ENGLISH

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QUEENSLAND SOKOLS


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GRADE

V



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English

FOR

Queensland Schools

Grade V.

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

Registered at the General Post Office, Brisbane, for transmission by post as a book.

Issued by

The Department of Public Instruction

Wholly set up and printed in Australia by A. H. Tucker, Queensland Government Printer. 1948.

GuSENSLANft Book Depot 61 Adelaide St

PtmaWlAIME

w




I


PREFACE.

This book is the third of a series designed to help teachers in training pupils to use good English, both in speech and in writing.

The subject-matter of Parts I, II, III and IV has been divided into ten chapters, each representing approximately a month's work. Part V has been arranged differently. It consists of seven groups of Composition exercises. It is not considered advisable to complete one group before proceeding to the next, rather should one or more exercises in each group be taken monthly.

Notes for the guidance of pupils must be supplemented by oral explanation.

All the exercises in the book need not be rigidly used; teachers may compile others as their judgment dictates.

a





Chapter.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10.


CONTENTS,

Part I.

SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS.

General Exercises ..    ..    ..

The Indirect Object    ..    ..

The Adjectival Clause    ..    ..

The Adjectival Clause, continued General Exercises ..    ..    ..

The Adverbial Clause    ..    ..

The Adverbial Clause, continued .. The Complement ..    ..    ..

The Complement, continued    ..

General Exercises ..    ..    ..

Part II.

PARTS OF SPEECH AND ACCIDENCE.

The Noun—Classification    and    Gender    ..    ..

Number of Nouns . .    . .    ..    ..    • •

The Eelative Pronoun    . .    .,    ..    • •

The Eelative Pronoun, continued. Inflection of the Pronoun    . .    . .    ..    •    •    •    •

Adjectives or Pronouns    ..    ..    •    •    • •

The Conjunction    ..    ..    ..    •    •    •    •

The Verb—Voice    ..    ..    •    •    •    •    •    •

The Verb—Tense    . .    . •    •    •    •    •    •    •

The Noun—Special Cases. The Verb—Agreement or Concord . .    ..    ••    ••    ••

Eules of Syntax. Contractions in Parsing ..

E.V.—1 A.

Page.

1

3

6

9

12

14

17

19

21

23


27

32

37

42

45

47

51

55

60

68


Part III.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES.

Chapter.    Page.

1.    Words of Opposite Meaning, and Other Exercises 72

2.    Substitutions, and Other Exercises    .    .    ..    74

3.    Words of Similar Meaning, and Other Exercises 76

4.    Substitutions and Punctuation ..    ..    ..    78

5.    Combining Sentences, and Other Exercises    ..    80

6.    Substitutions and Punctuation . .    .    .    ..    83

7.    Combining Sentences and Punctuation    ..    ..    84

8.    Correction of Sentences, and Other Exercises ..    87

9.    Combining Sentences, Punctuation, and Correc

tion of Sentences    ..    ..    ..    . .    90

10. Word Building, and Correction of Sentences ..    92

Part IV.

DERIVATION AND WORD BUILDING.

1.    Latin Prefixes    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    95

2.    Latin Suffixes    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    93

3.    How the English Language Grows ..    ..    100

4.    Latin    Boots—Verbs    ..    ..    ..    ..    106

5.    Latin    Boots—Adjectives ..    ..    ..    ..    109

6.    Latin Boots—Verbs and Nouns......Ill

7.    Latin    Boots—Verbs    ..    ..    ..    ..    113

8.    Latin    Boots—Nouns    ..    ..    ..    ..    H6

9.    Latin    Boots—Nouns    ..    ..    ..    ..    ng

10.    Latin    Boots—Verbs    ..    ..    ..    ..    120

Part V.

COMPOSITION EXERCISES.

Group.

Page.

A

Completing Short Stories Already Begun ..

123

B

Composing Stories to Suit Given Endings ..

125

C

Expanding Outlines of Stories .. .. . .

126

D

Expanding Outline of Descriptive Composition ..

128

E

Imaginary Conversations and Autobiographies ..

132

F

Letter Writing—(i) Outlines Given; (ii) Topics Given .. .. .. • • • • • •

133

G

Variety of Expression ........

141

GRADE FIVE


PART I.—SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS.

CHAPTER 1.—GENERAL EXERCISES.

(a) Analyse the following sentences:—

1.    Early to-morrow morning we shall catch our first

glimpse of the sea.

2.    Whose book did you borrow yesterday?

3.    Turn on both the hot and the cold water at the

same time.

4.    Shall I pick some lettuce and tomatoes for lunch?

5.    The driver quickly drew from his overcoat pocket

a small parcel with a red paper wrapping.

fi. The dog, tucking his tail between his legs, scampered down the path.    ,

(&) Pick out the phrases, and state whether adjectival or adverbial:—

1.    He wore a badge on his arm.

2.    I was awakened by a knock on the wall.

3.    Stains have been made on the carpet.

4.    He was distinguished by a badge on his arm.

5.    My neighbour was knocking on the wall.

6.    My father examined the stains on the carpet.

(c)    Change the position of the phrases in each of the following sentences and note how the meaning of each sentence is changed:—

1.    The man with the walking stick assisted the child.

2.    The boy on the bridge found the lost ring.

3.    The horses were eating the lucerne in the

paddock.

4.    Ships from all countries carry goods here.

5.    The flowers near the creek bank grow luxuriantly.

6.    The men are coming home from the factory. '

(d)    Analyse the following sentences:—

1.    We could hear in the room above us the sound

of falling crockery.

2.    They carried to the tent near the beach their

supplies of food and drink.

3.    On the fence we saw a jackass with a small snake

in its beak.

4.    Through the startled people raced a dog with

a large collar round his neck.

5.    All day long through the town sounded the tread

of marching men.

J; • .

6.    One night, two brothers of the name of Morgan

visited Gordon’s selection.

CHAPTER 2.—THE INDIRECT OBIECT.

In the Fourth Grade you learned to build up and to analyse simple sentences. You know how to find the object of a transitive verb. Some transitive verbs have two objects. Study the following sentences carefully:—

My friend lent me his knife.

The boy’s uncle gave him a new bicycle.

Tom gave Fred a birthday present.

Will you lend me a lead pencil?

My friend offered her an apple.

Father sold his friend a horse.

My uncle taught them French.

The teacher asked us a question.

