THE FLOWER GARDEN

IN AUSTRALIA

BY

Mrs. ROLF BOLDREWOOD

A Book for Ladies and Amateurs

DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO

THE COUNTESS OF JERSEY

MELVILLE, MULLEN AND SLADE

COLLINS STREET, MELBOURNE

1893

M'OARRON, BIRD AND CO., PRINTERS, 479 COLLINS STREET.

PREFACE.

From a child I was always fond of a garden. The first I owned was at Denham Court, the old home of my grandfather, where I lived with my uncle, Captain Blomfield; I was allowed to work in a plot, shaded from the sun by the gardener’s cottage. My childish taste led me to plant it with Capsicums and Jonquils. These treasures I had to leave behind, when, at the age of eight, I was sent to school at Bella Retiro, near Sydney. There my dear old friend and instructress, Miss Moore, indulged my fancy by making over to me a tiny garden, which I well remember was under a silver tree (Lsucculendron). As I grew older I was taken to visit the lovely gardens of our friend, the late Mr. Mort, of Greenoakes. Pleased with the interest I took in them, he often showed me his new plants, telling me at the same time their botanical names. On holidays, as a treat, my much-loved cousin, Mrs. Robert Campbell, was in the habit of taking me to Mr. Guilfoyle’s Nursery at Double Bay, and presenting me with one of his pot plants. I never came away without a few gift seedlings from the proprietor. The last garden of my girlhood was at Glenmore, the home of my cousin, the late Mr. James Riley. He, like myself, was passionately fond of flowers, making periodical additions to his already fine collection. Not long since I saw the last vestige of my “lost bower”—a fence post, covered with ivy-growing fig [ficus stipulata) now become nearly a tree, and what is extremely rare, bearing its fruit.

Since those days I have often changed residence, but always formed a garden, leaving it for others at our departure. Somebody in that case benefited by my labours. Yet to live without a garden would be for me an impossibility. In my present settled home, circumstances have aided me to indulge this engrossing taste—shall I call it passion?—with fewer than the usual drawbacks.

It has occurred to me to use . my leisure in compiling this modest contribution to the home pleasures of my country-women. It will be found to be simple and practical. It has been a labour of love, like the personal experience on which it is founded. It may tend to awaken a taste for this purest of occupations in the young of both sexes, perhaps serve to direct the efforts of the mistress of the house, too often weary and heavy laden, in her search for recreation free from regret or reaction.

I do not claim to be wholly original, though this handbook is largely based on my very own experiments; I most willingly acknowledge my obligation to Mr. Robert Thomson, as also to Messrs. Searle, Brunning, and Law, Somner and Co., for much accurate information. If I have done service, however slight, to Australian garden lore, or helped beginners through a maze of learned words, I shall never regret the hours I have expended in the preparation of this volume.

FLOWER GARDEN IN AUSTRALIA.

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INTRODUCTORY.

fHERE are few people who will not agree with me that nothing is more delightful than the fresh scent of flowers in the early morning. Of the healthful pleasures few exceed that of beholding the drooping plants holding up their heads after rain. My chief enjoyment, has ever been in the care of my garden. In my various homes I have always succeeded in surrounding myself with flowers. They have been to me, what “a pleasant look, a cheerful tone, an answer mild and kind” would be to others. Many a time and oft have they cheered my spirits and made my heart rejoice. Whatever the soil or climate, nearly everything in my garden has been planted with my own hands, and, in consequence, every flower, I may say nearly every leaf or shoot has been specially known and familiar, therefore more highly valued. Next to personal care and culture nothing has given me greater pleasure than the distribution of plants, as tending to the encouragement in others of the taste which has afforded me such restful recreation.

I feel sure that there would be more happiness in the world if more gardens were made, and flowers more highly valued.

If the cottage homes were more generally beautified with flowers and shrubs, greater domestic happiness would often result. Husbands would linger and admire, perhaps help to plant and water; children would learn to be more thoughtful and unselfish ; and the family acquire a common interest in the growth of flowers and even vegetables, which apart from profit, are by no means uninteresting. The more work one does in a

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garden, the more lovely and satisfactory it becomes, while the interest always appears to increase from year to year. The tasks of finding out what soil the various plants require; whether they flourish in sun or shade, in heat or cold; sheltering and mulching some during the summer heat, exposing others to the fullest warmth which their blooms need to bring them to perfection, are full of instruction. In the winter, again, protection from frost is in some climates indispensable, as well as the careful preparation of the ground if the bulbs are to come forth in their varied beauty. How one is repaid, too, by seeing the seeds sown in autumn coming up and producing fine plants! In the spring time what manifold bloom and loveliness o’erspread every nook and corner! How natural then to reflect on the varied beauties of creation, and to feel the gratitude due to the Lord and Giver of all this wondrous plant-life ! I love to see our churches decorated with flowers at certain seasons. Surely they are at once a fitting expression of God’s goodness and our thankfulness.

In order to commence gardening satisfactorily, the ground should be properly trenched and levelled. Lawns, shubberies, walks, and flower-beds can then be laid out and formed. Buffalo and rye grass make excellent lawns where water can be procured in the summer, and the sprinkler kept steadily at work. In the coast climates, the couch grass thrives admirably, keeping green during the summer, and making a velvet lawn surface, easily kept in order by that most useful little machine, the lawn mower.

It is a good plan to have your beds fairly long and broad, thus giving room for flowering shrubs, herbaceous plants, annuals and bulbs, keeping the larger trees for the surrounding shubberies. Box edgings are very neat; violets always pleasing and profuse flowering, except in too dry situations. Ribbon borders are most attractive, but the designs must be well carried out and the colours artistically blended. They require much clipping and trimming. Carpet bedding is also effective, but the same remarks as to design and colour apply. Different coloured ivy geraniums may be planted for beds on lawns, and if well clipped are strikingly ornamental.

Calent>ar for January

Tea Scented Roses (if the borders have been well mulched) should be in full bloom. To keep them blooming, the faded flowers should be cut off, leaving several eyes on the stem to sprout and bloom again.

The early Fuchsias will be getting unsightly ; take them out of the greenhouse, and give those in flower a good supply of liquid manure.

Achimenes will be in a vigorous growing state; tie them to sticks as they advance in growth ; give an occasional watering with soot, or liquid manure.

Variegated Begonias may be potted on ; as they grow freely, and the pots become full of roots, water sparingly ; after repotting, give them good open vegetable compost. Begonia leaves can now be readily struck in sandy soil.

Coleus plants want plenty of water, light, and air, and benefit by liquid manure.

Gloxinias will be in full bloom ; give them plenty of water; prick out into pots any seedling Gloxinias, Primulas, and Cyclamens.

Pansies and Delphiniums, in boxes.

Dahlias must be kept well watered ; disbud where too many buds have appeared.

Pelargoniums of all kinds may be easily increased by cuttings this month.

Azaleas must be mulched ; layers can be made of some of the branches.

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Chrysanthemums will require the tops of any strong-growing shoots pinched out, and all shoots growing from the roots taken off.

Carnations and Picotees should be increased by layering and pipings ; after planting give a thorough soaking with water.

Tie in shoots of all climbers; evergreen hedges should be clipped and made tidy. If the weather is dry, mulch all tender plants with rough stable manure.

Greenhouses may be kept well watered morning and evening, ventilating them through the day unless hot winds are blowing.

Ferns will be growing freely; give them plenty of water. Sow fern seeds.

Take up all bulbs that require lifting, putting them away carefully on a dry shelf until the planting season comes again.

ANNUALS

Are Plants that can be raised from seed, anal planted out in the garden, floivering within six months, but only last one season.

Abronias—

Pretty trailing plants, used mostly for rockeries; have waxy, rosy lilac, verbena-like flowers, sweet scented. Best sown in spring and autumn.

Acroclinium—

Everlasting ; a flower of a paper-like texture, pink colour with dark centre; can be cut and dried for bouquets. A. roseum—single; rose colour with dark eye. A. roseum flore pleno (double)—rose-coloured flowers. Sow the seed in the spring.

Amaranthus—

A grand family of plants of tropical appearance, with gorgeous leaves of crimson gold and green, which deepen

in the autumn. Pretty border plants wanting plenty of room, good soil, and warm position; Tricolor—red, yellow, and green. Henderii—leaves beautifully marked; carmine, orange, and green. Magnificus—a beautiful plant ; green, yellow, and gold.

Asters—    '

Most popular flowers ; grown from seed. The Peony Flowered and Quilled German are very beautiful, of all shades and colours. If sown in October will flower in the autumn ; can be transplanted several times ; of all plants they are the easiest to remove from place to place, up to the time they flower. The flowers are in trusses of six or eight fine heads, three or four inches across. They like light rich soil, with a mulching of - manure. Crown—all colours, with white centres. Globe Flowered— various colours. Perfection—large and double.

Asperula—

A beautiful, fragrant, hardy annual; doing well in shady places ; rosy blue, flowering freely, and growing twelve inches high. Can be sown either in the autumn or spring.

Balsams—

Favourite annuals, producing flowers of all shades and colours, suitable for pots or borders ; requiring rich soil and plenty of moisture. Sow them in spring.

Bartonia (Aurea)—

A bright yellow Californian annual, growing freely, with pretty downy leaves, producing flowers, two or three together, which last a long time. Sow in autumn and spring.

Brachycome (Swan River Daisy) —

Neat, pretty little annual, bearing handsome flowers in great profusion; doing best in rich soil; flowers—bright blue and white. Sow in autumn and spring.

Calceolarias—

Charming plants for frames or bush-houses, requiring rich, light fibrous soil, and plenty of pot room. As they are tender plants, must be carefully raised in seed pans, transplanting into small pots when they show their second leaf. As they fill with roots, transplant into flowering pots; give plenty of light and air, and shade from the sun.

Calliopsis or Correopsis —

Hardy annuals, forming beautiful objects in the garden with their rich bloom and yellow flowers ; keeping a long time in bloom and not particular as to soil. Should be sown in the autumn. C. bicolor hybrida — double flowers. C. marmorata—maroon crimson, with gold centre.

Candytuft—

Pretty annuals, well worth growing. The crimson and white varieties should be sown in autumn and spring; can be easily transplanted.

Celosia (Cockscomb)—

Gorgeous flowers, with cockscomb-like heads. Sow in spring. Carter’s Empress—handsome double variety.

Chrysanthemum (Annual Marguerites) —

Hardy annuals, strong growers and showy; used greatly for decoration as they last long in water. Sow during spring.    Eclipse—bright yellow, tricolor. Dunnelii—

double, very showy variety.

CinerariaCharming bush-house or greenhouse plants; gorgeous m colouring, raised in frames and transplanted into small pots, and again into blooming pots; use light soil and old manure mixed with sand. Sow in autumn.

Datura (Double Golden)—

A beautiful annual of rapid and luxuriant growth, about two feet high, bearing golden funnel-shaped flowers, fully three inches long and nearly as broad.

Euphorbia Heterophylla (Mexican Fire Plant)—

An annual Poinsettia, forming bushy plants about four feet high, with glossy green leaves, which form at the end of the branches large bracts, among which small green flowers appear in summer, and the leaves colour up to a brilliant orange scarlet, so that only a tip of green is left.

Eschscholtzia—

Showy plants ; handsome foliage, with flowers that come out one blaze in the sun, thriving in any soil. Sow the seed in the autumn and spring. E. Californica—bright yellow. E. Californica alba plena—a beautiful white. E. mandarin—a distinct variety, with handsome brilliant scarlet flowers, with yellow centres.

Godetia—

A pretty tribe of annuals growing in any soil, making a great display of lovely flowers ; of neat habit. Sow in the autumn. G. rubicunda—single red. G. splendens— double variety, with pretty purple blotches on each petal.

G.    bijou—dwarf-growing, pure white.

Helianthus (Sunflower) —

Well-known hardy annuals. There are tall and shortgrowing varieties. H. Californicus—large double, yellow.

H.    nanus—free flowering, of dwarf habit. H. cucumeri-folius—dwarf-growing branching variety; has pretty foliage ; the flowers are not large.

Marigold—

A hardy family of plants ; constant bloomers, in striking colours. The French variety has beautifully-shaped flowers—yellow striped with brown. The African varieties are large self-coloured flowers, most effective. Should be sown during spring.

Nasturtiums—

Valuable for decorative purposes; very hardy. Their forms are very varied, possessing a pleasing range of colour. The dwarf varieties are six inches high, forming neat little bushes ; flower profusely, and are easily transplanted. Called Tom Thumbs. X. spitfire—a late variety, bright scarlet. N. regalianum—tall, purple violet flowers. Sow during autumn and spring.

Papaver Glaucum (Tulip Poppy) —

New poppy growing to the height of twelve inches. Produces fifty or sixty flowers ; vivid scarlet; the two inner petals forming a cup inside the two outer petals. Extremely pretty.

Phlox Drummondii—

Beautiful little plants with brilliant flowers, dwarf in habit ; very hardy, and blooming for many months. Grandiflora—a lovely large-flowered variety. P. Drummondii cuspidata—a beautiful star-like variety, with fringed petals.

Rhodanthe —

The choicest of the early-flowering everlastings. Should be in every garden. Maculata is particularly beautiful for bouquets; a rosy-pink in colour. Prince Bismarck —double flowers. Maculata alba—lovely white flowers.

Salpiglossis —

Beautiful showy annuals, richly veined, as if they had been stitched with coloured silks ; are of rich colours. Aurea marginata—a margined variety ; very showy. Lenoble—fine scarlet flowers.

Zinnias—

Are some of our grandest annuals, the double forms producing large rose-like flowers of all shades and colours. Should always be transplanted. Sow in spring.

Calendar for jfclu'iiarp.

A most trying month for gardens and greenhouses, requiring much water, and to be not sparingly given. Achimenes are in their glory. Tie up shoots to neat sticks ; fumigate if troubled with insects.

Fuchsias as they ripen their growth, should have lower branches pruned just a little; keeping the plant in some warm sunny corner, not giving them too much water.

Gloxinia going out of flower ; water sparingly until the leaves have died down, then the pots should be placed under the benches of the greenhouse on their sides.

Gesneria making great growth ; give plenty of pot room, turning half round now and then through the week.

Pelargoniums—Re-pot as the pots fill with roots.

Chrysanthemums should be syringed overhead in the evenings, and kept well tied up.

Calathea ought to be looking their best, growing rapidly ; give plenty of water.

Ferns making their greatest growth ; cut away shabby fronds to make way for the new ones. Syringe well under and through the foliage. Pot off seedlings of Cinerarias, Calceolarias, and Primula. Put in cuttings of Antirrhinums, Pentstemons and Verbenas, and put out rooted plants.

ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS.

Abutilon—

Handsome, free growing shrubs, with pendant, bellshaped flowers ; are very hardy, and will grow in almost any soil. During the last few years they have become very popular, on account of the improved varieties and their autumn and midwinter flowering habit. They can be easily propagated by cuttings. The best are :— A. amarantina—large well-shaped flowers; A. Cognette —dwarf growing flowers, whitish rose ; A. Fleur de Neige —flowers snow white, veined with rose ; A. Scarlet Gem— flowers brilliant red; A. Thompson!—flowers yellow, leaves spotted with golden yellow.

Acanthus—

Deciduous plants sufficiently hardy to withstand our winter temperature if mulched Avith decayed manure. They have deep green glossy foliage, more suitable for our warm districts; increased by seed, or by division of the roots. A. longifolius forms graceful clumps of long narrow arching leaves, bright glossy green. A. latifolius forms a low spreading mass of bright green leaves.

Acer (Maple) —

Beautiful trees or shrubs, suitable for cold districts ; many of the species have brilliantly-coloured foliage in autumn ; are of a hardy deciduous habit. The Japanese variegated varieties make elegant little specimens for the bush-house, or for the border. Some of them as richly coloured as the Virginian creeper, prettily variegated and digitately cleft. They can be easily propagated by cuttings, budding and grafting; are much prized for their handsome leaves, being used so much by florists for bouquets. Can be pruned at the end of Avinter to any shape wished for. Make charming pot plants.

Alternanthera—

Dwarf growing, useful genus of South American plants, with showy foliage, richly variegated; many can be grown from seed, but are easily propagated by cuttings taken from the tops of the young wood in the autumn, inserted in boxes, and kept until it is warm enough to plant them out in the spring. A. amabilis—Leaves greenish, with red ribs. A. amoena—Leaves orange, red and purple, shaded with green.

Arbutus-

Small trees or shrubs, with rich glossy foliage, producing late in winter or early in spring an abundance of delicate flowers—pink, white, greenish-white, and red, resembling the Lily of the Valley, which are afterwards succeeded by strawberry-like fruit in drooping clusters. Can be transplanted in February ; is easily raised from the seed, which can be sown as soon as it can be cleaned from the berries ; planted in pots filled with leaf-mould, and protected from the sun. Can be pruned at any time, and are suitable for either hot or cold districts ; requiring to be mulched over the roots in winter. A. Andrachne —white blossoms. A. canariensis—white. A. Unedo— called the Strawberry Tree.

Ardisia—

Pretty little shrubs growing to the height of three feet; natives of Mexico ; much used for table decoration ; have bright green notched leaves ; require a moist situation either in the greenhouse, or if planted out in a border, bear quantities of bright red berries that hang long on the plant; the flowers, however, are inconspicuous. Can be grown from seed or cuttings. A. crenulata has red berries. A. crenulata alba—white berries.

Arundo—

Reed-like plants well adapted for contrasting with plants of massive growth in borders. Can be easily propagated

by division of the roots. The European sorts can also be propagated by taking well-developed stems, cutting them in pieces, and placing them in a tub of water. They will soon produce young plants at the joints. A. con-spicua is similar in habit to the Pampa Grass, but more - slender and graceful ; blooms much earlier. A. donax is one of the most stately of these plants, and is very hardy, forming great clumps eight feet high. A. versicolor has handsomely-ribboned leaves, green and white. Propagated by division.

Aralia—

Handsome evergreen shrubs with ornamental foliage, showing out well in a shrubbery. A. papyrifera (rice paper tree). A. Japonica—handsome plant, with bluish-green leaves. The stove varieties are graceful plants. Care must be taken never to let them get dry at the roots, but they are not difficult to grow. Propagated by cuttings and root cuttings. A. filicifolia—a beautiful plant with fern-like foliage ; stem and leaf stalks purplish, and marked with white spots. A. leptophylla— an elegant species with slender pendant leaves of a dark green colour.

Arduina (Cape Plum) —

A singular evergreen shrub, with white flowers, strong-scented like the Jasmine; bearing fruit which, when ripe, has an agreeable sub-acid flavour.

Aucuba—

Evergreen shrubs, succeeding best in cool shady situations. A. Japonica—a low-growing plant with broad glossy leaves, doing best in cold districts ; bears very handsome scarlet berries. A. alba variegata has spotted leaves splashed with white and yellow. A. microphylla and ovata—there are many varieties, and do well as decorative plants in the bush-house. Can be increased by seeds or cuttings.

Azara—

Bushy evergreen shrubs with glossy green leaves, the alternative leaves being often smaller; have yellow, rather showy flowers. A. microphylla—a handsome species of pendulous habit; bears small orange-coloured berries. Propagated by cuttings or seed.

Azalea—

As early spring flowering shrubs, this tribe has no equal for richness of colouring or gorgeousness of display; suitable for pot culture or planting in the garden. To cultivate them successfully in the garden they should be planted in deep well-drained sandy or peaty soil, mixed with a little well-decayed manure. In warm districts they should be constantly watered during the summer months and well mulched. Por pot plants sandy or peaty soil may also be used, being careful never to allow the plants to get thoroughly dry. Will thrive well in an ordinary lattice shed or bush-house. Can be raised from seed, sown as soon as ripe in pans or pots, well drained, and filled with finely-sifted sand or peat, watering it to make it smooth, when the seed may be sprinkled thinly over the top ; put the pots in a forcing frame, shading them from the sun ; when the seed germinates keep the young plants near the light, but still shaded ; when large enough, prick them out into 3-inch pots, and place them in a moderately moist atmosphere ; when f four inches high, pinch back to make them form several shoots. Pot the plants as they get large enough into 6-inch pots; in all stages drain the pots well, using a sufficient quantity of sand with the soil to make it porousthey do not require much pot room, and after they are large enough to occupy 12-inch pots, they will not require shifting for several years. Carefully keep them in a healthy vigorous state with liquid manure. The best time for potting is a month after their blooming is over. Their tall shoots should be stopped as they grow large to

prevent them getting bare at the base ; if they get bare cut them back a little in the spring, just before growth commences, placing them in a warm temperature to make them break again. Syringe well when the flower buds are forming, only watering at the roots when in flower, give but little during the time of rest. If troubled with thrip, wash every part of the plant with tobacco water, do not let the roots get soaked, but lay the head in a reclining position so that the water may run off', turning the pot round, watering every leaf and stem. In grafting Azaleas, all that is necessary is to have the shoots of the stock and the grafts in the same half-ripened condition, take off the leaves at the place they are to be joined, cut down the bark and ivood about one-third the thickness, preparing the grafts in the same way. In putting the grafts to the stock, see that the bark meets well, and bind it together with worsted ; keep the plants in a propagating frame, letting them have a little air to prevent damping, they will unite in a few weeks; keep them growing, and stop the points to cause them to break. Azaleas grow freely from cuttings of the lialf-ripened wood, planting in silver sand, and keeping in a warm frame. Grafted plants are considered the best.

Boronia—

A charming family of dwarf shrubs, natives of Australia, more or less sweet scented, or having a peculiar aromatic scent, making good pot plants, but doing best in warm sheltered borders. B. serrulata, our Native Rose, found in many favoured spots in the colony. B. megastigma is only to be met with in Western Australia. This variety has very light graceful foliage, bears brown-coloured flowers, with yellow lining in the inside of the cup-like blossoms ; admired for its delicate and distinct perfume. Can be propagated by cuttings taken in September from old plants, little bits, neither hard nor soft, and which would not have been likely to bloom, or the young shoots from a plant that had been previously pruned back, rather hard at the base, slipping them off close to the old stem, with a heel. Prepare the pots for the cuttings by filling them three parts full with drainage, and the rest with rough peat and sand; keep them in a cold frame during the summer months, shading from the bright sun until rooted. While rooting, a little air in the evening, replacing the glass in the morning; when rooted, the glass should be gradually removed before potting off.

Bouvardia—

Showy plants, natives of Mexico. Their continuous flowering habit, and the freedom with which their fragrant blooms are produced, make them almost indispensable in this flower-loving country ; flowering in the autumn and the early winter months. Being small shrubs they take up little room,and every bit of growth they make will bloom. They thrive best in light loamy soil, with plenty of moisture and good drainage, and like a sheltered situation ; should be planted in the autumn. All seed vessels should be removed, which will induce them to send out more shoots and flowers. Should be pruned slightly, just as the plants begin to sprout. The older the plants become the less pruning they will require, as they make much more wood when growing. Propagated by cuttings, also from every morsel of root in sandy soil. Grown in small pots under glass, or inserted round a pot in sand and placed under a bell glass. Alfred Neuner— a double variety, composed of three perfect rows of petals of the purest waxy white. Dazzler—rich scarlet flowers. Laura—a neat-growing variety, with rose-coloured flowers. Maiden’s Blush—a profuse bloomer, of a bright bluish pink colour.    Unique—rosy pink,

with white throat. Van Houtteii—rich crimson.

Browallia—

A pretty little flowering plant, has deep orange-coloured flowers, produced in great abundance during several months of the year; foliage handsome. Can be trimmed to any form. Propagated by cuttings, or division of the roots.

Brugmansias or Datura—

Handsome evergreen tree-like shrubs, hardy only in the warm districts of Sydney, where frosts are not severe. The flowers are rose-like, but borne on the end of very long drooping tubes, often six inches in length. The perfume of the white variety, Knightii, is powerful and sweet, and it has semi-double flowers. D. sanguinea— flowers red and orange ; native of Peru.

Buxus—

Hardy compact-growing evergreens, of dwarf habit, suitable for any position in the garden. There are several varieties of this species. D. argentea—silver variegated. D. aurea has variegated leaves of a golden colour. They make neat edgings if kept clipped ; grow well from cuttings.

Camellia—

Of all decorative plants they are the most popular, their beautiful glossy foliage and lovely flowers are the most taking of all the winter flowering shrubs, growing either in pots or in the garden, making always a brilliant display. The best time for planting is early in the autumn or spring, when there is some warmth in the ground. The ground previous to planting should be well trenched with a good covering of turfy soil mixed - with sand, and old manure put over the top. The best site for them is an easterly aspect, shaded if possible from the afternoon sun. The plants should be mulched and watered well, say twice a week during the dry weather, and the plants shaded during the first year. The

vigorous constitution of the plants enables them, when fairly treated, to keep on growing until they reach a great size and age. At “Winbourne,” Mulgoa, New South Wales, the residence of Hon. G. H. Cox, and also at “Llewellyn,” the residence of Mr. Burton Bradley, some of the finest specimens are to be seen of all shades and colours. Trees they justly may be called, as some are quite 20 feet high. The varieties in cultivation are numerous, the following are among the best:—Alba plena—-white, one of the best. Archduchess Augusta— red, with white stripes. Bella de Pontedera—crimson, very good. C. M. Hovey—deep velvety crimson. Henry Favre—salmon rose. Fimbriata—pure white petals, beautifully fringed. Ubertina— crimson, fine large flower.

Cantua dependens—

A shrub very generally admired ; flowers of a deep rose or almost crimson colour, with the tube reddish yellow; its only drawback being that it has a weak and straggling-habit, and is shy of flowering; easily grown from cuttings or layers ; ought to be in every garden ; does well as a pot plant. For pot culture, commence with a young healthy plant; use good fibrous loam liberally intermixed with fine white sand, and make sure of good and perfect drainage. Do not put the plant into too large a pot at first, but give repeated shifts as it advances in growth. Frequently pinch off the tips of the leading-shoots during the first and second years of growth. Plunge the pot in coal ashes in full exposure to light and sun but sheltered from wind ; by this means it will form a perfect bush of about three feet high, and will be found to flower in great perfection.

Ceanothus—

Handsome flowering shrubs of quick growth, and very hardy, bearing intensely blue flowers in clusters. C. flori-bundus—rich deep blue, bearing profusely globe-shaped

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bead-like flowers. Native of California. C. Veitchianus bears beautiful clusters of turquois-blue flowers. Very handsome in the garden.

Cestrum—

Showy, free-blooming shrubs. C. aurantiaeum bears orange flowers in the autumn. C. elegans—handsome plant with purplish-red flowers. C. Newelli has large bright crimson flowers.

