 2 ins., then for the first strap knit on the first

12 sts. for 8 ins. Make a buttonhole in the next row as follows: k.6, wool twice round needle, k.2 together, k.4. Work 1 more inch. Cast off.

Join up the wool again where the stitches were left and cast off all but the last 12 sts. Knit the second strap like the first.

To Make Up: Sew the bib to the centre of the front cast-ofi edge. Sew together the leg and side seams. Sew buttons on

the back ribbing 3 or 4 ins. from seam. Fasten the straps crosswise.

. PULLOVER

(Five Years)

Materials: 5 skeins "Sun-Glo” 3-ply Fingering Wool; two No. 9 knitting needles; four buttons. Tension: 7\ stitches and 10

rows—1 in. in stocking stitch. Abbreviations'. k.=knit; p.=purl;

st.=stitch; rep.—repeat. Measurements'. Length, 16 ins.; round armhole, 24 ins. when stretched; sleeve seam, 14 ins. -How to Work the Pattern: Cast on a number of stitches divisible by 3 and 1 over.

1st row: p.l, ★ k.2, p.l, rep. from * to end of row. 2nd row: k.l, ★ p.2, k.l, rep. from ★ to end of row. 3rd row: p.l, ★ wool to back of needle, insert the needle purlways into first st. on left-hand needle and knit 2nd stitch leaving first on needle, knit into back of 1st stitch and slip off needle, p.l, rep. from * to end of row. 4th row: Like 2nd row. 5th row: Like 1st row. 6th row: Like 2nd row.

Back: Cast on 91 sts. Repeat the first 2 rows of the pattern until 3 ins. are worked. Then repeat the 6 rows of the pattern until the fabric measures 11^ ins.

Armholes: Cast off 6 stitches at the beginning of each of the next 2 rows. Continue without shaping until the armhole edge measures 5 ins. Cast off 5 sts. at the beginning of each row until 29 sts. remain. Work in rib of k.l and p.l for half an inch. Cast off.

Front: Work as given for the back until almost 14 ins. are I done, and after 3rd row of cable (from armhole) shape for the [ neck as follows:

Work 38 sts. in pattern, k.2 tog., slip the next 39 on to spare

needle.

On the first 39 sts., continue in pattern but decrease once at the neck edge on the 3rd and each following 2nd row until only 25 sts. remain. Then (with armhole edge the same length as back), keeping neck edge straight, cast off 5 sts. at shoulder edge each 2nd row until all are cast off.

Begin again and work the other 39 sts. shaping to correspond with the first side (the first decreasing will be on the 4th row).

Neck: Knit up 36 sts. along each neck edge (evenly along edges and fewer at point). Work in rib of k.l and p.l and, in each second row (at the centre of the V), k.2 tog. twice. When half an inch is worked cast off.    ?

Sleeves: Cast on 43 sts.

1st row: p.l, * k.2, p.l, rep. from ★ to end of ro;w. 2nd tow: k.l, ★ p.2, k.l, rep. from ★ to end of row.

Repeat these 2 rows for 3 ins.

Repeat the 6 pattern rows and increase once at each end of the 5th and each following 4th row until there are 69 sts. Continue without shaping until the seam measures 14 ins. including cuff.

Cast off 7 sts. at the beginning of each of the next 2 rows. Then cast off 2 sts. at the commencement of each row until only 11 sts. remain. Cast off.

Work the second sleeve like the first.

To Make Up: Do not press. Sew together side, right shoulder and sleeve seams. Join shoulder edge of left shoulder and sew sleeves in armholes. Work a row of double crochet (with chain loops of 2 or 3 chains for buttonholes) round shoulder opening. Sew on buttons.

BODICE AND KNICKERS (Three to Four Years)

Materials: 4 skeins "Sun-Glo” 3-ply; a pair each of Nos. 10 and 12 knitting needles; 2 yds. of tape, \ in. wide; six buttons. Measurements: Bodice.—Length, 13-| ins.; chest, 22 ins. Pilch.— Waist to crutch, 9J ins. Te7ision: With No. 10 needles, 7\ sts. to 1 inch. Abbreviations-. k.=knit; p.=purl; tog.=together; st.=stitch; rep.=repeat; beg.=beginning; dec.=decreas(e)ing; inc.=increas(e)ing; ins—inches; st. st,=stocking stitch.

Bodice

Front: With No. 10 needles cast on 84 sts. and work in k.l, p.l, rib for 1 in. Continue in st. st. (1 row k., 1 row p.) until the work measures 8-|- ins. from lower edge, ending with a p. row.

Next row. (p.l, k.l) 5 times, p.l, k. to the last 11 sts. (p.l, k.l) 5 times, p.l. Next row. Rib 11, p. to the last 11 sts., rib 11. Rep. these 2 rows twice. To shape the armholes:—Next row. Cast off 5 sts., rib 6, counting st. already on right-hand needle after casting off, k. to the last 11 sts., rib 11. Next row. Cast off 5 sts., rib 6, counting st. already on right-hand needle after casting off, p. to the last 6 sts., rib 6. Next row. Rib 6, k. to last 6 sts., rib 6. Next row. Rib 6, p. to last 6 sts., rib 6. Next row. Rib 6, k.2 tog., k.12 (k.l, p.l) 17 times, k.12, k.2 tog. rib 6. Next row. Rib 6, p.l3, rib 34, p.l3, rib 6. Next row.

Rib 6, k.13, rib 34, k.13, rib 6. Rep. last 2 rows once, then rep.

the former row once more.

To Shape the Neck:—-ISfex/ row: Rib 6, k.13, cast off 34 sts. loosely in rib, k. to the last 6 sts., rib 6. Work on the last set of 19 sts. thus:—1st row: Rib 6, p. to the last 4 sts., k.4. 2nd row: k. to the last 8 sts., k.2 tog., rib 6. 3rd row: As 1st row. Ath row: k. to the last 6 sts., rib 6.

Rep. the 3rd and 4th rows twice, then rep. the 3rd row once more.

Now rep. the last 8 rows twice, commencing with the 2nd row, then rep. the 2nd row once more. (15 sts. remain.)

Continue on these 15 sts. in st. st. with rib and garter st. borders, until the work measures 3i ins. from the commencement of the neck shaping. Cast off.

Re-join "Sun-Glo” 3-ply at needle point and work this side to correspond, reversing the borders and shapings.

Back: Work as given for the front until the armhole shapings are reached, and 74 sts. remain. Proceed as follows:—

1st row: Rib 6, k. to the last 6 sts., rib 6. 2nd row'- Rib 6, p. to the last 6 sts., rib 6. 3rd row: Rib 6, k. 2 tog., k to the last 8 sts., k.2 tog., rib 6. Rep. the 1st and 2nd rows 3 times, then rep. the 1st row once more. New rep. the last 8 rows, commencing with the 3rd row, until the work measures 11 s ins. from commencement, ending with a p. row. Next row' Rib 6, k.ll (k.l, p.l,) 17 times, k.ll, rib 6. Still dec. at each side of every 8th row, continue in st. st. with rib border and neck ribbing for \ in. To Shape the Neck: ^Cork to the centre 34 sts., cast off 34 sts. loosely in rib, work to end of row. Continue on the last set of sts. thus:—Rib 6, p. to the last 4 sts., k.4. Next row: k. to the last 6 sts., rib 6.

Rep. the last 2 rows, still dec. at the armhole edge on every 8th row until 15 sts. remain, then continue without shaping until the work measures 1% ins. from the commencement of the neck shaping. Cast off.

Re-join "Sun-Glo” 3-ply at needle point and work this side to correspond, reversing the borders and shapings. _    _

To Make Up: Press the work lightly on the wrong side, using a hot iron over a damp cloth. Join the side and shoulder seams. Stitch lengths of the tape on the right side of the work, down the front and back, commencing at the shoulder edge and stitching it over the garter st. border, then in a straight line

to lower edge. Sew buttons on to the tapes at the waistline and in a corresponding position on the side-seams. (Two sets of buttons may be used to adjust size.) Press all seams.

Button-On Knickers

Front: With No. 12 needles cast on 90 sts. and work \ in. in k.l, p.l rib. Now make buttonholes thus:—

Next row. Rib 24, turn. Work \ in. in k.l, p.l, rib on these 24 sts., ending at the inner edge. Break off and re-join "Sun-Glo”

3-ply at needle point and work \ in. in rib on the centre 42 sts., ending with a row on the right side of the work. Break off and re-join "Sun-Glo” 3-ply to the remaining 24 sts. and work \ in. in rib, ending at the side edge. Now work in rib across ail sts. Continue in rib for \ in. Change to No. 10 needles and continue in st. st., inc. 1 st. at both ends of every following 6th row until there are 106 sts. on the needle. Continue in st. st. without shaping until the work measures 7\ ins. from commencement, ending with a p. row.

To Shape the Legs: Continue in st. st., cast off 8 sts. at the beg. of the next 8 rows, then cast off 10 sts. at the beg. of the next 2 rows. Work 1 in. in st. st. on the remaining 22 sts. Leave these sts. on a spare needle.

Back: Work the waist ribbing and buttonholes as given for the front, then change to No. 10 needles and shape the back as follows:—

1st    row. k.50, turn.    2nd    roiv:    p.10,    turn.    3rd    row.    k.2Q,

turn.    4th row. p.30,    turn,    5th    row.    k.40,    turn.    6th    row.

p.50,    turn. 1th row.    k.60,    turn.    8th    row:    p.70,    turn.    9th

row.    k. to end of row.    10th    row:    p. to    end of row.

Now continue in st. st. exactly as given for the front. When the two pieces are completed, place the two sets of gusset sts. together and graft or cast-off together.

Leg Borders: With the right side of the work facing, using No. 12 needles, pick up and knit 42 sts. along the cast-off edge, 8 sts. along the side of the gusset, 42 sts. along the cast-off edgp Work in k.l, p.l, rib for § in. Cast off loosely in rib. Work the 2nd leg border in the same way.

To Make Up: Press the work lightly on the wrong side, using a hot iron over a damp cloth. Join the side seams, leaving a small opening in each side level with buttonholes to make an extra pair of buttonholes. Press all seams.

DRESSING GOWN FOR BOY OR GIRL (Two to Three Years)

Materials: 6 skeins "Sun-Glo” Shrinkproof Fingering Wool in white and 1 oz. in blue. Two No. 8 knitting needles; four or five buttons to match the blue wool. Tension: 7\ stitches and 10 rows=l in. Measurements'. Length, 24 ins.; round chest (under arm), 26 ins.; sleeve seam, 13 ins., including cuff. Abbreviations: k.t=knit; p.=purl; st.=stitch; rep.=repeat.

Back: Cast on 120 sts., using the white wool. Knit plain for 20 rows. 21st row: k.2, purl to the last 2 stitches, k.2. 22nd row: Knit plain. Repeat the last 2 rows, but decrease at each edge once (on the inside of the k.2 borders) in every 12th row until only 98 sts. remain. Continue without shaping until the fabric measures 16 or 18 ins. in length as required.

Armholes: Cast off 6 sts. at the beginning of each of the next 2 rows. Then decrease once at each edge in every plain row until only 76 sts. remain. Continue without shaping until the armhole measures 5 ins. (on the straight), above the cast-off armhole stitches.

To shape the shoulders cast off 5 sts. at the beginning of each row until only 26 sts. remain. Cast off.

Left Front: Cast on 71 sts. in the white wool. Knit plain for 20 rows.    \

21 st row: k.10, purl to the last 2, k.2. 22nd row: Knit plain. Repeat the last 2 rows, but decrease once at the k.2 edge in every 12th row until only 60 sts. remain. Continue without shaping until there are as many rows as to the armhole of the back.

Armhole: At the k.2 edge cast off 6 sts. in the next plain row and decrease each plain row (at armhole) until only 49 sts. remain. Continue without shaping until 4 ins. (on the straight) above the armhole.

Neck: Cast off the k.10 border sts. in the next row and, in each alternate row, cast off (at neck) 4 sts., 3 sts., 2 sts., 2 sts., 1 St., 1 st., 1 St.

To shape the shoulder cast off 5 sts. from armhpie edge until ail the stitches are cast off.

Right Front: Work to correspond with the left front. The 21st row will be: k.2, purl to the last 10 sts., k.10. Shapings will all be done at opposite edges and buttonholes are made

GUARANTEED NEVER TO SHRINK

You’ll be more than pleased with this super-soft, cosy Toddler’s Suit in Sun-Glo Shrinkproof Baby Wool—guaranteed to wash and wash—it will NEVER SHRINK. So easy to knit, too, from the simple instructions in Sun-Glo Knitting Book, Series 84 (Design No. 3195).

Sun-Glo Knitting Books are available at all retailers and newsagents, 7d. each or 81d. POSTED. Frock Book or Children’s Book, 1/3 or 1/41 POSTED. Or order direct from

“Knitting Book Department,” Alexandria Spinning Mills Pty. Ltd., 30 Grosvenor Street, Sydney.

at 13^ ins. and each following 2 ins. in the plain border (space with pins on left front) as follows: k.4, cast off 3 sts., k.3. In the return row cast on 3 sts. over those that were cast off.

Sleeves: Cast on 42 sts. using the blue wool. Work in rib of k.2 and p.2 for 4 ins. for the cuff. Join on the white ;wool.

1 st rpw: Knit plain, increasing once in each 7th stitch, making 48 sts. 2nd row: k.2, purl to the last 2, k.2. 3rd row: Knit plain.

Repeat the last 2 rows but increase once at each end (inside the k.2 borders) of every 6th row until there are 76 sts. Continue without shaping until the seam measures 9 ins. not counting the cuff. Cast off 6 sts. at the beginning of each of the next 2 rows. Then cast off 2 sts. at the commencement of each row until all the stitches are cast off.

Collar: Cast on 15 sts., using the blue wool. Knit plain for 10 ins. Cast off.

Girdle Bands (two) : Cast on 4 sts., using the blue wool. Knit plain for 1 in. Cast off.

Girdle: Fold strands of blue wool 3 yds. in length. Twist [these from the ends in opposite directions and fold in half. Knot ends securely, leaving strands for tassels.

Pocket: Cast on 22 sts., using the blue wool and knit plain for 2f ins. Cast off.

To Make Up: Press lightly under a damp cloth all but the lower hem, cuffs and collar. Sew together shoulder, side and sleeve seams. Sew the sleeves in the armholes, placing gathering at the top of armholes. Fix the collar and sew on buttons and | girdle bands. Sew on pocket.

GLOVES FOR BOY OR GIRL

(Three to Five Years)

Materials: 1 skein "Sun-Glo” Shrinkproof Fingering 3-ply. A set of four No. 13 needles, pointed both ends. Measurements: Length from tip of fingers to lower edge of cuff, 6 ins.; length of fingers adjustable. AH round hand, 5 ins. Tension:    sts.

to an inch.

Right-hand glove: Cast on 48 sts. and work l\ ins., k.l, p.l, rib. Change to stocking-stitch and knit 1 round increasing in 2nd stitch. 2nd aad Ath rounds: Knit. 5th round: Knit, increasing in 3rd st. 5th round: k., increasing in 4th st. Continue

thus for 14 more rounds, increasing over previous increase each alternate round.