We sent the soldiers some parcels.

The teacher told the children an interesting story.

One object in each sentence is shown in black type, and one in italics.

We might have written the sentences in this way:— My friend lent his knife to me.

The boy’s uncle gave a new bicycle to him.

Tom gave a birthday present to Fred.

Will you lend a lead pencil to me ?

My friend offered an apple to her.

Father sold a horse to his friend.

My uncle taught French to them.

The teacher asked a question of us.

We sent some parcels to the soldiers.

The teacher told an interesting story to the children.

The words in black type are called “Direct Objects.” Those in italics are called “Indirect Objects.” The Direct Objects are, of course, objective case governed by the transitive verbs. The Indirect Objects are objective case governed by the prepositions “to” or “of,” which are usually understood.

Ordinarily, the Indirect Object comes before the Direct Object as is shown in the first group of sentences.

The following verbs often have two objects:—lendr send, give, tell, offer, sell, teach, ash, buy, promise, show, and write.

(a) Compose sentences using the foregoing verbs each followed by an indirect and a direct object. Draw a single line under the Direct Objects, and a double line under the Indirect Objects.

When analysing sentences with indirect objects, set out your work in this way:—

We sent the soldiers some parcels.

Subject.

Predicate.

We

sent (verb)

some parcels (direct object)

(to) the soldiers (indirect object)

The words printed in black type are the ones you must underline when you do written analysis.

(5) Analyse the following sentences:—

1.    The teacher promised the children a holiday.

2.    The gentleman showed us his collection of butter

flies.

3.    My mate gave me some silkworms.

4.    The old lady sent her grandchildren Christmas

gifts.

5.    I am lending my friend some books.

6.    The old sailor told the boys some interesting

stories.

7.    The conductor found mother a comfortable seat.

8.    The children asked their teacher many questions.

9.    My friend has written me several interesting

letters.

10. The crowd gave the soldiers a wonderful welcome.

(c) Analyse the following sentences:—

1.    In his chamber, weak and dying, was the Norman

baron lying. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

9. In through the window comes a little golden moonbeam with misty wings.

10. In the evening, lamps would shine yellow as honey.

—0O0—

CHAPTER 3.—THE ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE.

The three sentences below have exactly the same meaning, although the words used to describe the hat are different in each ease.

(a) The teamster wore a broad-brimmed hat.

fib) The teamster wore a hat with a broad brjm.

(c) The teamster wore a hat which had a broad brim.

In “a,” b road-1) rimmed is an adjective qualifying “hat.”

In    with a broad brim is an adjectival phrase

qualifying “hat.”

In “c,” which had a broad brim is an adjective1 -Hnse qualifying “hat.”

This group of words is called a clause because it has a subject and a predicate—the subject being the relative pronoun “which” and the predicate the words “had a broad brim.”

A verb which has a subject is called a finite verb.

Remember that a “phrase” does not contain a finite verb, and that a “clause” must have a finite verb.

(a) Re-write each of the following sentences, substituting first a phrase for the adjective in black type, and then an adjectival clause for the phrase (remember that each clause must contain a finite verb) :—*

1.    The Emperor was a merciless man.

2.    The fur-lined coat was warm and cosy.

3.    My friend bought a gold watch.

4.    The westerly wind was bitterly cold.

5.    English settlers arrived many years later.

6.    The long-haired terrier won the prize.

7.    Coconuts grow on high trees.

8.    Eskimos live in snow houses.    .

9.    A wooden bridge spanned the river.

10. The whaler sailed to the Polar seas.

Let us take the sentence, “The Emperor was a man who showed no mercy.” It contains two clauses—

(a) The Emperor was a man

(&) who showed no mercy.

The former, “a,” is the main or principal clause. The second clause describes “man” in the principal clause. It therefore is said to be a subordinate adjectival clause qualifying “man.” The word “subordinate” means “of lower rank” or “of less importance.”

A sentence which consists of one principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses is called a Complex Sentence.

Every adjectival clause is introduced by a relative pronoun or by a word which does the work of a relative pronoun expressed or understood.

(5) Re-write the following complex sentences and draw a single line under each adjectival clause :—

1.    A crow that was very thirsty flew to a pitcher to

drink.

2.    The elephant that lives in Africa is hunted for

its tusks.

3.    This is the poem that won the prize.

4.    They crossed a bridge which led to the town.

5.    This is the story that was told to me.

6.    Some little boys who stood near cheered loudly.

7.    The ducks hid in the reeds which were growing

in the water.

8.    A wasp met a bee that was just buzzing by.

9.    A road which is seldom trod becomes choked with

brambles and high grass.

10.    I am the old man who planted the fig-tree.

11.    I crossed the track of a camel that had strayed

from its owner.

12.    It was the schooner Hesperus that sailed the

wintry sea.

13.    The train which left Brisbane for Townsville last

night was delayed by floods.

14.    The scout who was light and nimble climbed up

a tree like a squirrel.

15.    The girl who sang so sweetly is only eight years

old.

16.    An adjectival clause is one which does the work

of an adjective.

17.    Toll was a cooper who lived in Norway.

18.    I have a little shadow that goes in and out with

me.

19.    There once was a restless boy who lived in a home

by the sea.

20.    The slave was awakened by a dreadful sound that

echoed through the cave.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 4.—THE ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE,—continued.

All the relative pronouns in exercise (&) of Chapter III. are the subjects of the adjectival clauses, and therefore are nominative case. But the subordinate clause may be introduced by a relative pronoun in the objective case, or by a relative pronoun in the possessive case.

Study the following examples, underline each relative pronoun, and state its case.

The boy who sang is not nervous.    :

The smart lad whom we met at the party will arrive shortly.

The boy whose leg was injured is very brave.

(a) To each of the following statements add an adjectival clause with the relative pronoun governed either by a transitive verb or by a preposition:—

1.    This is the house.

2.    We welcomed the visitor.

3.    The painting was admired.

4.    The two girls greeted us joyously.    /

5.    The concert was a great success.

6.    Songs were sung round the camp fire.

The relative pronoun “whose” should be used only when its antecedent or the word for which it stands refers to a person or persons. Thus we do not write “The table whose leg was broken is made of pine.” We should write: “The table, the leg of which was broken, is made of pine.”

In analysing complex sentences set out your work in this way:—The slave was awakened by a dreadful sound that echoed through the cave— 8

Number.

Connective.