Cerasus—

Useful, hardy, evergreen shrubs. C. Laurocerasus (Common Laurel)—white blossoms. C. Lusitanica (Portugal Laurel) has graceful white blossoms. C. Lieboldtii rosea plena—this variety is a dwarf Japanese Cherry, with large double flowers ; a beautiful delicate tint of rose colour hanging in long pendant bunches ; flowering beautifully in the spring.

Chcisya ternata—

A lovely little shrub, with deep glossy green foliage, bearing deliciously-scented white flowers ; flowering in the spring.

Christia grandiflora—

Very pretty, well-shaped evergreen shrub, with showy, curiously-formed flowers, yellow and red.

Cistus—

Compact-looking shrubs, bearing bright-coloured flowers in great profusion ; easily grown from seed. C. ladani-ferus (Gum Cistus) has large white flowers. C. Mon-peliensis—flowers very pretty and white ; native of the south of Europe.

Daphne —

Effective shrubs, with highly-fragrant flowers, growing well in bushhouse or garden; doing well with a little protection during severe frosty weather, wanting little or no pruning, only cutting off straggling branches directly after flowering. The best soil for them is sandy loam;

can be propagated by layers or cuttings. When taking the blooms for bouquets they should be cut carefully with a sharp knife. Indica rubra — red and white. Indica variegata—white. Hybrida—purple.

Dasylirion—

Distinct plants, growing like Yuccas, but with narrow leaves, not more than half-an-inch broad; graceful growing and quite hardy. D. gracilis has white flowers. D. glaucophyllum—white flowers ; native of Mexico.

Deutzia—

Cannot be spoken of too highly. Charming dwarf growing deciduous plants. Their beautiful white flowers in the early spring are most effective in the garden. Easily propagated by cuttings of the half-ripened wood, or rooted suckers taken in December or autumn. When they have finished flowering, and the young shoots are growing well from the bottom, all old shoots should be cut away, and young ones thinned out. When growing, a watering of liquid manure does much good. Crenata flora plena has white flowers. Crenata flora plena variegata—white flowers and variegated leaves. Pride of Rochester—handsome double wdiite flowers.

Diosma—

A sweet dwarf-growing shrub of neat habit; has pretty white flowers; much used in bouquets; foliage very delicate and sweet-scented. Easily grown; propagated by cuttings of the young half-ripened shoots. Strike in sand under glass.

Dombeya—

Grand flowering evergreen shrubs, with good foliage, bearing quantities of beautiful white flowers growing in clusters ; are sweet-scented. Can be propagated by cuttings grown under glass. D. Burgessiee — flowers white, the base of petals rose colonr. D. Mastersii— flowers white. D. Viburniflora—white flowers, shaped like a Guelder rose.

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Durantas—

Handsome free flowering shrubs, suitable for shrubberies; flowering greater part of the summer. Can be propagated by seed or cuttings. D. alba—pretty white flowers. D. plumieri has blue flowers.

Dracaenas—

Graceful palm-like plants. The many handsome varieties which contribute so largely to the decoration of gardens, halls, and balconies ; some of the more tender kinds doing best in a warm greenhouse. Easily grown, propagated by cuttings, notching the stems of old plants just below the leaves, binding the place round with moss mixed with soil, keep the moss moist, watering round the roots of the plant sparingly ; small roots from the notch will soon appear, when the top can be cut off just below these rootlets, and potted. The old stem cut into rings, and planted just below the surface of the soil, round the edge of a pot, covering the pot with a sheet of glass, they will soon spring; when the plants have one or two leaves, shift them into small pots, when rooted well repot them into larger pots, the larger the pot the handsomer the specimens will become. Young plants of the more tender coloured leaf kinds should be near the glass in the warmest part of the greenhouse in winter, and kept growing, by this means they will develop colour better. Some of the best varieties are :—D. amabilis—glossy green at first, when older becomes cream white, tinted with pink ; a greenhouse plant. D. Amboynensis—also a greenhouse plant; bronze green, edged with rose. D. Australis—a hardy species from New Zealand, valued for garden decoration. D. Duftii—Wide leaves, green, with crimson edges, from Queensland, growing well in warm districts. D. stricta—a tall-growing species with narrow leaves, from Moreton Bay. Can be planted out anywhere ; most ornamental.

Erica (The Heath)—

A most beautiful free-flowering class of shrub. From a small collection one could have flowers all through the year. The species and varieties are very numerous, and all evergreen, but in habit and growth very different, especially in size and form of blossoms. The wax-like, tubular flowers of most varieties, and the globular flowers, almost like beads, of others, make them very interesting. Bowieana—pure white, a fine old variety ; blooms perpetually.    Hyemalis and Wilmoreana—flower

half the year. In spring comes Cavendishii, with beautiful yellow flowers, and Yentricosas, covered with flowers ; E. depressa, with its dark-green leaves, retaining its flowers in perfection for several months. Then comes the exquisite small pink, E. Savileana, and the equally beautiful larger-flowered E. Irbyana and Jacksoni. Ericas are easily grown from seed ; sow early in spring ; drain the seed-pots well, filling within an inch of the top with sandy peat, watering to make smooth. Sow the seed, covering it slightly with soil mixed with sand. Place the pots in a warm temperature, and shade them from the sun, taking care not to let the soil get dried up. When the young plants are up give them a little light, to prevent them getting weak. When large enough pot them off in thumb pots, shading them from the bright sun ; gradually get them accustomed to more light and air. As they grow up, nip out the points to cause them to throw out side shoots, potting them on as the plants get large enough. To make cuttings, take the points of the half-ripened shoots. The soft-wooded kinds, that make early growth, should be taken in the spring, as soon as the wood is in a fit state. The hard-wooded varieties do not commence to grow until the summer is well advanced, when the cuttings can be taken. Remove the lower leaves, treating them like the soft-wooded ones. Drain the pots well with crocks, on the top of which place a layer of fine sanely peat, covering it with silver sand; insert the cuttings in them half-an-inch deep, putting them in pretty close ; water gently, cover with a hell glass, and place in a temperature of 60 deg.; keep the glass wiped to prevent mildew, and never let them become dry; keep them close until rooted, when they will commence to grow; give more air, by removing the glasses, and letting them have more light. In the spring, put them singly into three-inch pots, keeping the atmosphere round them moist until they begin to grow again. Stop the points to induce side shoots ; they will grow but slowly, but shift them into lai’ger pots before they become pot-bound. Ericas should be moved if possible early in the spring, before the hot dry weather, which is always trying to fine-rooted, hard-wooded plants. Plants that are large enough to flower should not be disturbed or repotted until the flowering time is over. Have the soil moist enough a day or two before shifting the plants, that they may not require water to be given for as long a time as possible after the potting is completed, as it is not possible, no matter how careful you may be, not to break some of the roots in repotting, and when water is given before the broken fibres have time to heal, there is danger of its killing them. In potting Heaths do not disturb the roots more than can be avoided in removing the crocks. Make the new soil firm round the ball of the plant, so as to prevent the water when given passing through, leaving the old ball dry. The most suitable soil is sandy peat, but no manure. Air in abundance, and plenty of light. Ericas dislike fire heat, except when young, and in small pots. From the time they are able to be in ten-inch pots they can be set out through the summer months until there is fear of frost. Never give water to Heath before the soil has got sufficiently dry to need it. Never syringe them overhead, it would cause the leaves to become soft, and liable to mildew.

Eriosternon —

Handsome shrub, bearing pink and white blossoms, lasting a long time in bloom. E. buxifolius has waxy-look-ing, rose-coloured flowers. E. Neriifolia—flowers white or pink, flowering profusely in spring.

Erythrina—

Gorgeous summer flowering shrubs; deciduous; sometimes called Coral Trees. When well-grown and in full bloom are most attractive in the garden. The new growth occurs in the spring, when cuttings can be taken by cutting off with a heel and striking under glass. They can also be raised from seed. E. compacta has crimson flowers, and is one of the best. E. Madame Belanger has rich velvety crimson flowers.

Euphorbia (Saviour’s Thorns)—

A curious and beautiful family of thorny plants, of dwarf habit, which produces in great profusion, if grown in the sun, clusters of small brilliant red flowers coming from every joint; very free blooming, nearly always in flower. The shoots of Splendens are hard and woody, with small leaves, armed with strong prickles. Jacquiniseflora is of a different habit, more erect, producing long shoots and not so free flowering; the flowers are very pretty however. Propagated by cuttings, which can be easily struck in sandy soil; natives of Bourbon.

Escallonia —

Beautiful, fine foliaged evergreen shrubs, covered with flowers, in bunches. E. Montevidiensis has pretty white flowers, will stand clipping, and can be kept dwarf if desired. E. macrantha—a handsome dwarf shrub, bearing bright red flowers. E. rubra has red flowers, and is a very handsome shrub; from Chili.

Fabiana (imbricata)—

A graceful shrub, heath-like in appearance, bearing a profusion of pure white, slender, long-tubed flowers in

November and December. Should have a sheltered position in the garden, unless in a mild climate.

Forsythia—

Erect growing, with dark green leaves, and four petalled flowers, coming in early spring before the leaves. F. suspensa has long slender branches, more adapted for wall or trellis, bears a profusion of yellow flowers. F. viridissima—an erect dwarf-growing species, with glossy leaves and yellow flowers; native of China.

Fugosia (Patersonii)—

Handsome flowering shrub, with pink flower, of line pyramid habit; is one of our finest shrubs; very hardy.

Francisia—

Hardy shrubs, with large shining leaves; bearing flowers in abundance, of soft blue purple and lavender colour; they require a warm sheltered situation; pruning into shape at the end of winter. F. calycina—large lilac flowers. F. confertiflora—deep purple flowers, fading to lilac as they get older, borne in bunches at the points of the shoots. F. macrantha.

Fuchsias—

We have no plants more profitable to gardeners ; being easy of propagation, and flowering in a comparatively short period. Plants that almost anyone can grow. If sheltered from frost will bloom beautifully, grow well out of doors, also in frames and greenhouses, in the form of bushes and standards. With good management they can be made to bloom six or eight months of the year, yet doing as well as they do in gardens and verandahs. The finest specimens are grown under glass ; though not truly tropical, the humid atmosphere which they get under glass seems to suit them. The next best thing to glass is a bush-house, which will afford shelter from winds and sun, at the same time plenty of air and light, which, with a copious supply of water, will give good plants, full of health and vigour, short-jointed, with stiff good foliage,

bushy, and graceful in liabifc. But even here they require to be protected with canvas in the summer months from hot and stormy winds. Cuttings may be taken in May, the young growth of the present season makes the best; taking them below the third joint, remove the lower leaves and insert them in small pots filled with sand, place them in a close frame, and shade them from the hot sun. In July put the young plants into six-inch pots filled with rich soil, and place them near the glass, that they may not become drawn, or back into the frame, where they can get plenty of light, warmth, and air. To get good pyramid shape, pinch off the tops of the young shoots. In August, the plants that are growing strongly and have filled their pots with roots, may be watered once a week with liquid manure. At the end of September, put into 8-inch pots, in which they will flower, using soil of the richest nature; frequently half turn the pots round that they may not become one-sided. At the end of January, when the plants have done flowering and have become unsightly, stand them in some warm place, sheltered from winds, for a short time before pruning.

Gardenia—

Lovely shrubs, with bright glossy foliage and handsome white flowers, deliciously scented; requiring a warm situation to flower well. They want good open soil, not too rich, requiring moisture, or they will be troubled with the scale insect. Can be propagated by layers or cuttings. G. Fortunei has large pure white flowers; native of China. G. globosa—one of the best flowrers, bell-shaped, pure white, growing in great profusion. G. magnifica—large white flowers.

Garrya (elliptica)—

Evergreen flowering shrub, with long drooping spikes of greenish-white or yellow flowers. Can be grown as a dwarf bush or trained against a trellis. Doing best in a cool climate.

Glory Pea (Clianthus punicens)—

Showy shrub, with graceful foliage, bearing a profusion of scarlet flower's resembling a parrot’s bill. Grown from seed or cuttings.

Heliotrope—

Grow best in the form of bushes; at the beginning of summer they will be covered with deliciously fragrant flowers, lasting until the autumn. There are several varieties—white, mauve, and deep violet colour. They do not require much heat, but the slightest frost injures them. Can be easily grown from cuttings, and are an ornament to any greenhouse or garden ; doing well in light soil. Cut-off by frost in the garden, they will spring up again in August or September if mulched over during the winter months. Cuttings can be struck in January, or better still in the early spring, from plants that have been kept in a warm greenhouse during winter. Young shoots, taken off with a heel, and placed under glass will soon root, when they can be put into 3-inch pots, shade for a time and gradually give air and light; pinch off tops as soon as the plants have grown about three inches, which will make them break freely, and from well-shaped bushes. As soon as is possible shift them into larger-sized pots or into the garden. In winter those in pots should never be let get dry at the roots, they should be kept warm, and out of cold draughts. In August tie them into shape, shade them in the middle of the day and give them plenty of water, syringing the branches well. They will begin to flower in October, and will then make pretty plants for the verandah.

Hibiscus—

Magnificent flowering shrubs and trees. A genus comprising a great variety of plants. There are in it annuals, biennials, and perennials ; the greater part of them from warm climates ; some of these are very fine, and have large scarlet, crimson, white, and yellow flowers, con-

tinuing in bloom the greater part of the year, most of them hardy and easily cultivated, many double flowered; a few have variegated foliage, these are best cultivated in greenhouses, planting in tubs or large pots. They require abundance of water during the season of growth and flowering. The best soil for them is loam, sandy peat, and old manure, well mixed. Most of them will grow in the open border in a warm climate, and are to be seen in great beauty about Sydney. Can be propagated by cuttings and layers. These are some of the best    II.

Cooperi—rosy scarlet; H. fulgidus—rich scarlet, large and very handsome ; H. grandiflora flora plena; H. bicolor superba ; H. mutabilis; H. mutabilis flora plena;

H. rosa splendens ; H. Syriacus alba marginatus; H. Lambertii; H. punicens; Alboplenus; Bicolor hybridus; Due de Brabant ; Rosens plenus ; Speciosus rubrus.

Hydrangea—

Old favourites, having many new varieties of late years. Hydrangeas do best in shady situations, requiring plenty of water during dry weather. They make capital decorative plants for conservatories and verandahs. Cuttings can be taken in the spring, when they strike very quickly. A few of the favourite varieties are :—H. rosea mar-ginata—has variegated foliage, the leaves being striped with white and margined with dark rose, flowers red ; H. hortensis—has pink and sometimes blue flowers ; H. speciosa—has enormous heads of pink flowers, and is very strong growing; H. stellata fimbriata—has immense trusses of flowers, sometimes nine inches in diameter, snowy white, beautifully fringed, with a crimson spot in the centre.

Hypericum-

Evergreen shrubs, growing to the height of three or four feet, bearing all the summer numbers of handsome deep yellow flowers. H. floribundum—Yellow flowers. H. moserianum—yellow flowers.

Holly (Ilex)—

Grand evergreen shrubs, with bright shining leaves. In the cold districts they produce their red berries in great perfection. In New Zealand, and also in the cold districts of Victoria, they thrive splendidly. At Christmas time, the holly sprigs, covered with their beautiful berries, are thought much of by florists. Propagated by grafting, budding, and by seeds, which should be sown directly they are ripe. Crassifolia—green leaves. Argentea mar-ginata—leaves green with silver edges. Aurea angusti-folia— narrow golden leaves. Aurea maculata — gold spotted leaves, a beautiful and distinct variety.

Indigofera (Indigo)—

Pretty plants of neat habit, growing from four to five feet high. Some of the species yielding the well-known dye— indigo. They are hardy, and have pretty rose-coloured flowers all up the stems. I. Australis. I. decora.

Isopogon—

Evergreen shrubs, with whitish-yellow, cone-like flowers in spikes, giving them a curious appearance. I. Anemone-folius has yellow flowers ; I. Baxter!—pink flowers.

I.    roseus—pink flowers.

Inga pulcherrima—

A handsome shrub, with mimosa-like foliage. An evergreen, having pendulous heads of scarlet flowers.

Jasmine-

Old fashioned but much loved plants. Many varieties of them, some growing as shrubs, and others as climbers.

J.    gracillimum •— slender growing, with large white flowers. J. fruticans has yellow flowers, deliciously scented, and is a handsome shrub for the garden. J. grandiflorum—by far the best white flowering variety, looks lovely trained on a trellis or verandah, or if cut back will make a pretty shrub. Can be grown easily from young ripe cuttings or layers.

Justicia—

Plants of stately upright habit, bearing large heads of flowers in the autumn, they flower freely and are of various colours. Grown easily from cuttings. J. carnea.

J.    discolor. J. flavicoma. J. splendens.

Kerria—

Small Japanese shrubs, with dark green slender branches and tapering leaves; the flowers are orange yellow. There is also a pretty double flowering variety, and

K.    Corchorus Japonica has variegated foliage and single yellow flowers. Propagated by layers and cuttings.

Lagerstroemia—

Splendid flowering, hardy deciduous shrubs, growing rapidly, suitable for any district. Can be grown either from layers or cuttings taken in the spring. L. flos reginte has rose-coloured flowers, very large and handsome. L. indica—large beautiful bright pink flowers.

L.    alba—a very handsome variety, with white flowers.

Lantana—

Hardy shrubs, easily cultivated; some of them very handsome, flowering most of the year, doing well in hot districts. Propagated by cuttings. Alba has pretty white blossoms. Bournardi—orange coloured flowers. Distinction—rich orange scarlet flowers. La neige— pure white.

Lasiandra—

Plants of great beauty, producing flowers in abundance from three to four inches in diameter; colour, intense purple ; flowering all through the autumn ; is one of the finest shrubs grown. Likes a rich sandy soil and a warm situation. Grown easily from cuttings of the young-shoots taken in October and inserted in sand, shaded from the sun and kept moist.

Laurustinus—

One of the finest winter-flowering shrubs we possess, flowering when most flowers are scarce. The blooms are white, but rose-coloured before opening; useful for making dwarf hedges, looking its best after being clipped. Easily propagated by cuttings or layers.

Lemon-scented Verbena—

Aloysia citriodora—A deciduous sweet-scented shrub bearing bunches of small white flowers deliciously scented. Propagated easily by cuttings taken in July.

Leucadendron (Silver Tree)—

A beautiful tree-like shrub, growing to the height of twelve feet; leaves, six or eight inches long, when fully developed shine like silver. The leaves are often used to paint landscapes on. Natives of the Cape of Good Hope.

Ligustrum (Privet)—

Hardy shrubs, some very handsome. Used for hedges and the shrubbery; easily grown. Propagated by seed and cuttings. L. variegatum—creamy white and green leaves. L. luciclum—a very fine species with handsome white flowers. L. ovalifolium—has pretty oval leaves and white flowers.

Magnolia—

Handsome flowering trees. Their deliciously-scented flowers and magnificent foliage cannot be too highly praised. M. grandiflora—one of the most strikingly handsome, grows well everywhere, its noble, fragrant white flowers are wonders of elegance and perfume. Can be propagated by laying shoots of last year’s growth in November. Tongue the layers as you would carnations, quite twelve months before cutting them away from the parent tree. Let them be separated in mild moist weather. M. anonsefolia (Portwine Magnolia) is a shining-leafed shrub, with chocolate-coloured flowers, deliciously scented. The deciduous species are very

striking when in flower, particularly Lenni, which hears large purple flowers. M. purpurea—only growing to the height of five feet, has large fragrant flowers, purple on the outside and white within. Can be easily increased by layers.

Mackaya bella—

A glossy-foliaged evergeen, bearing delicate, lavender, trumpet-shaped flowers. Is easily grown and hardy, but wants a sheltered position. Propagated by cuttings and layers. A native of Natal.

Menziesia (Irish Heath) —

Hardy heath-like plants, very pretty when in flower; can be grown from cuttings or layers. M. polifolia—has purple flowers. Alba —white. Bicolor — white and purple.

Murraya—

Neat dwarf-growing shrub; very pretty for a lawn. Specimen—has dark-green foliage and flowers like orange blossom; very sweet scented. Can be grown from cuttings. Native of India.

Myrtles —

Ornamental low-growing shrubs, with sweet leaves. There are several varieties, double-flowered and single, and also a pretty variegated form.

Mitraria coccinea—

Pretty little shrub, with intense, curved, tubular flowers; from two to three feet high; flowering freely through the summer. Growing best in sandy soil. Propagated by cuttings of the half-ripe wood.

Monochaetum—

Dwarf-growing winter-flowering shrubs, of easy culture, flowering profusely. M. ensiferum—has deep rose-pink flowers of great beauty. M. sericum multiflorum—an abundant bloomer in June and July. Grown from cuttings.

Calendar for fIDarcb

This month is one of the best for laying out or altering beds and borders.

Fuchsias should be shaken out of their pots, pruning in any of their long roots ; repotting into pots a size smaller than those in which they have been grown ; use a good porous soil, pressing the soil firmly down in the pots ; give a good watering and stand in a warm sheltered corner of the greenhouse.

Achimenes are now becoming unsightly. Gradually withhold water until they die down ; put them away for their rest for the winter months.

Gesnerias should have a liberal supply of water; keep them in a free growing state.

Pelargoniums will want plenty of sun and air; turn the pots half round once a week.

To Calceolarias, Cinerarias, and Primulas that are growing freely give larger pots. See that insects do not attack them. Syringe and fumigate well.

Sow annuals this month in the borders and pans for pricking out.

Bulbs may be planted out in the borders, planting from two to four inches deep according to the sorts of bulbs, labelling well to prevent being dug in in winter.

Camellias may be planted out; thin out the buds of those that are going to flower, and any weak wood. Keep the earth loose round them, digging in a little manure.

Chrysanthemums may have liquid manure given them; to any that are coming into flower give only pure water.

Ferns can be propagated this month by dividing the crowns or rhizomes, using small pots to plant in.

The Stephanotis and Allamandas ought to be showing their lovely flowers. Watch for insects attacking these plants; sponge them off as soon as they appear.

Asparagus plumosus and the Dractenas will be benefited by a little liquid manure this month ; cuttings can be taken from Dracaenas.

Begonias that have extended their stems over and down the pots do away with, planting the well-ripened leaves in sand for new plants.

ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS—Continued.

Negundo fraxinifolium—

A small hardy tree or shrub, differing from the true maples in having pinnate leaves. There is an extremely lovely variety, with almost white leaves, one of the best small variegated trees we have when grown in a shrubby form.

Nerium (Oleanders) —

They are very beautiful, and can be classed among the best of our summer-flowering shrubs; are very hardy, standing any heat and drought of our climate. The new varieties are of all shades of colour, grown easily from layers and cuttings. Album grandiflorum—large pure white flowers. Album plenum — semi-double white flowers. Madame Martin—beautiful clear salmon colour. Professor Martin—crimson flowers. Splendens—double pink. Splendens variegatum — the variegated-leaved Nerium.

Nandina—

A shrub with graceful foliage, bearing flowers in clusters, and pretty berries. Native of Japan.

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Osmanthus aquifolium—

A handsome shrub, with holly-like leaves, bearing small white flowers deliciously scented. Olicifolius—is a small-leafed species. Olicifolius variegatum—has variegated leaves, yellow and green ; is very pretty, and of a more dense and compact habit.

Olea fragrans—

A holly-leaved shrub, valued mostly for its perfume. The flowers are white, small and insignificant, but in the morning and evening fill the garden with their delicious scent.

PALMS

Are easily cultivated, provided they have the degree of heat which they require, must be well drained, and have a good supply of wader, must not be let get dry at the roots, especially when growing freely. When planted out like humid places, near water, yet cannot bear stagnant water at the roots. The ground, therefore, if planted out must be well drained; should not be planted deeply. For pots the soil should be open loam and sand. Draining the pots well with two inches of crocks and charcoal and over that dry moss to prevent the soil getting mixed with the charcoal. They will not bear overpotting, grow better in comparatively small pots if watering is properly attended to. Gam be propagated in some instances by taking the young plants which spring from the base of the stem of some kinds, but seeds are best placed in a pan just under the surface of the soil, ivith a sheet of glass over them. Keep moist and put away on a shelf in a greenhouse, they will germinate in a few months. TVhen they have two leaves they can be put into small pots, potting them on as the plants develop themselves. Palms should be kept free of scales by sponging them with soft soap and warm water, keeping them well syringed.

For planting out these are good kinds :—Areca Alicias— Northern Australia; A. sapida—New Zealand Cabbage Palm: A. Baueri—Norfolk Island, hardy ornamental Palm.

Palms, Pot Growing—

A. catechu (Betel-Nut Palm)—

Native of India ; pretty for dinner-table decoration. Rhopalostyles sapida—

New Zealand Cabbage Palm, doing well in a greenhouse. Calamus ciliaris—

Native of India ; beautiful for its plume-like leaves. Geonoma gracilis—

A graceful species. Native of Brazil.

Philadelphus (Mock Orange)—

Extremely pretty odoriferous ornamental shrubs, with showy white flowers. Are hardy, growing in any soil. Should be pruned in summer just as they are going out of bloom, which they do on the young shoots of last year. All flower early in the summer except Philadelphus Gordonianus, which blooms in January. In pruning take off all straggling shoots, they will throw up a fresh lot of young shoots from the bottom of the flowering ones to bloom the following year, cut off, therefore, those that have bloomed this season, which will give the new ones more sun and air. They can be propagated by cuttings of the ripened young shoots in autumn. P. Gordonianus—an American species with large flowers. P. inodorus—scentless, but has large flowers. P. grandiflorus speciosissmus plenus—a splendid double variety.

Photinia—

Handsome shrubs with large shining evergreen leaves, bearing bunches of white flowers. P. arbutifolia—a native of California, has foliage resembling the Arbutus. P. serrulata—has laurel-like leayes ; a beautiful shrub, hardy and ornamental. Native of Japan.

Plumbago—

Pretty plants, forming neat bushes if kept clipped, flowering most part of the year. The colour of the flowers

d 2

is delicate steel blue or lavender. P. seylanica has white flowers. Easily grown from layers.