Divide for thumb: k.12, cast on 3, leaving remainder on safety pin and finish thumb. Join these 15 into a round and k.28 rounds. Next round: k. tog. every 2nd and 3rd st. Next round: k.2 tog., all round and fasten off.

Return to remaining sts., pick up and k.2 from those cast on for thumb and work in rounds until 2f ins. have been done from wrist rib.

Divide for fingers: Forefinger: k.7, cast on 2, then take last 7 sts. from end of round. Work on these 16 sts. in rounds for 26 rounds. Finish as for thumb. Middle finger: k.6, cast on 2, take last 6 from end of round, pick up and k.2 from cast-on sts. at base of forefinger. Work 28 rounds, then finish off as before. Next finger: k.5, cast on 2, pick up last 5 and pick up 2 as before. Work as forefinger. Little finger: k. remaining 12 sts., pick up and k.2 from base of previous finger. Work 24 rounds and finish as before.

Left-hand glove: Work to correspond with right, reversing position of thumb by increasing in 47th st. each time; when dividing, k.46, and leave on spare needle, then k.12 for thumb. When dividing for fingers, k.34 palm sts., then complete as for right hand.

SOCKS (Three Sizes)

Materials: 1 skein "Sun-Glo” Fingering 3-ply for smallest size and 2 ozs. for each of other sizes. A set of four No. 13 needles, pointed both ends. Measurements: Length from top to heel, 7 ins. first size, 8 ins. for 2nd and 8^ ins. for 3rd sizes. Foot: 6, 6-| and 7 ins. These measurements are adjustable. Tension: 9\ sts. to an inch. 2nd and 3rd sizes given in brackets, thus:—( ) and " ”.

Cast on 48 (52) "56” sts. and work 1^ ins., k.l, p.l rib in rounds on 3 needles. Change to plain knitting and work 4* m "4|” ins., then start heel.

Work backwards and forwards in stocking-stitch on first 20 (22) “24” sts., i.e., k. first row and purl 2nd row, for If (if) “If” ins., ending with a purl row.

Turn heel: k.ll (13) "13,” slip 1, k.l, pass slipped stitch over, k.l, turn. Purl 4 (6) "4”, p.2 tog., p.l, turn. K.5 (7)

”5,” slip 1, k.l, p.s.s.o., k.l, turn. Purl 6 (8) "6,” p.2 tog., p.l, turn.

Continue thus until all sts. are on needle, 12 (14) ”14,” ending with a purl row. Next row: knit, then with another needle pick up and k.10 (12) ”14” sts. up side of heel. Knit across sts. left on spare needle for top of foot, then pick up and k.10 (12) ”14” sts. down other side of heel.

Knit 1 round arranging sts. so that you have 6 from under foot, 10 from side of heel on one needle, 28 across instep on 2nd and remainder on 3rd needle (7 and 12 on first needle, 30 across instep and remainder on 3rd needle) ”7 and 14 on first needle, 32 on 2nd and remainder on 3rd.”

Shape side of instep: k. to last 3 sts., k.2 tog., k.l, k. across 2nd needle, k.l, sl.l, k.l, p.s.s.o., k. to end on last needle. Next round: knit. Repeat these 2 rounds until there are 48 (52) ”56” sts. left in round.

Work straight for required length allowing 1|- ins. for toe shaping. Divide sts. so that you have 24 (26) ”28” on first needle for top of foot and half that number on each of 2 remaining needles.

Shape for toe: 1st needle: k.l, sl.l, k.l, p.s.s.o., k. to last 3 sts., k.2 tog., k.l. 2nd needle: k.l, sl.l, k.l., p.s.s.o., k. to end. 3rd needle: k. to last 3 sts., k.2 tog., k.l. Next round: knit. Rep. these 2 rounds until there are 20 (24) ”24” sts. left in round.

Divide sts. on 2 needles and graft.    v

HOME DRESSMAKING

The great advantage of home dressmaking for the toddler is that so many of the little garments can be made from left-over pieces of material—both woollen and the lighter types—while we are all familiar now with the process of "cutting-down and making-do” from father’s flannel trousers and mother’s tweed skirts!

When making children’s clothes at home the great thing to remember is to allow for growth, otherwise so much of your work is quickly wasted. Pay particular attention to the armholes, so that they are loose and wide and allow plenty of scope for movement. The same thing applies to the seats of knickers and trousers; and you will, of course, make good wide hems on frocks to enable them to be "let down.” It is often worth while to work by hand the seams or hems most likely to be let out, as machine stitching is more difficult to unpick and tends to mark the material.

'When considering the style, simplicity should be your key note, both for ease of working and for good appearance. The diagrams and instructions given later on in this chapter are all for simple, basic garments which can easily be made without patterns, and the mother who is clever with her needle will be able to introduce individual touches if she so desires. Study the diagrams carefully and cut out first in newspaper before tackling the material.

The same rules apply when cutting down grown-ups’ clothes for the children. The following remarks will help you to make the best of the material available, and will also give you an idea of how far "cutting down” can be put into practice.

To make a satisfactory job of converting clothes you should pay attention to the following points:—

1.    Unpick the seams of the old garment—every inch is valu

able if converting into the larger sizes of children’s wear.

Be careful not to stretch the material when unpicking;

an old razor blade does the job easily and well.

2. -Wash the pieces.

3.    Press the pieces well.

4.    Avoid using worn parts.

5.    Use the wrong side if the right side is faded or the nap

worn.

Men’s trousers will make knickers for small boys or a pinafore frock or a skirt for a small girl. Use the bottom part of the legs for a skirt.

A man’s shirt will make a blouse, a skirt or a nightdress. For small sizes of all these, avoid using the box opening of the shirt as it is rather wide and clumsy on a child. Make the nightdress with a front seam to one side of the neck line, the last 10 ins. or so being an opening fastened with bows.

Dresses: A summer dress will make an excellent romper suit or a small dress and knickers to match. A woollen dress can be converted into a winter frock, a pinafore frock or skirt, a pair of boy’s knickers and jacket or a dressing gown.

Coats, when unpicked and the pieces washed, can be made into a small coat, a dressing gown, a pair of boys knickers, a pinafore frock, a skirt and jacket, or a boy’s lumber jacket.

A skirt will make a small skirt, a pinafore dress or a small size of boy’s knickers, depending on the cut of the skirt.

A raincoat when washed and re-proofed will make a lumber jacket.    #

A mackintosh will make a cape or a rubber apron for a child to put on when playing with clay or water.

A petticoat will cut down to a smaller size and, if large enough, a small pair of pilch-type knickers can be made from the same garment.    *

A pair of fleecy-lined knickers or a woven undergarment makes an excellent bodice with tape for binding and strengthening.

A man’s vest or large pants can be converted into smaller sizes of these garments for boys, or a cosy sleeping suit for a boy or girl.

A jumper or cardigan which has become felted through washing and wear will cut up for a jacket or pullover. Face the raw edges with bias binding on the wrong side, and work a simple embroidery stitch on the edges of the right side to give an impression of newness. A felted jumper or cardigan will also make a pixie hood and a pair of cosy mitts to match.

A pair of worn socks provide a very good pair of mitts made this way: Place the sock flat and cut a semi-circle above the worn part of the heel the shape of the ends of the fingers. From the foot cut a thumb piece. Make a slit along the side of the sock for the thumb. Stitch round the top of the hand and round the thumb on the wrong side, stitching the thumb into position from the same side.

The following diagrams have been carefully worked out to make the best use of the material available. Each square represents one inch. Cut out the patterns in paper first.

Key to the Patterns: Notches marked v, w or vw are for matching edges. Circles (o o o) indicate where the pattern should be placed straight to the thread. Crosses (x) show where pockets, buttons and buttonholes should be sewn.

To Shorten or Lengthen Patterns: Fold to shorten or cut to lengthen along the following parts: Bodice: half-way between the under-arm and the waist. Sleeve: half-way between shoulder and elbow and half-way between elbow and wrist. Knickers: half-way between waist and fork.

To Narrow or Widen: Fold or cut along the centre of the pattern piece.

On

99


toes

KNOW

there is a positive need for “Viyella,” especially for children. That is why we are, in a manner of speaking, “on our toes” to make more and more. If we ask you to he patient it is because supplies can only gradually increase. The famous washing and wearing qualities of “Viyella” are born of skilled craftsmanship; its rare virtues cannot be reproduced by mass-production.

Viyella



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See this    trademarkyou

know you’re right for things to wear by Day and Night.

WILLIAM HGKLINS <fc CO. LTD., BOX 3335,    G.P.O., SYDNEY.

TODDLER

TROUBLES

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She may look adorable sucking her thumb, but if the habit persists after babyhood nervous symptoms are denoted. Suggestions for tackling the problems of thumb-sucking and hail biting, page 100.


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A triumphant moment, when she can dress herself, and it is ivell worth while exercising patience while she struggles with her socks It is all part of learning to be an independent person.

Won’t eat his. pudding . Playing with his meals? He may be feeling off-colour or trying to secure attention. See page 98 for advice on mealtime difficulties.

Plate v.

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TOYS

THAT TEACH

Playing is not only the child’s natural means of self - expression, through which character forms and grows. It is also a means of developing skill of hand and eye, matching colours and distinguishing shapes. Note the concentration on Margaret’s face.

Plate vi.


(Below) Colour sense and skill are encouraged by these gaily coloured pegs in a frame.

(Above) Four shapes, jour pegs, and the toddler does the rest.




i Right) Fun and good exercise is provided by a slide, and you need not fear it ivould be dangerous. A well-trained child always uses his physical skill to the best advantage.


1



Vanilla Creams with fruit make a tempting sweet. The glaze is made from the juice, boiled until it thickens.

NURSERY

COOKTNG

Directions for making these Peanut Butter Cookies and the other dishes shown here are given on pages 28-34. Vary the flavouring of Spicy Buns by using cocoa or fruit.

Bread and Butter Pud-ling is easily m a d e by pouring an egg custard mixture over thin bread ind butter, with sugar ind sultanas sprinkled in between the layers.

PETTICOAT for a small girl (two to four years) can be made from an old petticoat or summer dress of your own. This diagram shows\ you how to make your own pattern. Cut it out in newspaper in the actual size, taking each square marked here as 1 inch.

Girl’s Petticoat and Knickers (Two to Four Years)

Measurements: Petticoat, two years’ old size: Length, 17 in., bust 24 in*; four years’ size: length 19 in., bust 26 in. Knickers: side length 12 in., for two years’ size; 14 in. for the four-year-old.

Materials-. Using lawn, fine cambric, rayon, crepe de Chine or other lingerie fabric, you will need 1-| yd. of 36-inch material for the age two size, and l\ yd. for the four-year-old. The knickers alone require f yd. of 36-in. for both sizes, and the petticoat alone requires f yd. (age two) and 1 yd. of 36-in. material for age four.

The knickers are in two styles—the ieg type and the briefer kind. Both need elastic at the waist, and the leg style takes elastic at the leg.

If you are thinking of making a summer dress into one of the petticoats, cutting the pattern pieces lengthwise along the dotted lines indicated may enable you to fit the pattern to better advantage.

Two inches have been allowed' for turning up the bottom hem on both sizes of the petticoats.

Cutting out\ Both sizes of patterns cut more economically with the 36-in. material opened out flat. You will find that the sections devetail into each other with the selvedge way of the material running the width of the knicker. Allow \ in. for seams and turnings.

Three dots o o o indicate straight of thread. Make sure that you have folds down the centres at the back and front of the petticoat. The waistline of the knicker will require neatening with bias strips 1 in. wide cut from odd pieces of material. Join the strips together to measure about 23 in. and 32 in. for the two sizes.

The Petticoat'. When making a petticoat from odd pieces of

material, sew up the sections to make a complete front and a complete back, using French seams. Then sew the shoulder seams, followed by the side seams, matching the notches v in each case. The finished seams should measure a quarter of an inch. Meaten the neck and armholes with a small hem and lace, or with shell hemming which is worked as follows:—

Shell Hemming'. Turn a hem a quarter of an inch on to the wrong side as you go and fix it by means of three small running stitches and then two oversewing stitches worked over the hem and on top of each other. Pull these oversewing stitches tight to pucker the hem and give a shell effect. Work these two stitches alternately.

Turn up the bottom hem two inches, pleating the fulness where necessary.

The Knickers'. Finish the leg seams with French seams and then match the centre front and centre back seams and sew together in the same way. Make a hem § of an inch wide on the legs for elastic. Neaten the waistline with bias strips used as a facing and thread through a piece of elastic.

Dungarees (Two to Four Years)

Measurements'. Length from bib to ankle: age two, 29 in.; age four, 31 in.

Material: These workmanlike overalls are best made up in

DUNGAREES (Age 2—4)

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DUNGAREES are ideal for the “grubby ages” from, two to four. Make up in a strong material, such as drill, and cut out from this diagram.

a strong material such as drill, and the following are the lengths needed: Age Two: If yd. of 36-in. material or f yd. of 54-in. Age Four: 1-J yd. of 36-in. material or 1 yd. of 54 in.

Four buttons for each overall.

To cut out and make up: Allow ^ in. for turnings and seams. Make \ in. turnings on the sides and bottoms of the pockets and 1 in. along the tops. Place in positions marked with 4 x’s and stitch. Turn and stitch a hem \ in. finished on the side openings of the front pieces and turn \ in. down the side seams and press. Turn back \ in. and then f in. on the wrong side of the back part of the opening and press.

Place the front halves over the back and stitch for a lapped seam from the bottom of the opening to the ankles. Pair the leg seams and make single seams. Do the same with the front and back seams. The raw edges on the wrong side can be stitched by machine and pressed flat.

Face the armhole edges with crossway strips cut 1 in. wide and turn the .top of the bib \\ in. back on to the wrong side. Turn the raw edges in \ in. and stitch.

Join together the back facing pieces at their centre back with a flat seam and use to face the back of the trouser waistline. Fold the straps in half and sew along the sides arfd one end; turn and neaten the raw edges; press.

Stitch one end of the edge of the bib and mark a buttonhole at the other end. Stitch a button to the back in the position shown and another at the top of each opening. Work buttonholes at the end of the straps and at the openings.

Boy’s “Buster Suit” (Two to Three years)

Measurements: Blouse: length 12-| ins., bust 26 in.; Knickers: 12 in. (waist to fork at back).

Material: You need 1 yd. of 36 in. or \ yd. of 54-in. material for the trousers and l\ yd., or f yd., for the short-sleeved blouse. If both garments are made out of the same material, then 2\ yd. of 36 in. or 1 yd. of 54-in. material will be required. Ten buttons for the blouse and trousers will be wanted.

To make up: For making-up the trousers, following the directions for the Dungarees given earlier in this chapter but make buttonholes, two front and back, on the places marked x on the pattern.

BOY’S “BUSTER SUIT” (two to three years): Here is the diagram for cutting out the blouse. Make your own pattern in newspaper, allowing one inch for each square shown here.