Clause.

Kind and Relation.

1

The slave was

Principal clause.

awakened by a dreadful sound

2

that . .

that echoed through

Adjectival clause

the cave

qualifying “ sound”

in 1.

8.    He is the old man whom you saw planting the

tree.

9.    In the country I met a man whom I had not

seen for years.

10.    These are the boundaries within which we shall

make a sports ground.

11.    I do not remember the man by whom I was

beaten in the race.

12.    The hoys and the girls whose fathers are over

seas were entertained at a picnic.

13.    The water in the creek through which I waded

was breast high.

14.    Not one of the boys whose books I have

borrowed has returned to school this year.

15.    It was the view from this hill that my friend

painted.    -

16.    The hunter whose rifle was unloaded attacked

.    the bear with his axe.

In each of the adjectival clauses with which you ihave dealt so far the relative pronoun has been expressed, but it is not always expressed. It is often omitted. Here is an example

No one knew of the beautiful visions she had seen. The adjectival clause is “(which) she had seen”—the relative pronoun which being understood. The word “ (which) ” is the object of the transitive verb “had seen.”

(c) Re-write the following complex sentences supplying the missing relative pronouns and underlining the adjectival clauses:—

1.    There are many things we can do.

2.    The cattle we hunt are racing in front.

3.    Few and short were the prayers we said.

4.    The person yon seek is not here.

5.    Is that the value you place on the house?

6.    Here is the lady we met in Sydney.

7.    We went to town to buy the things we needed.

8.    I enjoyed reading the book you lent me.

9.    I do not approve of many of the things you do.

It is important to note that the relative pronoun omitted is generally objective case.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 5.—GENERAL EXERCISES.

(a)    Construct five simple sentences each containing an indirect object. Underline the indirect object.

(b)    Construct a simple sentence having an object, an extension of time, an extension of place, and an extension of manner.

(c) Use the following phrases (i) as enlargements of the subject, and (ii) as extensions of the verb :—

1.    in the school.

2.    by the wayside.

3.    out of doors.

4.    across the river.

5.    with the axe.


6.    on the grass.

7.    under the trees.

8.    from the country.

9.    at the seaside.

10. near the railway station.

(d) Give the detailed analysis of each of the following sentences:—

1. On their way home, after the day’s sport, the officers found in the jungle a little tiger kitten,

2.    Behind the flames came crowds of men with

shining sticks or long spears in their hands.

3.    Give your brother some help during the

morning.

4.    Soon we shall see in the distance the towers

and spires of the city.

5.    Head the ship for England.    , i    H i

(e) Classify the clauses in each of the following

sentences:—

1.    The officers and the committee who will control

the club during the year will be elected at the annual meeting.

2.    I live in the home he built.

3.    The sound that came pleasantly to our ears

was the pealing of the church bells.

4.    The cattle station across which we were travel

ling was once owned by our guide.

5.    He whose book this is should take more care

of his property.

(/) Place the phrases in brackets in suitable places in each sentence, and then state whether the phrase is adjectival or adverbial:—

1.    The train has just passed (for Gympie; over

the river).

2.    She promised the finder a reward (of the bangle;

of one pound). 9

4.    The trip has been postponed (to the seaside;

for a month).

5.    The voyage was delayed (along the Coast; by

storms).

6.    The letter was lost (from his mother; by the

carrier).

—oOo—

CHAPTER 6.—THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE.

You have already learned how to expand an adjective into an adjectival phrase and into an adjectival clause. Now let us do similar work with adverbs. Look at the words in black type in the following sentences:—

The children rose early.

The children rose before sunrise.

The children rose before the sun appeared.

In the first sentence ‘‘early” is an adverb of time modifying “rose.” In the second sentence, “before sunrise” is an adverbial phrase of time modifying “rose.” In the third sentence “before the sun appeared” is an adverbial clause of time modifying “rose.”

Here are further examples to study—

The train will arrive soon.

The train will arrive at ten o’clock.

The train will arrive when the clock strikes ten.


Stand where you were placed.


Stand there.
Stand in that place.

Adverb of time.

Adverbial phrase of time.

Adverbial clause of time.

Adverb of place.

Adverbial phrase of place.

Adverbial clause of place.

Do your work thus.    Adverb of manner.

Do your work in this way. Adverbial phrase of

manner.

Do your work as you have Adverbial clause of been shown.    manner.

Just as there are adverbs of time, place, and manner, so there are adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses of the same kinds.

(a) Re-write the following sentences substituting a phrase for each adverb in black type and then a clause for the phrase.

1.    The dog came immediately.

2.    The garden has improved lately.

3.    The accident occurred here.

4.    Suddenly the sirens sounded.

5.    Then he found there was no money in the purse.

6.    Come early.

(&) Analyse the following sentences, setting out your work as in the example below:—(Note that the kind of clause is given, also what the subordinate clause modifies.)

When the rock was hid by the surge’s swell

The mariners heard the warning bell.

Number.

Connective.

Clause.

Kind and Relation.

1

The mariners heard

Principal clause.

the warning bell

2

when . .

when the rock was

Adverbial clause of

hid by the surge’s

time modifying

swell

“ heard ” in clause 1.

1.    The lad wiped his feet when he came in.

2.    The huge waves shook the ship as a terrier might

shake a rat.

3.    As they sped over the smooth ice the cold air cut

their faces.

* 4. He acted as a sensible boy should act.

5.    We must reach the shore before they overtake us.

6.    The beasts are pulling as bullocks must.

7.    Hide the ball where we can find it later.

8.    When Ali Baba had passed through, the door

closed after him.

9.    The match did not end as we expected.

10.    She struck where the white and fleecy waves

looked soft.

11.    Ho the work as it should be done.

12.    When they frolicked in the fields, the child would

share the game.

13.    I swam where the water was not deep.

14.    She taught me to lisp my earliest prayer as I

knelt beside that old arm-chair.

15.    One sleeps where southern vines are dressed above

the noble slain.

CHAPTER 7.—THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE,—continued.

Some adverbial clauses tell why some action is completed. Therefore they are known as adverbial clauses of cause or reason. Here are three examples :—-

He came because he was sent for.

As he arrived late, he missed the train.

As the day was cold and wet, we postponed our trip to the seaside.