Poinsettia pulcherrima—

A lovely shrub in its blooming season, growing to a great height in our colonies. The bracts or floral leaves are of a brilliant scarlet, forming a crown on the summit of the shoots under the real flowers, which are small and yellow, tipped with scarlet, very beautiful, particularly by candlelight. It requires a season of rest and a season of growth, the resting season commencing when the flowers decay, when gradually give less water. As the leaves turn yellow cut down the stems, making the plants a good shape if in a pot, giving only enough water to keep the plant alive, in a house where the heat is not more than 50 deg. In September repot the plant, taking off nearly all old soil, and place in the warmest part of the greenhouse, or plant it out in a sunny border, shading it for a time, giving in either case but little moisture until the shoots are an inch or two long, increase the quantity of water as the plant requires it, and when two feet high give plenty of water. In March they will begin to produce their splendid scarlet-coloured bracts. The best soil for them is loam, peat, and decayed manure in equal parts. Cuttings are made from the young shoots placed under a bell glass in sand with loam under it. A native of Brazil.

Podalyria—

A hardy and effective spring-flowering shrub, with pretty pale pink flowers. Styracifolia—has showy pink flowers.

Pomegranate (Punica) —

Handsome hardy summer-flowering shrubs, worthy of a place in any garden. They are deciduous. In the spring the young foliage comes out tinged with red. The double-flowering forms are most attractive, having rich glossy foliage. P. alba flore pleno—has double white flowers. P. flore pleno—double scarlet. P. granatum ligrelli—large double buff-coloured flowers. P. naua flore pleno—a dwarf-growing variety, producing bright double scarlet flowers.

Protea (Cape Honeysuckle)—

An attractive-looking shrub, with flowers ; in shape like a large tulip ; three or four inches long, of a creamy yellow striped with pink. Can be grown from seed or cuttings.

Prunus—

Ornamental deciduous shrubs, of robust growth. P. pissardi—has splendid foliage of deep crimson colour ; most effective planted in shrubberies among other things; native of Persia. P. sinensis—double flowering, white. P. sinensis rosea—double flowering, rose colour ; flowering in the spring. The flowers are disposed along the shoots in great abundance. Easily grown from layers.

Pyrus Japonica —

Handsome deciduous shrubs, blooming freely in the spring ; bearing gorgeous flowers before the leaves. P. japonica—vivid scarlet. P. alba—pure white. Grown from suckers.

Rhododendron—

Magnificent shrubs; are evergreens, with but few exceptions. Their bright green leaves have a rich brown or silvery powder on the under surface of them. The flowers are large and of brilliant colours. Natives of North America and the mountains of India. Growing to a considerable size, almost trees. They like a sheltered, partly shaded situation, and light peaty soil. Must be kept mulched, as, like the Azaleas, their roots are fine and near the surface, so feel the summer heat and also the frost in winter. Flowering mostly in October and November. After flowering their seed pods should be carefully picked off. Can be grown from layers or cuttings. The hybrids are usually grafted on stocks of the more hardy species. If in pots, when done flowering turn them out of their pots into a bed of peaty soil partly shaded, to make a season’s growth, cutting back any branches to form good plants, when they must be well watered, never letting them get dry through the summer. By autumn they will have set their buds, and may be taken up and repotted, syringing them and keeping them in a shaded place until they have established themselves. Protect always when there is fear of frost.

Rhyncospermum—

Handsome evergreen climbers with glossy dark-green leaves and deliciously scented white flowers ; much used for decorating verandahs. Can be grown easily from cuttings or layers. R. maculatum aureum variegata—-with leaves prettily blotched with cream-white ; in the autumn tinged with red. R. jasminoides—dark green glossy leaves, flowers white.

Robina—

A pretty deciduous shrub with lovely deep rose-coloured large pea-shaped flowers ; produced in pendulous racemes. Growrn from suckers or layers. Native of North America.

Rondeletia Amoena—

Charming little shrubs, bearing pink flowers in clusters ; they are yellow bearded at the throat. R. odorata—has sweet-scented bright vermilion flowers. Propagated by cuttings. Native of Cuba.

Rondeletia speciosa—

Erect slender-growing shrubs of moderate size, bearing on the points of this season’s shoots bright bunches of verbena-like flowers. Grown easily from cuttings. Blooming in December, and lasting for several months. R. anomala. R. versicolor.

ROSES

Should have the bed soil and place in the garden; nothing can be too good for roses. Soil should be light and friable with a mixture of clay. Soot and charcoal are good for the tea-scented-, but manure should- not be given when planting them. Let the ground be well-drained, but on the whole solid. In June and July—our winter months—manure well, it will act as a sort of mulch in the frosty weather, as you would, in January and February to prevent them feeling the very hot weather. Water well at the roots and syringe the leaves during the summer. July is the best month for pruning all roses except the tea-scented. In August, however, they are apt to grow out of form, and should be cut bach. March and April are most suitable for taking cuttings, the ground being warm they are apt to strike better than later on in the season. Plant in a shaded border where they can get the sun until ten or eleven in the forenoon. A little watering now and then is necessary. Cuttings should be taken at a proper state of ripeness; if they are too ripe they will stand and look well for weeks without rooting or making the least progress; if not ripe enough they will rot in a week in spite of any care you, may give them; half-ripened cuttings, therefore, are the best. Cuttings are best short, none above four inches long ; all should have a heel, or be cut just below where the shoot starts from; plant three inches deep ; give water just to set them, and shade for the first week or two. Should mildew appear, remove as many of the leaves as possible, dusting the rest with soot when the plants are wet with dew, or have been syringed; washing it off after three days. La France, Baronesse Rothschild, and roses of the same class should be pruned moderately; shortening the long shoots; the twigs that bore flowers last year remove altogether. Cabbage or moss roses must be well pruned, cud every shoot back, only leaving from three to four buds on each, cutting out all old wood, only leaving about four of the young shoots is advisable. Hybrid China—their long shoots must be cut bach a little, talcing out all the old ones, making room for the young plump ones, leaving four or Jive to form a shapely bush. Persian Briar must have some of its shoots cut right out to the base every year. Remove old and any weak wood. Prune lightly, leaving from ten to twelve buds on all healthy shoots. Banksia roses ought to be pruned directly after flowering; very little pruning is required. Cut right out all gross shoots, but do not touch the twiggy branches, for on these the flowers are produced. Hybrid Perpetual—Cut well back in July, only leaving three buds on each shoot. Slightly prune after blooming, which will give a second crop of flowers. Tea-scented—Shorten the whole growth at the end of November, the ripest rods leave long. Cut out all those that are badly placed. In summer they throw out long rods and a twiggy growth, the latter leave, but the long rods must be cut back a little to produce side shoots. Good flowers may be obtained throughout the growing season bg cutting off the flowers as they decay to within tivo or three eyes of the old wood. Microphylla scarcely require any pruning, growing vigorously, they only want to be kept in good shape and order. Noisette—Thin well out, shorten the shoots, but never prune severely. Bourbon Perpetuals are much valued for their delicacy of colouring and perpetual flowering habit; requiring only to be pruned slightly, removing the old twiggy growth. Souvenir de Malmaison, one of the most beautiful of them, is the first and almost the last of all roses to bloom. To cut its blooms use always a sharp knife, taking as little wood as is possible. If the wood or bark is at all bruised it trill nearly always decay right down the branch, consequently the plant is often much disfigured.

Some of the Newest Tea-scented Roses are—

Alphonse Karr—purple-shaded crimson.

Comtesse de Frigueuse—bright yellow.

Comtesse de Nadiallac—rosy flesh.

Mademoiselle Annette Murat—citron yellow.

Madame de Watteville—white edged with rose.

Madame Joseph Godier—carmine and yellow.

Madame Scipion Cochet—canary yellow.

Marquis de Sanima—deep chrome yellow.

Miss Ethel Brownlow—salmon pink.

Princess of Wales—rosy yellow.

. Souvenir de Madame Joseph Mitral- -cerise.

Triomphe de Guillot Fils—white shaded rose.

Vicomtesse Folkinstone—creamy pink.

White Lady—snow white.

Ye Primrose Dame—lemon colour.

Capitaine Lefort—purplish rose, reverse of petals China rose.

Ernest Metz—carmine rose.

George Farber—velvety purple.

Mrs. James Wilson—deep lemon yellow, petals tipped and margined with rose.

Hybrid Perpetual Roses—

Alfred K. Williams—carmine red.

Augustine Guinoisseau—rosy white.

Crimson Queen—velvety crimson.

Black Prince—dark crimson.

Baronesse Rothschild—pink, very perfect.

Baron Chaurand—velvety scarlet, shaded black.

Crown Prince—purple-shaded crimson.

Captain Christy—delicate flesh.

Duke of Edinburgh—brilliant scarlet.

Earl Dufferin—dark velvety crimson.

Gustave Piganeau—brilliant carmine.

Empereur de Moroc—maroon red.

Gipsy—velvety red.

Madame Bois—China pink.

Jean Cherpin—velvety purple.

Mabel Morrison—white.

Madame Alphonse Lavallee—cerise-tinted white.

Prince Camille cle Rohan—crimson maroon.

Souvenir de William Wood—blackish maroon.

Silver Queen—China pink.

Polyantha—

Blanche Rebatel—carmine.

Clothilde Soupert—outer petals nearly white, centre rosy lake.

Etoile d’Or—citron yellow.

Fairy Pet—white, tinted blush.

Gloire des Polyantha—bright rose, white centre.

Golden Fairy—clear buff.

Little Dot—soft pink.

Pacquerette—white, very double.

Perle d’Or—Nankeen yellow.

Moss Roses—

Blanche Moreau—white, very large.

Celina—crimson, very double.

Crimson Globe—deep crimson, well mossed.

Comtesse Murinais—pure white, very large.

Crested Moss—rose colour, very beautiful.

Gloire des Mousseuses—blush, large and full.

John Cranston—crimson.

Little Gem—dark crimson, small flowers. •

Marie de Blois—rosy lilac.

Reine Blanche—pure white.

White Bath—beautifully mossed.

Noisette—

Aimee Yibert—pure white.

Bouquet d’Or—pale yellow.

Cloth of Gold.

L’Ideal—yellow-tinted copper.

Madame Alfred Carriere—flesh colour.

Madame Louis Henri—white, shaded yellow.

Madame Caroline Kuster—pale yellow.

William Allen Richardson—orange yellow.

Climbing■ Roses—

Aimee Vibert—pure white.

Banksian—w bite.

Banksian—yellow.

Chestnut Hybrid—bright cerise.

Cloth of Gold—canary.

Devoniensis—blush white.

Fair Rosamond—flesh colour, mottled with rosy pink. Fortune’s Yellow—apricot-shaded pink.

Fortuniana—pure white.

Gloire de Dijon—yellow, shaded salmon.

Marechal Niel—deep yellow.

Niphetos—snow white.

Reine Marie Henriette—cerise.

Reve d’Or.

William Allen Richardson—orange yellow.

Cure for Blight of any kind in Roses.

Mix one ounce of bluestone with one gallon of water. Syringe the plants well with the mixture. It will be found of great use, and injures neither the foliage nor blooms.

Choosing Roses.

Mr. C. Bennet, of the Homebush Nursery, Sydney, helps us considerably by the classification of his catalogue referring to their special characteristics. The varieties which bloom continuously he calls “ Everblooming ;” those misnamed “Hybrid Perpetual,” blooming at intervals (mostly from October till May), he calls “occasional;” while those which only bloom in October and November he calls “Summer Roses.” Climbing sorts can be had in all shades and colours, and even beginners cannot go wrong in choosing from the nurserymen’s catalogues, and with a little attention to pruning, will very soon be able to produce show blooms. Their chief object should be at first to produce well-formed trees, keeping the centres of them open that they may get plenty of air and light, and so develop good flowers. Let the young plants of one season grow as they like until the following July, that the roots may be well established, when they will have several stems; from these stems select the strongest, and cut away the others. No wood should be kept unless solid and with good wood buds. If a Tea rose, and it has a good branching head, keep about four of the branches in good positions, shortening them to three eyes; these will sprout again and bloom at the points. After blooming cut out any that are not in a good position, and cut them back as before, from which more flowering wood will be produced, always being careful in cutting your blooms for decoration to leave an eye or two to develop again. By following this method of pruning you will keep your trees to a single stem, which has so many advantages. The flowers are kept off the ground, and they are more easily kept free from weeds, hoeing and mulching them being quite an easy matter compared to those allowed to grow as they like. Cutting back the branches when the root action is vigorous, often makes the plants throw up from the roots water sprouts with clusters of bloom buds; if allowed to grow at all, they should not be allowed to bloom, unless very late in the season, but should be cut off close to the stem. In pruning your plants still keep the heads well shaped, cutting out any superfluous or wrongly-placed branches, but it is not necessary to cut them right back as at first, only reduce the growth to induce them to sprout again strongly. The shorter-growing kinds, especially Hybrid Teas, require closer pruning than the freer-growing sorts, such as Souvenir de Madame Joseph Mitral and Triomphe de Guillot Fils. Those like Lady Mary Fit/william and Lady Alice, which produce blooms on very short stems, are best cut well back; unless so treated they will often not produce enough foliage to keep them healthy, flowering profusely on short stems with scarcely any leaves, and quite exhausting themselves. If in the Summer the main stem of any rose tree becomes unhealthy, cut it down, and in the pruning season make a fresh start with a new stem.

Roses if well nourished can he kept on the same stem for years, and will produce fine flowers. Polyantha roses may be treated as the Teas. The Austrian Briar, more commonly known as Fortune’s Yellow, must not he pruned at all in Spring, or it will only make wood growth; pinching it only in Summer to increase its flowering buds, and cutting out any superfluous suckers.

Calendar for tlpril

Gardeners are kept busy this month removing and planting out shrubs.

Bulbs of many varieties may be planted—Ixias, Speraxes, Narcissi, Freesia refracta, Ranunculi, Anemones, Amaryllis, Hyacinths and Tulips, Achimenes and Gloxinias. As the stems die down store the bulbs in dry sand on some dry airy shelf.

Calceolarias—Any young plants can be pricked off into pots, placing them in a cool frame ; shade them from the sun, but give them air.

Primulas that are large enough shift into flowering pots ; keep moist, but do not water the crown of the plants. Require plenty of air.

Camellias—A few early ones are beginning to flower. If not previously done, remove superfluous buds ; be careful in screwing off not to hurt those that are left.

Tea-scented Roses are still flowering. In gathering them cut back the flower stem to one or more eyes ; layers can be made and cuttings taken off them this month.

Liliums, if they require it, may now be lifted, but they are better for being left in the ground quite three years without being disturbed.

Gladioli can also be planted ; procure the best kinds.

Annuals of all kinds can be planted—Coreopsis, Nasturtium, Gaillardias, Poppy, Pansy, Phlox, &c.

Plant out any seedlings from seed boxes.

Calacliums now show an inclination to rest; gradually leave off watering; when all leaves have died off, place the pots on their sides, keeping them dry for next season.

Coleus cuttings should be taken ; keep moist and shaded for a week or two, after which they will be all the better for plenty of light and air.

Cuttings from Bouvardias, Daphnes, Heliotropes, Deutzias, Roses, and Spiraeas strike readily this month.

Greenhouses are now better for being closed early ; gradually diminish the supply of water.

ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS—Continued.

Spiraea—

A graceful flowering shrub, blooming in the spring ; are hardy-growing in any soil and situation, readily increased by root division, should be taken up and divided every three or four years. S. grandiflora—pure white, bearing flowers as large as a two shilling piece. S. Reevesiana— a white .double flowering variety. S. Douglasii—another species, very handsome, with rose-coloured flowers. S. Fortunei—has straight erect branches, and rose-red flowers. S. hypericifolia (Italian May)—is the most graceful of them all.

Staphylea—

A handsome deciduous shrub ; producing in early spring creamy white flowers ; recently introduced. A valuable addition to our early spring blooms. Propagated by suckers, layers, or cuttings.

Strelitzia -

A showy plant for decoration ; making a good pot plant, or showing out well in the garden. It has tropical looking leaves, is stately growing, distinct in its habit, with yellow and blue flowers coming from a boat-shaped sheath ; grows best in a sandy peat soil. Propagated by dividing the crowns in November and December.

Streptosolen—

A very pretty shrub ; producing an abundance of orange-coloured flowers, growing to the height of six feet. Grown from cuttings or layers.

Stenocarpus—

Hardy evergreen shrub ; growing in the warm parts of the colony ; has handsome foliage, and clusters of bright red flowers. Propagated by cuttings of ripened shoots, placed under a bell glass.

Symphoricarpus (Snowberry Tree)—

Pretty shrubs ; bearing clusters of berries. S. racemosus —common snowberry ; has small rose-coloured flowers in spikes at the ends of the branches, bearing large white berries during the winter. S. vulgaris—coral berry ; has small red and yellow flowers, and small red berries. There is also a variegated form, the leaves showing green and yellow.

Syringa (Lilac)—

The lilac is an old favourite, doing well in all cold districts ; bearing in profusion spikes of sweet-scented flowers. Easily propagated by cuttings or rooted suckers. S. japonica—creamy white, with large trusses of flowers. S. alba grandiflora—large white flowers. S. vulgaris— common lilac. S. Le Gaulois—dark peach-coloured flowers, with light centres, very double, and in large trusses. S. Renoncule—mauve, very double, and strongly scented.

Telopea —

Handsome shrubs ; much improved by cultivation. If the shoots of the young plants are pinched off they will throw out many others, forming a branching shrub which will bear many blooms. Propagated easily by layers or suckers, which are thrown up generally at some distance from the parent plant.

Telopea speciosissima—

Native tulip, or waratali, of New South Wales ; one of the handsomest of our Australian flowers.

Telopea Oreadis—

Grippsland waratah, though not so beautiful, is also a handsome flowering shrub. T. truncata is also handsome, found only in Tasmania.

T ecoma—

Free flowering shrubs with handsome foliage. T. stans —a tall grower, with leaves like the elder, and golden-yellow bell-shaped flowers, growing in great clusters. T. velutina—an imposing shrub with clusters of bright canary-coloured flowers.

Veronica-

Ornamental shrubs; most of them desirable flowering plants for the garden, being showy and flowering well in the winter and early spring. Will bear cutting in well, and can be kept to any size. V. Andersoni variegata— with leaves blotched and margined with creamy white, forms an effective edging plant, clipped back to make it dwarf. These plants are very hardy, and suitable for the border or planted in the shrubbery. Propagated by cuttings or layers. V. buxifolia—box-leaved, small shrub, native of New Zealand. V. diosmsefolia—diosma-leaved, New Zealand. V. formosa—pale blue, native of Australia. V. parviflora—blue, native of New Zealand.

Viburnum-

Hardy shrubs, easily cultivated; bearing in profusion snow-white blossoms, sweet scented. Propagated by layers or cuttings. V. macrocephalum (snowball tree) has large heads of white flowers like the guelder rose, is deciduous, but comes out in the spring in great beauty. V. opulus sterilis (guelder rose)—this is a slender-growing deciduous shrub, bearing in spring showy white flowers resembling hydrangea, having a grand effect in the garden.

Y. Sandankera bears cream-coloured flowers, very beautiful. A native of Japan.

Virgilia —

Shrub from the Cape of Good Hope bearing pea-shaped flowers in great quantities, blooming quite six months of the year, growing in a wonderfully quick manner.

Weigela —

May be classed among the most beautiful spring flowering-shrubs ; hardy plants blooming chiefly, not on last year’s shoots, but on those of the present season, coming from the ripened shoots on last season’s growth ; therefore, in pruning be careful to take the old wood. Some of the best are : Abel Carriere—rosy-crimson flowers. Amabilis variegata — pink flowers. Candida has large white flowers. Gloire de Bosquet—dark crimson flowers. Montesquieu—reddish-crimson flowers. Propagated by cuttings taken in July.

Wigandia—

Ornamental-foliaged shrubs with violet-coloured flowers, producing a fine effect in the shubbery. W. Caracasana. W. Urens.

Yucca—

Hardy showy plants, suitable either for single specimens, lawns, or for the shubbery. Gloriosa produces immense spikes of creamy-white flowers. Whipplei is a recently introduced variety, and very distinct. Quadricolor has leaves striped and tinged with red. Yariegata is a form with leaves ornamented with white stripes. Propagated by suckers.

Calendar for flDa^

Chrysanthemums are how in all their glory—one blaze of colour. Look well after their supports ; keep decayed blooms cut off that the plants may preserve their beauty to the end.

Gesnerias should be watered once a week with clear soot water and kept shaded.

Cinerarias and Calceolarias—Pot on as the pots become full of roots ; syringe occasionally when warm with soot water.

Primulas—Take into the greenhouse, where they are intended to flower ; stir the soil of the pots, and keep the outside of the pots clean.

Fuchsias—Pot on and make cutting of young shoots.

Camellias are now looking their best; cut out any branches growing too close, to admit as much air as possible ; layers can now be made. Camellias while in flower are to a certain extent at rest, therefore it is the only time that they can be transplanted with safety.

Rose cuttings of all kinds may be planted this month ; water well when planting, and keep shaded for a week or two.

Dianthus, Stocks, and Wallflower seeds can be planted, sowing them in boxes.

Take cuttings of any carpet-bedding plants that are affected by frost—Coleus, Iresines, bicolor and tricolor-leaved Pelargoniums, &c.; also Alternantlieras—Plant in boxes of sandy soil, placing a glass over them and keeping shaded until they strike ; would be better for being kept under glass until spring, when they can be planted out.

Plant-houses must have all the light that can be afforded, giving water sparingly to the pot plants ; keep such as Palms and Dracaenas well sponged if attacked with Thrips.

Ferns do not want much water at this time of year.

Look out for slugs at night and early morning; they are most destructive to plants in the tender stage.

HERBACEOUS PLANTS.

Herbaceous plants are those with succulent stems, among which are some of our best flowers. Nearly all thriving best in rich. light soil whether grown in pots or in the garden, and in summer require an abundance of moisture. They last for three or four years if carefully pruned and given nourishing soils, when they ought to be replaced by f resh young plants.

Adhatoda (Justicia)—

A neat-looking class of plants of stately upright habit, bearing large erect heads of flowers of various colours. Easily cultivated. Propagated by cuttings. Carnea— flesh-coloured flowers. Calycotricha—yellow flowers.

Agathaea (Blue Marguerite)—

Compact-growing plant, bearing blue flowers, with yellow eyes, in form like a daisy. A perennial. Grown from division of the roots.

Auriculas —

Spring-flowering plants. Growing easily from seed and the division of the roots. As soon as they are out of flower plant them in a cool shaded place, watering them a little at first, then leaving them until the beds are made up again in July or August, when they are taken back to bloom once more in September.

Astilbes (Spiraea Japonica) —

Small plants with pretty foliage and bunches of cream-white blossoms, lasting several months. Showy pot plants. Propagated by division of the roots. A. japonica variegata has leaves prettily variegated with yellow and green. A. rubra has thick bunches of rose-coloured flowers.

Antirrhinum (Snap Dragon)—

Well-known plants; very hardy; flowering profusely; of all colours and shades. Easily grown from seeds or cuttings. Perennial. The best plants are from seed sown annually. Fine pot plants can be made of them. Pot in October when the plants make two or three strong shoots from the base. Drain the pots well, placing moss on the drainage to prevent the soil choking it up. The soil should be good sandy loam. Take the plants up carefully without breaking the roots. After planting give a good watering, and keep shaded until established. Should any of the plants produce one or two strong shoots these ought to be stopped to cause them to produce more. Every plant would be the better for having four or five shoots for blooms. Cut off any weak ones. Keep well supplied with water, and when the pots are filled with roots supply them with weak liquid manure. When well grown, place the pots in some sheltered place in the open air where they will not get too much wind. Must be kept from heavy rains.

Begonia, Fine-leaved or Variegated-

Remarkable for their singular-shaped and beautifully-marked leaves. Are stove or greenhouse plants. Many do well in pots on the verandah in the summer months ; flower at all times during the year. Cuttings can be taken from the tops, cutting them about two inches long, just below a joint; cut off the lower leaves, and insert in small pots. The best soil is turfy loam, sandy peat, and

E

leaf mould well mixed; drain pots well with broken crocks, covering with moss, and filling up with the soil to within an inch of the top, the remaining space fill with pure silver sand ; give a gentle watering to settle firmly ; they are now ready for the cuttings. Some kinds will grow from the leaves ; the leaf-stalk just inserted in the sand and pegged down, the young shoot will soon spring up from the crown of the leaf. When rooted, pot off singly in small pots, and place them near the light, giving the necessary quantity of water ; keep them growing until they need repotting. 12-inch pots will suffice for fine specimens in the summer months, when they are growing vigorously. Give plenty of water and shade to bring out their beautiful markings. As the pots get filled with roots, give manure water once or twice a week. In winter they should have only sufficient water to keep them from flagging, letting them rest until time to repot, them. In August have clean pots ready for them. Drain them well as described for cuttings, prune, and tie them out so as to form bushy plants, washing stem and leaf with a sponge to clear off dust or insects ; give a gentle watering and return to the greenhouse. A few of the best are :—B. alba coccinea—white and scarlet, East Indies. B. argyrostigma—silver spotted, Brazil. B. cumabarina—vermilion coloured, Bolivia. B. fuchsioides —fuchsia-like, New Guinea. B. nitida—shining-leaved, Jamaica.

Begonia (Tuberous-rooted)—

Are remarkable for their beautiful flowers, red, pink, scarlet, yellow, and white. Can be increased readily by seed. Gather the seed as soon as it is ripe, sow immediately in pots filled with sandy loam, sifting a little very fine to cover the surface ; press it down and scatter seed upon it, and over the seed put the thinnest possible covering of the finest sifted soil, watering the soil with a fine rosed watering pot, and place the pots in heat. The

seed will quickly germinate, and should then be placed near the glass, shading from the bright sun. Water must be given, but very carefully. Keep them growing until the cold weather commences, when they will show symptoms of ripening off, the leaves turning yellow, pick them off as they decay, when they are all gone give no more water. Keep the seedlings in a dry place through the winter. In September give a little water, and increase the heat. The young tubers will then begin to grow again, and as soon as they have two or three leaves pot off singly into small pots in fresh soil, well drained ; continue to repot as the pots fill with roots ; some of the strongest will flower the same year. In August the old tubers must be brought out from their winter resting-place. They should be kept during the winter in boxes of dry sand. After their rest they should be examined, the dead ones thrown away, and the living ones put into pots of proportionate size to the tubers, covering them about half-an-inch deep. Give them no water for a week after planting, and then very little. When the shoots begin to make their appearance a little more water may be given, gradually increasing the supply as the plants advance in growth. Grow them slowly at first so that they may make good roots previously to being stimulated by high temperature to grow rapidly. As soon as the pots are filled with fresh roots, give the plants a second shift. If fine specimens are required, a third shift will be advisable. Six weeks may be allowed between each shift. Tuberous Begonias have been found to do well in beds within a shade house, and make a most brilliant display during the summer months. After the flowering season is over, lift the plants when they have nearly died down, and keep them in dry sand until September, leaving them out of the ground about two months before planting them again. If left in the ground during the cold wet season, many of them would rot.