To make up the blouse, begin with the front opening. To the left front stitch the wide strip, applying the right side to the right side of the bodice and stitching \ in. away from the edge. Make a \ in. turning on the other raw edge to the wrong side and stitch over the first line of stitching by hand. Place the strip so that the centre lies on top of the stitching and press. Apply the wrapover strip to the right-hand side bodice piece in the same manner but leave fiat and press. -

Make a simple \ in. turn on three sides of the pocket and a hem \ in. finished on the top and place in the position indicated on the pattern by x’s and stitch.

Press a box pleat 1 in. wide down the centre of the back bodice. Stitch the yoke to the front and back bodice pieces, making a lapped seam of \ in. Use French seams at the side edges.

loin the underarm sleeves with a French seam and turn up the lower edge with a hem 1 in. finished. Stitch invisibly. Set the sleeves into the armholes with a French seam. Turn up the bottom with a hem \ in. finished and stitch.

Sew on the collar and neaten with a bias strip. Make four buttonholes and stitch four buttons at positions marked x. Sew squares of material to wrong sides of the bodice in the positions marked x and attach the buttons which hold the knickers.

Boy’s Blouse (Four to Five Years)

Measurements: Length 20 in., bust 27 in.

This shirt-like blouse can be made in cotton or woollen material with long or short sleeves. It will cut out of a man’s worn shirt quite easily. The opening all the way down the front ;will mean easier laundering.

If you are buying new material you will need 1^ yd. of 36 in., or 1 yd. of 54 in. for long sleeves; 1 yd. of 36 in., or f yd. of 54 in. for short sleeves.

To make up\ Attach the two strips to the front bodice and follow the instructions given for the blouse of the "Buster Suit.” Stitch 3/16 in. from the edges of the wider piece to give a smart effect.    ,

Make a 1 in. box pleat down the centre of the back bodice. Stitch the yoke to the bodice pieces and join the side seams by means of a counter hem seam as follows: On the front half of

BLOUSE or shirt for the older toddler of four to five. Follow this diagram in cutting out your own pattern, allowing one inch for each square shown here.

the garment turn -§ in. to the wrong side. On the back half turn | in. on to the right side. Interlock these two folds and sew.

Fold the two small squares of material to form triangles and place at the bottom of the side seams on the right side.

Make a hem f in. finished along the bottom and up the curves of the sides fixing the triangular pieces at the same time.

Make counter hem seams along the sleeve seams of the long sleeve, leaving 3 in. open at the cuff end. Make small hems on to the wrong side along these edges and stitch. Turn in \ in. at each end of the cuffs and fold in half and stitch round 3/16 in. away from the edges. Fix in and stitch the wrist part of the sleeves, disposing of the extra length by means of small tucks. For short sleeves make counter hem seams and neaten the end of the sleeve with a hem 1 in. finished. Stitch the sleeves into the armholes with counter hem seams.

For the collar place the two right sides together and stitch along the outside edge and front edges. Turn right side out and press. ' To fit the collar to the neck, place the edge of the right side of the collar band to the edge of the neck on the inside of the bodice; stitch and then tuck in the second raw edge of the collar band and stitch down over the previous stitching. Stitch 3/16 in. round the edge of the collar.

Make buttonholes on the left-hand side of the front 2% in. apart. The first one should be a horizontal one on the band and the others vertical. Sew buttons on the right-hand side to match.

Make buttonholes-and sew buttons on to the cuffs.


Understanding Your Child

TOURING the years from two to five, there is a very close and intimate tie between the child and his parents.

In the first two years of his life he can hardly distinguish himself as a separate person from his mother. He is completely dependent on her, physically and emotionally. From two years of age onwards he is gradually working towards independence. He is becoming aware of himself as an individual and is beginning to see his mother as a separate person, leading her own life as well as ministering to him.

Every month he grows physically stronger, less dependent on his mother’s care, so that by the time he is five he can manage himself in the ordinary routine of the home. Emotionally, however, his progress is not so steady and the years between two and five need very careful management by the parents.

A Will of His Own

During his ijrst two dependent years, baby has things nearly all his own way. His very helplessness gives him a prior claim to his mother’s attention. By the time he is two, he is showing signs of a will of his own and he wants to assert it, but in his own interests his mother must often check him and deny him what he wants. He is still, however, engrossed in himself and he responds stormily to these denials.

Side by side with the love which he feels for his mother as the source of comfort and protection, feelings of rage spring up because it is she who thwarts him and controls him and in general makes him give up his babyhood power. He senses, too, that his father and mother share a life in which he has no part and his feelings towards this grown-up life from which he is shut out are complicated. The little boy, anxious to have his mother all for himself, may feel jealous of his father’s advantage, though he cannot express his feelings. The small girl, looking up to the manliness of her father, may almost wish her mother out of the way, even though she still depends on her mother. These feelings are vague and unformulated, existing beneath

the surface of the child’s unorganised mind, but they are certainly there and they provide a storm centre for the toddler’s emotional life.    -    .

It is necessary to know that these warring impulses do exist, so that we can better appreciate the responsibility of guiding these small people through the difficult years. Damage done during this time will quite certainly affect the personality of the adult in later life.

The Parents’ Part

If the parents can be wise and patient through a child’s toddler years, a very firm foundation has been laid for a stable personality later on. The whole matter rests with the parents. We cannot always know instinctively which is the wisest course to take. We urgently need to be equipped with knowledge of ourselves and to have our own reactions well in control. We ourselves have our immature spots, irrational fears, unresolved aggression and sometimes feelings of resentment against our job. Our weaknesses will show themselves in the handling of our children; that is why it is so important to control them in ourselves before we attempt to control others.

Bringing up a child is a great opportunity for a mother to develop herself. Our education is by no means finished because we are grown-up and have become a parent. Children look to their parents as the source of wisdom, but wise parents know that the job of parenthood gives "unceasing opportunity for maturing their own personalities, both through the relation of the parents to each other and through the relation between the parent and the child.

Be Consistent

It is absolutely necessary that both parents should be consistent in the handling of their children. You cannot expect even a husband and wife to see alike on all points—they come to their job each with a different background. But if they find themselves differing, let them talk things over and clear their own minds in discussing what is best for someone they both love. Sometimes one must concede small points in order to achieve consistency, for it is most important that parents should be able loyally to support each other and for the children to know that

if mummy has said that this must be so, daddy will say the same.

The parents must stand together; they are equal partners and the children are their joint responsibility. There must never be any question of a close tie between a child and one parent, from which the other parent is shut out. Nor must the child ever think that he can get away with something with one indulgent parent which the other would not allow. He [would quickly exploit such weakness and undermiae any real authority. A mother should never use the father as a threat to reinforce her own authority with remarks like "I shall have to tell daddy when he comes home and he will punish you.” It is most unfair to the father to make a bogey of him and it saps the child’s spontaneous pleasure in the father’s return home. This does not mean that a mother should not discuss difficulties with her husband when they are away from the child, but she should not use him as a means of coercion. Her own authority should be sufficient when she is alone with the child.

The Mother’s Responsibility

Every mother needs to take stock of herself, to make sure she is giving her best to her children. The personalities of small children are, of course, not completely the handiwork of their parents. From the very earliest days of babyhood children show signs of varying dispositions. If you have reared several children, you will know how each will differ, even in such a primitive function as suckling. There are placid babies, lively ones, unsatisfied ones and these early differences are the basis of varied types of children.

The mother cannot alter her child’s type. She has to work on the material she is given, but it is her business to study the child at every step to see that she is giving him the best opportunity to develop soundly.

You must remember how inexperienced the toddler is, how much he is at the mercy of his own impulses and how turbulent his feelings are and then be as sure as you possibly can that you yourself are a person fit to guide him through these stormy years.

When he shows signs that he is insecure and unable to face a situation, it is to you he looks for security. When he is aggressive, full of angry feelings, your calmness must reassure him. He

needs your steady affection and though you have to forbid and at times disapprove, he must be quite certain that you will never say that you do not love him, because that is the one thing which would leave him quite unprotected.

When you meet some difficult patch or other—and they are bound to occur sometimes — do not just grumble about the child’s difficult behaviour and say that you cannot understand why your boy is so destructive or your small girl just will not do as she is told, and then try to remedy the fault just by strengthening your authority. Think first if you are giving the best you are capable of to the child. You may then realise that you are restricting him too much and he is not getting enough scope. Or perhaps you are expecting him to behave too much as an adult and are not using enough imagination.

There is no need to feel guilty or to begin to think you are a failure because you realise that you have made mistakes. It simply means that you are challenged by a situation and you are going to do your best to meet it, though it may mean reorganising your own mental outlook. All that is part of your own process of maturing as, well as of the child. If you enter fully into the job of bringing up a child, you live your own life anew through him and that is the great gift which a child can bring.

Too Much to Do?

You may think that this is all very well, but that with all the other demands on you, you just have not the time or energy to study your own inner life or the child’s. It is enough to get through the day’s work. You know that you are sometimes irritable and impatient in a way you used not to be, but you do not seem able to do anything about it.

Fatigue—physical and mental—makes us far less able to give our best understanding to the children and makes us unimaginative. The majority of people nowadays, and probably housewives and mothers more than anyone, are suffering from fatigue. A single-handed mother has a very onerous job; as a rule she has no off-time, very little relaxation, and quite often she does not get enough sleep. She works devotedly for her children, but finds it difficult to find time to enjoy them.

Sufficient sleep is very important and the busy mother should make it a rule to go to bed in good time. If you make an early

start in the morning and try to organise your day, you will find that you can get through the work in good time. Everyone’s circumstances are different, but if you can possibly manage it, it is a good thing to get out of the house in the afternoon and give up some time to the children and really do things with them.

Getting Away from the Routine.

Whenever possible, the co-operation of neighbours should be sought for caring for a small group of children, so that mothers can sometimes get out on their own. Then you can help yourself by your own mental attitude. Housework and cooking have to be done, but the way you feel about the job makes an enormous difference to your life. There is sometimes a tendency to plod along in the old routine, getting tired and dull, but not thinking very much about it. Yet there are times when it is an excellent thing really to think of what you are doing in your job of running a home. Try not to let the details of the housework fill your mind. Make an effort to look at your work as a whole.

When you are tired, the jobs rise up in a formidable array and the children tend to get crowded out of your mind, except as an extra source of work. If you can keep in mind the end-result at which you are aiming—which is a well-ordered and happy home—and remember that it is you who are achieving it, then the endless washing-up will not be quite such a drudgery as it sometimes seems to be. Keep your mind freer for the human beings in the home and let your hands do the housework; they can do most of it by themselves. You will find that you get rid of the sense of resentment which sometimes creeps in at being so tied and you will be better able to keep your mind receptive. If you can make yourself receptive, then the children will give you joy. It is better to offer them the example of a warm, happy personality than to preach good behaviour to them, while at the same time you yourself are irritable and short-tempered through being over-tired.

Exercising Authority

The most difficult lesson which the two to fives have to learn is to accept authority and the way they learn it will lay down the pattern of their later behaviour. The manner in which the parents represent authority to the little child is going to affect his attitude towards his teachers and later on towards his superiors at work. It will influence all his mature social relations, helping to determine whether he will be a friendly, easy person or someone who is up against others; whether he is independent in his judgments or easily influenced by those around him. However free you allow your children to be, some exercise of authority on your part is inevitable and desirable.

Small children, with their lack of experience, must be provided with a steady framework for their lives, within which they are allowed freedom. An essential routine of feeding, washing and sleeping times must be established and the enforcement of that routine is a proper subject for obedience.

There are certain other matters for which the parents must take responsibility. They must see that the child avoids harm to himself and others and that he respects other people’s real rights—for example, the right not to have their property used without permission. These essentials give quite enough opportunity to teach a child the lessons of obedience without trying to order every detail of his life. If you stick to essentials and leave the child freedom of choice in other matters, he will listen to you much more readily than if he feels you are always nagging..

When to Say “Don’t”

Having decided what are the essentials in which we must ask for obedience, we want to know what is the best way to get it, so that the relation between the grown-up and the child continues to be good.

First of all, you must be sure in your own mind that what

you ask is reasonable. So often, just because we are grown-up and the child has no real appeal against us, we tend unthinkingly to exploit his weakness and make demands on him to suit our own convenience or to satisfy our temper at that moment. It is difficult not to act impulsively at times, but the habit of saying "Don’t” may become almost automatic and then it loses its value and just leads to irritation between mother and child.

If we find that this is happening, we need to think things over and make a real effort to consider the child’s point of view Remember that the small child is very differently organised from the grown-up. He is busy exploring the world, he is constantly creating imaginative situations which have nothing to do with

WHEN TO USE REASON    87

what we are doing. If we can think of his activities from his angle, we shall see that a good many things which we almost automatically forbid are really quite legitimate.

It is a temptation to say "Don’t touch” at every step, yet the child must learn by touching—his hands are as important as his eyes in learning the qualities of things around him. We know that a child cannot be allowed to do all he wants to do, however natural it is from his point of view; you cannot have a grubby finger poked into the pastry or let the little child pick up a glass dish which he might easily break, nor can you let him loose to play his games with all the household belongings. Nevertheless, if you think of the child’s standpoint, you will find that there are many things which really need not be forbidden. Very often, a little compromise will put the matter right. If you can say, "You can’t do that, but I will tell you what you can do,” and suggest an alternative, the child will generally fall in with the suggestion. He does not wish to be disobedient, he is just intent on his own affairs and finds the alternative quite as acceptable.

When to Use Reason    ,

You may be sure in your own mind that your demands on the child are reasonable, but you cannot expect him always to see the point of grown-up requests. Whenever you think he can understand your reason, give it to him, but at this early age he cannot always take up a logical attitude. In any case, never let the anxiety to reason things out with a child degenerate into an argument. His response to your demands is based most of all on his trust in you. That is why it is important not to make unnecessary demands, for if you do, he will feel rebellious and be less willing to obey you on another occasion.

The mother must be careful, of course, never to exploit a child’s affection for herself by remarks like "If you don’t do what I ask you, you will make me very unhappy.” That is putting the question of obedience on the wrong plane. Once you have made a demand which you have judged to be necessary, you must stick to it. Don’t be put off by a scene and give in for the sake of peace. It would not really mean peace either for you or the child. That is no reason why you should not make it as easy as possible for the child to obey. If he refuses to obey, you can in many instances suggest that he does it a little

later and at the end of the time you do not alter your position.

The way you ask a child to do something plays an important part in winning his co-operation. If you speak with calm expectation that he will obey, he will probably do so, ^but if you over-emphasise and become cross, he may be provoxed to thwart you. And certainly if you plead, he will feel that you do not really expect to be obeyed !

Avoiding Trouble

A child has a natural right to be spoken to politely. Its personality should be respected, even if it is an immature one. So often you can win a child’s co-operation by using a little imagination—by forestalling scenes or diverting them into harmless channels. A child is always grateful if you "save his face,” if you can keep your own serenity sufficiently to put the best interpretation on his actions and give him the credit for what he was trying to do, instead of blaming him heavily for mistakes.