(а)    Add an adverbial clause of cause or reason to each of the following statements:—

1.    Robert called out excitedly.

2.    We noiselessly entered the room.

3.    The citizens welcomed the soldier.

4.    Food was scarce.

5.    The native bear needs protection.

6.    I am carrying an umbrella.

7.    We were surprised.

(б)    Classify the clauses in the following sentences, and state the kind and relationship:—

1.    As she had sold no matches, the little girl was

afraid to go home.

2.    I visited my grandmother because I am very

fond of her.

3.    We did not shoot lest we should hit the man.

4.    As the stems were twined together, Jack climbed

them easily.

5.    Be careful lest you fall.

6.    As Jack was very tired, he went to bed early.

(c) Classify the clauses in the following sentences:—

1.    When night comes they roll themselves into a

ball.

2.    The natives call them God’s birds because they

are so splendid.

3.    Where he goes they go.

4.    He walked as a tired man walks.

My friend owns a farm on which wheat is grown.    .

6.    While the robbers were dividing their spoil,

they were attacked by a troop of Turkish horsemen.

7.    They resolved not to yield to a king whose

very name was hateful.

8.    As the tracks were very plain in the snow, the

hunters soon came up with the bear.

9.    The man has returned whence he came.

10. He spoke as a winner should.

11.    As the explorers had to cross a desert they carried

a supply of water.

12.    A tall gum tree stands where the two roads meet.

13.    Are you the boy about whom we were speaking?

14.    As I approached the village I heard the sound

of music.

15.    Behave as patriots must.

\

CHAPTER 8.—THE COMPLEMENT.

Study the following pairs of sentences—

The boy was reading a book.

Bob is a good boy.

The rat is gnawing the cheese.

Those men are skilled workers.

Father is digging a trench.

Henry became King.

The first sentence in each pair is built up of subject, transitive verb and object.    ;

f;

Now examine the second sentence in each pair. Notice the verbs—is, are and became. They are not action verbs and so cannot be transitive. They cannot have objects. Neither can they form predicates without help or addition. “Bob is” does not make sense, neither does “Those men are” nor “Henry became.” Another word or group of words must be added to complete the sense. The added words which are necessary to make the sentences complete are called “complements.” The complements in the three sentences which we have been considering are—a good boy, skilled workers, and King. You will notice that each stands for the same person or persons as the subject word.

You. must always be on the watch for these common verbs. At first sight you may think that they take objects because when you ask your question ‘ ‘ whom ? ” or “ what ? ’ there appears to be an answer—e.g., Bob is what? The answer is “a good boy.” But you know that, in this sentence, there is no action done to anyone or to anything, so there can be no object.

Here is a list of verbs which require complements and which do not take objects. You will do well to learn them by heart. Am, art, is, are, was, wast, were, wert, be, been, being (eleven parts of the verb to be), become, became, seem and appear.

A complement may be a noun, an adjective or a phrase. It must, in every case, refer to the subject word.

(a)    Pick out the complements:—

1.    Parrots are noisy birds.

2.    The flowers are beautiful.

3.    Mary seems a kind girl.

4.    Thou art the man.

5.    The weather was delightful.

6.    The puppy became a great nuisance.

7.    The people on the wharf were refugees.

8.    The children were unruly.

9.    The old man had been a missionary.

10.    After two helpings of pudding he became ill.

11.    At the end of the day Jack appeared tired.

12.    Up in the mountains the air seemed fresh and

clear.

(b)    Analyse the following sentences:—

1.    The children did not notice the little daisy.

2.    The speaker was a General.

3.    The parents welcomed their soldier son.

4.    The drovers lost many bullocks.

5.    The huntsman sounded his horn.

6.    They seem very nice people.

7.    The Princess planted by the statue a weeping

willow.

8.    The Prince wore a splendid uniform.

9.    That man in the bine uniform is my brother.

—- - .......... '    %***    0**

10.    The old sailor had visited many countries.

11.    The extravagant young man soon spent his

money.

12.    The huntsman saw a tawny shape in the cedar

tree.

13.    His friend became the chief bowler in the team.

14.    An earthquake destroyed the city.

15.    The farmers are reaping their crops of wheat.

16.    The huge crowd applauded the players.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 9.—THE COMPLEMENT,—continued.

In some sentences there is a complement in addition to the object. Example: We elected him captain yesterday.

This sentence should be analysed as follows:—

Subject.

Predicate.

We

elected (verb).

him (object).

captain (complement).

yesterday (extension of time).

The words printed in black type are the ones you must underline when you do written analysis.

(a) Analyse the following sentences:—

1.    I thought him a good cricketer.

2.    After some training they made my young brother

a Corporal.

E.V.—3.

3.    The judge declared that baby the winner.

4.    Their bravery made them the heroes of the

regiment.

5.    The people elected Mr. Roosevelt president of the

United States.

Sometimes there is an adverb or an adverbial phrase forming an extension in the same sentence as the complement.

(b)    Analyse the following sentences:—

1.    The children in this class have been late every

day this week.

2.    The price of fruit is much higher in the shops

near our place.

3.    Is not a trip to the seaside enjoyable on a

pleasant day?

4.    We were full of excitement during the whole

evening.

5.    Granddad will be seventy years old tomorrow.

(c)    In each of the following sentences state whether the complement is a noun, an adjective, or a phrase:—

1.    The kind words made the child happy.

2.    The team elected John captain.

3.    We found the enemy alert.

4.    The Scouts’ report proved of importance.

5.    The hot weather has turned the milk sour.

6.    Hunger drove him desperate.

7.    He became a scholar.

8.    This book is of use,

(d) Give the detailed analysis of the following Sentences:—

1.    His holiday has made my grandfather quite well

again.

2.    A guide from the Tourist Bureau showed the

visitors all the interesting places in the town.

3.    The old lady seemed very strange during the

concert.

4.    Our uncle gave each of us ten shillings last week.

5.    Baby has painted his pinafore black.

6.    The people in the next house are lending me their

car for the holidays.

7.    My mother pays the baker and the milkman each

day.

8.    The cat keeps her kittens clean by licking them.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 10.—GENERAL EXERCISES

(a) Analyse the following sentences

1.    The master told the class the answer to the

sum. 10 11 12 13 14

7.    All this time the bowler stood, idly tossing the

ball from hand to hand.

8.    The grocer sent his customers a box of biscuits

for Christmas.