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Caladium—

Splendidly foliaged plants ; with beautiful leaves, the centres being rich dark scarlet, the veins light crimson, the whole shading off towards the edge into pale green ; must be grown in moderate heat—70° when growing and 60° when at rest; require rich turfy loam, and well-decomposed manure well mixed to grow them in, and need rather large pots ; when at rest do not keep them in too low a temperature or they would be sure to rot, even if the soil be quite dry. They are increased by the division of the young growths that are thrown up from the crown of the tubers in the spring when they begin growing. 3-inch pots are large enough for young plants at first; see that they are well drained, and have sand and loam for the soil; syringe overhead as soon as the pots begin to fill with roots and repot into larger pots. As the autumn approaches they show signs of going to rest by ceasing to make new leaves, and those they possess going yellow. From this time gradually withhold water; when the leaves are quite dead, remove them, and give no more water, but allow the soil to become quite dry. Let the tubers remain in it through the winter, putting them away on a dry shelf. At the end of August they may be put into larger pots, in new soil, and a warm temperature, when they will soon begin to grow again.

Canna—

Fine foliaged plants with long racemes of flowers, carmine, red, and yellow. Easily cultivated in these colonies, growing almost anywhere in the open border. Blooming freely during the summer months. Thrive best in warm sheltered positions in rich light soil. Should be planted with the crown of the plant two inches from the surface. When they commence to grow give plenty of water. Make showy tropical-looking plants in pots. Can keep them growing in a warm room in winter, potting before the frosty weather commences. After flowering, can easily be divided and new plants made. Give a tropical

aspect to any garden by their stately growth, broad deep green and brownish red foliage. The newest varieties are :—Admiral Courbet—green foliage, yellow spotted with red. Edouard Andre—dark foliage, deep lake. Felix Crousse—dark green foliage, orange red. Louise Chretien—dark green foliage, deep yellow. Moule Cendre—citron yellow.

Carnation—

There are many forms and varieties of these deliciously-scented flowers. They are perennials, getting old and untidy looking after several years, and should be replaced by young plants. The tree or perpetual flowering variety has an upright habit; flowers all the year. They are hardy, requiring only a light soil to bring them to perfection. Carnations can be easily layered and increased by cuttings, which should be taken after the flowering is over. Plant in sandy soil and keep moist and shaded when they will soon root.

Cheiranthus (Wallflower) —

Sweet old favourites, of which there are very choice varieties of both the double and single. Hardy, and flowering well in any situation, only requiring moisture to bring their flowers to great perfection. They are perennials, but the finest flowers are obtained from the young plants. It is best to sow the seed annually. C. cheiri—brown and yellow flowers; larger and better than the old kinds, and very double. Harbinger and Golden Tom Thumb are some of the best single varieties.

Canterbury Bells—

Profuse flowering plants bearing spikes of large bell-like flowers, white blue and violet. There are several varieties, double and single. Are perennials and grow readily from seed.

Chrysanthemums (in pots)—

Cuttings or suckers should be taken in September. Prepare a frame, placed in a sunny position, for plunging,

half filling it with ashes. Get ready your 3-inch pots, by putting a little charcoal with some fibre over it, and filling them with leaf mould, sand, decayed manure, and soot well sifted together. Take cuttings three inches long, cutting just below a joint or sucker, carefully rubbing off any eyes at the root of the latter ; plant two inches in the soil ; plunge them then in the frame, watering them well; shade from the sun, but give them air. Keep them watered on fine, bright days, gradually giving them more air and light until they are well rooted, when they will require air day and night ; when six inches long put-into 6-inch pots, and pinch off the tops, still keeping them plunged in ashes and sheltered from winds ; allow each plant three shoots, and keep them growing well ; put them into 8-inch pots when about eight or nine inches long, and keep them growing until December ; take off any side shoots that may come from the three shoots that form the plant, and gradually give less water. There will be a great many eyes near where you stopped them : those eyes are to make your future plant. When the wood is well ripened, water having been given to them sparingly for a week or two, cut them back to three inches of the main stem. When they have recovered from the cutting back, and the shoots are one or two inches long, put them into 10-inch pots ; let the pots be well drained, putting in crocks, broken up old bones, with some soot over them, which will help to keep out worms, and give the foliage a good colour ; some fibre must be put over the soot to keep the soil from the drainage ; the soil must be rich, making it of loam, decayed manure, leaf mould, old soot, and broken up bones. At the end of January, stakes should be placed in the pots ; train the shoots to the stakes ; have one stake in the centre, and the others at equal distance round, allowing twelve shoots of equal growth to each plant, stopping them four or five inches long. Great care is required in disbudding ; take off all buds growing up the stems, which will allow more sap for the bud at the top of the shoot; give them liquid manure now and then until the buds begin to show colour, when they must have clear water; at this time also keep rain and dew off them at night.

Chrysanthemums (to grow them in the garden)—

Cuttings or suckers that have been struck in small pots in August may be planted out in September. Planting them three feet apart, water and shade to prevent them withering. In November take off most of the shoots, leaving about eight, to make good plants, regulating them well; never letting suckers grow up from the roots; cutting down to within four inches of the ground. In December, mulch well with good old manure. In February, carefully take off some of the side shoots, put firm stakes to the plants, stir the surface of the soil and freely mulch, keeping well watered. At the end of the month they will want looking after ; disbud carefully, leaving only one bud at the top of each growth, leaving shoots, say four inches apart up each stem.

Clianthus Dampieri (Sturt’s Desert Pea)—

A magnificent plant. Native of the warmest and driest portion of Australia ; has brilliant scarlet flowers, about three inches long, and in the centre a clear black spot. The plant grows best over a rockery, is perennial, and easily grown from seed. Soak the seed in warm water for twenty-four hours, and then sow where you intend it to flower, as it does not shift well. Sow in July and August. Thrives best in sandy soil, and likes plenty of sun.

Columbine—•

Graceful-foliaged plants, raised easily from seed, blooming profusely, and all coloured flowers ; are perennials. Some of the best are :—Canadensis—rose colour. Glan-dulosa—-blue and white. Nieva—white.

Coleus —

Most brilliant-tinted plants, very free growing, have leaves of all shades of pink to the deepest crimson, and green to the darkest olive, some spotted, and others with leaves half one colour and half another, quick growers, and very easily increased by cuttings. In the warm districts they grow out in the borders, but in districts subject to frosts they must be kept in a greenhouse or verandah. They like plenty of light and air, also water when growing. The finest specimens are grown from healthy short-jointed cuttings taken from the tops of well-grown plants and inserted singly in small pots. If kept in a warm, shady place they will soon root, when they will require more light and air. They grow rapidly, keep them well watered. Repot as often as the pots fill with roots. The soil should be rich and fibrous, and the pots well drained.

Cotyledons—

A genus of succulent plants from the Cape of Good Hope, many very ornamental. The dwarf kinds are used for carpet bedding and ribbon borders. Propagated easily by off-sets. C. chrysantha—flowers white. C. fulgens— flowers coral red. C. secunda glauca—handsome bluish-white leaves.

Cyclamens —

Brilliant flowering plants, chiefly in winter and spring; have bright foliage with delicate coloured flowers of many colours. Making showy pot plants. Grown easily from seed, but will also do in borders in cool and shady parts of the garden. When planting be careful to keep the crown partly above ground. Water should not be given to them while at rest.

Dahlias—    t

Stately growing plants with blooms of all shades and colours. There are numerous varieties—Bouquet, Single, and Cactus. Propagated easily from seed, cuttings, and tubers. Seed may be sown in September and October in light rich soil. To get cuttings tubers are planted— but without covering the crowns—in August and September in light sandy mould in a forcing frame ; shoots are soon produced, and should be taken off close to the tuber when two or three inches long. Put them into small pots, using light sandy soil; keep them in a close frame, shaded and slightly watered until they have taken root. When rooted gradually harden off, giving them plenty of air. They may be planted out in November, protecting them a little at first. Where a bed of Dahlias is required prepare the ground by digging deeply, with plenty of well-decayed manure. Plant the tubers (being careful to cut them off with part of the old stem) six inches below the surface, placing firmly in the ground a stake by each plant four or five feet apart. When growing well, syringe overhead in the evening, mulching round the roots with dry manure. Give a good watering twice a week. As the plants grow tall and bushy thin out any weak shoots, and if fine flowers are desired, thin out some of the flower buds and give liquid manure once a week. After they have done flowering and the frost cuts down the foliage take them up, cut off the tubers, leaving some of the stem attached. Keep them in sand or dry place during the winter months. Some of the best are: Acme of Perfection—yellow and gold. Fanny Sturt—red, tipped with white. Henry Bond—rosy lilac. Peri—blue, tipped with purple. Cactus Dahlias.—Centenary—bright terra cotta. H. Cannell—rich marone velvety crimson. Miss Annie Goddard—canary yellow. Mrs. J. Douglas—pinkish salmon. Mrs. Leonard Shuter —canary yellow.

Daisies (Beilis perennis)—

Dear little border plants coming out in one blaze in the spring. There are double and single and large and small varieties. Perennials; growing easily from seed or division of the roots.

Delphinium—

Beautiful tuberous-rooted plants, growing best in light sandy soil. There are few flowers of such lovely shades of blue ; plant in a sunny border. They should be mulched during summer, and well watered during dry weather; can be propagated by the division of the roots or seed ; cut down after flowering. A number of off-sets can then be obtained ; pot off in light soil; keep shaded in a cool frame. They will make good plants for the spring.

Dianthus—

Perfect gems of plants, with flowers rich crimson, mauve, pink, and white blotched and striped in wonderful combination ; leaves short and pointed like Carnations. Grown from cuttings and seed.

Dielytra spectabilis (Bleeding Heart) —

A beautiful herbaceous plant with tuberous roots ; flowering well in the spring. Has pretty, delicate, soft leaves, resembling a Peony, and rosy-crimson, heart-shaped flowers hanging down gracefully. They make very good pot plants, or will do well in open borders. A white variety does best in a cold climate. Propagated by division of the roots.

Digitalis (Fox Glove)—

Plants exceedingly valuable in the' garden, throwing up beautiful long spikes of flowers ; growing best under the shade of trees. Grown from seed or division of the roots.

Eschscholtzia—

Showy flowering plants of many colours—white, yellow, orange, and crimson (double and single). Grown easily from seed.

Farfugium grande—

Pretty low-growing plant, with dark green broad leaves, dotted over with bright yellow, making a good decorating plant. Easily grown from the division of the crowns.

Calendar for 3«ne

Most things are now at rest—most plants going out of flower looking unsightly.

Chrysanthemums may he dug up ; part of the clumps put on one side in rich soil to form young plants for September.

Calceolarias and Cinerarias will want plenty of air, but do not let them get dry at the roots.

Pelargoniums should have plenty of sun and air, but must be protected from rain and cold winds.

Fuchsias—the young plants pot on ; encourage their growth by keeping them warm and their foliage damp.

Primulas and Cyclamens should be kept growing ; remove into the greenhouse and keep near the glass, but do not attempt to repot so late in the season.

Roses can be pruned this month and plant out some of the best kinds that are rooted.

Daphnes will be in full bloom. In taking their sweet blossoms see that they are carefully cut olf with a sharp knife. Any pruning they may require should be done this month, only taking off the scraggy pieces from the lower part of the plants to keep them in good shrubby form.

Palms can be planted out in a bright, but not too hot situation.

Tree Ferns and other varieties may be planted out in a cool shady part of the garden. Those in pots should have their dead fronds cut away and be shaken out of the pots, part of their roots taken off. Some will require their crowns divided, then to be repotted.

Poinsettia pulcherrima will be in great beauty this month, its brilliant scarlet bracts showing out well at this dull time of year. When finished flowering it may be pruned right down.

This is a good month for laying down lawns. Have the ground well dug, planting rooted pieces of buffalo here and there or the seed of English grass (rye grass).

Greenhouses want much care this month ; dust insect powder well about to keep down insects ; give plants the benefit of all the light you can ; admit all air and sun possible into bush-houses ; prune trees, shrubs, and climbers ; renovate all beds and borders.

HERBACEOUS PLANTS. —Continued.

Ferula—

Handsome leaf plants, massive growing, wanting an open space to show off’ their many divided leaves ; deep rooters and gross feeders. Perennials, easily grown from seed. E. communis and F. tingitana are two of the best. Funkia—

Plants with handsome broad leaves, tufty growing, requiring rich soil. F. albo-marginata has broad, lanceshaped leaves with yellow stripes, and has long racemes of purple flowers. F. grandiflora—large shiny light-green leaves ; white flowers, delicately scented.

Gloxinia-

Plants easily grown. Will flower well in pots in a cool greenhouse in summer, or planted in open frames in leaf mould and sand. Gloxinias are so intrinsically beautiful that their soft rich colouring cannot easily be surpassed. For table decoration are much sought after. Require rest during the winter months. After flowering keep the soil damp as long as there is any vitality in the leaves. They may be started at two different times so as to give succession, say at the end of August or October. In the autumn when they show signs of rest gradually withhold water, and when the tops are quite dead, dry off in pots that they have been grown in, putting them away on some dry shelf. Those in the frame take up and store in dry sand until planting season comes round again. If required to bloom early start some of them in a little heat. If this is done you can have them in flower nearly all the summer. To grow from seed.—The seed, which is very minute, should be sown during the month of August in a well-drained pot or pan, filled to within half an inch of the top with good light soil, a mixture of well decayed leaf mould and sand. On this the seed may be sprinkled thinly and a pane of glass put over the top ; will require no other covering. Place the pot where it will be free from draughts. Give but little water until the young plants make their appearance, when the glass must be at once removed. Keep them moderately warm. The young plants make quick progress, and will soon require to be pricked off into other pans, which should be shallow ones, using the same soil. In pricking off the young plants great care is required not to destroy the tender roots. When they have leaves an inch long place them singly in 3-inch pots, keeping in a warm greenhouse or m a frame in a warm shaded place. Those in pots as they fill with roots put into 6-inch pots in which they may grow on and flower. They can be grown from leaves like Begonias, placing the leaves flat on the soil, the under surface of the leaf downwards, the middle rib severed in several places, pegging the leaf down to keep the cuts on the earth. At each cut a small bulb will soon form.

Gazania (splendens variegata)—

An effective carpet-bedding plant, with blue, green, and yellow leaves ; has brilliant orange and scarlet flowers. Remove the flowers when used for a carpet bed. G. pavonia has handsome large heads of flowers and is a showy plant. Easily propagated by side shoots near the root of the plant.

Gaillardias —

Hardy perennials, flowering all through the summer. There are many varieties of this useful plant. G. pul-chella picta Corenziana—double flowers. G. picta nana— single flowers of rich deep yellow and brown. G. maxima—yellow and crimson. G. Sorenziana—pale yellow and deep crimson flowers. Propagated by seeds or cuttings of the young wood.

Gentiana—

Attractive plants, suitable for borders; free growing ; doing best in rich light soil; extremely sensitive of any root disturbance, taking a long time to recover. They have the richest deep blue tubular flowers. G. acantis— dwarf-growing, with bright blue flowers. Increased by the division of the roots and seed.    •

Hedychum—

Tropical herbaceous plants of the Ginger family, growing best in a warm sunny border, but must have a sheltered position, when they will flower freely in the autumn. Grown from division of the roots. H. coronarium has sweet-scented snow-white flowers nearly two inches across. H. flavuin—handsome species, with large orange-scented flowers.

Helleborus—

Plants with dark green soft leaves, something the shape of Raspberry leaves, bearing delicate flowers on tall stems, something the shape of the single Anemone ; are hardy; flowering well in our cold districts, in shady borders. Can be easily increased by division of the roots, but not caring to be disturbed often. H. aleorubens—-purple flowers. Christmas rose has white flowers. H. orientalis—rose colour. H. antiquorum—white-shaded to pink.

I resine—

Plants with richly-coloured foliage, beet-like in appearance ; used for borders or as bedding plants. I. Herbstii

aureo-reticulata has green leaves blotched with yellow; leaf-stalks and veins red. I. Sindenii has rich deep-red leaves. They are like Coleus, tender plants. Should be propagated by cuttings taken in the spring, placing them under glass to strike.

Kalosanthes—

Interesting plants, flower profusely, lasting in flower for some time. Do best in good light soil, and can be easily grown from cuttings. K. phoenix—vigorous grower, with immense scarlet flowers. K. miniata is a small-growing plant, with pretty deep pink flowers. Should be planted in a sunny border, flower better when fully exposed to the sun.

Kleinia—

Dwarf, shrubby plants from the Cape, with blue-tinted leaves. K. repens is one of the prettiest of the succulentheaded plants for carpet bedding. K. tormentosa has a more shrubby habit and spindle-shaped leaves, silvery looking.

Leucophyta Brownii—

A slender-branching, silvery plant for carpet bedding, bears cutting, and is very useful as a contrast with the crimson bedding plants. Grown easily from cuttings, taken in the spring.

Lobelia —

Graceful, free-blooming plants, bearing white flowers, and blue of the deepest colour, very striking in a garden. Good for edgings or carpet bedding. Sow the seed in the autumn in good moist loam and decayed manure, that the plants may root freely and strongly, when they will throw out numbers of side shoots, all of which will flower well. Grow well from off-shoots or suckers.

Lychnis Chalcedonica —

Dwarf-growing plants, with wonderfully-bright scarlet flowers produced in clusters. There are several varieties, double and single ; hardy perennials grown from seed, or the division of the roots in early spring. L. diurna flore pleno, with double flowers, is very beautiful.

M esembryanthemum—

Fleshy-leaved plants with brilliant flowers, white, pink, crimson, purple, and yellow. Opening in the sun one blaze of colour quite dazzling to the eyes. Thrive best in light sandy soil. Cuttings, inserted in moist sand, root quickly. There are many species ; the flowering kinds will do well for two or three years ; should be then replaced by young plants. M. cordifolium—a variegated variety, is much used for bedding purposes. M. tricolorum is specially adapted for rockeries.

Mimulus —

Lovely little plants of a vigorous succulent habit, liking rich soil and plenty of moisture ; should be grown in a bush-house or shady part of a verandah. M. tigrinus grandiflorus—richly spotted with carmine and crimson. M. tigrinus albo sanguineus—white spotted, rose and crimson. Propagated by seed sown in spring in sandy soil, in shallow well-drained pans. Water the sand first and sprinkle the seed over it, pressing it down, and placing a piece of glass over the top.

Pansies—

Favourite plants, easily cultivated, continuing in bloom most of the year; planted in clumps in a border, or as pot plants. They are very beautiful; should be planted in rich loamy soil, well manured; requiring plenty of

water, and to be mulched in the summer months. Sow

s

the seed in boxes in the autumn. The seedlings when large enough should be transplanted out where they are to flower, nine inches apart. To grow them in pots when the plants begin to spread, train the shoots out and pinch off the flower buds to induce them to make good plants. The flowers are much improved if liquid manure is given occasionally. Sow seeds at intervals during spring and summer.

Papaver (Poppy)—

Gorgeous flowering plants of many varieties and brilliant colours. The perennial kinds are large and showy. P. nudicaule is a beautiful plant, with sweet-scented yellow flowers. P. nudicaule album has pure satin-white flowers. P. nudicaule miniatum—orange scarlet. P. pilosum—scarlet, with a white blotch at the bottom of each petal. Sow the seed in autumn and spring.

PELARGONIUMS.

Plants that ought to be in every garden; their blooming season lasting several months; at their best from November to the middle of December. There are many hinds, arranged under distinct heads—Begat and Fringed, Show, Fancy or Spotted, Zonal, single and doable. The variegated-leaved varieties— Bicolor, Tricolor, Silver-edged, Golden Tricolor; and the climbing varieties ■— Single and double Ivy-leaved Pelargoniums. Nearly all of easy culture, perfectly hardy in the open garden except in places where they have severe frost. They should have their branches thinned a little. After they have done flowering, it is also requisite to cut them down a little, so as to create as much young wood as possible. Thrive best in a moderately rich, loamy soil, well drained. Choose plants as early as possible in the spring ; bushy plants with, stiff, healthy foliage are best. The cuttings should be taken at the beginning of January of well-ripened wood having no more than three or four buds, short-jointed sturdy tops from healthy plants, cut off just below a joint, let them remain a few hours that they may dry a little. Before planting them, prepare a frame, partly filling it with sifted mould and sand, plant in this six inches apart, inserting them up to the first joint. For the first two weeks give water sparingly, lest the cuttings should droop off, and shade from the sun. Expose them gradually to light and air, also the dews of night, at the same time carefully shading from the mid-day sun, strong wind, and heavy rain. When fairly rooted, which

p

will be seen by their making robust growth and short, stiff foliage, they must be carefully lifted, choosing the most promising for pot culture, the others for the borders. Those put into pots {small pots) may be put back into the frame, giving them the same treatment for another month or six weeks, which will bring us up to the beginning of April, when they will require their first shift. Be always carefid of the drainage, there is no plant more impatient of stagnant water about its roots than the pelargonium. Have a large piece of crock at the bottom of the pot, charcoal over that, and then some rough dr y moss at the top, filling up 'with sandy loam, pressing it firmly about the roots. When completed give a good watering overhead, and place in a more exposed place to sun and air, but well sheltered from strong winds. Select some sheltered spot, and prepare a bed of coal ashes, into which plunge the pots up to their rims. The ashes will prevent worms from entering the pots, will not clog up the drainage, admit of a speedy escape of cdl superfluous water, and yet retain the moisture received through watering the plaids overhead (which they must have morning and evening), and this rising up and passing through the foliage during the day does the plants no end of good. As the pots become filled with roots use liquid manure once or twice a week, pinch off the tips of the shoots as soon as they have made three flints, otherwise these shoots will grow on leaving these eyes or buds dormant, and the plants will become spindly in appearance. This will have brought us up to June, when, if the plants are intended to flower in October, they must receive their final shift into nine-inch pots, and the tips of their shoots pinched off for the last time. As the spring advances, liquid manure must be given to them, which will help them on with their flowering. When they have done flowering place in a sunny place to ripen their wood, when cuttings may be taken and they can be slightly pruned, giving them very little water until they break well, when they must be lifted out of their pots, all'earth taken from the roots, pruning the roots in, and potting them in smaller pots, subsequent treatment will be the same as recommended

for young plants. The following varieties have been selected with care:—

Regal, Decorative, Spotted, and Fringed Pelargoniums—

Alfonso—pure white, upper petals marked with a feathered blotch of rich rosy crimson ; under petals faintly feathered with rose. Annie Hemsley—rosy-crimson, white throat and margin, marone blotch in the upper petals. Bou-gainvilli—salmon, bordered pure white, deep chocolate blotch in each petal; thickly netted. Captain Itaikes— deep fiery crimson, shaded with purplish-black ; a large lovely flower, with crisp petals. Countess Rosebery— pure white, beautifully fringed, with a delicate rose spot in upper petals. Duchess of Edinburgh—white, with purple spot; prettily fringed. Gold Mine—orange scarlet, white eye, upper petals blotched. Marie Angis—beautiful light peach, the upper petals marked with crimson. Any of the above may be cultivated in the border in mild districts, but in the cold districts must be kept under glass. Zonal Pelargoniums—double flowered. These are a hardy race of plants ; in hot, dry districts flowering well where many other plants could not exist. These are some of the best: Blanche perfecta—pure white. Boule de Neige—snowy-white, magnificent truss. Friant —cinnamon yellow. General Campenon—velvety-shaded, enormous trusses. La Perle—enormous trusses, rosy lilac. Mdme. Thibaut—rich rose, marked with white.

Zonal Pelargoniums (single-flowered)—

Atala—orange scarlet. Edith George—reddish pink. Jules Ferry—dark scarlet, enormous trusses. Kate Greenaway—bright pink, beautiful truss. Queen of the Belgians—pure white ; very beautiful.

Ivy-leaved Pelargoniums—

Are a useful class of plants, with some beautiful varieties; well adapted for small beds on the lawn, showing so well their delicate colours ; are excellent plants also for covering fences or trellises ; are easily grown and continually in flower, the foliage being almost hidden with flowers in the spring. Some of the choicest sorts make a grand show in the border if trained on pyramids of wire netting. These are some of the best: Andre Theuriet—reddish-violet flowers, of fine shape. Gloire de Lorraine—bright cerise ; large and double. Alice Crousse—violet purple; large double flowers. La Brazza —soft rose ; fine and full trusses.

Peonies—

Showy spring flowering plants. There are two distinct forms in cultivation, herbaceous and mountain tree peonies. To grow them well they should be planted in deep rich ground and well watered during the dry weather. The flowers are of immense size, not unlike the single and double poppies but much larger, in width from 6 to 9 inches. They are of the finest shades of white, rose, rich crimson, and purple. Are gross feeders, and should have deep, well-manured soil. Are propagated by layering and by division. The following are a few of the best herbaceous peonies :—Formosa—blush centre, pure rose, deliciously scented. The Queen—rose colour, very large and sweet scented. Blanc—pure white. The tree peonies are:—Carnea plena, Maxima plena, Stella, Versicolor plena, Vivid, Zenobia.

Pentstemons —

Showy plants, for the flower borders, easily grown, standing heat and drought better than other flowers, blooming the greater part of the year. Easily propagated by layers or cuttings of the young shoots at almost any time of the year. The shoots selected should be neither old nor quite young. Plant them in a shady place. Good plants can also be raised from seed. Some of the best are :—Alexander Pflanen—deep lake, with white throat. Bertha Koch—delicate pink, white throat. White Beauty —ivory white. Furst Von Lobkowitz—bright pink, white throat.

Petunia—

Should be planted in spring. These plants have been brought to great perfection, both in double and single varieties. They are perennials, fairly hardy, easily grown from seed. The choice double-flowering kinds increased by cuttings taken while the plant is growing in a vigorous state. Young shoots taken with a heel strike easily under a bell glass. P. Snowdrift—a beautiful new variety bearing snow-white flowers, beautifully fringed. Hybrida grandiflora fimbriata—has handsome single flowers with fringed edges. Grandiflora intus aurea—a beautiful variety, large mauve flowers, yellow throats.