Children of this age live very much in the moment and if you see trouble brewing—for instance, a squabble developing among a group of children—it is often better to divert the storm rather than to exert your authority. You may suggest a different game or introduce some new topic of interest and the children will probably be relieved to accept the suggestion. What you are really doing is creating a happy, smooth atmosphere. Without seeming to use your authority, you are holding the reins and making your influence felt and as a result there are fewer occasions on which you have to forbid or insist. The more positive your relation to children, the easier it will be for them to accept your authority.

Mistakes to Avoid    *

There are points on which parents are apt to demand obedience which they can never really enforce. That is always a mistake. The question of manners is typical. We want our children to behave politely and to be friendly and considerate, but we can never make them so by insisting on a standard of behaviour, for politeness and friendliness come from within and are the result of the child’s feelings towards others.

If we provide the child with an example of good manners and

give him a stable, happy environment, he will be more likely to achieve a good social poise than if we try to drill "manners” into him.

There are some parents who do not distinguish between essentials and unimportant points, who allow their children very little freedom of choice and who think that instant obedience on every occasion is the only way to train a child. In such cases, this generally means one of two things. The mother may be afraid of her own weakness—she feels that if she does not assert herself and gives in on any point, then the child will get the better of her. Children are very quick to sense any weak spot; they feel insecure with a mother who is not quite sure of herself and they rebel against petty restrictions. The result will be a series of humiliating battles of wills, in which the relation between mother and child becomes strained.

A demanding mother may, on the other hand, be filled with a strong urge for power, which drives her to dominate the lives of her children. Perhaps she was given too little freedom in her own childhood and she is giving vent now, or she may be a person of very strong personality who feels hampered by domestic life and wants to organise everyone around her.

The right to exert authority over small children is a great responsibility and we should take careful stock of ourselves to be sure that we are exercising it wisely. Children are not instruments to be bent to our wills, they are independent personalities in their own right, even though they are not fully developed. We should bear in mind that the use we make of our authority depends in a large measure on the way in which we dealt with our own rebellious feelings as small children.

The Problem of Punishment

The majority of parents think that there are times when authority must be reinforced with punishment. If such occasions do arise, what principles should guide us? To mention first what we should not do: it is certainly wrong to threaten children with punishment which is not carried out, using the threat itself as a means of coercion. A quick smack is a very common way of taking an unruly child to task and most parents see no harm in it. Maybe in many cases there is none, but nine times out of ten the child is smacked, not because it does him good, but because it affords relief to the-parent’s harassed feelings.

There are times when the child must feel the weight of adult disapproval and it is justifiable to withdraw a pleasure or a privilege. The punishment should be related to the offence and should follow quickly after it, not be saved up, so that the child realises the fairness of his punishment. The parent needs to be firm and calm and when the incident is over, there is no need to refer to it again or to try to point the moral.

A child may have to be sent out of the room until he can behave better, but to shut him up in a room by himself is not a good idea. His reason is not sufficiently developed for him to reconsider his own behaviour calmly and he will probably feel rebellious and perhaps frightened. You must disapprove of childish behaviour at times, but it is essential that the child should never feel that he has forfeited your love. He needs tha, at all times.

It hardly needs to be said that constant correcting never achieves the end it seeks, yet it goes on because once a parent has got into a scolding frame of mind, it becomes a habit which is difficult to break.

Two-year-old children are often stormy, but they will not respond well to punishment and correction. They must be handled with firm confidence and their co-operation won by indirect methods when they do not answer to direct ones. A well-planned and imaginative routine which allows the child enough scope for his activities, and sensibly arranged rooms where he cannot do much damage, will cut out most of the occasions for bad behaviour on the child’s part.

Children of three are, as a rule, more amenable. Scenes should occur only rarely and the average child of this age likes to please. A certain amount of wilfulness is common among the four-year-olds, who are beginning to feel their power. They can be dealt with verbally much better than the younger children, because they can understand at least simple reasoning. If you are a person whose word the children can respect and trust and you are in control of your own feelings, you will seldom have need to resort to active punishment with these small children.

Those Questions!

During the toddler years and especially during the ages of three and four, children ask a perpetual stream of questions, which are often exhausting and not always easy to answer. Many of them, of course, show desire on the child’s part for actual information—the "What is this for?” and "What is that called?” type of question. These should be answered to the best of the parent’s ability.

Remember how fresh the child’s mind is, how completely ignorant he is of the outside world and how much he has to learn. It is good that he does not take what he sees for granted, but wants to know the whys and wherefores of things around him. Don’t blunt the edge of an inquiring mind'by putting off his questions. Children naturally expect you to be all-knowing and it takes them some time before they can accept the fact that you are not. But when you have to acknowledge that you really do not know something, give them the idea that there are other ways of finding out. Daddy may know something that you cannot explain, or you can promise the four-year-old that you will look it up in a book.

Sometimes a child’s questions are more a demand for attention than a desire for knowledge. This is especially so when a child goes on and on asking random questions without much meaaning attached to them. The solution in this case is not simply to stop or ignore the questioning, but to show more active interest in the child’s affairs, so that he feels more in touch with you and has less need to make endless demands on you.

Whenever possible, teach the child to think for himself. Quite often, the best answer to a question is "Well, what do you think?” and the child’s answer gives you an idea how his mind is working. Some questions are more in the nature of comments on things which the child has noticed for the first time. For example, "Pussy’s claws are sharp. Why?” Do not be too long-winded or complicated in your explanations, or you will only over-load the child’s mind. Try to make your explanations concise and use words which he can understand. It is' a good exercise in thinking clearly. Give yourself time to listen when your toddler really wants to know something. He will quickly sense if you are only half listening. You will lose touch with what is going on in the child’s mind if he thinks you cannot be bothered to answer.

“Where do Babies Come From?”

When a child goes on and on asking questions in a rather anxious way and does not seem satisfied with the answers, it probably means that he is puzzling about something, perhaps not apparently connected with the subject of his questions. He has "got something on his mind.”

The problem of where babies come from may have this effect if the child has not the confidence to ask outright or if he has already met with an unsatisfactory answer. This is a question which worries some parents and is worth while considering in rather more detail.

The only satisfactory criterion is to answer the child’s questions simply and truthfully as they arise. There' is no need to go into comparisons with the plant and animal world—the child will probably draw those for himself when he is ready to do so. It is best to answer just what the child asks, since that is all he is ready for just then, but let him feel that you are prepared to go on talking if he wants, to.

You may wonder at what age you can answer such questions. There need be no definite age laid down at all. Some children of four will begin to think about these questions, in others they will not arise until some years later. Do not think that you are "putting ideas into a child’s head” if you tell him about birth, for if he asks, the ideas are already there. Only the truth will satisfy him and if he is satisfied, then he will no longer worry about the question, though he will almost certainly return to the subject for more information later on, perhaps not for quite a long time.

To give the true facts in a simple, straightforward manner is the only way to keep the child’s trust. If you are evasive, he will realise it sooner or later, and he will get the feeling that the word of grown-ups is not to be trusted. If children understand something of the way in which life comes into the world, they get a feeling of the dignity of the body and they are better able to harmonise mind and body throughout their development. They can appreciate at a very early age that one does not talk about these matters to everyone just because they are each person’s very own concern.

Psychological Difficulties

IT is inevitable that problems will arise during the toddler years, which are a very emotional stage. In some children they will be problems of personality, such as difficulty in mixing with other children; in others it will be chiefly a question of problems of behaviour—for example, destructiveness. Many of the difficulties will be transient and will disappear almost spontaneously as the child grows surer of himself; a few will prove more deep-seated and will need careful understanding and management. It is important for parents to realise that the small child’s personality is not yet quite integrated, his feelings towards his parents are mixed, he is anxious to assert his own will, but his power is small and he constantly finds himself at a disadvantage.

Temper Tantrums    *

Temper tantrums are probably the commonest symptom of the years from two to five. The child may cry violently, sometimes screaming, kicking or threatening to hurt, and refuse to listen to persuasion or commands. For the time being he has completely lost control of himself. As a rule, these tantrums are the result of the child’s natural desire for power which comes

up against his real impotence. He wants so much—wants it so badly and so urgently—and he can achieve so little, either because he is not strong enough or because it is denied him.

Round about two years of age, when the toddler is just emerging from babyhood and is particularly likely to want things his own way, these displays can be looked on as normal. Even so, parents need to be wise in handling them, so that the stage will pass more quickly and leave no scars on the growing personality.

A very angry child must be dealt with immediately; there is no time to think over the best way of dealing with the situation. The most important thing is#to be sure that the child’s outburst does not provoke your own aggression and make you lose your temper. If you do, you have not made this an occasion for educating the child; you have simply forced the lid down on his turbulent feelings, which will boil over again, probably more strongly than ever, on the next occasion.

Some parents feel that a child in a temper tantrum must be sharply brought to himself and they find that a quick smack is the most effective way of doing it. Others feel that the best y?ay of treating a display of temper is to ridicule it and try to make the child feel how silly he looks; or else to ignore it altogether, ' perhaps just walking away and leaving the child to recover when he is ready. It should be borne in mind that when a small child loses control of himself, he is at the mercy of very strong impulses which run away with him. His feelings are not fully organised and if one impulse gets the upper hand, the child has not always the strength to check it. He needs to be helped to regain his self-control. To punish him severely at such a time is just adding your anger to his own and the whole world seems an angry place to him. To ridicule him certainly does not help, since obviously he cannot stand outside himself and see how he looks; he does not see anything silly in his behaviour—he is in deadly earnest. To ignore him would only be effective if the child w7ere simply demanding attention by his outburst. Very often he is not, he just cannot control himself and if he is left alone he lacks the help which he badly needs

The attitude to take up which is most helpful to the child is to be firm and sure of yourself, crisp in your manner and speaking with authority, but at the same time remaining warm and friendly, so that the ground is prepared for the child’s return to

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normal behaviour. Don’t be worried by extravagant remarks which the child may give vent to—they are best ignored. Don’t stop to fight the battle out; take the initiative in controlling the child’s behaviour and offer him an alternative way of behaving. As soon as he begins to be more amenable, it is best to keep him busily occupied for a time.

In this way the fluidity, as it were, of the child’s emotions can be turned to good account and the storm will soon be forgotten. Temper tantrums may occur rarely after two years, but if they are frequent and persistent, it is generally a sign that there is some fault in handling the child. He may not have enough scope for the proper development of his will, or he may feel a lack of security, or alternatively, it is a sign of some degree of instability in the child himself.

Other Forms of Aggression

Another form of aggression which is less common than temper tantrums but which is difficult to deal with, is the habit of biting.

A certain number of children in anger, or even without any show of anger, will bite sometimes the mother and sometimes other children. The great difficulty here is that a child who bites others very naturally becomes unpopular—other children will avoid him and he is isolated. It is generally found that a child who bites others also has the habit of biting his toys and his clothes.

As a rule, the habit can be traced back to feeding difficulties in infancy. A baby who was unsatisfied at the breast would tug and bite at it; he would not get the normal satisfaction and comfort from his feeding which is so important to his emotional life as well as to his health. In consequence, he goes through his childhood with an unexpressed feeling that he has been done out of something and he is always ready to make an attack with his mouth.

Obviously, if the cause goes so far back and is so completely outside the child’s control, it is useless to be angry with him for his behaviour. It is a good idea to give such a child things which he can legitimately put into his mouth and to show rather more demonstrative affection to him than one otherwise would, since he has a lack to make good. If the biting persists, psychological treatment at a Child Guidance Clinic is indicated, so that the trouble can be dealt-with at its source.

Many parents complain that their young children are destructive. They tear up books, break their toys almost as soon as they have them and sometimes deliberately destroy their clothes. This may be the result of a number of different things. It is often just carelessness or the result of lack of training in the care of possessions.

When children are destructive with their toys, it very often means that they have been given unsuitable ones which either break too readily or do not stimulate and interest them, or they may have too many toys and in .consequence do not value them. Some children, too, are very clumsy and everything they touch seems to break. Such children need plenty of exercise and opportunities for developing their handwork, in order to improve their co-ordination and their muscular control.

There are children, however, who destroy for destruction’s sake, because their own aggression is unmanageable. As a rule, they are not very sociable children and they will hit out as well as destroy their own and other people’s property. When this is the case, the problem needs to be tackled from the human side. Such a child is not on good terms with the world; probably he is up against authority and he is giving vent wherever he can. By destroying, he is showing his power, even if it is in a negative ;way. Certain practical outlets can be a help—for instance, it may help a very small child if he is allowed to tear up paper to his heart’s .content, or he may feel relieved by kicking down his towers of bricks, by knocking over skittles or banging a ball against a wall. Any sort of explosive activity lessens the tension. This is not enough, however, unless the parents can help to adjust what has gone wrong in the child’s feelings towards themselves or towards other people around him.

The Problem of Jealousy

Jealousy, so often associated with the birth of a new baby, is a difficulty which many parents have to face. There is almost a tendency to exaggerate it and to expect that a child will be jealous of a new arrival. Some parents look so anxiously for the signs of jealousy that they actually create them. Nevertheless, the jealousy situation is a very real one.

Most parents nowadays are sensible in preparing small children for the birth of a baby, if they are old enough to understand its meaning at all. The best way is to talk of it in a matter-

THE PROBLEM OP JEALOUSY    97

of-fact way, as a pleasant but not an exciting happening. A child may seem pleased at the idea, but he cannot be fully prepared for what it really feels like to have a baby in the home who is in so much closer contact with his mother than he is. If the child does show signs of being emotionally upset, it is wisest not to insist that now he is a big boy because he has a baby brother or sister. At the moment he probably does not want to be a big boy. He would like to go back to being a baby, when he could have all his mother’s attention for himself.

It is quite usual to find that a child of two or three will regress for a time when a baby is born. A two-year-old may even take to crawling; he may insist on being fed or relapse in his toilet habits. These signs should be referred to as little as possible and the mother should make a point of giving the child a little extra attention and some time to himself when the baby is not there, even though it takes some fitting in.

Try not to make the baby a nuisance to the child by constantly saying "Don’t make a noise or you will waken the baby,’’ or "I haven’t time just now.” Remember that this may be a time of adjustment for the toddler as well as for yourself.

A very strong feeling of jealousy may cause a child who has previously been very affectionate to turn completely against his mother for a time and almost refuse to have anything to do with her. If that should happen with your toddler, don’t try to reason with him, but continue to show him warm, unobtrusive affection until he is reassured that the coming of the baby has not really altered his position in his mother’s affection and that life goes on much as usual.

In a few cases, a child may actually try to harm a baby of whom he is jealous. The best thing to do is to arrange for the baby to sleep and be fed out of the way of the toddler as far as is possible, so that the child does not come much into contact with the baby until his acute feelings have subsided.

Relations and friends would help if they refrained from excessive admiration of a new baby in the toddler’s presence. It must be very provoking to a little child who has been used to a fair amount of attention to find it all focussed on someone else. The child should not be expected to show very keen interest in the baby at first, since after all it is of no use^to him as a playmate.

It is not uncommon to find that a child who accepts a new

baby placidly enough begins to show signs of jealousy or dislike when the baby starts to crawl about or actively interfere in his life, seizing his toys and generally getting in the way. One wants the baby to develop, of course, and to hold his own, but the older child has his rights, too, and cannot F>e expected always to give in to the younger one.