9.    Does the patient seem more comfortable to-day ?

10. We found the visitors fancy dresses for the party.

(6) Classify the clauses in the following sentences, and state the kind and relationship:—

1.    I shall not be coming with you next week as

I am going away on holidays.

2.    He built many houses in the town in which he

lived.

3.    Call him over that we may hear the news.

4.    The desert shall blossom as the rose.

5.    That chair you are sitting on is not very safe.

6.    While the rain was falling, we took shelter in

the shed.

7.    The people with whom we stayed talked

constantly and loudly.

8.    It was a small paragraph in to-day’s news

paper that worried my friend.

9.    Our lawn is now nicely grassed wherever it

has been watered thoroughly.

10.    Just along the road, you will find a broken

gate through which you should pass.

(c)    Pick out the phrases in each of the following sentences, state whether adjectival or adverbial, and to which word each refers:—

1.    We were dancing till three o’clock in the

morning.

2.    The water-lilies in the swamp were gathered

by several of the children.

3.    We bought the house on the side of the hill.

4.    My greatest treasure is that faded photograph

on the mantelpiece.

5.    We enjoyed our holidays in the mountains last

week.

6.    Our friends from the city reached the seaside

before eleven o’clock.

(d)    State whether each of the following sentences is simple or complex; if simple, give the detailed analysis; and if complex, classify in clauses and give the relationship :—

1.    Every evening in that house there sits a little

girl at her lessons.    -

2.    The mail train with a party of sailors on board

arrived at this, station before it was expected.

3.    The ship on which the soldiers returned is now in

dock for repairs.

4.    The bold knight in shining armour knelt before

the king. 15

6.    Where I once attended school, there is now a large

factory.

7.    Just then the clock in the kitchen struck the hour.

8.    Apples cannot be bought now since they are out

of season.

9.    Three of the passengers, of whom my father was

one, were driven to a farm near at hand.

10. Among the mountains of Scotland, there lived many years ago a shepherd and his wife and their only son, a boy about ten years of age.

1 •—oOo—

PART II.—PARTS OF SPEECH AND ACCIDENCE.

CHAPTER 1.—THE NOUN,—CLASSIFICATION AND
GENDER.
(i.) Classification of Noun.

You know from your reading that nouns such as James, Carlo, Queensland, Monday and December are written with capital letters. They are so written because they are names given to a particular person, animal, place, day or month. In grammar these names are called Proper Nouns. All other nouns are known as Common Nouns.

(a) Write the name of:—

1.    A particular book.

2.    A poem.

3.    A particular school.

4.    A particular position held by a person.

5.    A street or road.

6.    A place marked on a map.

7.    A particular holiday.

8.    A particular person.

9.    A newspaper or magazine.

10. A particular picture.

Have you used capital letters ? Remember, the names are Proper Nouns,

(5) Complete the following table by writing suitable Common Nouns.

Proper Noun.

Common Noun. Not a particular person, place, &c.

1. Jane Smith

girl

2. Brisbane

city

3. Strawberry

cow

4. August

5. “We of the Never

Never”

6. Himalayas

7. Mr. Pickwick

8. Warwick

9. Shakespeare

10. Jacky Jacky

11. St. Paul’s

Other common nouns are those naming a collection or group of persons, animals, things, &c.; as:—congregation, crowd, crew, team, class, flock, herd, mob, shoal, fleet.

More difficult are the names of ideas, qualities, and words indicating state of being. You will remember that you have formed many such nouns when studying Derivation in Grade IV. Here are some:—boyhood, contentment, darkness, length, height, health, weight, laughter.

.(c) Classify all the nouns in the following sentences:—

1. All winners of the Victoria Cross are men of very great courage,

2.    Tlie beauty of the flowers in Mr. Johnson’s

garden attracted the attention of the people in the neighbourhood.

3.    When reference was made to his kindness and

generosity, the audience in the School of Arts applauded.

4.    The team of footballers sang “Waltzing Matilda”

as they returned from the match.

5.    Bass and Flinders enjoyed the journey south of

Sydney in the ‘ ‘ Tom Thumb. ’ ’

(ii.) Gender.

Living creatures are of two kinds, male and female. Nouns which are the names of males are masculine gender, as:—boy, man, king, bull, emperor. Nouns which are the names of females are feminine gender, as:—girl, woman, queen, cow and empress.

A noun may be the name of a person or a creature of either sex, as:—child, person, teacher, parent, sheep. Such nouns are said to be common gender.

Many nouns are the names of things without life—• things which have no sex—things which are neither male nor female. Such nouns are said to be neuter gender. The word “neuter” means “neither”—the nouns are neither masculine nor feminine. The words stone, slate, city, star and water are neuter gender.

Remember that gender applies to words only, while sex applies to living creatures.

There are three different ways of indicating the gender of nouns:—

1. By using a different word.

Masculine.

Feminine,

boy

girl

man

woman

father

mother

brother

sister

uncle

aunt

fox

vixen

beau

belle

nephew

niece

son

daughter

gentleman

lady

king

queen

earl

countess

knight

lady

ram

ewe

drake

duck

gander

goose

Sir

Madam

lad

lass

bachelor

spinster

colt

filly

husband

wife.

2. By a change of ending.

Masculine.

Feminine.

master

mistress

duke

duchess

tiger

tigress

giant

giantess

editor

editress

negro

negress

lion

lioness

prince

princess

heir

heiress

actor

actress

aviator

aviatrix

author

authoress

mayor

mayoress

count

countess

hero

heroine

songster

songstress.

(h) In the following sentences, change all the masculine words into feminine, and all the feminine words into masculine :—-

1.    At the coronation ceremony there were present

kings, princes, dukes, earls and knights.

2.    The vixen carried off a fat goose.

3.    The old gentleman extended a hearty welcome

to his daughters, nieces, grand-daughters and daughters-in-law.

4.    The mistress dismissed the maidservant.

5.    The bachelor was heir to a large estate.

(c)    Write ten nouns that are common gender.

(d)    Write ten nouns that are neuter gender.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 2.—NUMBER OF NOUNS.

You must have noticed, when using nouns, that the form of the noun which stands for one thing is nearly always different from the form which stands for more than one thing. Thus we speak of one hook but two hooks, one tree but three trees, one mouse but several mice, and one man but ten men. In each of these cases the noun form is changed to show that we mean more than one. A noun which stands for one thing is said to be singular number while a noun which stands for more than one thing is said to he plural number. (Make sure that you pronounce the word “plural” correctly.) You probably know the plural forms of most nouns. If you are in doubt, try counting in this way—one book, two hooks—one mouse, two mice—one church, two churches —one daisy, two daisies.