Phlox—

The perennial varieties are a pretty class of plants bearing-large trusses of flowers of most delicate colouring, from purest white to deepest pink, growing best in rich soil; should be watered during the blooming season if the weather is dry. They are tuberous rooted, dying down in the winter. After they have done flowering easily propagated by division of roots in July. The late flowering varieties (decussata) are :—Countess of Roslyn —snow white flowers. Dr. Masters—rosy salmon. General Gordon—rosy peach. The early flowering varieties (suflruticosa) are :—Bridesmaid—waxy white flowers. Lady Napier—pure white. Mrs. Hunter—pure white, with crimson eye. Mrs. D. Dunbar—rose and white mottled. Rev. Dr. Hornby—white striped rose. Yan Houtte—distinctly striped, rose and white.

Polyanthus—

Stout little spring-flowering plants. Growing easily from division of the plants and from seed. In warm districts all the better for being taken up as soon as they have done flowering and plant in some shady place until the summer is over, when they can be taken back to bloom in the warm borders.

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Portulacca—

Plants well adapted to our climate, flowering well in the warmest situation; their colours are most striking, red, yellow, crimson, purple and white, and there are both double and single flowers; of dwarf habit; very hardy annuals. Can be sown both in autumn and spring; do well in any soil.

Potentilla—

Handsome herbaceous plants; hardy ornamental perennials, flowering for a length of time. The colours are shades of red and brown; there are some striped kinds. There are single and double varieties. Sow seed in autumn and spring.

Pyrethrum—

Perennials, of fairly hardy habit. There are many varieties, and some very pretty, with single and double flowers—white, mauve, carmine, rose and crimson; growing well from seed sown in the autumn. Some of the best are : Argentine—large pure white. Charles Battel (carmine multiflorum)—crimson flowers. Rubens—rose. P. parthenifolium aureum, commonly known as Golden Feather, with its pretty yellow feather-like foliage; largely used for ribbon borders and carpet bedding.

Ranunculus—

Flowers of gorgeous colours ; easily grown from seed or by division of tubers. The tubers may be left in the ground from season to season, if well marked to prevent being dug in. If lifted, should be when the leaves turn yellow, when they should be gradually dried off and carefully put away in dry sand. Should be planted in beds prepared for them of rich friable loam and old manure, with some sandy soil on the top.

Rochea—

Well-known succulent class of plants, with rich-looking flowers, something like a Bouvardia. Are easily propagated by cuttings or even by leaves put in in spring.

They do best planted on rockeries, and will flower better if the roots have not much depth of soil. R. falcata and R. perfoliata have red flowers. R. odorata—white flowers.

Salvias—

Pretty loosely branched flowering plants, of easy growth ; do well in ordinary sandy soil ; easily propagated by cuttings of long growth, taken in spring, covering for a time with a bell glass ; can also be grown from seed. The scarlet varieties are most brilliant in their colouring, while the blue have scarcely a rival in their wonderful tints. S. grandiflora—large scarlet flowers. S. fulgens —brilliant scarlet. S. patens—the richest blue. This plant is deciduous, and forms tubers, from which it may be increased. S. lupinoides—blue and white flowers.

Saxifraga—

Pretty semi-succulent plants ; quite hardy; used for carpet bedding. Propagated by offsets and division of the roots. S. Aizoon. S. Aizoon Minor and Hostii are white-edged mossy species—all very pretty.

Sedum—

Dwarf-growing succulents ; used for making designs on the carpet beds ; easily propagated by division in the spring. S. acre aureum-—bluish green leaves tipped with yellow. S. album—deep green leaves; the old leaves turning to bright red. S. carneum variegatum—has creamy-white margins to the leaves, and pinkish stems. This variety makes a neat edging.

Sempervivum—

Rosette-shaped succulent plants. Propagated by offsets. Most valued for edgings. S. calcareum is a dwarf, stemless European species, having deep greenish rosette-shaped tufts, each leaf being tipped with purplish brown. S. montanum—one of the prettiest of all the species—forms round rosettes the size of a shilling, of a deep fresh green colour.

Verbena—

Hardy plants ; easily grown ; thriving best in light sandy soil, well mixed with old manure. The colours of the flowers are very rich and beautiful. The finest plants are obtained from young plants grown from seed, or plants which can be taken at any time of the year from rooted joints of the running stems. These last must be carefully shaded for a few days, until established. In taking cuttings, never let them flag before planting them. These are a few of the best :—Black Prince—chocolate-black flowers with yellow eyes. Boule de Neige—white, sweet-scented. Crimson King—crimson flowers with white eyes.    Foxhunter-—scarlet with yellow eye.    Lavinia—

deep pink. Mayor of Geelong—cherry colour, very large, with white eye. Rupert—red shaded with carmine, very large truss. Vera—large white flowers with crimson eye. Mayor of Geelong—red with large white eyes.

Calendar for 3ul\>

All digging should be finished this month, with plenty of manure, putting beds and borders in order, to prevent bulbs that are coming into flower from being disturbed.

Violets can be divided, and planted out, to get them well established before the weather becomes too hot.

Roses can still be pruned ; all climbing varieties should be pruned in well.

Bougainvilleas—Those not in bloom should be trimmed closely.

Calceolarias and Cinerarias—The earliest will require their flowering pots; remove all decayed leaves from those coming on; stir the surface of the soil, keeping free from insects by fumigation.

Primulas coming into flower; water occasionally with liquid manure.

Daphnes are at their best ; prune back straggling branches when cutting the flowers ; the new wood commences to grow almost before the blossom has fallen.

Fuchsias—Pot on the young plants ; old plants may be repotted ; pinch off the tops of the young shoots to get them into good shape.

Camellias in pots remove into greenhouse ; their blooms will be better for being sheltered from the weather.

Pelargoniums can be put into larger pots ; as the pots fill with roots, tie out into shape ; pinch the tops off some of the shoots, and give plenty of sun and air.

Perennials, Phlox, Delphiniums, Chrysanthemums, and Marguerites, should be divided this month ; seedlings of all kinds can be planted out of boxes; Roses, and all deciduous plants, shrubs, large and small, may be planted out1; Sponge Palms, Dracaenas, Crotons, Begonias, and other foliaged plants in the greenhouse, sponge with warm water and soft soap, to clean oft' all the dust and insects of the winter months. Give plenty of air and light during the day in the greenhouse, closing up early.

Ferns that were potted last month, keep warm to encourage growth ; wash off moss, and stir the soil at the top of the pots ; hanging baskets may be made, filling them with moss, ready for Begonias and Maiden-hair Fern.

CLIMBERS-HERBACEOUS AND OTHERS.

Much thought is required in planting climbers as to which would be most suitable for covering stumps, fences, walls, or trellises. For covering unsightly objects evergreen climbers should be chosen, also consider the space to be covered so that (quick growing or dense foliaged climbers may be chosen, some requiring to be 'nailed up, others fixing their tiny clatvs iodothe crevices of a wall. The most useful for covering a fence are the quick-growing dense-foliaged creepers such as Bignonia Tweediana, with its yellow flowers and delicate foliage, and Ganavallia Bonariensis, with its glossy green leaves and purple flowers. For covering trails and trellises Bougainvillea, partictdarly B. glabra with its bright glossy leaves and magenta flowers, which it produces twice a year; the Mandevillea, with its beautiful sweet-scented white flowers; the Virginian creeper, coming out in winter with gorgeous vivid tints of crimson, brown, and green; and last not least, Ficus stipulata, with its pretty dinging green leaves going off in its young growth to nut brown and pink.

Ampelopsis—

Beautiful deciduous climbers, with lovely shades of green, dying off to a bright crimson in the winter. Provided with short branched tendril holdfasts by means of which it clings to stone or trees so closely that once set going it requires no nails or supports. A. bipinnata. A. tricuspidata.

Allamanda—

Large vigorous strong growing climbers, doing best in a warm greenhouse. Mostly trained on frames in pots or the inside of the roof of the greenhouse. Propagated by cuttings taken from the tops of the shoots, containing several joints, inserted in sand under glass. A. chelsoni —is free growing, producing its yellow blossoms all through the summer. A. Hendersoni—produces large handsome trumpet-shaped flowers of a rich golden yellow colour.

Asparagus Creeper—

Pretty evergreen climbers, with graceful feathery growth. Handsome plants for the greenhouse or conservatory. Pretty for decoration, and a good substitute for ferns in a bouquet. Propagated by cuttings or by division of the roots. A. plumosum—native of South Africa. A. virgatus—native of the Cape of Good Hope. A. plenissimus.

Bignonia—

Grand climbers, bearing racemes of handsome flowers ; worthy of a place in any garden ; of easy culture ; fast growers, and bloom profusely. B. Mackeni—an evergreen climber in habit and growth resembling Bignonia rosea, but the flowers are more veined and a deeper pink in colour. B. rosea—is very handsome, bearing racemes of flowers from three to four feet in length. B. magnifica —a vigorous growing plant with large flowers varying from mauve to purplish crimson, with a light yellowish throat. B. Tweediana—yellow flowers. B. Venusta— orange flowers. Easily propagated by strong-jointed shoots in the spring.

Bougainvillea—

The finest of all climbing plants, flourishing well in all the warm districts. For covering fences or the walls of a house nothing can surpass them. Their rich dark foliage and magnificent bracts surrounding the flowers are of the most brilliant purple mauve, making them highly ornamental. To grow them successfully they must be on a wall fully exposed to the sun. Some care is required in planting. They grow but little the first year, but when once established climb rapidly. They must be pruned once or twice a year. B. glabra has pretty glossy green leaves and pale magenta blossoms. B. refulgens—brilliant purple. B.. speciosa—deep magenta. B. spectabilis— magenta.

Bryonia—

A pretty tuberous-rooted perennial, producing annual climbing stems, bearing very ornamental fruit the size of a cherry, bright scarlet striped with white. Can be grown from seed or by division of the tuber.

Clematis—

For covering trellises and verandahs quickly, no plants are more suitable or more beautiful than many of the large flowering clematises. The fine hybrid varieties flower continuously from January to April, when frosts cut them down. They will grow in almost any soil and any situation. To have them in great perfection, however, and continuance of bloom, give them rich loamy soil and manure them well. They are gross feeders, and the soil can hardly be made too rich. These are a few of the best:—Miss Bateman—white with chocolate anthers. Mrs. G. Jackman—silvery white flowers. Sir Garnet Wolseley—pale blue. Albert Victor —deep lavender, single flowers. The best double

varieties are :—Countess of Lovelace—blush lilac flowers. Duchess of Edinburgh—white.    Enchantress—white,

flushed with rose. Yenus Yictrix—delicate lavender. The clematis may be planted at any time from March to December. The crown of the plant should be just below the surface, and the soil pressed firmly down about the roots.

Canavallia—

This climbing plant cannot be equalled for its quickness of growth, it has brilliant shining green leaves and bright purplish red spikes of pealike flowers, extremely pretty.

Climbing Fig (Ficus stipulata)—

A robust growing vine for training up walls, to which it clings with its small claws. The young foliage is tipped with a delicate nut brown colour, and the leaves, if kept clipped, keep very small and pretty; it is easily grown and propagated by cuttings.

Cissus—

A lovely greenhouse climbing plant with lovely velvety green leaves marked with purple and white, claret colour under the leaves. Propagated by the young shoots taken off with a heel, placed under a bell glass, when they will soon throw out roots ; it will also grow from layers.

Clerodendrons—

Showy climbers for the greenhouse, growing best in sandy loam and charcoal. They must be pruned at the beginning of spring just before they throw up their new shoots, re-potting them and training them to their frames before the new growth begins. Propagated by seed and also by cuttings taken at pruning time, growing them in sand with a bell glass placed over them. C. splendens speciosissima is a most attractive variety with pretty scarlet flowers. C. Thomson® has bright crimson flowers with white calyces; a lovely plant, flowering profusely.

Cobsea scandens—

A rapid-growing climber ; very liardy ; covering trellises in the shortest time with tendrilled leaves and large dull purple flowers, bell shaped. A perennial, easily grown from seed or cuttings in the autumn or spring. There is a handsome variegated variety, a very graceful plant, with pale yellow and green leaves ; also a rapid grower. C. scandens alba has white flowers. C. scandens albo marginata—purple flowers.

Hedera (Ivy)—

Hardy evergreen creepers well adapted for covering walls or trunks of old trees, or making a pretty border for a lawn, being kept clipped well back. Some of the large and small variegated species are very beautiful and ornamental, doing best in shady places. Can be grown from cuttings or layers. H. Canariensis, the largest-leaved common Ivy, is the best for covering old trees or fences. H. Maderiensis variegata—a beautiful variety, growing quickly, with beautiful leaves broadly margined with creamy-white; constant in its variegation. H. cuspidata minor—leaves deep glossy green with whitish veins, a pretty small-leaved variety with reddish leaf stalks. H. marginata rubra—leaves margined with rosy red in the autumn ; rather slow growing. H. marginata —dull green margined with creamy-white, and striped with pink in the autumn. H. marmorata is a handsome large-leaved form, irregularly marked with creamy-white. H. Raequeriana—a handsome distinct variety with dark green leathery leaves.

Hoy a—

Most of them climbing plants, with pretty waxlike flowers and fleshy leaves. The flowers are produced in short spurs, sometimes as many as a dozen on each stem, producing from the same a second crop of flowers, more often finer than the first. Plant in light open soil; may be trained in various ways; doing best on the wall of a verandah. Cuttings will grow well planted in sand, drying a little before planting. H. carnosa, native of Asia, has pink flowers. H. imperialis, native of Borneo, has reddish chocolate-shaded white flowers. H. bella, native of Java, has violet flowers shaded white. This last is a sweet-looking plant, and has a delightful perfume. Coming from such a warm climate must be grown in a greenhouse; looking lovely grown in a basket with its branches drooping gracefully over the side.

Honeysuckle—

Much loved for their delicious perfume. Aurea reticulata has pretty white leaves veined with yellow, and white flowers.    Confusa—free growing and free flowering

variety, climbing quickly over everything. Sinensis variegata has pretty yellow and green leaves and white flowers.

Kennedya—

A robust climber, bearing dark rich purple flowers in bunches ; hardy and quick growing ; propagated by seed and layers ; much used for covering old stumps of trees. K. macrophylla has large leaves and purple flowers; native of Western Australia. K. nigricans — purple flowers, New South Wales. K. rubicunda—dark red flowers, also a native of New South Wales.

Lapageria—

The most lovely of evergreen climbers yet known, bearing-large waxy bell-shaped flowers ; of free but not rapid growth. Can be grown on the pillars of a bush-house, or trained on the shady side of a greenhouse. They require a deep peaty soil—peat and loam well mixed with sand and charcoal to keep it porous ; thorough drainage is most necessary, as they require much water. Can be grown from layers, seeds, or cuttings. When the plants get strong they bloom most of the summer. Natives of Chili. Alba has white flowers. Rosea—rose-coloured flowers. Rubra superba—splendid crimson flowers.

Lophospermum Hendersoni—

A showy delicate-looking climber, with pretty red gloxinia-shaped flowers. Grown from seed or from the young-shoots placed under glass.

Mandevillea —

One of the best climbers, bearing clusters of snow-white flowers, sweet scented ; easily grown from seed.

Maurandya—

Free-growing, pretty plants, flowering all the summer ; easily grown from seed, or from the short tender shoots. M. alba has delicate white flowers. M. Barclayana— purple flowers. M. rosea—rose colour. M. scandens has violet flowers, spotted with white.

Manettia—

Strong-growing climber, with handsome orange-coloured flowers and pretty foliage.

Passiflora (Passion Flower)—

Handsome plants, much used for covering unsightly fences. Edulis has white flowers, and produces a most delicious fruit. Eynsford Gem—a new perpetual-flowering variety, with red flowers shaded to rose ; very hardy and free-growing.

Phaseolus Caracalla (Snail Flower)—

Sweet-scented and singular-flowering climber; bearing-spikes of lilac and white flowers curiously curled and twisted ; grown easily in a light sandy soil, covering a wall or fence quickly. Propagated by seed or layers. Sow the seed in September. The layers must be put down in March or April.

Rhyncospermum (Jasminoides)—

A lovely glossy-leaved, quick-growing climber. Is an evergreen, and hardy except in the very cold districts. There are many varieties, and all have deliciously scented flowers. R. maculatum argentea variegata has its leaves prettily blotched with cream-white. R. maculatum aureum variegata—cream and white leaves, and in the autumn tinged with red. Propagated by cuttings or layers.

Solandras —

Yery fast-growing climbers, with large trumpet-shaped flowers. S. grandiflora — peach-coloured flowers. S. lsevis has large greenish-white flowers, slender below and bell-shaped above. Yery sweet-scented. Can be grown from cuttings or layers.

Stigmaphyllon—

Pretty climbing plant, fairly hardy, with handsome leaves and beautiful yellow flowers. Propagated by rooted suckers, cuttings, or seeds.

Stephanotis—

A beautiful plant, with deep-green foliage and lovely tubular waxy flowers in large bunches, pure white and deliciously scented, doing best under glass, but will thrive well in a bush-house in our warm districts, twining itself gracefully round the posts of the bush-house. Some of its shoots will damp off but come on again when forced into growth in the spring, the shoots grown and ripened last year will flower from every joint. When done flowering the plants should be thinned a little, pruned sparingly, removing as much of the old wood as you can, so as to have a sufficiency of the current season’s growth. Give light and air, and place the plant in the sun to try and ripen the wood, giving it just enough water to keep it from flagging. The young wood that comes from the well-ripened buds will give the most flowers. Cuttings will root readily in a hot bed under glass in September. The short growth produced at the bottom of the plant makes the best cuttings.

Gr

Tacsonia—

Evergreen climbers, hardy and quick-growing, producing showy flowers like the Passion Flower, only being longer in the tube of the calyx. T. manicata is the variety commonly known as the Scarlet Passion Flower. T. Morti—a fine, hardy climber, with rose-coloured flowers, blooming freely through the winter. T. eyomensis has brilliant rose-coloured flowers, with velvet throats ; a beautiful variety. Propagated by seed and cuttings.

Thumbergia—

Handsome twining half-hardy annual, requiring a warm situation, light rich soil, and room. Producing in summer a succession of handsome racemes of flowers. Grown from seed and cuttings. T. Harrisii—pale-blue flowers. T. laurifolia—pale-blue flowers. T. alba—a pretty, wdiite variety, with dark eye. T. aurantiaca—deep orange flowers, with black eyes.

Wistaria—

One of the finest of the deciduous climbing plants, producing in early spring large racemes of scented flowers. When well established growing rapidly. W. sinensis— lavender Mowers ; Sinensis alba has white flowers ; and Sinensis flore pleno—double, lavender flowers. This ast plant should not be much pruned, as it is shy of flowering. Grown easily from cuttings.

Calendar for august.

One of the most interesting months of the year, the beginning of our spring; everything coming into bud and blossom.

Primulas are now coming well into flower ; frequently water with soot water and liquid manure.

Calceolarias and Cinerarias are in flower; fumigate well to keep down insects ; give plenty of liquid manure.

Tea-roses will have grown out of all form; cut them back into shape and thin them out a little.

Turn up the surface of the beds and borders, making them look fresh for spring, but in doing so keep away from the plants, so as not to injure the coming flowers, tying up the plants before they get heavy with blooms.

Gloxinias now begin to spring ; keep warm, but do not water until they come above ground ; then they may have a moderate supply. They should be potted in rich soil.

Prune in Bignonias and other climbing plants of similar habits, taking off any straggling runners.

Fuchsias—Pot on as they fill their pots with roots; syringe well in the mornings.

Pelargoniums should now be planted into the pots they are intended to flower in ; stick and tie them out, keeping them a good shape. Propagate all bedding plants : Variegated Pelargoniums, Cotyledons, Coleus Iresines, Pyrethrums, and Alter-nanthera, which will be wanted later on.

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Plant out Deutzias, Hydrangeas, Spiraeas, and Weigelas.

Take cuttings of Hydrangeas, Fuchsias, Salvias, Deutzias, and Roses.

Daisies can be divided and planted out; if allowed to grow from year to year without being divided the flowers will become very poor.

Chrysanthemums should now be taken right up, digging up their beds thoroughly; take off several cuttings of each, carefully labelling them and re-planting them, taking one of each of those required for pot culture.

Liliums and Gladioli can be planted this month. Give plenty of air to greenhouses, still be careful to shut them up early.

Water sparingly Begonias until they begin to make foliage.

Prune in Hibiscus, Allamandas, Phylanthus and Dipladenias, repotting them if necessary, and putting near the light.

Caladiums after their rest should be repotted in light peaty soil with a good drainage of charcoal, and be kept near the light. Plant some of them in baskets among ferns—it will have a pretty effect.

Adiantums (maiden hair) should be trimmed and repotted.

Gymnogrammas (gold and silver ferns); keep the crowns of these ferns well above the soil, and do not water the fronds— only round them.

Dahlia stools that are still in the ground may be lifted and divided, taking a part of the stem with each tuber it is intended to plant out.

Ericas in pots as they go out of bloom may be slightly pruned; when they have made a new start may be moved into pots a size larger.

BULBS AND BULBOUS-ROOTED PLANTS.

Bulbs are beautiful flowers, mostly coming when other flowers are scarce, taking up little room, but beautifying the garden in a wonderful manner, an expensive luxury but well worth the trouble of securing the better kinds. They do best in a sunny position, loving the morning sun, but must be sheltered from winds. The soil must be rich, light, and moderately moist. If in a dry climate they should be mulched, being careful not to put the mulching too near the roots. In planting bulbs never let them be planted too deeply, if beyond their own depth they will go more to leaf than flower. Bidbs are best left in the ground until their leaves have withered so as to give them time to increase. They possess one important character, which is that during winter and spring they are in active growth, and in summer and autumn they are in a dormant condition.

Agapanthus—

Hardy ornamental bulbs that will grow in mostly any soil, making showy plants in the open borders; doing well in cold or warm climates; increased by division of crowns. These plants have handsome broad green leaves, from amongst which springs a stout stalk with a large crown of blue or white flowers, which lasts all through January and February. A. umbellatus—bright blue flowers. A. albidus—pure white flowers. A. flore pleno —double flowers.

Amaryllis—

Hardy, deciduous, bulbous-rooted perennials, natives mostly of the West Indies. Are much admired for their delicate and brilliant colouring—all shades of pink and red, shading to white. Their flowers come before the leaves—tall robust stems and large trumpet-shaped flowers; are increased by off-sets that push up from the base of the flowering-bulbs. This must be done when the plants are at rest; they must not he taken or the plants disturbed too often, as they flower better if not disturbed for several years. Plant them from April to August in rich well-prepared soil, giving them plenty of water in dry weather, which will ensure them making a grand display during the summer months. There are many forms and varieties.

Amaryllis Belladonna —

The well-known beautiful pink lily, bearing crowns of flowers of the most lovely shade of pink.

Amaryllis Brunsvigia—

Are from the Cape of Good Hope. Very handsome species. A. B. Cooperi has sulphur-coloured lilylike flowers, edged with red. A. B. Josephinse has immense heads of scarlet flowers.

Amaryllis Crinum—

A fine genus of bulbous plants, very beautiful, with fragrant flowers, produced in large crowns of tube-like flowers, growing easily in any good soil. A. C. Capense— white flowers flushed with crimson. A. C. angustifolium has narrow leaves and handsome white flowers, five or six on each crown, each flower three inches long. A. C. pedunculatum pacificum—a grand species known as the Wedding Lily, from Lord Howe’s Island, producing immense crowns of deliciously-scented pure white flowers, thirty or forty in each crown. A. C. scabrum has beautiful sweet-scented funnel-shaped flowers. A. C. nobile—creamy-white flowers tinted rose colour ; very large and handsome.

Amaryllis Hippeastrum—

Sometimes called the Equestrian Star, native of tropical South America ; much larger than most of the Amaryllis tribe; grand-looking flowers. A. H. Advance has white flowers striped with magenta. A. H. aulica striata—

yellow with scarlet stripes. A. H. Beauty—pure white, tinted with purple. A. H. Bayard—cherry red with white stripes. A. H. Regina (Mexican Lily)—deep red with orange and white stripes.

Amaryllis Nerine—

Has lovely lily-like flowers; native of South Africa. A. N. sarniensis has brilliant scarlet flowers marked with gold.

Amaryllis Sprekelia formosissima—

Known as the Jacobea Lily. A lovely bulb of gorgeous colouring ; has brilliant crimson flowers, most peculiar in shape ; very handsome.

Amaryllis Sternbergia—

Crocus-like flowers. A. S. lutea—delicate yellow, flowering in the autumn.

Amaryllis Vallota purpurea—

Called the Scarborough Lily. Has deep red funnel-shaped flowers; native of South Africa. A. Y. exirnia—red flowers with white throat.

Amaryllis Zephyranthes—

Has crocus-shaped flowers. A. Z. Andersoni has copper-coloured flowers. A. Z. atamasco—white flowers tinged with rose; very pretty, flowering in autumn. A. Z. grandiflora—soft blush. A. Z. citrina—lovely bright yellow flowers.

Babiana—

Pretty little bulbs with self-coloured flowers, easily grown; natives of the Cape of Good Hope. B. stricta— lilac flowers growing up the stem. B. rubrocyanea—red flowers.

Brodlsea grandiflora —

Graceful plant, producing clusters of soft lavender-coloured long slender tube-like flowers—at the end long

stems. Grows well in any light soil, increased by offsets from the parent bulb. B. coccinea—a handsome plant with long narrow leaves, bearing at the top of the stem a crown of scarlet drooping tubular flowers.

Crocus—

Grassy-leaved dwarf plants with bright flowers. C. sulphureus—bright yellow. L. speciosus—lilac.    C.

argus—blue and white. They like cold climates, and the bulbs should be taken up every year.

Eucharis Amaryllieae (Native of New Granada) —

Has most beautiful delicate white flowers, Narcissus-like, but much larger. E. grandiflora has exquisitely delicate flowers. Not easily grown, requiring much thought and care, and are very shy bloomers. In planting, great care should be taken to have pots well drained with crocks and charcoal, the soil—leaf-mould sand and old manure. After planting, water sparingly until they begin to fill the pots with roots, when they require much water, which will result in the foliage being crisp and a deep green colour. Withhold water then for a month or so, only just keeping the soil a little moist, when the plants will throw up their flowers, and afterwards may have more water. These plants like shade, warmth, and moist atmosphere.

Freesias—

Deliciously-scented little bulbs, used much for mixing in with other flowers for bouquets, are easily grown and increase rapidly. Should be taken up every year when the leaves wither. Kept in dry sand. F. refracta has white funnel-shaped flowers, with yellow spots on the under petal. F. refracta alba—pure white. F. Leichtlinii —sulphur-yellow, sweet-scented, scenting the whole room with its delicious perfume.