When the children’s play cannot be supervised, it is better to separate them, probably keeping the baby in a play-pen until he is able to appreciate that there are some things he may not do. In any case, do not always assume that the older child is in the wrong every time.

There are times when the jealousy situation is reversed and it is the younger child who is jealous of the older, especially if the difference in age is a small one. The younger child is always trying to catch up with the older one, but he is constantly hampered by having just that little less strength and knowledge. He may hurl himself against his older brother or sister in impotent rage because he cannot manage to achieve the same things. The only possible way of helping the younger one is always to encourage him to think of achievement in relation to the thing he is doing, not in relation to any person. There should, of course, never be any comparison made in their hearing between two children.

Food Fads

Difficulty over feeding is a very common problem among toddlers. Usually it takes the form of faddiness about certain kinds of food. The child refuses his milk, or he will not touch greens, for instance. If his mother tries to force him, there is a scene. Some children dawdle excessively at meal-times and play with their food and it becomes hard for the mother to refrain from nagging the child and constantly reminding him to hurry up and finish what is on his plate. The child very quickly learns that by refusing food he can wield a lot of power over his mother.

Every mother is anxious that her child should be well-nourished and should thrive, and if he does not feed well she soon begins to worry and to make an issue of the taking of food. The child will play up to this and use it as a weapon to secure attention.

Feeding should be a pleasurable, instinctive activity to the child, taken as a matter of course, but instead of this it becomes fraught with4 emotion. However natural the mother’s anxiety is that her child should eat an adequate amount of food, she will only defeat her own ends if she shows worry or impatience. She must first see that the child’s meals are well planned, nicely cooked and attractively served and then she should leave him to get on with them by himself.

If there is something which is obviously distasteful to the toddler and his mother thinks it is a necessary part of his diet, she should leave it out for a little while, or perhaps offer it in a different form and then try it again later on. A child of over two should not need to be fed by his mother and she should not stand over him while he is eating.

When a child is faddy, it often helps to have another child to share its meal-time. The faddy child is encouraged by seeing the other child eat more heartily and as they chatter together, the food disappears more readily. Do not insist absolutely on the child finishing every scrap; you cannot force him to eat and you will probably do more harm than good.

There are cases in which the trouble over feeding goes deeper than mere food-fads op a desire for attention. When a child shows a strong disinclination for all food there is a danger of his becoming really ill. There may be some physical foundation for such a condition and this needs careful investigation by a doctor. It may be a legacy from feeding difficulties in infancy; the child did not get a good start, so that instead of developing a positive pleasurable attitude to food, he rejected it.

The trouble becomes complicated by the fact that the warmth and comfort of breast-feeding is also the basis of the child’s feelings of love towards his mother and of his general feeling of security and if he fails to get this comfort, his emotional life will probably suffer, too, and his rejection of food becomes bound up with strong aggressive feelings.

If the difficulty over food dates back to the child’s infancy and shows no marked signs of improving as he grows older, then it is wisest to get psychological treatment for the child.

Nervous Symptoms

There are a group of difficulties which can be called nervous symptoms, though they may take a variety of forms. Probably

the commonest is thumb-sucking.

When babies suck their thumbs or fingers it is of very little significance, but if it persists and becomes a fixed habit, then one needs to take a certain amount of notice of it. Thumbsucking does not necessarily mean that a child has had weaning difficulties or that he feels deprived in any way, although these may be reasons for the habit, but probably that the child’s need for primitive satisfaction by way of his mouth is particularly strong.

It is unwise .to interfere with the habit forcibly. The child would not suck his thumb unless he felt a need to do it, but if he persistently indulges the habit in the day-time and relapses into passive day-dreaming instead of enjoying active play, then the mother should do her best to interest the child in using his hands in a constructive way, trying to turn his attention to things outside himself.

Nail-biting is another form of primitive satisfaction of a need by way of the mouth. In this case there is usually an element of suppressed aggression added. It may be that the child is faced with difficulties which he cannot meet successfully—the domination of an elder brother or sister perhaps; or a failure to live up to the standards which are expected of him—and he seeks an unsatisfactory solution for his feelings in biting his own nails— his feelings of destruction are turned against himself. Nail-biting is a most unlovely habit and it is difficult not to correct it sharply, but it is undoubtedly best not to be too authoritative. Try to give the child the greatest possible degree of confidence in himself.

Masturbation is a symptom much less commonly met with among young children, but when it does occur it generally causes the parents considerable distress and anxiety. It usually marks a passing phase in the child’s emotional development and can, as a rule, be left to pass away spontaneously.

The greatest danger is the parents’ own worry. If they are continually watching the child and are afraid to let him out of their sight in case he should practise the habit, then their nervous tension will certainly react on him. Masturbation is no sign of moral degeneracy. It sometimes occurs in very excitable children or in children who are lonely and have not enough interests with children of their own age.

The best way of dealing with this problem is probably to send

the child to a nursery school, where he will have plenty of happy occupation during the day and will be more ready to. settle off quickly to sleep in the evening.

Some children have the habit of rocking in their beds or banging their heads on their pillows. These symptoms are probably remotely connected with masturbation. Such children should have plenty of movement and occupation during the day, but in a placid atmosphere which does not over-stimulate them. When the rocking or head-banging begins, the mother should adopt a calm and soothing manner. It often helps if the child is put to sleep in a bed rather than a cot, where he has less opportunity for rocking.

Enuresis—that is, bed-wetting or the less common wetting by day—should be classed among the nervous symptoms. This does not refer to the cases in which the toddler has never achieved bladder control, but with cases of relapse, where the child who was previously clean returns to faulty habits. When this happens, the reason is usually some emotional upset in the child’s life, such as sudden separation from home, or sometimes the birth of a younger child. It must be dealt with tolerantly and patiently. The child needs reassurance and a renewal of his confidence, so that he will not need to go back along the line of his development.

Irrational fears are among the troubles which belong to the toddler age more than to any other. Babies have no natural fear of the dark, but small children between two and five may show a sudden fear of being left alone in darkness. They may develop night-terrors and call out in a half-waking state, obviously very much afraid. Sometimes they will tell you frightening dreams of clutching hands or dark shapes; sometimes they cannot express their fears, but simply feel an urgent need for the reassurance of their mother’s presence.

Other children may develop acute fears of particular objects or situations—the noise of an electric sweeper may frighten them or they may show a marked fear of a particular ornament or picture in the house. As a rule, the things which frighten them have no real danger attached to them; it is the child’s inner feelings which link them up to some dangerous impulse of his own. That is why it is no use just trying to reason with him.

Behind all these childish fears, there exists in the child’s mind

some focus of anxiety, which is expressing itself in the form of a night-terror or a horror of some noise or object. Children’s minds work along tortuous subterranean routes and it is difficult to know what is the starting point of any particular fear. The only immediate way of dealing with the frightened child is to reassure him by calm and soothing words that he is safe. If he is afraid of the dark, he may need a night-light for a time. If he has night-terrors, he needs his mother to stay with him and talk to him for a little while. When he shows fear of some sound or object in the house, try to accustom him to it by showing him that it is harmless, perhaps even funny.

This is not quite enough, however, for a really worried child will produce other fears when one has been allayed. It is necessary to think over the conditions of the child’s life and try to discover if there is anything in it which is a breeding place for worry. There may, perhaps, have been some break in the family life, or a child may have had an illness which left him shaken. He may be striving too hard to reach up to achievements which are beyond him. The way in which you can be most helpful is to be a safe person to whom he can turn for support, for you must always remember that toddlers, even the four-year-olds, cannot stand emotional strain, but are still very dependent on you for their security.    ,

Stammering belongs to the group of nervous symptoms and ought to be considered here because a phase of stammering occurs not infrequently during the toddler years. It generally -happens in the two to three age group and is associated with the development of the child’s will. He urgently wants to assert his power and he may find that he is thwarted more than he can tolerate. A state of nervous tension is set up and this may react on speech, which in any case is not yet perfectly adapted to express the child’s needs.

There is no need to feel that the onset of stammering at this age means that the child will be affected by a permanent stammer. Very often it corrects itself in about six months, but it must be regarded as a danger sigrlal. It means that in some way the child is being subjected to over-much pressure; authority may be weighing too heavily on him or he may be trying to be too grown-up. The best possible form of treatment is to reduce the pressure.

Personality Problems

A number of children give anxiety, not so much because they show particular' symptoms, as because their whole personality seems to be difficult. Among these are the children who are bad mixers, who do not seem able to adapt well to other children.

Two-year-old children do not want to play a great deal with other children, though they usually like to have them around them, but from three years onwards it is normal for children to need the companionship of others, to share in common games. Some children, however, do not readily develop this social spirit, but remain solitary. A relatively small number of children are by nature turned in on themselves. They usually have a vivid imaginative life and they have enough material within themselves to create their own world and they feel little need of companions.

Such children will never grow up into "the life and soul of the party” type of people and there is no need for them to do so, but at the same time they should not be encouraged to live too exclusively in a world of their own. They will probably be happiest with just one or two chosen friends with whom they can share their individual type of play.

More children are solitary through force of circumstances than through inclination. They may be "only children” or happen to live in a district where there are no nearby companions, so that when they are introduced to other children, they are shy and ill at ease and probably unwilling to share their toys.

A child who is excessively dependent on his mother will not play happily with children of his own age. He has not the confidence to stand on his own among his equals and take his place with them.

Another rather different reason for a child’s isolation from others is his own behaviour towards them. If he is spiteful and unwilling to give as well as take, the other children do not want to play with him and will shut him out of- their games. This generally has the unfortunate result of making him even more aggressive, since he feels he has a grievance against the others and his only way of drawing attention to himself is by interfering

In all these cases in which the child does not mix well, the best solution, wherever it is possible, is to send the child to a good nursery school. There, in daily contact with a group of children of his own age, who play and work together and carry out routine jobs, the shy child gradually loses his self-conscious-

ness and joins in spontaneously. The dependent child is weaned from his attachment to his mother and develops a happier relation to other children in whose interests he can share.

The spiteful, aggressive child is something of a problem to the nursery school, but the teachers are specially trained to deal with childish difficulties and if they are wise, they will gain the child’s confidence sufficiently for him not to need to assert himself against the others, but to find pleasure in shared activity.

At the opposite end of the scale from children who do not mix well are those who seem to be unable to be happy alone, who must always be in company. Very often these children do not concentrate well on any one activity; they pass from one thing to another and seldom settle long. They tend to ask "What shall I do now?” and always demand to be amused.

This may be partly a question of the kind of handling they have received. They may have had too much done for them, so that they have never developed their own initiative. They may have been given unsuitable play material, which did not give scope for their imagination, or their day may have been too much regimented, leaving no time for the child really to get down to a good settled game. In such cases the child’s lack of concentration may mean that his mind is anxious and uneasy because he has not been getting enough sympathy and he does not feel secure enough to settle down.

Besides all these circumstances in the child’s life, there is also the question of mental make-up. Many of the children who hate to be left to their own devices are the exact opposite of the solitary child with the vivid imaginative life. They have little inner life—all their energy goes into social contacts. They are contented if there is plenty going on around them and their time is fully occupied. These children need plenty of company, but on the occasions when they must play alone, they will probably need to be started off on a game and their mothers must be prepared to give them some of their attention. They should be provided with material like sand, building bricks and plasticine which will help to develop their rather scanty imaginative life.

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Mental Development

The question of the child’s general mental development may give the parents much occasion for thought. They may feel that

their child is precocious and be afraid of the effects of it. The only safe criterion is that the child must be allowed to develop at his own pace. If he is naturally bright, then he will develop quickly and it is wrong to hold him back and not give him opportunities for gaining the skill and knowledge he demands. There is no need to be self-conscious about having an exceptionally strong or intelligent child and the child himself should be encouraged to develop his own abilities, but never to compare himself with others.

A youngest child who comes a long way in age behind the rest of the family is in danger of trying to live up to standards which are too mature for him. He should never be treated as a plaything by the others and taught to show off, but a special effort should be made to provide him with companions of his own age. Children on whom too great responsibilities are placed are in danger of over-stimulation.

On the other hand, parents may feel that their small child is not developing quickly enough and be anxious on this account. The first five years are formative years and the rate of mental growth may vary very considerably. It depends, too, on the child’s type. Some children assimilate knowledge rapidly and put up a good showing; others have more originality and it takes them longer before their thoughts are expressed.

If a child has been consistently backward since infancy, however, then the parents must realise that they have the extra responsibility of caring for a child who may always be backward. Marked backwardness in speech persisting after three years needs special attention, and the advice of a specialist should be sought, since speech is so important to the child’s development.

In general we can say that psychological problems in young children are due to the inter-action of the child’s own mental make-up with the kind of handling he receives.

Problems will arise, but they can be modified by wise handling —and that is the parents’ responsibility. The question of aggression looms large in the formation of symptoms and this is bound to be so, because it is the warring of angry and loving impulses which causes most of the small child’s emotional upsets. Every symptom, it should be remembered, serves a purpose to the child. It is the best means he has at his disposal for making a compromise solution to a problem. It is obvious, therefore, that the best way of handling it is to try to help him with the problem.

Chapter VIII

Nursery Ailments and First Aid

^T'HE child who is "off-colour” presents his mother with both a problem and an opportunity. The problem is to discover the cause, which may, involve quite a lot of investigation on the mother’s part. The diet should be checked up, in case there is any vital food stuff lacking or deficient. It is curious how often this may be the cause. Toddlers are often a trifle capricious about their feeding; they have sudden dislikes and just as sudden favourites, and sometimes the mother is tempted to plan the menu on her child’s present "like” instead of his real needs.

Then the whole routine of the day needs consideration. Is the youngster having sufficient rest ? The toddler of three to five years of age is apt to rebel about a rest during the day, yet this is a necessity. It is also wise to see that a pram is available when any long walks are to be undertaken. Is his sleep at night really sound and refreshing? Children troubled with nasal catarrh or enlarged adenoids rarely sleep well. Also those dressed too warmly, under many bedclothes, and sometimes with an inadequate supply of fresh air, can hardly be expected to awake refreshed and ready for another happy day.

Even after all this investigation the mother may have failed to discover the reason for her child’s poor appetite and lack of sparkle. If this is your difficulty, consult your doctor; he is there to advise you in small matters just as much as in the more serious ones.

Make an appointment with the doctor and take the toddler at the time arranged. This avoids waiting in a crowded surgery —-never a wise plan for a child. -

Having solved the problem, possibly with the help of your doctor, you have the opportunity to put things right. This is sometimes more easily said than done. For instance, it may be necessary to see that your child has more green vegetables. Yet he has a great distaste for them. How to serve these vegetables so that they will appeal to the toddler? Perhaps grated raw cabbage or sieved spinach in soup, may solve the difficulty. Do not be afraid to experiment—the trouble is well worth while if your toddler’s health improves.

The child who is off-colour is> frequently short of iron. If this is the cause you will find that after a week or so on an iron medicine from a doctor’s prescription, your toddler will pick up and his appetite will improve greatly.