Here are some rules for forming the plural forms nouns:—

(a) Most nouns form their plurals by adding s to the singular, e.g. hoy, boys; girl, girls; dog, dogs; school, schools; book, books.

(&) Nouns which end in a hissing sound (ch (soft), sh, s, x or z) add es, e.g. church, churches; wish wishes; gas, gases; box, boxes; and topaz, topazes. If you try to say words like churchs, wishs and boxs you will know why the letter e is needed. Note that nouns ending in ch (hard) pronounced like k as monarch, stomach, add not es.

(c)    Most nouns which end in / or fe change the the / or fe into v and add es, e.g. wife, wives; knife, knives; leaf, leaves; loaf, loaves. Some nouns ending in / simply add s such as roof, roofs; proof, proofs; and chief, chiefs. Take notice of such words in your reading, and thus learn to spell them correctly.

(d)    Most nouns which end in o form the plural by adding es if the letter before the is a consonant, as:—potato, potatoes; tomato, tomatoes; volcano, volcanoes. If the letter before the o is a vowel, s only is added to the singular, askangaroo, kangaroos; cuckoo, cuckoos. (Nouns which have been borrowed from a foreign language form the plural by adding s, e.g.:—piano, pianos; solo, solos; folio, folios,)

(e)    Notice the forms:—day, days; boy, boys; donkey, donkeys; daisy, daisies; baby, babies; lady, ladies. The singular noun in each pair ends in y but some of these merely add s, others change y into i and add es. Can you find the

rule for yourself? Look at the letter which comes 'before y. If that letter is a vowel as in day, hoy and donkey, the plural is formed in the ordinary way by adding s. But if the letter is a consonant the y is changed into i and es is added, e.g.:—daisy, daisies, baby, babies; lady, ladies. You should find this rule easy to remember.

(/) A few nouns form the plural by changing the middle sound, as:—man, men; woman, women; foot, feet; goose, geese; tooth, teeth; mouse, mice; and louse, lice.

(g)    Some nouns have two plural forms:—penny, pennies and pence; brother, brethren or brothers; fish, fish or fishes; staff, staffs or staves; shot, shot or shots.

(h)    A few nouns have the singular and plural forms alike:—sheep, deer, swine, salmon, trout, grouse, cannon.

(i)    There are some nouns which are used only in the plural—they have no singular forms:— tongs, scissors, pincers, shears, spectacles, bellows, news, goods, measles, mumps, trousers.

O') Two nouns use an old-English plural form, en. They are:—ox, oxen; and child, children.

(k) Some nouns consist of two or more words joined by a hyphen. They are called compound nouns. The principal word in the compound is changed to form the plural, e.g.:— man-at-arins, men-at-arms; son-in-law, sons-in-law; court-martial, courts-martial; man-of-war, men-of-war.

In “man-servant” we change the form of both parts of the compound thus, ‘ ‘ men-servants. ’ ’

Exercises.

(a) Write the plural forms of:—monkey, child, buffalo, lady, cliff, leaf, mouse, gentleman, fairy, potato, piano, thief, class, wish, foot, man-of-war, tooth, ox, baby, key, wallaby, sheep, story, salmon, hoof and father-inlaw.

(&) Write eight nouns which are used in the plural

only.

(c)    In the following sentences, write each word in black type in the plural form, and make any other necessary alterations:—

1.    The ox is pulling a load of stone.

2.    The mouse on the wharf was crushed when the

cargo was unloaded.

3.    The goose pecked a potato under the shed.

4.    The man hurt his foot.

5.    The lady met her son-in-law.

6.    The child nursed the baby.

7.    The man-of-war enters the dock.

8.    The stockman yarded the sheep.

9.    The woman made the jelly for the party.

10. The monkey is playing with the toy.

(d)    In the following sentences change each noun from the plural to the singular form and make any other necessary alterations:—

1.    The sly foxes were watching the rabbits.

2.    The geese were flying to the northern swamps.

3.    The boys are looking forward to their holidays.

4.    The pennies were placed in the money boxes.

5.    The armies have advanced into enemy territories

6.    The mice were scampering over the ceilings.

7.    The workmen were erecting fences.

8.    The gentlemen were kind to the children.

9.    The ladies knitted scarves for the soldiers.

10. The wolves howled during the winter nights.

(e) Write the plural forms of:—Englishman, Hindoo, German, Greek, Turk, Russian, Eskimo, Spaniard, Negro, Chinaman.

Learn the singular and plural forms of these more difficult nouns:—

Plural.


Singular.

axis


crisis


basis


axes

crises

bases

oasis


vertex


radius


larva


oases

vertices

radii

larvae (larvae)


—-oOo—

CHAPTER 3—THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.

Examine the following pairs of sentences:—

This is Mr. Brown. He lives next door to ns.

That is the lady. Her husband has just returned from the war.

Here is the girl. You wished to see her.

I am returning the hook. You lent it to me.

This is the purse. I found it on the road.

The pronoun in black type in the second of each pair of sentences stands for a noun in the preceding sentence.

By using a different kind of pronoun we can combine the various pairs of sentences.

This is Mr. Brown who lives next door to us.

That is the lady whose husband has just returned from the war.

Here is the girl whom you wished to see.

I am returning the book that you lent me.

This is the purse which I found ,on the road.

These pronouns not only stand for nouns l)ut also join clauses. They are called Belative Pronouns. The word relative is derived from Latin, re = back, and latus — carried. As the noun for which a relative pronoun stands is never found in the same clause as the pronoun itself, the

E.V.—4.

mind is carried back to the preceding clause. The noun or pronoun for which a relative pronoun stands is called its antecedent, a word derived from ante, before, and cede, I go. Who, whose, and whom are used when speaking of persons, that when speaking of persons, animals or things, and which when speaking of animals or things.

Who is always nominative case, whose possessive case and whom objective case.

A relative pronoun introduces an adjectival clause. Very often it is either the subject or the object of that clause. When it is the subject, it is easily recognised as in—“We crossed the river which was flooded.” Here “which” is the subject word of the clause “which was flooded” and so is nominative case to “was flooded.”