Fritillaria—

Bell-shaped flowers, easily grown. F. armena—soft-yellow flowers. F. aurea—old gold colour. F. imperialis —flowers tulip-shaped, with striped yellow and crimson flowers. F. lutea—cluster of bright-yellow flowers. F. persica—deep violet-coloured small bell-shaped flowers.

Galanthus (Snowdrop)—

Sweet little bell-shaped white flowers, rather delicate, doing well only in cold districts, not liking to be disturbed. If left to increase they will flower well, throwing up numbers of stems of their pretty white bells.

Gladiolus—

The new large kinds are most gorgeous in colouring. Plant in November and two following months. They will keep blooming until cut down by frost. After they have done and the leaves commence to wither, lift carefully so as not to cut the bulbs, not breaking the foliage from them, lay in a cool dry place to dry off, then carefully remove the old bulb from the new one (there is always a new one fastened over the one you planted), also the foliage, and if quite dry put into paper bags in a dry place until the time for planting again. Culture easy, requiring only the soil to be well dug, with a liberal quantity of decayed manure. Should be planted three inches deep. These are some of the newest:—Ali— delicate rose striped with red. Addison—dark amaranth, with white stripes.    Ada—salmon red, rose centre.

Argus—deep red centre, pure white. Bono—scarlet, lower petals rosy purple. Canari—light yellow, streaked with rose. Charles Noble—orange scarlet, flaked with rose. Colbert — cherry-red, white stripe down each petal. Didon — white, tinged with lilac. Eldorado-— yellow, the lower petals streaked with red. Fatma— ivory-white, striped with rosy salmon.    Glow—orange

scarlet. John Bull—white, tinged with sulphur yellow.

Hyacinths—

Are more delicate in colouring than almost any other bulbs. Should be planted in April, in light sandy soil thoroughly drained, the situation high and well exposed to the sun. Plant your bulbs seven inches apart and four inches deep in the soil. If the soil should be heavy and not good put some sand above and below the bulbs. They will bloom well in September. When the blooms have faded, cut them off that the bulbs may not be exhausted. Let the bulbs be taken up when the foliage dies down and dried in a dry airy place shaded from the sun ; when dry, remove offsets and put away the bulbs on a dry airy shelf or in paper bags.

Hyacinths, grown in glasses—

Well-ripened bulbs must be chosen, and the glasses filled with rain water ; let the base of the bulbs just touch the water; put them into these glasses in the middle of April; keep them in a darkened room until the latter part of May that they may produce strong roots ; you may then keep them in a room in which there is no fire; place them on a table close to a window ; they can remain without any protection from the outside air, only shutting the window at night to keep out the cold. You will find the flowers good, and the stems and foliage will have a healthy appearance. When the leaves are produced the glasses may be kept filled up with water as required; give fresh water when that in the glasses becomes impure. Pieces of charcoal placed in the glasses before putting in the bulbs will help to keep the water pure and do the plants good.

Iris—

Old favourites, which when once planted increase in beauty and size every year. Being hardy they will thrive almost anywhere and bloom well if plentifully supplied with water during their flowering season. The Spanish are most varied and beautiful. The English are large

and handsome. Iris Germanica are large and of various colours and will grow in any soil. The new Iris from Japan, Kaempferi, have magnificent flowers measuring from eight to ten inches across; most gorgeous in the beauty of their colouring.    Creusa—reddish crimson,,

white ground. Purpurea—large flowers, purple, shaded and veined with white. White lady—white, large-and good. The Spanish Iris are very beautiful; their colours beautifully blended. Iris pumila nova—new varieties of the dwarf Iris, seldom growing more than three inches high; have exquisitely coloured flowers. Albida. Aurea. Candida. Sulphurea.

Ixias—

Pretty bulbs, growing all up the stem, very bright colours coming out one blaze in the sun. Are very hardy and increase rapidly if left in the ground. They need not be disturbed for two or three years.

Lilium—

Of all the bulbous tribe none are more beautiful. There are many forms of them. The Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis)—an exquisite little plant. An herbaceous perennial, loving moisture and shade; flowers beautifully in some of the sheltered parts of our colonies. Banks of these exquisite flowers are to be seen in Mr. Charles Ryan’s lovely garden at Macedon, Victoria. Are propagated by dividing the crowns, which should be planted just beneath the surface of the soil. The Arum Lily (Richardia Africana)—a decorative leaf plant,- easily grown, liking a moist situation, and can be easily increased by offsets. Liliums are increased by bulbs, offsets and bulblets. Lilium tigrinum forms bulblets in the axils of the leaves. They are all very beautiful, of various shades and markings. The finest flowers are produced by bulbs that have remained in the ground for three years. They require to have some extra soil put over them as a protection in the winter; are all hardy.

Doing best in deep rich soil, well drained, and like partial shade. Lilium auratum is white, with a distinct band of greenish-yellow and dark spots, very beautiful, the flowers being quite twelve inches across; native of Japan. Lancifolium roseum—white, spotted with rose. Candidum—the single white garden lily; very fragrant. Tigrinum (the Tiger Orange Lily)—spotted with black. Tigrinum (flore pleno)—a lovely double variety of the Tiger lily. Thunbergianum—a Japanese lily, dwarf in habit, with showy handsome flowers. Lilium speciosum opal (the queen of all lilies)—its beauty outshines all others; is hardy, and free flowering; of great size, and exquisite colour. Pearly-white, shaded with soft pink blush, spotted with dots of deep scarlet. Standing well out on the surface of the petals; the bases of the petals are deeper in colour.

Narcissus—

Hardy bulbs; very prolific in varieties, consisting of numerous species and many forms, double and single. The sweet old Daffodil is one of the earliest as well as the most lasting of spring flowers. The name Daffodil, generally applied to Narcissi with one flower on the stem, should by right only be given to the true Trumpet Daffodils—those which have the trumpet as long or longer than the divisions of the perianth. The Narcissus with its cup or trumpet-shaped centres being long or short, according to the particular species, includes Narcissus biflorus—the old primrose peerless. N. jonquilla—the single and double jonquils. N. gracilis—with graceful yellow star-shaped flowers. N. poeticus (pheasant eye). N. bulbocodium monophyllus (white hoop petticoat). N. triandrus — cyclamen-flowered. N. Macleai — a daffodil-like flower, tube white tinged downwards with green ; and the many other kinds. Magnicoronati (Ajax Narcissus)—crown or trumpet being as long or longer than the divisions of the perianth. N. bulbocodium

(hoop petticoat)—bright yellow. N. B. citrinus—sulphur yellow. Trumpet daffodils—bicolor, cream and yellow. Empress—perianth, snow white ; trumpet, rich yellow, serrated edges.    Horsfield—perianth, white ; trumpet,

deep yellow. James Walker—perianth, sulphur white ; and twisted trumpet very large. D. Cernuus pulcher— perianth, silver white ; trumpet primrose. D. Colleen Bawn—perianth pure white, broad and twisted ; trumpet, pale sulphur. Poeticus (the Purple-ringed Poet’s Daffodil). Ornatus—perianth, pure white and beautifully formed; cup, rosy scarlet. Polyanthus Narcissus (Bazelman major)—perianth, white, broad large cup. Florence Nightingale—perianth, white; cup, deep orange. Grand Monarque—white, with primrose crown. Soleil d’Or—perianth, rich yellow ; cup, deep orange. Paper-white grandifloras—pure white ; one of the best. Jon-quilla plenus—double yellow. Tazetta Romanus—double Roman Narcissus ; flowers white, with orange cup. This class of bulb will thrive in mostly any soil that has been well trenched and drained, doing best in moderately stiff black soil. Clumps once planted can remain a long time in the earth; will increase in size and flower better every every year.

Sparaxis —

Hardy bulbs, growing best in a sunny border; colours very rich and good ; increasing freely; natives of the Cape of Good Hope. S. lineata — pink and white. S. grandiflora—white. S. pendula—deep purple, one of the best. S. versicolor—yellow and mauve.

T uberose —

There are several kinds of these richly scented plants, single and double varieties. The best of all is Excelsior Pearl. They should be planted in a warm border where they will get plenty of sun; if the season is dry give them plenty of water ; lift them and store them away directly there is any sign of frost; keep them in sand in some warm place. The bulb that has once bloomed will not bloom again, but it is best to keep the offsets on them until the spring—they become larger if left on the old bulb until planting time. The largest will make good flowering bulbs for the next year’s blooming.

Tulips—


Old valued plants; their brilliant colours showing out well in the borders ; do best in cold districts ; there are single and double varieties. Rich light soil is the best for them, and give them a sunny position.

Calendar for September

All things are now bursting into leaf and bloom, making one realise indeed the presence of spring.

Roses sprouting vigorously ; cut off any shoots from the roots or superfluous ones up the stems.

Fuchsias are in vigorous growth ; never let them become too dry or want pot-room ; put them into their flowering pots this month. If they are not re-potted, give them a supply of liquid manure.

Azaleas commence to flower this month ; mulch round the roots with manure.

Achimenes—Start some this month, using plenty of drainage, using leaf-mould and sand ; only covering the bulbs thinly with soil. Leave a good space in the pots to be filled up afterwards. When well up water slightly, and shade from bright sunshine.

Bouvardias may be pruned as soon as they show signs of sprouting by just shortening the branches.

Pelargoniums—If filling their flowering pots with roots, water frequently with clear soot water or other liquid manure.

Pansies coming into flower should be mulched under the leaves, which will much improve their flowering.

Calceolarias and Cinerarias are in great beauty; keep down insects, and give liquid manure now and then.

Top-dress lawns and roll, cutting well first.

Annuals may be sown, as Balsams, Cockscombs, &c., soft-wooded plants planted, such as Salvias, Foxgloves, Delphiniums, and Antirrhinums.

Mulch rose-beds with fresh manure if the weather is dry.

Plant out ribbon borders and carpet beds, taking the young plants from the boxes planted in the autumn ; take them up carefully, disturbing the roots as little as is possible.

Anemones, Ranunculi, and Hyacinths should be at their best. If the weather is dry keep watered.

Cyclamens should have their foliage syringed constantly while in bloom.

Ferns are growing quickly ; syringe morning and evening ; cut off old foliage, thus giving the new fronds more room.

Keep all plants in the green-house clean ; some will want re-potting, others top-dressing, and some dividing. Commence using the syringe in the evening when the house is closed for the night.

Caladiums—Pot on as they develop ; keep warm and near the glass.

Begonias will want attention ; many of them will want re-potting, cutting off old leaves, planting them for new plants.

Violets—Those requiring to be divided should be done this month; taken up carefully, divided, and planted six inches apart, clearing them of any side-shoots ; keep the ground about them loose and moist through the summer. There are several very good new Varieties The Tree (double), which, if the running shoots are trained forms quite a tree. Odorata rubra (double)—red coloured. John Racldenberry (single)—pale blue.

TREE FERNS.

Nothing is more beautiful in the vegetable kingdom, if well grown, than tree ferns, with their straight stems and graceful spreading heads. Some species form slender stems a few feet high, whilst others tower aloft thirty feet or more. The tropical kinds are mostly slender in proportion to their height, those from more temperate regions have stout stems. The best soil for them is good fibrous peat, silver sand and turfy loam in equal parts. Plant in pots proportioned in. size to the height of the plant, the stem being put sufficiently low in the pot for the soil when filled round it to hold it fast. See that the pots are well drained with crocks and charcoal; when planted do not water them for the first few> days, and then only syringe the stems until rooted, when they will require a liberal watering daily, bearing in mind always that they derive the greatest nourishment from the moisture given to the stem. Plants too large for pots do well in tubs, as some of the species of Gyanthea must have their roots confined or they will get too big, overhanging everything near them, unless planted right out in some shady part of the garden where they will get moist heat as well as shade. The practice of confining the roots in tubs to check growth with tree ferns in houses of moderate size has this advantage attending it. They can be moved about for decorating verandahs or plunged in the ground in the garden, giving the appearance of being planted out, and may be kept in a vigorous healthy condition for years by the use of manure-water.

Alsophila Cooped—

With crown ancl base of the frond thickly covered with dark brown hairs and scales, and the stem with prickles on it. Grows in cool places. Native of New South Wales. A. Australis—one of the noblest of the genus. Stems thirty feet high, with fronds often twelve feet in length, of a light green colour, the base of the fronds covered with brown scales. Native of Tasmania. A.

h    .

excelsa—a rapid grower with tall straight stem about thirty feet in height, with head of large spreading fronds, when well grown. The crown of the plant is covered with large light coloured scales, the stems of the fronds covered also. Native of Norfolk Island.

Cyanthea Cunninghami—

A rare species, with a tall stout stem retaining the bases of the old fronds, which gives it a distinct appearance.

• Has a splendid crown of light green fronds. Native of New Zealand. C. Medullaris—a grand species, growing to the height of thirty feet, with fronds fifteen feet in length. The young fronds when appearing and the base of the fronds are covered with long black hairs. Native of New Zealand. C. Smithii—a handsome fern, growing to the height of twenty feet, with fronds ten feet long. The crown of the plant and the bases of the fronds, which are bright green in colour, are thickly clothed with chestnut-coloured scales. It likes dense shade, where its graceful feathery-looking fronds will produce a fine effect. Native of New Zealand.

Dicksonia—

Most of the species of this genus are natives of New Zealand, Tasmania, or Australia. To be found in great perfection in damp valleys and deep ravines. D. Antarctica—a magnificent fern with thick trunk, growing to the height of thirty feet, spreading its grand crown of fronds to twenty feet. The fronds are a dark green on the upper but lighter on the under surface. Native of Australia. D. squarrosa—handsome species with slender stems which are black. Often forming young plants up its trunk. The fronds are dark green on the upper side, paler beneath. The head is very singular, being flat and very pretty. Native of New Zealand.

Hemitelia—

A fine species of tree fern; most of them doing best in a greenhouse; have large broad fronds ; they require great heat and moisture to bring them to perfection. H. grandiiiora—bright shining green fronds seven feet long. H. horrida—fronds eight feet long, bright green above, light green below, stripes scaly, and have strong spines ; stem ten feet high. H. speciosa—fronds ten feet long, brown scales on the stems of the leaves.

To grow Ferns from Seed.

Take the fern frond when the seed is ripe, place it between a sheet of paper and put it under slight pressure, when most of the spore cases will burst and the spores be ready for sowing. Anyone could have a good collection in a short time if they caii procure seed. They can be raised from the seed of dry specimens, having been known to grow from seed taken off specimens five years old. The spores of some species take a long time to germinate, the arborescent kinds taking twelve months; others such as the Aspleniums and some Adiantums will come up in a week or two. Sow in pans, having charcoal for drainage, with a layer of moss over it and fill up with fine sandy soil, pressing it down with the hand and giving the earth a gentle watering, when the seed may be sprinkled lightly over the top. Place a piece of glass over the pan and keep close till they begin to vegetate, when a little air may be given by tilting the glass. They must, however, be always kept damp, this can be done by placing the pan in a larger one filled with water which will keep the earth in the inner one moist. It is a good plan to bake the soil before planting the seed, which will destroy any small worms which are so troublesome when the seeds begin to vegetate. Seed can be planted at any time of the year except in the autumn; not then on account of the young seedling being liable to damp off in the winter. As soon as the plants are large enough to prick into pots it should be done, transplanting them again as the pots fill with roots, always bearing in mind, on account of their tenderness, to keep them in a close atmosphere and well shaded until they are established.

H 2


To PROPAGATE FERNS BY DIVISION.

Care should be taken to do it just before growth commences in September, for if they are disturbed when the young fronds are forming they will be sure to be injured. Some of the species have a creeping stem, plants are made by cutting them into pieces with a part of the root and some of the fronds attached. Some have tufted straight stems forming crowns, such as most of the Adiantums, these must be cut with a sharp knife dividing the crowns with some of the roots and fronds attached. When potted, keep them in a close frame till they are rooted, only giving enough water to settle the mould. Shade the frame from the sun, and when rooted they may be moved into a cool shady greenhouse. Most of the species forming creeping rhizomes that root along the ground can be propagated by divisions of these when well rooted and the plants are at rest.

Calendar for October.

All things now look gay and bright in the garden.

Roses, the sweetest of all flowers, are showing their buds and beautiful blooms, delighting everyone.

Begonias (the variegated sorts)—Repot those that have not already been done; keep well syringed; with plenty of moisture and deep shade they ought now to be at their greatest perfection.

Carnations must be tied up, and will bloom better if kept mulched during the hot weather.

Keep all lawns mowed and well watered.

Greenhouses must be kept well shaded, watering them morning and evening.

Fern baskets must never be let get dry; dip them occasionally in water.

Pelargoniums will be coming into flower ; keep well trained ; water frequently with liquid manure; turn the plants half round constantly.

Fuchsias that half filled their pots with roots must have a good supply of liquid manure; plant some out in a rich shady border.

Coleus must have their leading shoots pinched back to induce them to become more shrubby.

Azaleas—remove into the greenhouse to flower.

Dracsenas must be well sprayed over and under the leaves.

Ferns should have plenty of water and deep shade, syringing constantly, but, doing so, avoid wetting other plants that may be in flower.

On dull moist days plant out Antirrhinums, Lobelias, Pentstemons, Phlox, Salvias, and any annuals that may be in boxes.

All foliaged plants in the greenhouse should be given as much room as possible while forming their spring growth, turning them round now and then, giving them as much air and light as possible.

Carpet beds and ribbon borders will want constant clipping.

.Poses—If the weather is dry those in pots should have liquid manure ; water those in the garden well at the roots.

Clip Box edgings and all hedges ; tie in climbers ; keep all beds and borders in order with hoe and rake.

FERNS—Continued.

Acrophorus—

Handsome ferns, easy to manage, only requiring to have the pots well drained, and to be planted in good peat and sand. The deciduous kinds require very little water when at rest; when in a growing state must be kept well watered. A. affinis—a beautiful species with dark green triangular fronds. Native of Singapore. A. hispidus— a handsome evergreen dwarf-growing fern; its fronds ten inches in length and dark shining green in colour. Native of New Zealand. A. pulcher—a beautiful fern ; its fronds are many times divided, and vivid green in colour.

Actiniopleris —

A lovely little species found in Northern India, like the fan fern in miniature ; should be planted in good fibrous peat and sand. A. radiata—a charming little palm-like plant, of tufted habit, with fronds six inches in height, light green in colour. Native of Ceylon.

Adiantum—

Known by the name of maidenhair ferns from the rich black glossy stems common to most of them. The surface of the fronds is repellent of moisture; if wholly submerged will be as dry when taken out as before. Should be potted in a mixture of loam, peat and sand. Must have good drainage and plenty of pot room. Adiantum gracillimum is a most exquisite little fern ; its lace-like fronds when spred over flowers in bouquets have a most charming effect; the fronds being of delicate shades of green. A. affine is easily grown, producing from a creeping-rhizome evergreen fronds fifteen inches long. Native of New Zealand. A. colpodes—an elegant species with fronds two feet long, in the young state delicate pink in colour, changing to rich green with age. Native of tropical America. A. daphintes—fronds nine inches in height, light brown stems and dull green in colour, usually forming a tufted crest at the extremities of the fronds. A. Flemingi—a lovely fern with dense plumelike fronds of delicate shades of green. A. decorum—an extremely handsome species with black shining stems of gigantic proportions, forming a beautiful specimen in a greenhouse. Native of Peru. A. Farleyense—this is one of the most magnificent of the maidenhair ferns, growing from two to three feet high, with delicate green fronds deeply fringed. Native of Barbadoes. A. glaucophyllum —a very beautiful small growing species with fronds several times divided, the under side having a bluish tinge ; it has recently been introduced; will grow well in a greenhouse. Native of Mexico. A. Peruvianum—one of the very finest of the large growing kinds, the fronds growing to the height of three feet and beautifully arched, are dark green and the stems deep polished ebony black. Native of Peru. There are many others too numerous to mention.

Alsophila—

The plants of this genus are all arborescent kinds, some growing to the height of thirty feet. Found in their native countries in shaded moist places. Have splendid crowns of fronds ; must have abundance of water given them, and the stems well sprinkled to induce them to make fine heads of fronds. Must also have good shade to prevent the sun injuring their tender fronds. The tropical kinds require a warm greenhouse. In winter water must be given sparingly to all of them. A. aspera —a handsome species, with slender stem covered with short spines, the light green fronds are twelve feet in length and gracefully arched. Native of the West Indies. A. glauca—a splendid fern, fronds a bright glossy green above and very blue beneath, the stem is slender and in its native place grows to the height of sixty feet. Native of the Philippine Islands. A. Leichardtiana is an elegant species, with fronds twelve feet long, bright green in colour, with brown and black spines on the stems. The stem of this fern is twenty feet high and very slender.

- It has been sometimes called A. Macarthuri. A native of New South Wales.

Asplenium—

There are many species of this genus, and are to be found in every country, growing in height from a few inches to several feet, very ornamental and nearly all evergreen. Characterized by their forked or pinnate free veins. A. bulbiferum—a handsome plant, growing freely, with fronds eighteen inches long. Proliferous, and made pendulous by the great number of young plants on them. Grown from a scaly creeping rhizome. Pale green in colour. Native of New Zealand. A. dimorphum—an evergreen species, growing well in a cool greenhouse, having barren and fertile fronds ; the fertile fronds very finely divided and shining bright green in colour. Native of Norfolk Island. A. lucidum—a large free-growing fern, fronds three feet in length, shining green, and pendulous in habit. Rising from a creeping scaly rhizome. Native of New South Wales and Tasmania. A. obtusatum—a greenhouse fern, with thick fleshy fronds eight inches high. An evergreen creeping species. Native of Tasmania. A. rachirhizon—a charming fern when well grown. The fronds often eighteen inches in length. Stems shining black. An evergreen species. Native of tropical America. A. viviparum—a distinct and elegant fern, with fronds a foot long, finely cut. Loaded on the upper surface with young plants, which, if fastened down to the soil will easily root. Native of the Mauritius.

Blechnum—

Handsome-growing ferns, many of them doing well in a cool greenhouse; having stout fronds and are hardy.

B. Brasiliense—a grand-growing kind, with fronds four feet in length, with age forming a stem two feet high. An evergreen warm-house plant from Brazil. B. gracile— a pretty species ; growing easily, with fronds a foot long > rich green in colour ; an evergreen species. Native of Brazil.

Cheilanthes—

Graceful ferns, mostly from tropical countries ; generally found in the crevices of rocks where they get plenty of water, but hanging down the fronds do not get wet. They must be kept in a cool house and not have their fronds wet. Plant them in fibrous peat and broken up sandstone. C. alabamensis—a beautiful dwarf-gowing evergreen species, with fronds six inches in length ; rich dark green in colour; rising from a creeping rhizome. Native of the United States. C. capensis—an interesting species ; the fronds are crenate round the edges ; smooth and dark green in colour; pretty little fern of dwarf habit, thriving well in a cool house. Native of South Africa.    C. farinosa—a fine species ; grows to the height

of two feet; the fronds are densely coated with a white powder on the under-side ; dark green on the upper side. Native of India.

Davallia—

A well-known genus, known as the hare’s-foot fern from the brown scaly rhizomes resembling the foot of the animal. Most of them from the East Indies, several from these colonies and New Zealand, some growing well in cool, others in hot houses. In planting they should be elevated above the rim of the pot so that the creeping rhizomes may be on the surface, being careful not to bury the rhizomes of those that are covered with scales. D. bullata—a handsome small-growing deciduous fern with fronds ten inches in length, a rich shining green rising from a creeping caudex, covered with bright reddish-brown scales. Native of the East Indies. D. elegans—one of the prettiest of this genus. It has tall shining fronds, coming from a creeping caudex, twenty inches in length, much divided, and rich dark green in colour. Native of the Malay Islands. D. parvula—an exquisite little fern, only a few inches high, with very finely cut dark green fronds. It will thrive well on the stems of tree ferns. Native of Borneo. D. Tyermannii —a very beautiful species, well adapted for growing in baskets, in time completely covering the basket with its slender rhizomes which are covered with silvery white scales. The fronds are finely cut, rich dark green in colour, and about eight inches long.

Doodia—

A pretty genus of small growing ferns much used for bouquets, the fronds _ keeping fresh longer than most ferns. Make pretty pot plants for the drawingroom. D. aspera—an erect growing species ; fronds broad in the centre, eight inches long, and very dark green ; will do well in a greenhouse. Native of Australia. 13. blech-noides—the largest of this species ; fronds often more than twelve inches long, coming from an erect stem. Native of Australia. D. candata—useful for bouquets ; may be grown on the wall of the fernery; fronds six inches long; the fertile stems quite distinct from the others. Native of Australia. D. dives—quite distinct from the others; fronds more than twelve inches long, dark green; stems black and slightly scaly; seed pods large and prominent; a very handsome fern. Native of Java. D. media—an evergreen; growing well in a cool greenhouse; very pretty ; fronds more than ten inches long and pink when young, slender and graceful in habit. Native of New Zealand.

Gleichenia—

A singular but handsome tribe of ferns. The segments of the fronds resemble quantities of beads strung on threads. G. dicarpa has these bead-like segments growing vigorously ; in its wild state it takes the character of a climber. G. flabellata (fan-leaved) has erect broad fronds ; growing to the height of five feet, and forms a miniature forest of fan-like fronds. They make splendid specimens, being quite different in appearance from anything of their tribe. They require good fibrous loam, broken up roughly, and sand to grow in, and large not-deep pots, as they have wiry creeping rhizomes and do not root deeply ; wanting, when growing, plenty of water.

Lomaria—

Beautiful ferns ; very useful for decorative purposes ; have fronds of good substance ; most useful for decorating-halls and contrasting with other ferns in the greenhouse. To grow them well, use loam and peat with sand : for the smaller kinds only sandy peat. L. attenuata—very pretty species ; all have the spores on the edges of the leaves; native of New South Wales. L. Fraseri—very elegant fern; much admired. Native of New Zealand. L. ciliata—a distinct and handsome species, rising from a slender stem. The fronds are pinnate, and the segments are fringed with hair-like teeth ; a pretty light green. Native of New Caledonia.

Lygodium—

A lovely genus of ferns of climbing habit, extending their fronds almost to any length ; looking very pretty trained over frames ; the seed pods stand out boldly round each leaf, giving the plant a distinct appearance. Grow best in loam and sand. L. Japonicum has pretty-branched fronds, climbing beautifully, forming festoons when grown over a trellis in a bushhouse. Native of Japan, also of Queensland. L. scandens—Native of Ceylon, and also of New South Wales. Pretty little climbing fern, with pale-green fronds ; easily grown in a cool-house.