Avoiding Illness

Without over-protecting our children we should take what precautions we can to protect them from disease. Some of these precautions are very simple, others involve one or two visits to the doctor.

1.    Do not over-coddle your child. See that he gets a good proportion of fresh air and as much sunshine as our climate permits. There is no reason why he should not go out in the rain, or even in the snow, adequately protected. Fog is the one climatic condition which should keep him indoors.

2.    Dress your child sensibly. It is surprising how often one sees a small girl adequately dressed, apart from the. fact that her skirts are so short and her socks so abbreviated that her legs are quite blue with cold.

Skirts or trousers should extend to just above the knee in winter time, and socks should come well up to a level just below ffie knee and be kept there by garters (not too tight, please!). Otherwise leggings should be worn. And do get your children sensible thick-soled shoes or boots for the winter months.

Do not weigh down your child with many layers of heavy clothing, as this excludes the air which is so necessary to keep it warm and healthy. In summertime see that clothes give

adequate protection against strong sunshine, especially if your child is fair-skinned and "burns” easily.

3.    When one of the family has a cold or sudden temperature do your best to isolate him, so that the others, especially the children, may escape the infection. If the toddler himself has a cold, do not send him to school or out to play with other children, especially if he is at the "sneezy” stage.

Any member of the family who has catarrh or a persistent cough is a menace to the others and advice should be sought front your doctor as to clearing up the condition.

4.    Immunisation. This process has certainly come to stay, and is proving its worth, especially in so far as diphtheria and smallpox are concerned. Cases of smallpox are now very rare in the British Isles, and those that do occur are usually of the modified variety, thanks to the widespread policy of vaccination.

Inoculation against diphtheria is also a well-proved success and is a very simple process, generally involving a minimum of reaction in the child. Two injections are usually given, separated by three weeks. The first is vefy small and the second larger. If desired, the child can be tested beforehand to see if he is susceptible to the disease.

Immunisation against scarlet fever and measles may be advisable in the case of contacts; consult your doctor about this.

Whooping cough is now a disease against which your child can be immunised, and it can be done at the same time as the inoculation against diphtheria, involving a series of four inoculations. Some doctors and parents prefer to leave the protection against whooping cough until there is definite knowledge that the child has been in contact with a case. Immunisation against whooping cough is not always complete, but it usually ensures that the child has a less severe attack.

When to Send for the Doctor

Parents are often worried by the fact that they do not know when to call in the doctor to see their ailing child. If they leave it until the child is really ill, they run the risk of his being left too long without medical attention. On the other hand, if they ask the doctor to visit every time the child is slightly ailing, they run the risk of becoming a real nuisance to the doctor. Let it be said quite definitely that it is much wiser

WHEN TO CALL THE DOCTOR    109

to get the doctor too soon and too often, rather than to run the risk of leaving it too late.

In order to help your doctor, and also so that you may get the best out of his visit, try to call him early in the day, before

9.30 or 10 a.m., so that he is able to plan his visits and will not have to return to the same area two or three times during the day. If you feel doubtful as to the necessity of a call, tell him the child’s symptoms when you telephone, and he will use his own judgment. Do not leave it until the evening before you send for him, unless the case suddenly becomes urgent. It is much better for all concerned if the doctor can come when he is on his normal round. When he comes tell him quite simply and clearly what you have noticed. Save anything that he may want to see, such as material the child has vomited, or a recent motion. It is always useful to have a specimen of urine to hand; it may save you a journey to the surgery and will certainly save time in diagnosis.

There are ways in which you can try to estimate the state of your child’s ill health.

1.    The temperature: This is normally round about 98.4*F. If you find it rises, say one evening, above 100°F. or 101 °F., and by the next morning it is still raised, then you should send for the doctor at once. If, however, it has fallen, say to 99°F., then you can keep your child in bed quietly, see that the bowels are opened, and unless there are any other symptoms it will probably not be necessary to send for the doctor.

If you do not possess a thermometer it is fairly easy to get a good idea of the rise of temperature by the feel of the skin. If it is hot and dry to the touch, the temperature is almost certain to be up.

Children very easily produce a high temperature, often with little reason, and the presence of a temperature .means that the child is putting up a good resistance to infection, so while it is quite a sound reason for calling in the doctor, it is not in itself a sufficient reason for calling him in a hurry.

2.    Pain is a much more serious symptom, unless you know the reason for it, such as that which follows over-eating or the proverbial green apple. Severe abdominal pain, especially if situated round the navel, always demands medical investigation. Severe and persistent pain in a limb or joint, especially if accompanied by any rise in temperature, is always an urgent matter.

Earache and headache, if at all persistent and not relieved by a small dose <5f aspirin, indicate that a doctor is required. Pain on swallowing or on breathing indicate throat or chest infections, and should receive medical help.

3. Increased rate of breathing, perhaps accompanied by a hard dry cough, is sufficient indication for summoning a doctor.

An important fact to remember when you are talking to the doctor is the danger of trying to pin him down to a quick diagnosis. Sometimes the question of diagnosis is easy, but at other times, when there is little to find beyond a high temperature and an increased pulse rate, the diagnosis has to remain an open question until more signs develop. Children are often very ill during the two days before a rash develops, but no one can say what is the trouble until it happens.

It is surprising how little patience and trust is often displayed by the over-anxious mother, and an insistence on an early diagnosis may even lead the doctor to a hasty one, which may prove to be wrong afterwards. So, having chosen your doctor, do be willing to leave him a free hand, taking every care to follow his instructions, but refusing to pester him for more than he is honestly able to give.

Digestive Upsets    .

Lack of Appetite: This is often the herald of more serious symptoms to come. A child may refuse his food for a day or two before developing any of the infectious fevers, acidosis, or all varieties of tummy upsets. If the child normally has a good appetite, do not press him to eat his food, but see that he has plenty to drink, especially water and fruit juices.

The child who normally has a poor appetite and is inclined to be finicky presents more of a problem, as it is hard to distinguish between his usual reactions and those which might arise as a result of some illness. In these cases the mother must use her powers of observation. If the child looks ill, do not have a scene or pester him to eat his food. If, on the other hand, you are fairly certain that he is '’playing you up,” you must meet the situation calmly and firmly, and see that the food is taken.

Constipation: In toddlers this condition is often due to laziness. They are so interested in their play that they resent giving up time to go to the lavatory. If the fault lies there the mother must insist that at some stated time during each day he child has an opportunity for the bowels to act. Some find that after breakfast is the best time, but after dinner or after tea may fit in more satisfactorily with the state of activity of the child’s bowel. The important thing is to keep to the same time each day.

In older children constipation is induced by a faulty diet. To remedy this give the child plenty of water, vegetables, wholemeal bread and as much fruit as possible. An occasional aperient may be necessary, such as Grey powders \ to 1 grain, or liquid paraffin, \ to 1 tablespoonful.

If the constipation is long-standing a course of treatment with liquid paraffin may be needed, starting with a large dose given once or twice daily, and gradually decreasing until a normal daily action is produced without any paraffin at all.

If your child is constipated, do not immediately fly to aperients. One dose may be necessary to relieve the present necessity, but try to find out why he has becpme constipated and so guard against further attacks.

Diarrhoea: This may be due to too much fruit and vegetables, and if so, large pieces of the undigested fruit and vegetables will appear in the motions. This can be put right quite easily.

When you first introduce your toddler to apples, pears and other fruits, go carefully to begin with, giving the fruit peeled, in small pieces, and with the pips removed. Gradually increase the amount, and if there are no untoward effects, the skin can be given, too. Take care to see that the fruit is always ripe.

Diarrhoea is often the body’s way of eliminating a harmful substance from the intestine, and it is therefore wise not to try to check it immediately.

If frequent loose motions continue for more than two days, one of the best methods of treatment is to give one or two tablespoonsful of castor oil. This clears out the irritating substance.

At the onset of diarrhoea it is wise to put a child on to a very simple diet, mainly of fluids, glucose, and milky drinks or puddings. If the motions are very pale and offensive, you can conclude that the patient is not digesting fats properly; therefore give only skimmed milk, no butter or margarine, fatty fish or meat. At the same time give plenty of sweet food, such as fruit drinks containing glucose, and jam or honey on bread; lean meat or white fish and vegetables can be given in moderation.

Catarrhal Jaundice: This is a mildly infectious disease, and often goes through the members of a household.

The motions are frequent and very pale and offensive. There is often a little discomfort in the upper abdomen, and later the skin becomes tinged with yellow, and the urine becomes very deep in colour. The child does not seem really ill, but is inclined to be fretful and lacks energy and sparkle.

Treat by cutting all fats from the diet. Keep the child warm, possibly in bed for a few days, and give plenty of glucose drinks. Very often your doctor will prescribe a mercurial aperient.

Vomiting: Many children have attacks of vomiting when they grow over-tired or too excited. Sometimes an infectious illness is heralded by vomiting and a rise in temperature. Keep the child separated from the rest of the family, and put to bed. If he complains of thirst, give him small sips of warm water. If the vomiting persists, send for the doctor.

More difficult to treat are the recurrent attacks of vomiting to which some children are liable. Here there is definitely a nervous element, and in later life these children usually become subject to migraine. Allergy, which is an aversion to some food or substance, sometimes plays a part in the occurrence of the vomiting. If the mother is able to find the cause, and can eliminate it from the diet, the attacks of vomiting cease. Very often it is some particular protein in the child’s diet which originates the attack.

Acidosis: This is a very common complaint and yet it is not really an illness in itself, but a condition in the bloodstream which develops as a result of some other illness. Or it may be the result of the child’s inability to digest the fatty substances in his food. It may also follow any severe feverish attack, such as acute tonsillitis.

The child suffering from acidosis is pale and listless, with a furred tongue and bad breath, and if the urine is examined it is found to contain acetone.

Treatment is on much the same lines as that laid down for

catarrhal jaundice, with the addition of 10 grains of bicarbonate of soda given dissolved in honey and water every four hours.

Teething: The last of the first dentition (the back molars) appear when the child reaches the age of about two and a half years. They rarely cause much bother. At times the child may rub his ears, or even complain of earache, but this is usually transient and relieved by the application of external warmth or by dropping a very small quantity of warm olive oil into the ear.

When the toddler reaches the age of four or five years, he should see a dentist for an inspection, and this should be kept up at regular six-monthly intervals throughout childhood, or more frequently if the dentist considers it necessary.

Sometimes the gums bleed excessively after extraction of teeth. If this is so, give mouth-wash of warm water and hydrogen of peroxide lotion in the ratio of half-and-half. If this does not stop the bleeding, wrap some clean linen round a cork and let the child bite on it when it is over the socket of the tooth. Should the bleeding persist, take the patient back to the dentist, who will plug the socket.

Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat

Earache: This often follows a heavy cold, or attack of tonsillitis, and if there are repeated attacks it is well worth while to have your doctor’s opinion on the possibility of having the tonsils and adenoids, removed.

A child complaining of earache should always be kept warm and, if possible, in bed. If the attack is only mild, a few drops of warm olive oil should be put in the ear (salad oil or liquid paraffin are good substitutes). A hot-water bottle or kaolin poultice to the ear is also very comforting. Half an aspirin can also be given to relieve the pain. If the earache is at all severe, and not relieved by these simple remedies, send for the doctor.

Discharging ears: These should always receive attention from a doctor, who will probably give you some special drops to use.

Acute inflammation of the mastoid cells: The mastoid process lies immediately behind the external ear, and can easily

. . . /

be felt. It can become infected from the middle ear infections. There is usually severe pain, tenderness on pressure over the bone, and a rise in temperature. The condition requires immediate medical attention.

Cold in the nose: This common complaint is probably caused by germs which are normally present in the nose and throat, but for some reason the body’s resistance is lowered, or the germs become unusually active and a cold results. When a cold is developing—that means when the back of the throat and nose feel irritable and prickly—quinine (5 grains for an adult, less for a child) taken every four hours is very helpful and may ward off the attack. When the cold has developed, keep the child as separate from his friends and relations as possible and treat with plenty of fluid drinks and nasal spray. A few drops of inhalant are also helpful on the handkerchief or pillow.

Should the child be liable to frequent colds, seek medical advice as to the state of his tonsils and adenoids. A course of immunisation carried out in the early autumn often has very good effects.

How to Inhale: Put a pint of boiling water in an old jug or jar; add 1 teaspoonful of Friar’s balsam and sit the child well up, so that he can lean over the mouth of the jar, and cover the head and jar with a dry towel. The patient should inhale for 5 to 10 minutes, and the process can be repeated four-hourly. Do not let the child go outside in the cold air immediately after inhaling; at least an hour should elapse.

In some cases of bronchitis or broncho-pneumonia a steam kettle is ordered. Choose an old kettle with a wide spout if you do not possess a special steam kettle. Fill with water and add Friar’s balsam in the ratio of 1 teaspoonful to a pint of water. Let the kettle boil gently for half an hour, then in two hours’ time repeat, and so on throughout the day and night. There is no need to keep the kettle boiling continually, and indeed if this is done the oxygen, which is so vital to the patient, gets used up.

Catarrh often follows colds and may be responsible for the fleeting attacks of earache to which many children are prone. If severe, it is wise to consult a doctor, as the adenoids may be enlarged and infected. Otherwise teach the child to blow his nose and not to swallow the discharge, and, if necessary, drop 2 nasal drops containing ephedrine or adrenalin down each nostril night and morning. This helps to shrink the mucous glands and so stops the discharge. If the drops seem rather strong, mix with liquid paraffin, in a half-and-half proportion.

Sore throat may accompany a cold, but it may also develop irrespective of any nasal infection. Keep the child in bed, give plenty of fluids and, if the condition does not rapidly improve, send for. the doctor. If your toddler can gargle, give him a warm gargle containing some mild antiseptic such as Glyco-thymoline, or a little household salt.

Removal of tonsils and adenoids. It cannot be said without examination of the child by your doctor, or by an ear, nose and throat specialist, whether this is required, but there are indications which may lead you to suspect that these glands are enlarged and infected.

Persistent mouth-breathing and snoring usually means that the adenoids are enlarged, and if this is accompanied by frequent heavy colds, it can be concluded that they are infected as well.

Recurrent attacks of sore throat or tonsillitis and the development of a peculiar nasal note in the voice usually indicate that the tonsils are enlarged and probably infected.

Diseases of the Lungs

In the treatment of nearly all diseases of the lungs you will need the help of your doctor, but there are one or two symptoms which can be recognised by the observant mother.

Cough: Some children are very apt to produce coughs—in fact, they rarely catch cold without the infection spreading to the upper respiratory tubes. If this is so, keep the child in a warm atmosphere. If it is summer-time and he has no temperature he can go outside, provided there is no cold wind. At night rub the child’s chest with camphorated oil, and let him inhale some steam, if he can do this without any difficulty.

T

Your doctor will prescribe a simple linctus for you to use at these times. If the cough does not become loose, and finally

disappear, do not hesitate to ask your doctor to examine the child further.