But when we examine the relative pronoun in “The river which we crossed was flooded,” we find that which is not the subject word of the clause “which we crossed.” The subject word is “we,” the verb is “crossed” and “which” (meaning the river) is the object word. So in this example the relative pronoun is objective case governed by “crossed.” Ordinarily an object word follows a transitive verb, but in every instance where the relative pronoun is the object it precedes the subject and the verb. An examination of the following sentences will show that when a noun or a pronoun comes between a relative pronoun and the verb, the relative pronoun is objective case governed by the verb. Look at the examples which follow. The relative pronouns in “a” are nominative case to the verbs in the adjectival clauses, whereas those in “b” are objective case governed by the verbs in the adjectival clauses.

(a) Nominative to the verb.

(6) Objective governed by the verb.

Tom read the book that was received to-day.

Tom read the book that he received to-day.

The house which was • painted was admired by us.

We admired the house which he painted.

The hook that was sold was valuable.

The book that we sold was valuable.

The sailors explored the island that was visited by them.

The sailors explored the island that we visited.

I saw the boy who won the prize.

I saw the boy whom we met in town.

We saw a view that was grand.

The view that we saw was grand.

Mother gave us the cakes that were made.

Mother gave us the cakes that she made.

My mother visited the dressmaker who was recommended by you.

My mother visited the dressmaker whom you recommended.

The paper that was saved was used again.

We used again the paper that we saved.

The cup that was broken was thrown away.

We threw away the cup that we broke.

We had a reply from the boat that was signalled.

We had a reply from the boat that we signalled.

(a) Supply the missing relative pronouns in the following sentences and state the case of each:—

1.    Father promised to buy me the bicycle............I

saw in the window.

2.    I admired the picture............my friend had

painted.

3.    I know a sailor...........fought in the battle of the

Coral Sea.

4.    Have you heard from the gentleman............we met

at the seaside?

5.    They............reach the top, boys, first must climb

the hill.

6.    He prayeth best............loveth best all things both

great and small.

7.    This is the house in............I was born.

8.    I saw the man to............you were talking.

9.    These are the girls............work is outstanding.

10. The boys of............we were speaking are fine

characters.

The relative pronoun is often omitted, e.g.:—This is the purse I found. This is the purse (that) I found. Mr. Gray is the man I wish to meet. Mr. Gray is the man (whom) I wish to meet. 16

6.    Few and short were the prayers we said.

7.    The roses we planted last year are blooming

well.

8.    He often thought of the sights he had seen.

9.    Mr. Smith is one of the persons I met.

10. Be polite to the people you expect to be polite to you.

(c) Pick out the relative pronouns in the following sentences and state the case of each:—

1.    The soldiers neared the spot over which the

eagles were hovering.

2.    It was I who caused the trouble.

3.    Catherine was overjoyed to meet her parents

whom she had not seen for months.

4.    The dog had a faith that nothing on earth could

shake.

5.    I wandered lonely as a cloud that floats on

high o’er vales and hills.

6.    The sheep that we sold have been trucked to

Brisbane.

7.    Those who could find no room on the benches

contentedly sat on the ground.

8.    His caravan has windows two, and a chimney

of tin that the smoke comes through.

9.    All the roads that I know so well are under

water.

10.    The boys and the girls whose names I called are

required in the next room.

CHAPTER 4.—THE RELATIVE PRONOUN, continued. INFLECTION OF THE PRONOUN.
(i) The Relative Pronoun (cont.)

The word “as” is a relative pronoun when it follows “such” or “same” qualifying a noun, for example:—

Such tales as we heard delighted us.

It was the same boat as I travelled on.

The word “what” is treated by most grammarians as a compound relative equal to “that which” or “the thing which.” The “which” portion of the compound introduces an adjectival clause. Consider the following sentences:—

A hook is what I want = A book is the thing

which I want, or

A book is that whjch

I want.

I did not hear what he said = I did not hear that (or the words) which he said.

In each of the expanded sentences the first clause is a principal clause and the second an adjectival clause.

You will notice also that the verb in each of the adjectival clauses is transitive. Therefore, the simplest way to parse “what” is to break it into two parts “that” (or the thing) and “which,” and to parse each word separately.

Example: A book is what I want (what = that which).

that:    a pronoun, nominative after “is.”

which: a relative pronoun, antecedent “that,” objective governed by “want.”

If “what” is followed immediately by a noun, it is an adjective. For example: I do not know what message he brought.

(In higher grades you will have practice in parsing difficult relative pronouns.)

(ii) The Pronoun, Inflection.

In the lower grades you learned that pronouns are words used instead of nouns. Like the nouns for which they stand, they are inflected or altered to show number, gender and ease. The pronouns known as Personal Pronouns (I, thou, he, she, it) have special forms to indicate 11 Person.”

The first person is that form of the pronoun used for the name of the person who is speaking, e.g., 7 went home.

When the pronoun stands for the name of the person spoken to it is second person, e.g., You are wanted in the shop.

The third person is that form of the pronoun used for the name of the person or thing spoken about, e.g., I met him in the street. She is a good girl. Put it on the table.

There are comparatively few pronouns in the English language but no other part of speech is the cause of so many errors in writing and speaking. It is necessary, therefore, that you should study the forms and functions of pronouns very carefully, and that you should take every care to use these little words correctly.

Below is a table setting out the various forms of the group known as Personal Pronouns.

Plural, you (ye) your, yours

yon


First Person.

Singular.    Plural.

Nom. I    we

Poss. my, mine our, ours


Obj. me    U9


Second Person.


Singular, you (thou) your

(thy, thine) you (thee)


Third Person.

Singular.    Plural.

Masc.

Fem. Neuter.

Masc., Fem. or Neuter.

Nom.

he

she

it

they

Poss.

his

her, hers

its

their or theirs

Obj.

him

her

it

them

The forms “thou,

” “thy,”

“thine,” “thee” and

“ye” are not used in modern English except in poetry or in prayers.

Notice the distinction in pronouns of the Third Person, Singular number, to show gender.

The pronoun “he” is singular number, third person, masculine gender, nominative case. Most of the pronouns in the table can be parsed at sight in this way but “you,” “her” and “it” are exceptions. “You” may be singular number or plural number, nominative case or objective case; “her” is sometimes possessive case and sometimes objective, and “it” is sometimes nominative and sometimes objective case. The gender of all pronouns of the first or the second person, and of plural pronouns of the third person, is dependent on the gender of the nouns for which they stand.