Nephrodium—

Fine ornamental ferns ; of easy culture ; forming line plants if planted out in sandy soil; several of them very beautiful; all grow well in cool ferneries. N. decompo-situm—quick-growing and handsome; native of Australia. N. molle corymbiferum—a charming tasselled variety ; quick-growing; becoming quite a weed in hot-houses; erect in habit, with branched fronds two feet long; the top of each frond has a large crest. Native of Western Africa.

Platycerium—

Curious genus of ferns which naturally grow upon trees ; can be grown on pieces of wood nailed up in a verandah or green-house. The fronds are divided into broad segments, and its shield or sterile fronds clasp whatever it is grown upon. P. alcicorne, known as the Elk’s Horn fern, is an evergreen plant; is easily grown. The fronds are divided into broad forked segments, with seeds in masses on the under side of the ends of the fronds. Native of Australia. P. grande—a noble species, making a remarkable and beautiful specimen when grown on a large thick piece of wood; sterile fronds two feet in diameter, nearly round at the lower part, and forked upon the upper edges, which overlap each other; fertile fronds eighteen inches in length ; the woolly fronds blue in appearance. Native of Malay Islands and Australia.

Polypodium—

A handsome species ; distinguished by their free veins, bearing the seed-pods in single rows upon the end of the short vein ; some have a creeping rhizome and others an erect one. All like plenty of water to their roots ; their fronds last a long time when cut; grow well in sandy soil. P. divergens—a beautiful species ; fronds two feet in height and large and conspicuous ; stems clothed with large dark coloured scales. Native of Madeira. P. Walkerse—a handsome species ; fronds two feet in height; broad; green in colour; large seed-pods. Native of Ceylon.

Todea (Cape Fern)

A small genus, very ornamental and beautiful. Difficult to grow well. The crowns must be kept well above the soil, giving them a shady position in the greenhouse. When growing must have plenty of water, sprinkling the fronds, which they evidently like. When potting give good drainage, with fibrous peat and sandy soil. T. Fraseri has fronds nearly six inches broad, with a large crown and foundation for a stem ; with age they form a very stout stem. Can be found growing in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales. T. Africana—one of the finest and most ornamental, doing well in a cool fernery. The fronds rise from an upright stem to the height of four feet, bright green in colour; the seed pods, in lines nearly covering the whole of their under surface, are a bright reddish brown. Native of South Africa.

Calendar for IRoveniber

Hot weather is now beginning to make itself felt in the garden. The hose and watering-pot require to be kept well going.

Gloxinias that are planted out in frames are now flowering well. Give a watering with liquid manure occasionally, shading them in the middle of the day with coarse matting. Those that are in the greenhouse, when watering them be careful not to wet "their blooms. Prick off any seedlings into thumb-pots.

Roses are still blooming beautifully. The tea-scented varieties will be at their best. Remove all withered flowers, cutting them off with a sharp knife to a strong eye. Bud a few of the best this month.

Fuchsias, Petunias, Calceolarias, and other soft-wooded plants in flower. Keep shaded from bright sun in the greenhouse. Admit air freely from the top of the sides of the greenhouse, the doors open early in the morning and the shelves continually damp.

Propagate Dracamas with both the tops and rings of the stems, just covering the latter with soil, in pans of light soil.

All hard-wooded plants that have done flowering, top dress and plunge the pots in the ground in some sheltered part of the garden where they will get the early morning sun.

Achimenes are now growing fast, water them and keep warm.

Chrysanthemums that have been carefully potted off may now be planted out in beds prepared for them. Shelter for a few days and keep watered. Pot on those that are required for pot plants.

Pelargoniums will be going out of flower. Remove them out of the greenhouse, into some shady place for a day or two, gradually giving them the full sun. As soon as they have done flowering a few of the ripest shoots may be taken for cuttings.

Gesnera Cinnabarina must be given as much light and air as possible to bring to perfection its lovely red velvety shades.

Bulbs with decayed foliage may be lifted, dried off in some cool airy place and then stored.

Sow fern seeds and prick out any seedlings into thumb-pots.

Coleus—give all the light possible, pot on as they fill their pots, and take cuttings of the young shoots.

Azaleas, Bouvardias, and Camellias in the garden, keep well mulched and watered.

All climbing plants in the greenhouse keep well trained.

Begonias, Caladiums, and other foliage plants will require plenty of water, syringe continually, and keep them well shaded from the sun. Shake out and repot Primulas. Layer Carnations, and save the seed of annuals.

ORNAMENTAL GRASSES.

Grasses are much used for decorations. Florists use them greatly to mix with their flowers. They are effective for drawingroom and cable decoration. They add much to the beauty of shrubberies if planted in clumps; look well planted among the shrubs in the borders or around ornamental ponds in the garden. Deserving of as much care in their culture as flowers.

Agrostis—

A. elegans. A. nebulosa. A. minutiflora and A. pulchella—graceful grasses, looking very pretty if spread over a bouquet of flowers thereby forming a cloud. Much valued by florists.

Anthoxanthum—

A. gracile and A. ovatum are delicate grasses. Much used for bouquets.

Avena—

A.    sterilis—a pretty oat-like grass producing drooping bunches of spikelets. Pretty for vases.

Briza—

B.    geniculata. B. lutescens. B. maxima. B. compacta.

B. media (large quaking grass). B. minor (little quaking grass). B. spicata.

Bromus—

B.    brizseformis—a graceful variety with numerous drooping bunches of spikelets. B. madrikensis and B. purpureus.

Chloris—

C.    barbata. C. elegans. C. radiata and C. truncata—• good grasses for edgings.

Chrysurus—

C. aurea—much valued for bouquets.

Coix—

C. lachryma (Job’s tears)—handsome graceful grass with round seeds hanging in clusters on tall stems. C. exaltata is also i^retty and graceful.

Cyperus—

C. alternifolius—a pretty grass-like plant much used to ornament the table or bush house. Has tall stems, with long narrow dark-green leaves forming an umbrella at the top of each stem. C. alternifolius variegatus—a very pretty plant with stem and leaves streaked with white.

C.    laxus—strong growing ; bears greenish brown flowers at the crown of the leaves ; growing best near water.

Diplachne—

D.    fascicularis—very pretty and most useful for bouquets. Eragrostis—

E.    Abyssinica. E. amabilis. E. capillaris. E. elegans. E. maxima and E. megastachya are all pretty grasses. Very ornamental.

Erianthus—

E. Ravenrue—handsome tall growing plant forming thick tufts of foliage.

Eulalia—

E.    Japonica. E. Japonica foliis striatis makes pretty pot plants, or will do well planted out in the garden. E. zebrina—has bands of yellow running crosswise; a showy plant, bearing handsome panicles of reddish brown coloured flowers. Can be propagated by division of the roots.

Festuca—

F.    glauca. E. nigrescens and F. viridis—small neatgrowing grasses; very pretty, and much used for bouquets.

Gymnothrix—

G.    Japonicum. G. latifolium and G. longistylum—pretty for borders.

Gynerium (Pampas Grass)—

G.    argenteum—large white plumes. G. jubatum—has

silvery red plumes. Can be propagated by division of the roots.    .

Hordeum—

H.    jubatum (squirrel-tail grass)—a graceful barley-like grass. Very pretty for decorating rooms, also for bouquets.

Isolepis—

I.    riparius or I. gracilis—pretty little grasses, growing well in pots.

Lagurus—

L. ovatus (hare-tail grass)—much used for bouquets and table decoration.

Panicum—

P. maximum—large growing, and very handsome in the garden. P. variegatum—a pretty variety for baskets, hanging down gracefully, and makes a pretty pot plant for a room; its leaves are striped with white and pink. Stipa —

S. elegantissima. S. gigantea. S. lasiagrostis and S, pennata or feather grass—much used for bouquets and table decoration.

Zea—

Z. Japonica foliis variegatus—a graceful plant, with leaves striped with white. Makes a pretty pot plant.


Calendar for December.

The work of gardeners for this month is chiefly watering, much being required for all plants growing or flowering freely. Using the syringe constantly to keep shelves and floors of greenhouses damp. Seeing that they have as much air as possible.

Many of the bulbs, as their leaves decay, must be lifted. Narcissi, that have been several seasons in the soil, and Hyacinths, should be taken up and put away in dry sand.

Dahlias require great attention ; those that are expected to bloom in February must be well watered once or twice a week, removing all weak growth to give the flowering shoots more room and air.

Primulas—Sow in shallow pans, in fine soil, shading them from the sun until the plants come up.

Chrysanthemums may be freshly mulched, give plenty of water, letting it run through the mulch. Pinch off the tips of any side shoots to make them break again. Chrysanthemums in pots should have any side shoots coming from the three shoots which are to form the plants taken off, gradually giving them less water to let the wood well ripen, when at the end of the month the three shoots may be cut back to three inches of the main stem when they may have more water given them.

Lilium auratum and others should have liquid manure given them.

Put in pipings of Carnations in a shady border.

All bedding plants must be kept well clipped as just now they are growing vigorously.

Bouvardias should have all their dead flowers and seed pods removed which will enable them to keep on flowering; keep well mulched, watering them through the mulch.

Fuchsias that are blooming must be kept moist; cuttings of the young shoots will strike easily this month.

Syringe over and through all foliage plants in the greenhouse.

Gloxinias that are blooming must be constantly watered, but be careful not to wet the flowers.

Variegated Begonias keep in the shade to bring out their best colours ; their leaves will strike easily at this season in sand.

Ferns can be divided successfully and their seedlings pricked out into small pots ; keep all ferns well watered.

Sow for next season’s early flowering Cyclamens, Gloxinias and Calceolarias.

PINES AND OTHER CONIFERS.

Pines are some of our handsomest trees, most of th em growing well in the colonies, thriving in almost any soil if well trenched and drained before 'planting. Sufficient space should be allowed to let them form good trees. Amongst conifers are to be found trees suitable for parks, avenues, and gardens.

Abies (Spruce Firs) —

A. alba (white spruce)—a hardy tree with short blueish green leaves and short cones two inches long. Native of North America. A. Douglasii (silver fir)—a beautiful tree; grows quickly, but wants a sheltered situation. Native of North America. A. excelsa (Norway spruce)--one of the best; has beautiful dark green foliage. A. Menziesii—a hardy handsome species ; will grow to the height of seventy feet, and is of dense growth. Native of California. A. Smithiana—a lovely species with graceful foliage, the young growth drooping prettily ; when young is liable to be cut by frost; propagated easily by seed. Native of India.    •

Araucaria—

A. Biclwellii—the beautiful Queensland Bunya Bunya pine ; thrives well if sheltered from high winds; grown easily from seed. A. Cunninghamii (Moreton Bay pine) —native of Queensland ; is a magnificent tree, showing out well in avenues. A. excelsa (Norfolk Island pine)— a magnificent tree ; looking best planted as a central specimen ; in its young state is much used as a pot plant for decoration. Propagated by seed or cuttings of the young shoots. A. Cunninghami (Richmond River pine) is also a tall handsome species ; grown from seed.

Cedrus Atlantica (Silver Cedar)—

A grand, hardy tree, with silvery foliage, growing very tall and a lovely shape ; it does well in the colonies. Native of Mount Atlas. C. deodara (Indian cedar)—a most ornamental tree ; perfectly hardy, standing heat and cold ; when young has slender drooping branches, when older becomes thick and rigid in foliage. Native of Northern India. C. Lebani (cedar of Lebanon)—a grand but slow-growing tree, with well-shaped large spreading branches. Native of Syria.

Cryptomeria —

C. elegans—a compact-growing tree ; hardy; with spreading foliage, changing to a bronze tint in winter; native of Japan. C. Japonica (Japan cedar)—a handsome fastgrowing tree, wanting shelter; the branches being brittle, are easily broken off by strong winds. Native of Japan.

Cupressus—

C. Africana—a quick-growing tree, with beautiful bluish foliage. Native of Europe. C. corneyana (gracilis)—a fine tree of weeping habit; very ornamental; native of China. C. Knightii (Lindleyana)—one of the best; very quick-growing; native of California. C. Lambertiana horizontalis—a handsome species; of rapid growth ; succeeding in any soil if well worked. Can be propagated

from cuttings and seed. C. Lawsoniana—a graceful tree; when young it assumes different forms and hues, and its drooping feathery branches are strikingly elegant; native of California. C. Torulosa—a pretty compact-growing tree ; very hardy ; when planted closely makes a splendid hedge. Native of the Himalaya mountains.

Dacrydium —

D. Franklini (Huon pine)—handsome. Native of Tasmania.

Frenela (Callitris)—

F. Australis (native pine). F. cupressiformis (Murray pine). F. Gunnii (Oyster Bay pine). Native of Tasmania. F. macrocarpa. Native of Australia.

Juniperus—

J. Bermudiana (pencil cedar). J. excelsa—a compact tree with small tubulate leaves. Native of Western Asia. J. Japonica aurea—a pretty dwarf-growing variety with golden foliage. J. Virginiana glauca—a handsome variety with pretty foliage growing from the ground upwards. Propagated by cuttings, layers or seed.

Picea—

P. balsamea (balm of Gilead)—resembling the silver fir ; very hardy. Native of North America. P. Nordmanniana (Crimean pine)—a grand tree of compact habit, thriving well in cold districts. Native of Crimea.

Pinus (the True Pine)—

P. Beardsleyi—handsome pine with long dark green leaves ; a robust growing tree. Native of California. P. Canariensis—a very ornamental quick-growing tree and hardy.

Pinus Coulterii (Macrocarpa) —

A handsome tree, of robust growth, with long bluish grey leaves. Native of California. P. Halepensis (Aleppo pine)—one of the hardiest and best pines, grows rapidly, thriving in any soil. P. insignis—one of the best for the

Australian colonies, handsome, hardy, and of rapid growth. Native of California. P. longifolia—beautiful long dark green leaves. Native of Nepaul. P. tuber-culata (the knob-coned pine)—a handsome, medium-sized tree ; rather slow of growth. Native of California.

Podocarpus —

P. longifolius. P. spinulosa (Illawarra pine). P. Totara. Salisburia—

S.    Adiantifolia (maiden-hair tree)—a very handsome tree, with pretty delicate green leaves, fan-shaped. Native of Japan.

T axus—

Baccata (English yew). T. baccata variegata—the variegated English yew. T. fastigiata (Irish yew). T. fastigiata variegata—the variegated Irish yew. Propagated by seed, cuttings, or layers.

Thuja—

T.    gigantea and Lobbii—handsome trees, making good hedge plants for shelter. Natives of California. T. gigantea pumila—a dwarf-growing variety, with thick compact growth and bright green foliage. T. gigantea variegata—a pretty variegated kind, yellow and green foliage. T. orientalis argentea—white and green foliage. T. orientalis ascotensis—the tips of the branchlets are golden lemon colour. T. orientalis aurea—neat dwarfgrowing variety, with yellow foliage. They are easily propagated by seed and cuttings.

Thujopsis or Chamaecyparis—

T. Borealis—a distinct and compact tree, always looking fresh and green, Pretty for planting at the corners of a lawn. Are slow growing but handsome. T. argenteo variegata — variegated with white. T. aureo variegata— variegated with yellow. T. obtusa—a handsome slow-growing species from Japan. Propagated by seeds, layers, and cuttings.

Wellingtonia—

W. gigantea (the mammoth tree of California) is hardy, but liable to be touched with frost when young. Likes a cool moist climate, and is one of the best and handsomest trees for ornamental planting. Will grow rapidly in deep rich soil. A row of these magnificent trees can be seen in the Botanical Gardens at Beecliworth, beautifully grown, most perfect in shape ; each one a counterpart of the other. They require to be carefully transplanted, disliking to be disturbed in any way. Are more safely moved in the early spring than in the autumn or any other time.

ORNAMENTAL TREES-

Are very beautiful, but often spoilt and stunted by being planted in shrubberies and avenues too close together. All large growing trees should be planted from twenty-five to thirty-fire feet apart if wanted to develope into handsome specimens.

Acacia (Wattles)—

There are many varieties. Flowering beautifully in the spring, looking very handsome, planted in the shrubbery. Propagated easily by seed if the seed is previously soaked in warm water for a day or so before planting. Cultri-formis, Grevilheoides, and other varieties.

Acer-

Handsome trees, with foliage tinted and variegated with many colours. Deciduous, but brilliantly beautiful in the autumn. A. campestre (common maple)—a small tree with pretty dark green leaves. A. eriocarpum (silver maple)—a very ornamental tree from North America. A. macrophyllum — a tall-growing tree. Very graceful, quick growing and hardy. A. rubrum (red maple)—with scarlet flowers, the leaves tinted with red in the spring. Very ornamental.

^Esculus—

Hippocastanum (horse chestnut) has white flowers. A handsome deciduous tree doing best in a cold climate. Very beautiful when in flower. Native of Asia. JE. rubicunda has red-coloured flowers. Very beautiful. Native of North America.

Ailanthus (Tree of Heaven)—

Handsome, hardy tree, bearing whitish-green flowers in great bunches, and beautiful leaves turning to red in the autumn.

Brachychiton (Flame Tree of New South Wales)—

B.    acerifolium—found growing about Illawarra, is of pyramidical form with beautiful dark-green curiously-shaped leaves, and bears masses of brilliant-scarlet small bell-shaped flowers. Propagated by seed.

Calycanthus—

C.    floridus (Allspice tree)—a small-leaved tree, with rosette-shaped flowers of bright red or brown colour. There are several varieties :—C. bullatus—with inflated leaves ; and C. variegatus—with pretty variegated leaves. Native of Carolina.

Camphora officinalis (Camphor Laurel)—

Handsome-shaped tree, with delicate foliage right from the ground ; the leaves sweet-scented when rubbed together ; producing always young growth, which gives it a most refreshing appearance. Can be propagated from seed.

Castanea—

C. vesca (Spanish chestnut)—an ornamental tree requiring rich deep soil.

Castanospermum Australe (Moreton Bay Chestnut) —

An evergreen tree with handsome foliage, bearing saffron-coloured flowers in great bunches ; very remarkable, and most ornamental.

Cedrela Toona (Australian Red Cedar)—

A beautiful deciduous tree ; of rapid growth, and hardy ; doing well in most climates and soils.

Ceratopetalum—

C. gummiferum (Christmas Bush)—a pretty graceful tree which comes into blossom just before Christmas in New South Wales, and is much used for decoration at that time. The flowers are white at first, changing as they grow to rich deep pink ; when the tree is in full bloom it is very beautiful. Easily propagated by half-ripened cuttings under glass.

Corynocarpus laevigatus (New Zealand Laurel)—

A handsome glossy evergreen tree with bluish-green leaves. Native of New South Wales.

Erythrina Arborea (Coral Tree)—

A hardy tree growing well about Sydney, having a most brilliant appearance when covered with its red pea-like flowers.

Eucalyptus —

E. citriodora (lemon-scented gum)—the leaves when pressed have a delicious scent of lemons ; the tree grows to a great height and is very graceful. E. calophylla has white or pink flowers. E. ficifolia, when in bloom, is a most effective plant; coming out one blaze of brilliant scarlet flowers. E. globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)—very pretty when young ; has bluish-grey leaves.

Eugenia Smithii (Lily Pilly)—

E.    elliptica, E. jambos, E. myrtifolia, E. ugni—pretty small-leaved compact trees, producing clusters of berries -—red, white, and purple ; very suitable for the shrubbery. Mostly natives of Australia.

Fagus sylvatica (Common Beech) —

Growing best in cold districts ; a noble umbrageous tree.

F.    purpurea has deep purple foliage ; propagated easily by seed. F. argenteo variegatis has silver-striped leaves. F. aureo variegata—gold-striped leaves.

Ficus—

F. macrophylla (Moreton Bay tig)—a handsome tree with large glossy green leaves. F. Benjaminea—a hardy evergreen, with slender graceful branches. Native of Queensland. F. rubiginosa (native banyan tree)—handsome compact tree ; can be clipped to any shape ; must be sheltered until they get well established.

Flindersia Australis—

A graceful tree for a large border.

Grevillia robusta (Silver Oak) —

One of our best and most ornamental Australian trees, growing well anywhere and in any soil, bearing handsome golden flowers in bunches.

Jacaranda mimosaefolia—

A feathery fern-like foliaged tree bearing lovely deep blue flowers in great quantities. Must have a sheltered position. Propagated by cuttings.

Judas Tree-

Gorgeous flowering tree, every branch covered with magenta flowers coming before the leaves. The leaves curiously shaped, of a delicate green.

Melia Azedarach floribunda (White Cedar)—

A rapid-growing handsome deciduous tree with graceful foliage and sweet-scented purple and white flowers. Propagated readily by seed.

Platanus Orientalis (Plane Tree) —

A deciduous tree with handsome green leaves, growing quickly, thriving in any climate. There are several varieties. A. acerifolia (maple leaved) and variegata, which has variegated leaves.

Populus alba (Silver Poplar) and P. monilifera (Necklace Poplar) —

Are beautiful trees, very hardy, suitable for planting in avenues.

Quercus robur—

Q. pedunculata. Q. sessiliflora (English oak)—No trees more grand and beautiful with their deep green foliage, thriving well in all the colonies. Q. pedunculatum concordia—has golden coloured foliage. Q. p. purpur-ascens—has deep purple handsome leaves. Q. p. variegata—has leaves marked with purple and white. Very remarkable. Q. coccinea—a grand tree, with leaves changing to red in autumn. Q. rubra—has also red leaves in autumn. All are easily propagated by seed, which must be planted when fresh.

Salix Babylonica (Weeping’ Willow)—

One of our prettiest deciduous trees, doing best in moist situations. Can be propagated by cuttings.

Schinus molle (Pepper Tree)—

A most graceful tree, very hardy, bearing bunches of small bright pink berries; has feathery-like foliage, easily grown from seed.

Stenocarpus Cunninghamii (The Flame Tree of Queensland)—

A hardy, handsome, glossy-leaved tree Avith scarlet flowers of a curious shape.

Tilia vulgaris (Lime Tree or Linden)—

Handsome deciduous tree, doing best in our colder districts.

BUSH HOUSES.

It is absolutely necessary for the protection of the more delicate plants to have some kind of building where they are not exposed to extremes of heat or cold. The ordinary greenhouse is rather an expensive affair; many earnest amateurs are not in a position to spend much over their garden. For these, the bushhouse is an inexpensive substitute for the greenhouse, producing with a little care and trouble nearly the same results.

A light structure can be cheaply erected with saplings or battens ; very light lattice work can be used for the roof and sides, sufficient for Australian ferns. The roof, which should have sufficient pitch, can be covered with Hessian movable sheets, like large blinds, which by means of pulleys and rollers can be raised or lowered by night or day as may be desired. At night, in the winter, they should be closed on account of frost; in the summer, left open, in order that the plants may get the benefit of the dew. If attention is paid to the state of the atmosphere the most delicate plants can be made to thrive and bloom satisfactorily in this humble building. Such a house will serve excellently for Fuchsias and Pelargoniums if shelves are made with an outer ledge so as to hold sand or ashes, into which the pots should be plunged.

For tropical ferns and variegated shrub Begonias a cheap and safe house can be made covered with oiled canvas. Air-openings in the walls near the top should be made, which can be closed at night or during hot-wind days. In 1864 a structure of this kind, which was found to possess all the requisites of a greenhouse, was used for the fine collection of ferns of the late William Sharpe Macleay, at Tivoli, Rose Bay, Sydney.

I saw a few years ago in the grounds at Elizabeth Bay House, the residence of the late Sir William Macleay, a pretty building, which was a mere skeleton structure of wood covered with hessian, which gave both light and air to the plants within it, there being no frost to contend with. Ferns and Begonias of all kinds, Calceolarias, Cinerarias, and Gloxinias were there growing to perfection, all in high health and beauty.

Frames covered with oiled canvas will be found useful for amateurs for striking cuttings.

A lattice-work building, rather more substantial than that required for ferns, is the best for growing that most beautiful of all climbers—Lapageria rosea and its sister, Lapageria alba flora. There should be narrow beds down each side of the floor filled with sandy loam. The Lapageria plants grow slowly at first, but more rapidly when older, often covering the entire building, with their beautiful waxy pink and white bells hanging down in profusion.

Gloxinias do well in pots plunged in sand in open frames. A covering of light hessian is necessary for protection against a too-bright sun or scorching hot winds. Cyclamens and Tuberous Begonias maybe treated similarly. For those who can afford it there is nothing like glass, of course, for Crotons, variegated Dracaenas, tropical-foliaged plants and Orchids.

Chrysanthemums grown in pots do best in frames plunged in ashes. They should be shaded from excessive summer heat, sprinkling them well night and morning ; the moisture which exhales from the ashes tending to produce the cool atmosphere so beneficial to their foliage.

Most foliage plants can be improved and developed by the use of liquid manure, which can easily be manufactured by placing stable or dairy-yard material in a bag in a tub or cask of water. A quart of this liquor in a bucket of water is about the proper strength. Chemical liquid manures are also used beneficially. Sulphate of ammonia in the proportion of three ounces to ten gallons of water is a good stimulant to plants in foliage.

WATER BOUQUETS.

Have a glass dish perfectly flat, and a glass shade or globe which when placed on the dish fits closely round the bottom. The globe or shade should be eight or nine inches in diameter for a moderate-sized bouquet. The first thing is to fill a tub with clear water, then place the dish in the bottom and see that the water is high enough so as to be above the top of the globe when placed on the dish. A small bunch of flowers in bouquet form being prepared, the stems shortened, it is tied securely to a weight of some kind and stood in the centre of the dish in the water, the flowers being completely immersed. The globe laid on its side is then placed in the water, and so gradually and carefully brought over the bouquet that no air is enclosed. Then the whole may be lifted out of and wiped dry outside. The water bouquet is then complete.

CLIMATE.