Asthma: The thin, rather over-anxious child is particularly liable to this complaint, which usually arises from allergic reactions. There are many drugs which help to allay and defer attacks; most of them are based on the principle found in adrenalin. It is a wise plan to have an investigation made of your child’s allergic reactions, so that possibly the causes of the attacks may be found. Psychology can often help.

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

The Sick Room

Choose a sunny room, with a good-sized window, and, if possible, an open fireplace, because this helps ventilation. Clear the room of any superfluous furniture and ornaments, so that it is easy to clean. Place the bed in one corner of the room, so that it is not directly in a draught between the window and door, or between the fireplace and window. If a draught cannot be avoided, then, if necessary, a screen can be improvised by using a clothes horse draped with a counterpane or sheet. Do not have any unnecessary rugs on the floor, as these collect dust.

If the child has to be in bed for several weeks, it is well worth considering bringing the bed downstairs, as the nursing is made much easier, and the patient is provided with more interests.

When nursing an infectious case it is wise to provide a set of separate utensils and towels, so that these do not get mixed up with those used by the rest of the family. The knives, forks, cups; etc., should be washed up separately. Provide yourself with an overall to be donned on entering the sickroom and left there when coming out. Wash your hands in mild disinfectant when leaving the room.

It takes a little time for an infectious disease to develop and show itself; this is the incubation period and differs from the quarantine period for contacts, which is shown on the chart on page —.

Chicken Pox: Incubation period: 11-21 days.

Quite often chicken pox is a mild disease, especially in childhood. Contacts should be isolated for three weeks.

Early signs: Headache, backache, some rise in temperature and possibly vomiting.    ,

The rash is typical—small rose-coloured spots appear first on the front and back of the chest and abdomen, and on the inner side of the thighs. The spots appear early in the disease, and rapidly become raised and contain a little fluid; later they scab. At intervals during the first week of the illness fresh crops of spots appear. The f|ce and scalp are usually affected, and in severe cases spots may appear in the mouth and throat. At times the itching is severe. '

Treatment during the first week, or until the temperature has subsided: the child should be kept in bed and isolated. Give him plenty to drink, and a light simple diet.

A daily sponging (more often if necessary) will help to allay the itching, and the spots can then be well powdered. If the child is inclined to scratch the spots, make him wear fingerless gloves; if he is very young it may be necessary to tie down his hands, or put his arms in splints.

After the more acute stage is over he can be allowed to get up, but he should be isolated until the last scab has come off.

Diphtheria: Fortunately this disease is not so prevalent as it used to be, due to the fact that more mothers have their children immunised, but even now it accounts for much permanent ill health, and quite a number of deaths.

Incubation period: 1-7 days. ,    .

Cases of diphtheria need very careful nursing, and it is usually advisable to send the child to hospital. Contacts should be isolated for a week, and their throats inspected and investigated before they are allowed to mix with other people again.

Early Signs: The disease often starts rather insidiously, but the child may complain of a sore throat, and is often rather prostrated. If you have any suspicion of a diphtheroid infection the doctor should be called immediately.

Very often a large whitish membrane develops on one tonsil, which can be easily seen if the throat is examined.

Measles: This is hot a disease to be treated lightly, and o/ten, if neglected, unpleasant consequences result, so that you will be wise to get the doctor to see your child at once if you suspect the disease.

The patient must be isolated for at least two v/r ks, and contacts must be isolated at least between the 9-16 days following

their exposure to infection.

Measles is most infectious in its early stages and is spread by the germs present in the cough and nasal discharge. Children of two to three years of age are particularly liable to infection.

One pronounced attack nearly always renders the patient immune for life.

If a child, known to be in ill health and debilitated, has contacted some one with measles, it is possible to modify or even prevent the ensuing attack by giving immune or convalescent serum.

Incubation period: Usually 10-14 days, but may extend to 21 days.

Early symptoms: The outbreak of the rash is usually preceded by a period of ill-health lasting three or four days, during which the child appears to have a very heavy cold, and hard dry cough. There is often some discharge from the eyes, and a bright light is not tolerated. The temperature is often raised, and the child complains of headache. Sometimes there are frequent attacks of vomiting during the early stages.

The rash usually appears in blotchy patches behind the ears and on the forehead, soon spreading to the face, and later to the trunk and limbs.

German Measles: This is a milder disease, and very often the child has no rise in temperature and only a very transient rash.

Incubation period: 12-21 days.

Contacts should be isolated from the 10th to the 21st days following exposure to infection.

The patient may complain of a stiff neck and some feeling of being off-colour. The glands at the back of the head and neck are usually swollen and tender, and the rash comes out first on the face, especially round the mouth.

If there is any fever the child should be kept in bed until it subsides, and isolated for about 10 days.

MJjumps only rarely attacks children of the toddler's age, it •being more common among older children.

Contacts should be isolated from the 10th to the 21st days, following their last exposure.

Incubation period'. 21 days.

Early symptoms'. Feeling of malaise, later the glands lying in front of the ear become swollen, and the patient complains of pain on moving his jaw and swallowing. Often one side of the face becomes swollen before the other, but usually in the end both sides are attacked. Sometimes the glands lying under the angle of the jaw are affected and swell.

The patient should be kept in bed if there is any fever, and should be isolated for a fortnight, provided that a week has elapsed since the swelling of the glands subsided.

:. . • •

Scarlet Fever: Incubation period: 1-7 days.

Contacts must be isolated for 8 days.

Early symptoms: Sore throat, headache and vomiting, and rise in temperature.

The disease is usually spread by infected droplets, but occasionally epidemics arise due to infected milk. The rash is bright red, and usually develops on the trunk and limbs, leaving the face free.

Treatment: The doctor should be called in without delay. The patient may need to be nursed in hospital. He must be in bed for at least three weeks, and is considered infectious until he has finished peeling and all discharges (i.e., from ear or nose) have dried up.

Whooping Cough: Incubation period: 2-3 weeks.

The child should be isolated for 6 weeks from the onset of the cough. Contacts should be isolated for at least 2 weeks.

Early symptoms: A spasmodic cough which gradually increases in severity, so that the child has difficulty in getting his breath. Later vomiting and the "whoop” develop.

The child is usually off-colour and may have some rise in temperature. Whooping cough is spread by droplet infection, and children under one year of age are particularly liable to catch this disease.    '

As has been said, immunisation is now possible with whooping cough, and the attack can be considerably modified by giving vaccine.

FUMIGATING A ROOM

After an ordinary infectious illness, such as measles or influenza, if the room is thoroughly aired and cleaned and the bedding and blankets taken outside and hung in the wind and sunshine, that is all that is necessary. But after some illnesses, such as dysentery and scarlet fever, it is necessary to fumigate a room.

Remove all hangings and furnishings from the room. Seal up all cracks, the fireplace, keyhole, windows and door, and then burn the sulphur cones which you can obtain at the chemists.

The local Public Health Authorities will do this for you if you request it.

NURSERY FIRST AID

All mothers should have some knowledge of first aid treatment. An effort has been made to make this section applicable to the accidents which may occur in the normal home where there are children. Of course, only minor disabilities can be treated by the amateur; any other conditions should receive medical attention as soon as possible.

Injuries to the Skin

Treatment of Abrasions'. Children are always falling and scratching their knees, elbows or faces. The first principle in the treatment is to get the wound as clean as possible.

Put a little warm water in a bowl, add one or two drops of disinfectant, and with the aid of some cotton wool swabs, gently wash the wound; take care not to put the dirty .swabs back in the lotion.

If you can make the wound quite clean, and it is not bleeding much, it can then be covered with a dry elastic plaster dressing, which is left in place for 3 or 4 days until the surface is healed. Should the wound be difficult to clean and the dressing likely to stick, cover a piece of lint (white) with ointment, and keep in position with a firm bandage. Change the dressing in 24 hours. If the wound becomes at all septic, treat with hot fomentations every 4 hours until the redness and swelling have disappeared. Change the dressing once daily as long as there is any discharge.

Treatment of Bruises. A bruise is caused by a blow, which injures the blood vessels just below the surface of the skin, although the skin itself is not broken. There is swelling and some discoloration of the skin.

Treat with cold compresses. To make these, soak a pad of lint or old linen in very cold water, wring out well and apply to bruised area. Change frequently. If there is no chance of a broken bone, lead lotion can be added to the cold water. Methylated spirits can also be added to the water; these evaporate, and so keep the compress cold. The compress should be kept in place by a firm bandage.

Treatment of Bites

(a) D°g bite: Let the wound bleed for a little while, and if it is not bleeding, gently squeeze the tissues round to promote bleeding. Cleanse and dress with acriflavine. If there is any doubt about the dog’s condition the wound should be cauterised with pure carbolic acid; this is usually done by the doctor.

{b) insect bites and stings: Bites of flies and midges can often cause a good deal of pain and swelling and sometimes become septic. Treat with cold compresses as for bruises, and rest affected part.

(c) Bee and wasp stings: Remove sting if it is present, and then treat with cold compresses soaked in a cold solution of bicarbonate of soda. Alternatively, dab with methylated spirit or eau de Cologne. If there is any sign of sepsis, apply hot fomentations.

Treatment of Burns and Scalds

Should the burn or scald be at all severe, the doctor should be sent for immediately, and the patient treated for shock. In the meantime, all affected parts should be made as comfortable as possible.

To treat for shock, put the patient to bed, cover with a warm blanket and apply hot water bottles outside the blanket. Give a hot drink, and keep as quiet as possible. The burnt area should be exposed by removing any clothing and then, if it be a limb, the limb should be immersed in a bath of warm water to which bicarbonate of soda has been added. The strength of the solution should be 2 teaspoonsful to one pint of water. If the burnt area be on the face or body, clean and cover with lint soaked in the lotion made as above, and await the doctor.

Blisters should never be opened or pricked, but left to the doctor.    ,

Small burns or scalds should be cleansed and an oily dressing of a mixture of acriflavine and liquid paraffin applied. Tannic acid jelly is also useful.

Sunburn. Little children are particularly liable to become sunburnt, especially if they are fair skinned. To prevent this, introduce them to the sunshine gradually, and in very hot sunshine cover the head and shoulders. Should the sunburn produce redness and pain, treat it with frequent applications of calamine lotion.

Sunstroke

Severe headache and vomiting often follows sudden exposure to the hot rays of the sun. To avoid this, insist on the wearing of a shady hat or sunbonnet when the weather is really hot and sunny. To treat the condition, put the child to bed in a cool, dark room, with a pillow under the head and shoulders, and apply cold compresses to the head and nape of neck; renew frequently. Give a large dose of Epsom salts, 3 teaspoonsful dissolved in a tumblerful of water, to relieve the congestion of the brain.    .

Treatment of Cuts

(a)    Small Cuts: Cleanse with warm water and disinfectant, as described in the section on abrasions. Then apply a firm bandage or elastic plaster dressing.

(b)    Larger Cuts: If the wound requires stitching, cleanse and apply a pad and firm bandage and take the patient to hospital, or send for your doctor. Mdst cuts of over 1 inch in length require stitching, especially if the cut gapes widely and is fairly deep. The healing will be more rapid and the deformity less if this is done. If it is not necessary to stitch the wound, after cleansing well, apply a dressing of gauze soaked in acriflavine, and a firm bandage. Sometimes an elastic plaster dressing will suffice.

If there is severe bleeding, add some hydrogen peroxide, about half-and-half, to the lotion with which you are cleansing the wound, or else dab on a little Friar’s balsam. When the bleeding has abated, apply the dressing and a firm bandage. Keep the limb raised to prevent further bleeding for half an hour after the dressing is applied. Should the bleeding not be easily controlled, appiy a very firm bandage and send for the doctor, or take the patient to hospital. If the blood is very bright red and spurts but of the wound, you can be sure that an artery has been severed, and that medical attention is urgently required.

Taking out a Splinter

No splinters, however small, should be left in the skin, as they act as an irritant and source of sepsis. To remove a splinter, cleanse the skin, take a sewing needle, hold the point in a flame for 10 seconds, and when cool gently work round the shaft of the splinter, applying pressure all the time at the point end. When the splinter is loosened, it can either be squeezed out or picked out. A very fine pair of splinter forceps are a useful addition to your first aid box, and it is fairly simple to remove the splinter using these. After the splinter has been removed, it is a good plan to soak the finger or hand in hot water, and if necessary apply a hot foment.

How to Give a Hot Foment, etc.

. The great principle in the treatment of any septic area such as a whitlow, boil or septic spot is the application of heat. This can be done by:—

1.    Applying hot poultices of kaolin paste or antiphlogistine. To make these poultices, stand the tin of kaolin in a small pan of water, having loosened the lid first. Bring the water to the boil and let it boil for 10 minutes. Then take a small knife and mix the contents of the tin and then spread some on a double piece of white lint. Apply to the wound as hot as the patient can stand, and cover with cotton wool anjd bandage. The paste is active for 24 hours, but it can be warmed up again two or three times during the 24 hours, by holding it in front of a fire. After 24 hours, make a new poultice. If the affected part is hairy and the kaolin inclined to stick, a thin layer of gauze can be laid on top of the paste, before the poultice is applied.

2.    Hot Soaks: Hold the affected part in hot water, to which a tablespoonful of salt has been added. Keep the water as hot as possible by adding a little boiling water from time to time. The longer the soak, the better the result; 10 to 15 minutes is the visual time.

3- Hot Fomentations: Hot foments are often applied after a

hot soak. Take a double piece of lint, either plain or boracic, and fold it in a small towel. Put the towel into a basin or pan of boiling water, and wait until all the bubbles have come off. Be careful to leave the two ends of the towel out of the water. Now take hold of the two ends and bring the towel out of the water and wring it thoroughly. Open the folded towel and take out the lint and quickly apply it to the septic area, plain side outwards. Cover quickly with a good-sized piece of oiled silk and a wad of cotton wool, then bandage. The hot foment should be repeated four-hourly. Everything depends on thorough preparation beforehand, so that all the articles ar£ at hand, and can be used quickly once the hot foment is out of the boiling water.    .

It is always best to clip away any hair that may be growing on or around the boil area.

How to Remove Foreign Bodies

1.    In the Eye: When any foreign body enters the eye, the eye immediately reacts by watering. If the patient can be induced to refrain from rubbing the eye, the natural tears ;will often wa^h the intruder out. If this fails, try lifting the upper lid forwards and downwards over the lower lid. Failing this, search for the foreign body by making the patient look upwards and pulling the lower lid down, and then with the patient looking downward, lift the upper lid. If you see the speck, gently remove it with the corner of a clean handkerchief.

Great relief is often obtained by washing out the eye with boracic lotion, and then dropping in two or three drops of pure castor oil. If the eye does not settle down after these measures, a doctor should be consulted.

2. In the Ear: \ It is best to reassure the patient and get the

3. In the Nose: ) doctor as quickly as possible.

Do not attempt to get them out yourself as it is usually a difficult business and one is apt to do more harm than good, because of the shape of the passages. If the foreign body is in the nose, make the patient breathe through the mouth until the doctor comes.

4.    In the Windpipe or Throat: This requires prompt action

and there is no time to wait for the doctor. Hold the child

upside clown and strike firmly between the shoulders.