There is great range of climate in Australia. We possess every variation from the alpine to the tropical and their intermediate temperatures, and our ornamental plants are constantly subjected to improper treatment in consequence. Most things can be grown in Australia, as we have what is essential to plants in general, sufficient light, heat and moisture. With the proper use of these factors we ought to be able to bring all plants to perfection. With artificial means they can enjoy here the same conditions which they have in their natural state, but while climatic influence in one place is beneficial to certain tribes of plants, others can scarcely exist. It is therefore not always want of care or ignorance on the gardener’s part, but rather the defect of climate or locality into which the plants have been introduced. For instance our brilliant flowering dry hard-wooded plants growing in the nooks and ravines around Manly Beach and North Shore, Sydney, will not grow in an English greenhouse, neither would any artificial appliances avail if the locality was of an adverse nature. In choosing plants it is wise always to find out if they are natives of alpine, temperate, or tropical countries, you have then an idea of the treatment they require and what temperature best suits them. In one greenhouse or garden, say in a cold climate, plants have been collected from all parts of the world. With natures so essentially different they cannot possibly thrive, and under the same treatment a few grow and flower to perfection while others struggle on for a time and die off unexpectedly, seemingly without cause. Ferns, for instance, though you may have the soil necessary to their well-doing in the open garden or border, if planted there, exposed to the sun, would speedily languish and die, the rare and delicate sorts requiring deep shade and to be surrounded with moisture, just as our greenhouses suit so well all tropical plants, the moist warmth and shade being so similar to their natural heat. Orchid houses are found to be very successful in Australia. Some of the best species of these interesting plants are to be found growing to perfection at

Camden Park, the residence of Mrs. Onslow. HSrides from Assam, Broughtonias from Jamaica, Cattleyas from the East Indies, Lselias, Oncidiums, and Odonto glossums from Mexico, Phalanopsis from Java and Borneo, and many other rare kinds indeed are to be found growing at Camden Park, most plants worthy of notice, both indoor and outdoor—a most complete collection. The conservatories contain ferns of all kinds of tropical and temperate habitat. Unusually fine specimens of Adiantum Farley ense, Gymnogramma Chrysophylla (golden fern) and Pteris argyrea (silver fern). In the Riverina, frost is the gardener’s chief enemy, the winter being keen, though it is hot enough in all conscience in summer, yet, with plenty of water, most things are brought to perfection, the ground acting as a sort of hot bed during several months of the year. Roses in October and November are one mass of bloom; in few places are they grown to greater perfection; both flowers and foliage are a sight to see. In and near Sydney, where there is no frost, the most tender plants grow luxuriantly in the open air. Pelargoniums, Coleus, Hibiscus, Bouvardias, Azaleas, Dracaenas, Poinsettias, Deutzias, Daphnes, Fuchsias, and Philadelphus all bloom and thrive. As again in Melbourne Ericas of all kinds, Dahlias, Rhododendrons, Cannas, Camellias, Hydrangeas, and most other beautiful things thrive. Then again at Manly Beach, and inland as at Sutton Forest, we must not forget our own brilliant-tinted Epacris, with their crimson and white flowers springing up everywhere. Even after a bush fire the lovely purple and scarlet Kennedya, the numerous gayflowering Acacia and Waratah rise up more luxuriant than ever out of the very ashes as it were. About Illawarra and Kurrajong are to be found the curiously beautiful parasitical plants, the scarlet and yellow Soranthus, and the Stag and Elkshorn Fern growing to perfection, and the silvery heads of the Flannel flower shining in the sun, while among the rocks deeply shaded are to be seen the soft green Gleichenias, Hymenophyllums, Todeas, and Maidenhair Fern. Something new and fresh everywhere to delight the eye ; yet you hear people complain of the sameness of Australian scenery when you might almost say that every district has its own particular flora.

PROPAGATION

Is effected m various ways—certain species requiring different methods — variegated, double flowered, peculiar cut-leaved varieties are not always the same from seed, therefore they must be increased by some artificial means, budding or grafting on some common variety or striking from layers or cuttings. Trees with opposite branches like the Horse Chestnut, Ash, Pine, &c., are difficult to raise from cuttings. Handsome plants are best obtained from seed. All rare species from which you cannot obtain seed are best grafted on common species. Sycamore, Maple, Birch, Alder, Beech, Oak, Sweet Chestnut, Horse Chestnut, Ash, Laburnum, Rhododendron Ponticum, and Yew, can be raised from seed ; Alders, Poplars, Privets, Common Laurel, Ancuba, Ivy, Planes, Tulip Tree and Tamarix are best raised from cuttings. Some species are best propagated by suckers and layers, such as the Elm, Lime, many of the Thujas, Berberis, Lilacs, Laurustinus, Portugal Laurel, Philadelphus, Spiraea, and Diervilla. Many climbers root freely if run along the ground at every joint.—Virginian Creeper and Forsythia Suspensa. Most of the shrubby Conifers can be easily grown from cuttings in a frame containing sandy soil, which should not be kept too damp—Biota, Thuja, Cupressus, Tliujopsis, and Juniperus. The cuttings should be put in in the early autumn—well ripened wood with a heel left to each cutting. As they grow they may have a little heat. Layering and seed growing should be done early in spring.

For tree planting, autumn, just after the fall of the leaf, is the best time for all species with deciduous foliage. Where the soil is heavy and clayey, planting would be best done, if possible, before much rain has fallen as they are more easy to manage. The roots should be well spread out and the earth, after being carefully and evenly put over them should be firmly pressed down, which, if wet and stiff would do harm. Do not plant too deeply, except in dry gravelly soils where only it is safe to plant deeply. However, most shrubs that are inclined

j

to throw up suckers do best that way. Evergreens may be planted at almost any time in a good season if taken up with a ball of earth, but autumn or early spring is the best time. A mulching of stable manure is a great help to newly moved plants, and a slight shading in very hot weather to choice evergreens. For shrubberies the ground should be trenched two or three feet deep. If for single specimens and the soil clayey, it should be dug to a good depth and breadth or the holes are liable to fill with water and so destroy the plant.

Pruning of trees and shrubs requires great care, some bearing any amount of cutting, using a knife or a secateur. I prefer the former, but either is preferable to shears. In cutting off large branches it is best to cut them off close to the stem or trunk without injuring the bark, they then will heal and grow over. If spurs are left they are likely to decay, which may extend to the trunk. Some trees require little or no pruning, such as the Horse Chesnut, Sycamore, Ailanthus, and others whose growth comes from the ends of the branches. They should not be pruned except when required to keep them as specimens of a particular size.

SOILS.

Much could be said on the subject, but it is difficult to understand the workings of nature or the effects of the atmospheric changes. The soil may be too sandy for some plants or too stiff for others. If too dry, seeds cannot germinate ; the young-roots of plants become burnt up and perish. If too wet, they damp off or become sickly; seeds also perish. If too cold, plants rarely thrive. If stiff and clayey, manure and sand are required.

In loamy soil, consisting principally of leaf-mould and sand, with a little lime and clay, properly drained and manured, most things thrive. It will be found best for borders; soft-wooded plants and annuals do well in it.

In sancly-loam with, a little clay and old manure well mixed, shrubs do best, as well as all tuberous-rooted plants.

Peaty soil, consisting of vegetable matter which has undergone a certain humidity and been converted into peat, found in valleys and hollows, is the best for Azaleas and Rhododendrons.

Sandy-loam or leaf mould will be found best for nearly all potting purposes.

MANURES.

That from the stable yard is best for cold stiff soils, do not let it be too old, but sufficiently moist for decomposition without becoming musty in the ground, as it is liable to do in dry weather if not put on moist.

Cowyard manure is inferior to stable manure, being colder and slower in its action, but its effects are more lasting; it is more used, therefore, and better for trees, as it will do good for several years. It is preferred for hot dry soils but is not good for cold wet ones. If used for the latter it must be mixed with stable manure, otherwise it will be found to retain too much moisture. In winter, mixed with turfy-loam, it is valuable for trees. It is highly suitable for dry hot soils and for mulching round the roots of trees in a hot climate.

Old tan is sometimes used as manure, but in some instances it has done harm, causing a growth of fungus and mildew.

Soot, used as a top dressing, is good but must be kept dry until required for use ; is best used as a liquid manure. One peck to thirty gallons of water, well mixed and allowed to get clear, will be found of great benefit to all growing plants, used once or twice a week.

Bones, broken up, are valuable. The effect is not speedy but lasting. Fresh and unboiled bones are considered best. They produce good results on dry soils deficient in phosphate of lime. They are not suitable for wet soils.

Fowlyard manure mixed with six times as much charcoal ashes, loam, or black soil is of great use. If used in an unmixed state it would be liable to kill the plants.

Sawdust is sometimes used but cannot do much good as it does not really decompose unless when saturated with liquid manure.

Charcoal is of great use in a garden, making the soil lighter and more friable. It has great fertilising qualities as it absorbs ammonia, carbonic acid, and other gases, giving them out again for the nourishment of plants.

HOW TO PLANT AND GROW FLOWERS FROM SEED.

A few simple directions may be a help to amateurs. In the first place it is necessary to have moisture in the soil for the growth of seeds. This can be supplied artificially if we have not rain, but we cannot supply the moist atmosphere which is so necessary, so that many times when the seeds come through the soil the dry atmosphere and sun burn off the seedlings. Some of the harder seeds will not germinate at all unless planted during a period of moist weather, but will remain in the soil for months until sufficient rain falls. These seeds should be soaked in water for a day or two before planting. Other seeds again will not come to perfection if planted out of doors, requiring indoor cultivation and a moist warm atmosphere. To be successful in seed growing you must have your ground well prepared, giving a good dressing of well decayed manure, digging it in well and raking over afterwards so as to have a smooth surface.

Hardy annuals which can be sown in the open borders without transplanting can be sown, after the ground has been prepared in this way, in patches, not covering them too deeply, say, three times the diameter of the large seeds, sprinkling-some fine soil over the small seeds. After sowing rub some

well decayed stable manure through a sieve over the top half an inch deep, this will keep the ground moist, acting as a sort of mulch and thus help the seeds to germinate. They should be well watered after being mulched. Great care will be required when the seeds are well up to keep them watered, free from weeds and also thinned out, leaving each plant two or three inches apart and the soil should be frequently stirred around them. Sow thinly and water well when necessary, never allowing the soil to get hard or caked.

The following seeds are some of those that can be sown in the open border :— Amaranthus, Calliopsis, Candytuft, Clianthus Dampieri, Euphorbia heterophylla (Mexican Fire Plant), Everlasting Pea, Godetia, Marigold, Mignonette, Nasturtium, Papaver (Poppy), Phlox Drummondii, Cuspidata, Rhodanthe, Stocks.

Some of our half-hardy annuals do best planted in boxes or pans. Shallow boxes, well drained by putting charcoal and broken pots about two inches deep at the bottom of the box, with dry fern or moss over it to keep the soil from clogging the drainage ; let the soil be a mixture of leaf mould, sand, and old manure well mixed, pressing down to make it firm and watering well when drained. Sprinkle the seeds lightly over the top, just covering them with some light soil, watering with a fine rosed watering pot. Place your boxes or pans in a warm sheltered situation, being careful to see that they are on a level surface or there would be danger of the seeds being washed oft’ or to one side of the box. Give them plenty of light, but not the full power of the sun.

Many of the more hardy kinds of annuals and biennials can be transplanted from the boxes into the garden. The more delicate ones are best pricked out into small pots, when thoroughly established and growing well can then be turned out of the pots into the garden without disturbing them, choosing showery weather for doing so. If done in dry weather they will require to be sheltered for a few days. The following plants are best raised in boxes and transplanted afterwards into the garden:—Asters, Anemones, Carnations, Chrysanthemums,

Cowslips, Digitalis, Dianthus, Pansy, Polyanthus, Salpiglosis, and Verbenas.

Biennials and perennials raised from seed in boxes or pans require more attention than do annuals. The boxes and soil may be the same, prepared in the same way, but giving them more drainage and more care is required in sowing. They are less rapid in growth and must not be kept too damp, water the soil, and sow as you would for annuals, but cover the boxes or pans Avith a sheet of glass, placing them in a sheltered position, raising the glass on one side as soon as the plants appear so as to give air, removing it altogether in a few days, pricking them out into pots as soon as they are large enough, potting them on as required. Keep them after potting in a close frame shaded from the sun for a few days. When established admit plenty of air and light, shading, when necessary, from the sun. Calceolarias, Cinerarias, and Primulas are best grown in a glass frame or greenhouse but will do well on a verandah or in a bush-house if placed there just as they are forming their flower buds, when plenty of water may be given. Liquid manure once a week but being careful never to water them over their foliage. The following are plants to be raised in boxes, grown and flowered in pots :—Calceolaria, Cineraria, Cyclamen, Gloxinia, Primula, Tuberous Begonia.

ON THE DISEASES OF BULBS.

Bulbs, like other plants are more or less subject to disease or blight. Some, however, are never affected. The Karcissus family for instance. Curiously bulbs that are solid and oblong in shape are seldom liable to disease or attacked by insects.

Anemones sometimes perish through getting mildew and becoming hollow as the roots get large. It is wise therefore to break them up into small crowns and keep them in dry sand, taking them up when the leaves turn yellow and begin to wither drying them in a cool place.

The Ranunculus like the Anemone will suffer from mildew and must be kept in dry sand where mice cannot get to them, else you will find all their crowns eaten.

Tulips are liable to dry-rot if the soil is too sandy and dry; on the other hand, slugs will eat them if the soil is too damp.

Iris will never keep long out of the ground, withering if exposed too long, and are subject to dry rot if the situation is too dry.

Liliums also suffer, if kept long out of the ground, from dry rot ; and damp off if the soil is too damp.

Tigridia, though resembling the Iris in nature, will keep well in a dry state.

Gladioli are sound healthy bulbs but are apt to die off in poor ground.

Peonies must be kept in good light soil free from weeds or else they will decay in the crowns.

Squils will rot off if too often moved, not liking to be disturbed.

The Crocus dislikes being kept out of the ground long, rotting off into a dry powder.

Hyacinths decay in the crown when old and the bulbs become flat instead of oblong and may become case bound if kept too long out of the ground in a hot climate. They will not then root freely.

Snowdrops must have good light soil. They damp off if too frequently moved.

Cyclamens should be kept almost dry in their dormant state never letting the crowns get injured or the plants fail to recover.

Calla, if not supplied with sufficient water, will rot off.

Tuberoses will also rot if kept too dry, their cases hardening and not forming healthy roots.

Amaryllis will dwindle away if not in rich loose soil. Must have warmth.

The Agapanthus needs plenty of water to thrive and bloom properly. In dry soil they are apt to decay.

Abies (Sjjruce Fir) ... Abronia ...    ...    ...

Abutilon ...    ...    ...

Acacia (Wattles) ...    ...

Acanthus ...    ...    ...

Acer (Maple)    ...    10,

Acroclinium    ...    ...

Acrophorus    ...    ...

Actiniopleris    ...    ...

Adhatoda ...    ...    ...

Adiantum ...    ...    ...

HCsculus (Horse Chestnut) Agapanthus    ...    ...

Agathsea (Blue Marguerite) Agrostis (Grasses) ... Ailanthus (Tree of Heaven) Allamanda...    ...    ...

Alsophila ...    ...    ...

Alternanthera    ...    ...

Amaranthus    ...    ...

Amaryllis Belladonna    ...

Amaryllis Brunsvigia    ...

Amaryllis Crinum    ...

Amaryllis Hippeastrum    ...

Amaryllis Nerine...    ...

Amaryllis Sprekelia For-mossima    ...    ...

Amaryllis Sternbergia ... Amaryllis Y allota purpurea Amaryllis Zephyrantlius... Ampelopsis    ...    ...

Anthoxanthum    ...    ...

Antirrhinum    ...    ...    53

Aralia    ...    ...    ...    12

Araucaria-conifer    ... 121

Arbutus    ...    ...    ...    11

Ardisia    ...    ...    ...    11

Arduina (Cape    Plum)    ...    12

Arunda .........11

Asparagus...    ...    ...    79

Asperula    ...    ...    ...    5

Asplenium...    ...    ...    108

Aster    ...    ...    ...    5

Astilbe (spiraea Japonica) 53 Aucuba    ...    ...    ...    12

Auricula    ...    ...    ...    52

Avena )

Briza    - (Grasses) ...    116

Bromus J

Azalea    ...    ...    ...    13

Azara    ...    ...    ...    13

Babiana    ...    ...    ...    91

Balsam    ...    ...    ...    5

Bartonia (Aurea)...    ...    5

Begonia(variegated-leaved) 53 Begonia (tuberous-rooted) 54 Bignonia    ...    ...    ...    79

Blechnum    ...    ...    ...    109

Boronia    ...    ...    ...    14

Bougainvillea    ...    ...    80

Bouvardia    ...    ...    ...    15

Brachycliiton (Flame Tree of New South Wales) ... 125 Brachycome    ...    ...    5


PAGE

Brodleea grandiflora ...    91

Browallia ...    ...    ...    16

Brugmansia    ...    ...    16

Bryonia ...    ...    ...    80

Buxus ...    ...    ...    16

Caladium ...    ...    ...    56

Calceolaria...    ...    ...    6

Calendar for—

January...    ...    ...    3

February    ...    ...    9

March ...    ...    ..    32

April ...    ...    ...    46

May ...    ...    ...    51

June ...    ...    ...    63

July ......... 77

August ...    ...    ...    87

September    ...    ...    99

October ...    ...    ...    105

November    ...    ...    114

December    ...    ...    119

Calliopsis or Coreopsis ...    6

Calycanthus    ...    ...    125

Camellia ...    ...    ...    16

Camphora officinalis (Camphor Laurel)    ... 125

Canavallia ...    ...    ...    81

Candytuft ...    ...    ...    6

Canna ...    ...    ...    56

Canterbury Bell ...    ...    57

Cantua dependens ...    17

Carnation ...    ...    ...    57

Castanea ...    ...    ...    125

Castanospermum Australe 125 Ceanothus...    ...    ...    17

Cedrela Toona (Red Cedar)    126

Cedrus Atlantica (Silver

Cedar).........121

Celosia (Cockscomb) ...    6

Cerasus ...    ...    ...    18

Ceratopetalum    ...    ...    126

Oestrum ...    ...    ...    18

Cheilanthes    ...    ...    109

Cheiranthus    ...    ...    57

Chloris .........116

PAGE

Choisya ternata ...    ...    18

Christia grandiflora    ...    18

Chrysanthemum (annual Marguerite) ...    ...    6

Chrysanthemum ...    ...    59

Chrysanthemums, in pots    57

Chrysurus... ...    ...    116

Cineraria ...    ...    ...    6

Cissus ...    ...    ...    81

Cistus ...    ...    ...    18

Clematis ...    ...    ...    80

Clerodendrons ...    ...    81

Clianthus Dampieri    ...    59

Climbing Fig ...    ...    81

Cobrea Scandens ...    ...    82

Coix .........116

Columbine... ...    ...    59

Coleus ...    ...    ...    60

Corynocarpus Leevigatus (New Zealand Laurel)... 126 Cotyledon ...    ...    ...    60

Crocus ......... 92

Cryptomeria ...    ...    121

Cupressus (Cypress)    ...    121

Cyclamen ...    ...    ...    60

Cyperus ...    ...    ...    116

Dacrydium ...    ...    122

Dahlia ...    ...    ...    60

Daisy ...    ...    ...    61

Daphne ...    ...    ...    18

Dasylirion...    ...    ...    19

Datura ...    ...    ...    6

Davallia ...    ...    ...    110

Delphinium ...    ...    62

Deutzia ...    ...    ...    19

Dianthus ...    ...    ...    62

Dielytra spectabilis (Bleeding Heart)    ...    ...    62

Digitalis ...    ...    ...    62

Diosma ......... 19

Diplachne ...    ...    ...    116

Dombeya ...    ...    ...    19

Doodia ...... ...    110

Dracmna ...    ...    ...    20

Duranta ... ... ...

PAGE

20

Eragrostis (Love Grass)...

116

Erianthus ... ... ...

117

Erica (Heath) ... ...

21

Eriosternon ... ...

23

Eschscholtzia ... 7

, 62

Escallonia ... ... ...

23

Erythrina ... ... ...

23

Erythrina Arborea (Coral

Tree) ... ... ...

126

Eucharis Amarylliese ...

92

Eugenia Smithii(LilyPilly) 126

Eulalia ... .. ...

117

Euphorbia... ... ...

23

Euphorbia heterophylla ...

7

Fabiana imbricata ...

23

Fagus sylvatica (Common

Beech) ... ... ...

126

Farfugium grande ...

62

Ferns—■

Tree ... ... ...

101

To grow from seed ...

103

To propagate by division

104

Ferula ... ... ...

64

Festuca (Grass) ... ...

117

Ficus (Fig) ......

127

Flindersia Australis ...

127

Forsythia ... ... ...

24

Francisia ... ... ...

24

Freesia ... ... ...

92

Frenela (Callitris) Pine ...

122

Fritillaria ... ... ...

93

Fuchsia ... ... ...

24

Fugosia Patersonii ...

24

Funkia ... ... ...

64

Gaillardia ... ... ...

66

Galanthus ... ... ...

93

Gardenia ... ... ...

25

Garrya elliptica ... ...

25

Gazania ... ... ...

65

Gentiana ... ... ...

66

Gladiolus ... ... ...

93

Gleichenia... ... ...

111

Glory Pea... ... ...

26

Gloxinia    ...    ...    ...    64

Godetia    ...    ...    ...    7

Grevillia robusta (Silver

Oak) .........127

Gymnothrix ...    ...    117

Gynerium (Pampas Grass)    117

Hedychum    ...    ...    66

Hedera    ...    ...    ...    82

Helianthus (Sunflower) ...    7

Heliotrope... ...    ...    26

Helleborus    ...    ...    66

Hibiscus    ...    ...    ...    26

Holly (Ilex) ...... 28

Honeysuckle ...    ...    83

Hordeum    ...    ...    ...    117

Hoya    ...    ...    ...    82

Hyacinth    ...    ...    ...    94

Hyacinths, growninglasses 94 Hydrangea ...    ...    27

Hypericum ...    ...    27

Indigofera...    ...    ...    28

Inga pulcherrima ...    ...    28

Iresine    ...    ...    ...    66

Iris.............    94

Isolepis    ...    ...    ...    117

Isopogon    ...    ...    ...    28

Ixia...    ...    ...    ...    95

Jacaranda mimossefolia ... 127. Jasmine    ...    ...    ...    28

Judas Tree ...    ...    127

Juniperus (Juniper)    ...    122

Justicia    ...    ...    ...    29

Kalosanthes ...    ...    67

Kennedya    ...    ...    ...    83

Kerria    ...    ...    ...    29

Kleinia    ...    ...    ...    67

Lagerstroemia ...    ...    29

Lagurus    ...    ...    ...    117

Lantana    ...    ...    ...    29

Lapageria    ...    ...    ...    83

Lasiandra    ...    ...    ...    29

Laurustinus ...    ...    30

Lemon-scented Yerbena...    30

Leucadendron (Silver Tree) 30

Leucophyta Brownii ...

PAGE

67

Phlox, perennial ... ...

PAGE

73

Ligustrum (Privet) ...

30

Phlox Drummondii ...

8

Lilium ... ... ...

95

Photinia ... ... ...

35

Lobelia ... ... ...

67

Picea ... ... ...

122

Lomaria ... ... ...

111

Pinus (The true Pine) ...

122

Lophospermum ... ...

84

Pinus Coulterii (Macro-

Lychnis Chalcedonica ...

67

carpa) ... ... ...

122

Lygodium ... ... ...

112

Platanus (Plane Tree) ...

127

Mackaya Bella ... ...

31

Platycerium ... ...

112

Magnolia ... ... ...

80

Plumbago ... ... ...

35

Mandevillea ... ...

84

Podalyria ... ... ...

36

Manettia ... ... ...

84

Podocarpus ... ...

123

Marigolds ... ... ...

7

Poinsettia Pulcherrima ...

36

Maurandya ... ...

84

Polentilla ... ... ...

74

Melia azedarach floribunda

Polyanthus ... ...

73

(White Cedar) ... ...

127

Polypodium ......

113

Menziesia (Irish Heath) ...

31

Pomegranate (Punica) ...

36

Mesembryanthemum ...

68

Populus Alba (Silver Pop

Metraria coccinea... ...

31

lar) ... ... ...

127

Mimulus ... ... ...

68

Portulacca... ... ...

74

Monochaetum ... ...

31

Protea (Cape Honeysuckle)

37

Murraya ... ... ...

31

Prunus ... ... ...

37

Myrtle .........

31

Pyrethrum ... ...

74

Nandina ... ... ...

33

Pyrus Japonica ... ...

37

Narcissus ... ... ...

96

Quercus robur (English

Nasturtium ... ...

7

Oak) .........

128

Negundo fraxinifolium ...

33

Ranunculus ... ...

74

Nephrodium ... ...

112

Rhodanthe ... ...

8

Nerium (Oleander) ...

33

Rhododendron ... ...

37

Olea fragrans ... ...

34

Rhyncospermum ... ...

38

Osmanthus aquifolium ...

34

Rhyncospermum Jasmin-

Palms ... ... ...

34

oides ... ... ...

84

Panicum (Ornamental

Robina ... ... ...

38

Grass) ... ... ...

118

Rochea ... ... ...

74

Pansies ... ... ...

68

Rondeletia speciosa ...

38

Papaver glaucum... ...

8

Rondeletia amoena ...

38

Papaver (Poppy) ... ...

69

Roses ... ... ...

39

Passiflora ... ... ...

84

Salisburia (Maiden - hair

Pelargonium ... ...

69

Tree) ... .. ...

123

Pentstemon ... ...

72

Salix Babylonica (Weeping

Peony ... ... ...

72

Willow).........

128

Petunia ... ... ...

73

Salpiglossis ... ...

8

Phaseolus ... ... ...

84

Salvia ... ... ...

75

Philad elphu s ... ...

35

Saxifraga ... ... ...

75

Scliinus Molle

(Pepper

PAGE

Telopea ... ...

PAGE

... 48

Tree) ...

128

Thuja ... ...

... 123

Seclum ...

75

Thujopsis ... ...

... 123

Sempervivum

75

Thumbergia ...

... 86

Solandra ...

85

Tilia ......

... 128

Sparaxis ...

97

Toclea ... ...

... 113

Spiraea ...

47

Tuberose ... ...

... 97

Stapliylea ...

47

Tulip ......

... 98

Stenocarpus

48

Arerbena ... ...

... 76

Stenocarpus Cunninghamii

128

Veronica ... ...

... 49

Stephanotis

85

Viburnum... ...

... 49

Stigmaphyllon

85

Virgilia ... ...

... 50

Stipa ...

118

Water Bouquet ...

... 130

Streptosolen

48

Weigela ... ...

... 50

Strelitzia ...

47

W ellingtonia ...

... 124

Symphoricarpus

(Snow-

Wigandia ... ...

... 50

berry Tree)

48

Wistaria ... ...

... 86

Syringa (Lilac)

48

Yucca ... ...

... 50

Tacsonia ...

86

Zea.........

... 118

Taxus ...

123

Zinnia ... ...

... 8

Tecoma ...

49