5. Swallowing a foreign body, such as a fruit stone, button, nail or safety pin, sometimes occurs even in the best regulated nursery. If the safety pin is open, or the nail has a sharp point, give the child some stiff porridge or bread to eat and consult, your doctor as soon as possible. Fruit stones and buttons usually pass through the intestines doing very little damage, and can be found in the motions.

If the article swallowed is made of metal, X-rays will reveal its location and movements. Your doctor or the local hospital will order X-rays if they are necessary.

Treatment of Convulsions

Children sometimes produce these fits at the height of teething, or when they are developing some infectious disease. The child twitches and turns blue, but although the fits are distressing, especially to the parent, they are rarely fatal. To treat convulsions, either wrap the child up in a warm blanket and place cold compresses on his head, or place him in a warm bath and bathe his head with a cold sponge. Do not keep him in the bath for more than 12 minutes, or as long as the fit lasts, whichever period of time is shorter. After the bath, keep him quiet and warm. Seek advice from the doctor. #

Treatment of Worms

The usual form of infection is that of thread worms. These are very small, about \ to \ an inch long, and they are very plentiful. They give rise to irritation round the back passage and between the legs, and are often the cause of restlessness at night. The child looks pale, eats poorly and loses weight. To treat, give the special remedies ordered by your doctor, but remember also to keep the hands and nails very clean, and the nails cut short, as so often these cases re-infect themselves. Let the child wear pyjamas or knickers at night and get some ointment from your doctor to put on the irritated parts.

Artificial Respiration

Lie child on his Back, clear the nose and throat, and turn head to one side, drawing tongue out of the mouth if it is inclined to fall back. Raise arms above head and then bring down on to chest, pressing slightly. Repeat it at rate of 20 times per minute.

NURSERY AILMENTS The Nursery Medicine Chest

Contents of the medicine cupboard:

a. Medicines and Lotions

Liquid paraffin—8 ozs.

Castor oil—2 ozs.

Milk of magnesia—4 ozs.

Oil of cloves—2 ozs.

Olive oil—or almond oil—4 ozs.

A small bottle of disinfectant. Hydrogen peroxide—4 ozs. Witch hazel—4 ozs. Calamine lotion—4 ozs. Camphorated oil—2 ozs.

b. Tablets

100—5 grain bicarbonate of soda. 100—5 grain aspirin tablets 50—\ grain Grey Powders.

C. Powders

Zinc, Starch and boracic powder.

d. Ointments

Vaseline.

Tin of Kaolin paste.


Calamine and zinc ointment Tannic acid jelly.

E. Sundries

One or two thermometers.    One medicine glass.

The First-Aid Box

Bandages: \ doz. one inch.

% doz. 2 or 2\ inches. Roll of white lint.

Roll of boracic lint.

Box of elastic plasters.

Roll of elastic bandage.

Cotton wool, one or two packets. Friar’s balsam, 2 ozs.

Pair of scissors.

Disease

Patient

Contact

Chicken Pox ............

3 weeks or until last scab has disappeared.

Should be isolated for 3 weeks from date of last exposure to infection.

Diphtheria ............

Until certified free from infection.

Isolation for one week. Swabs should be investigated.

German Measles ......

7-10 days from appearance of rash.

10-21 days following expdsure to infection. -

Measles ..................

2 weeks (at least).

16 days following exposure to infection.

Mumps ..................

1 week after swelling has subsided.

3 weeks.

Scarlet Fever ............

Is infectious till all discharges (i.e. from nose or ear) have dried up, and skir^ has peeled.

8 days.

Whooping Cough ......

6 weeks from onset of cough.

At least 2 weeks.

QUARANTINE CHART

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Age

Average

Weight

Average

Height

Physical Activity

2 years

2 stone

32-33 ins.

% .

Enjoys movement for its own sake, though balance is not yet perfect. Runs, walks up and down stairs, can kick a ball. Turns pages of a book one by one. Holds cup in one hand and can use spoon.

3 years

2 stone 9 4 lbs.

36-37 ins.

Can balance on one foot. Enjoys riding a tricycle. Undoes his own buttons, unties shoe laces. Can pour water carefully and help to set the table.

4    years to

5    years

2 stone 8 lbs.

2 stone 12 lbs.

40 ins. 42 ins.

(3* ft.)

Loves to show off as he climbs walls and fences, swings high, or careers down a slide. Nearly independent in dressing and general management.

TWO TO FIVE YEARS

Toys and Games

Development of Speech

Sand, water, spoons, pots (useful throughout toddler stage), truck or wheelbarrow, large hollow bricks, crayons, pencils, clay, picture books.

Can command about 300 words, but not many sentences. Learns by imitating and repeating. Likes to listen to nursery rhymes and simple repetitive stories.

See-saw, swing, climbing frame, doll’s pram, smaller solid bricks, story books, dolls and animals.

Biggest advance of this year-group is in speech. Average vocabulary of 1,000 words, and can talk in real sentences. Talks to himself, dramatising, using words he has heard. Language makes him more sociable, and he is open to reason.

Same as earlier years but more scope for climbing. Dressing up clothes, bricks, drawing materials, scissors, paste, scrap-book. Miniature animals and figures.

Never stops chattering and asking questions in perfecting his speech through practice. Tries out long words and colloquial expressions.

See How They Grow

These page’s are intended as a brief record of the Toddler Years. Memories may fade, but these facts will help you to All in the picture of the “happiest time of their lives”

Full Name

Date of Birth.......

Weight at Birth. Height at Birth. Christening.............

Godparents

Description

Age..............................................................................................•:......

Colour of eyes......................................................................

Colour of hair.......................................................................

Colour of eyebrows..........................................................

Colour of eyelashes..........................................................

Complexion.........................................................!.....:..............

Shape of head.........................................................................

Resemblance to any relative..................................

PHOTOGRAPH

Date


Age......

Two Years

Weight

Three Years, Six Months

Two Years, Six Months    Four Years

Three Years

Four Years, Six Months

Two Years

Height

Three Years, Six Months

Tfwo Years, Six Months    Four Years

Three Years    Four Years, Six Months

Special Events

This space is for you to record the milestones in your toddler’s progress from babyhood to school age. Don’t forget his first party, hia little illnesses and his funniest remarks

Two Years

Three Years.

Four Years

Five Years

134 VITAMEN CONTENT OF CERTAIN FOODS VITAMIN CONTENT OF CERTAIN FOODS

Vitamin

Vitamin

Vitamin

Vitamin

Food

A

B

c

D

Apples ...... ......

X

X

Bacon ...... ......

X

X to XX

?

Bananas__ __

X to XX

X to XX

Kidney Beans ......

X

XXX

Beef ...... ......

' X

XX

— toX

Beef fat ___ ......

X

X

Butter _____ —

XXX

XXX

Cabbage (cooked)......

X

XX

XX

Cabbage (raw ......

XX

XX

XXX

Carrots ............

XXX

XX

X

Cauliflower ______

X

XX

X

Celery ...... ......

— to X

XX

o

Cod liver oil ......

XXX

. —

XXX

Eggs ............

XXX

X to XX

X

Fish (oily) ......

XXX

XXX

Kale ............

XX

XX

Lentils ............

X

XX to XXX

Lettuce ............

X to XX

XX

X

Liver ...... ......

XX to XXX

XX

X

XX

Margarine...... ....

XXX

XXX

Milk ............

XXX

XX

variable

XX

Orange juice ......

X

XX

XXX

Peas (fresh) ......

XX

XX

XX

X

Peas (dried) ......

XX

XX

Potatoes ...... ......

X

XX

XX

Prunes ............

XX

XX

Rice (polished) ___

Rice (wholegrain) .

X

XX

Roe (fish) ......

XXX

XX

?

XXX

Spinach (raw) ......

XXX

XXX

XXX

Spinach (cooked)......

XXX

XXX

X

Tomato ...... ......

XX

XX

XXX

Yeast ............

XXX

This table will help you when planning meals for your toddlers.

Abrasions, treatment of

Page

. . 120

Acclimatisation . . .

. 10-11

Acidosis .....

. . 112

Adenoids, removal of .

. . 115

Aggressiveness . . .

. 95-96

Ailments......

. 108-116

Appetite, loss of . . .

. . 110

Apple Snow ....

. . 28

Artificial respiration .

. . 125

Asthma .....

. . 116

Authority, use of . . .

. 85-90

Baked Fish Souffle . .

. . 28

Bath and Toilet . . .

. 11-14

Bedtime .....

. 9-10

Bed-wetting ....

. . 101

Birth, questions on . .

. 91-92

Biscuits......

. . 24

Bites, treatment of .

. . 121

Biting......

. . 95

Blouse (boy, 4-5 years) .

78-80

Bodice and knickers, Knitting

instructions . . .

. 62-64

Boils.......

. . 123

Bow-legs......

. . 52

Bread .......

. . 24

Bruises, treatment of .

. . 120

Burns, treatment of . .

. 121-122

Buster suit (boy 2-3) . .

. 76-78

Butter......

. . 23

Cakes and biscuits . .

. . 24

Carbohydrates ....

. . 18

Cardigan (girl, 3 years),

knit-

ting instructions .

. 58-59

Catarrh......

. . 114

Catarrhal Jaundice . .

. . 112

Cheese . . . . . .

. . 23

Chicken Pox ....

116-117

Child Guidance Clinic .

. . 95

Chocolate semolina whip

29

Clothes for the Toddlers

. . 53

Cold, in the nose . .

. . 114

Constipation ....

15, 110-111

Convulsions ....

. . 125

Cough ......

. . 115

Cuts, treatment of . .

. . 122

Dancing......

. 49-50

Dental progress . .

. 49

Dentition, table of secondary 49

Destructiveness . . .

. . 98

Development chart . .

. 128-129

Diarrohoea.....

. 111-112

Diet from 2-5 years . .

. . 17

Dietary essentials . .

17, 21-25

Digestive upsets . . .

. 110-113

Doctor, when to call . .

. 108-110


Pag*

Dressing gown (2-3 years)


knitting instructions .    65-87

Dressmaking for the Toddler 69-80

Drinks........25

Dungarees (2-4 years) sewing

instructions ....    75-76

Earache........113

Ears, discharging .    .    .    .13,    113

general care of .    .    .    13

removing foreign bodies

from.......124

Eggs.........25

Enjoying your toddlers .    .    84-85

Enueresis.......101

Exercises for Toddlers .    .    51-52

Exercise, outdoor ....    50-52

Eyes, bloodshot ......    13

discharging.....13

general care of .    .    .    1.3

removing foreign bodies

from.......124

Pats, importance of .    .    .    18-19

Pear .......< 101-102

First Aid in the Nursery . 120-125

Pish.........23

baked with Parsley Sauce 28 Baked Souffle ....    28

Flake oatcake .....29

Plat foot......51-52

Pood fads......98-99

Foreign bodies, removal of . 124-125 Fresh air and sunshine .    .    10-11

Frock and knicker set (2 years) knitting instructions ....... 55-57

Fruit.........24

buns .......34

fool.......30

loaf.......29

Fumigating a room .    .    . 119-120

German Measles.....118

Gloves, knitting instructions 67-68 Golden cheese pudding .    .    30

Habit training ....    14-15

Hair, care of......12

Height, increase in .    .    .    48-49

table of average .    .    48

Hot fomentations ....    123

poultices ......123

soaks ......    123

Ill-health, symptoms of .    . 109-110

Illness, to avoid .... 107-108

Immunisation ,.....108

Infections, isolation from .    .    108

Infectious diseases .    .    . 116-119

87-88

28-34

70-71

6-8

6-8

121

119

33

49

123

69-80


123 102

114 121

34 122 122

59-60

125

13-14

113

93-95

109

3-115

99

11-14

25

115 41-44 44-45

46 81-92 34 24 19-21 134 112 47-48 134 123 119


foreign


124

125


Page

Inhalation .......    114

Intelligence, normal standards

of .......    35-40

Irish stew.......30

Irrational fears .... 101-102 Jammy-face biscuits ...    31

Jealousy .    ...    ^ .    96-98

Knitting instructions .    .    53-69

Knock knee......52

Language..... .    37

Limbs, control of ...    .    49-52

Lungs, diseases of ...    .    115

Mastoid cells, inflammation of 113

Masturbation.....100-101

Measles .    .    .    .    .    .    . 117-118

Meat.........23

Mental development .    .    .    104-105

Menus ......26-27

Milk.........23

Mother’s responsibility .    .    83-85

Mumps ........    118

Nail-biting.......100

Nerve Symptoms.....99

Night-wear for the toddler .    9

Nose, cold in......114

diseases of ...    .    114-116

general care of .    .    .    13

removal of foreign bodies

from.......124

Nursery First Aid    ....    120-125

Offal.........23

Outdoor games and exercise    50-51

Outings.......10-11

Pain.........109

Parents’ part in toddler

years......82-84

Personality problems .    .    .    103-105

Petticoat and knicker set (2-4 years) sewing instructions ...... 73-74

Physical development .    .    47-48

Play, development through .    41

grown ups    and    .    .    45-46

material    ....    42-44

Proteins....... 17-18

Psvchological difficulties .    93,    105

Pullover for two-year-old,

knitting    instructions    .    54-55

Pullover for five-year-old,

knitting    instructions    .    60-62

Punishment,    the problem    of    89-90

Quarantine chart ....    127

Queen of Puddings ....    33

Questions how to deal with

them ......90-92

Rabbit, boiled......29

Raspberry Sponge ....    31

Page

Reason and tact .    •    ■

Recipes......

Renovation ideas .    .    .

Routine for the Toddler .    .

time-tables .    •    •

Scalds, to treat.....

Scarlet Fever......

Scotch broth......

Secondary dentition, table of

Septic spot.....

Sewing for the Toddler .    .

Sewing patterns and instructions ...... 17?r

Sick room .    .    •    •    •    •

to fumigate .    .    119-120

Singing........90

Skin, treatment of injuries to 120 Sleep and Rest ....    8-10

Socks (three sizes) knitting

instructions ....    68-69

Speech.......39-40

Splinter, to remove ....    °

Stammering......

Steam kettle, to improvise and

use........

Stings, treatment of ...    .

Sugary Apple Muffins .    .    •

Sunburn, treatment of .    .    •

Sunstroke, prevention and cure Sun Suit (3-4 years) knitting instructions .    .    •

Swallowing a foreign body Teeth, care of .

Teething .    .    •

Temper tantrums .

Temperature taking Throat, diseases of Thumb-sucking .

Toilet ....

Tomatoes .    .    .

Tonsils, removal of

Toys.....

for different ages chart of .

Understanding your chil Vanilla Creams .

Vegetables .    .    .

Vitamins .    .    .

chart of Vomiting .    .    .

Weight increase .

chart of Whitlows, to treat Whooping Cough .

Windpioe, to remove bodies from Worms .    .    .

Diet: Clothes

Ailment!

'    The Toddler’s Day

Physical and Mental Growth

1

Whollv set up and printed ;n Australia by The Pinnacle Pres3 at 431 b Kent St., Sydney, for the publishers, The National Magazine Co. Pty. Ltd., Sydney.