It will not be difficult for you to tell the person of nouns. Consider these examples:—-

I, John Smith, say that this is a true statement.

Tom, come here, please.

We met Jack at the station.

As the noun “John Smith” is the name of the person speaking, it is First Person. “Tom” is the name of the person spoken to, therefore it is Second Person. “Jack” and “station” are the names of the person and thing spoken about so they are both Third Person.

(a)    State the person of the nouns and pronouns in the following sentences:—

1.    We wrote several letters.

2.    You are speaking very clearly.

3.    Tom rides his pony to school.

4.    You and I shall meet them at your home.

5.    Jack, I am pleased that you have done so well.

6.    We, Robert Towns and Herbert Brown, declare

our intention of completing this work within a month.

(b)    State the number, person and case of each of the following pronouns:—thee, ye, thy, thou, thine.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 5.—ADJECTIVES OR PRONOUNS.

There are many words other than personal and relative pronouns that are used instead of nouns. Look carefully at the words in black type in the following sentences:—

That is my axe. This is your hat. These are good apples. Those are my shoes. Many are called but few are chosen. Some came early, others were late. All were pleased to see the visitor. Bear ye one another’s burdens. The lad hurt himself. We enjoyed ourselves. Who knocked at the door? Which do you prefer? Each must decide for himself. Either will do. Neither answered. What shall we do?

Each word is used instead of a noun and is therefore a pronoun.

Most of these words can be used as adjectives. Now look at the words in black type in the following examples:—

That axe is mine. Those apples are ripe. Many people visited the Art Gallery. Some boys and several girls were late this morning. Each soldier carried a loaded rifle. What book are you reading? Neither boy was right.

You must find out the function of a word before you can say what part of speech it is.

Construct sentences using each of the following as (a) a pronoun, and (b) an adjective:—this, these, all, neither, what, some, few, either, which, many.

Examples of Parsing.

Many waited at the corner round which the Prince’s car would turn.

The team of horses looked strange to many city children.

Word.    Parsing.

Exercise.

Parse the words in black type in the following sentences:—

1.    Our friends live in the large house in Tank

Street.

2.    The train by which I arrived was two hours late.

3.    The children, tired and hungry, were comforted

by their aunt.

4.    Those people about whom we were speaking are

now neighbours of ours.

5.    That fish that we caught was promptly cooked

and eaten.

6.    Few and short were the prayers we said.
7.    Which school does your family attend?
8.    Their new teacher was a man who had always

encouraged sport.

9.    The Lord Mayor made a speech of welcome to
the visitors.
10. Three of us bought Mother a present for
Christmas.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 6.—THE CONJUNCTION.

In writing and in speaking you have already learned to use the little words “and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” and many others that do the same kind of work. What work is this? It is to link or join words, as—Tom and Mary were present. I should like an apple or a pear. Each small link or joining word is called a Conjunction, derived from con with or together and jungo (junctus) I join.

Conjunctions are also used to join phrases and sentences.

Here are three pairs of sentences. Combine each pair so as to make one sentence:—

1.    Mary has a doll. Mary has a book.

2.    The birds were in the trees. The birds were on

the ground.

3.    Jack is musical. He can play the violin.

Have you written your new sentences thus:—

1.    Mary has a doll and a booh.

2.    The birds were in the trees and on the ground.

3.    Jack is musical and he can ploy the violin.

We have used the same little word “and” to join each pair of sentences.

In 1. “and” joins or links two words.

In 2. it joins or links two phrases.

In 3. it joins or links two sentences.

A conjunction is a word which joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

Here are some more pairs of sentences. Combine each pair using a conjunction other than “and”:—

1.    Tom is tall. His brother is short.

2.    Mother has gone to town. She wishes to buy a

hat.

3.    The man will go home. He has finished his work.

4.    Tom must do the work. Jack must do the work.

5.    Fred is not a lazy boy. Harry is not a lazy boy.

6.    I shall take you to the pictures. I shall take you

on condition that you are good.

7.    The boy went to school. He was ill.

Have you combined your sentences in this way?

, 1. Tom is tall but his brother is short.

2.    Mother has gone to town because she wishes to

buy a new hat.

3.    The man will go home when he has finished his

work.

4.    .Either Tom or Jack must do the work.

5.    Neither Fred nor Harry is a lazy boy.

6.    I shall take you to the pictures if you are good.

7.    The boy went to school though he was ill.

We have used several conjunctions. Instead of “because” in the second sentence we might have written “as” or “for.”

The conjunctions, “either-or” and “neither-nor” are used in pairs. Using these conjunctions combine these pairs of sentences:—

1.    We shall go to Southport. We shall go to

Tamborine.

2.    The refugees had no clothes. The refugees had

no food.

“That” is a conjunction when used in such sentences as:—

1.    It is true that the boy walked home.

2.    We eat that we may live.

3.    He said that he would come.

Note that in each example the conjunction “that” joins two clauses.

“And” and “but” are two useful little words but you must be careful not to use them too frequently. Read the sentence which follows,—

Tom walked to town and bought a book and went to the pictures. It does not sound very well, does it? It reads much better when written thus:—Having walked to town and bought a book, Tom went to the pictures; or thus:— After walking to town and buying a book, Tom went to the pictures; or thus:—Tom walked to town and, after buying a book, went to the pictures; or more simply:—Tom walked to town, bought a book, and went to the pictures.

“So” is another little word which children are liable to use too often. We see many sentences like these:—■ The man was tired so he went home. His shoes were worn out so he bought a new pair. They would read much better if written thus:—The man, being tired, went home. The man went home because he was tired. As his shoes were worn out he bought a new pair.

(a) Pick out the conjunctions in the following sentences:—

1.    Both the sheep and the goat have cloven feet.

2.    The man took his umbrella lest it should rain.

3.    I shall not go unless you come "with me.

4.    The soldiers fought so bravely that the enemy

fled.

5.    As the day was fine the children were taken to

the seaside.

6.    Since he is so bad-tempered we shall leave him

by himself.

7.    The man was very ill, therefore he was sent to

the hospital.

8.    The dog looked fierce, nevertheless he was quite

harmless.

9.    The horse was old, yet he worked well.

10.    He should be here soon, for the train has arrived.

11.    The soldiers marched on although they were

tired.

12.    I heard that Jack will arrive to-morrow.

13.    The air was clear and cool.

14.    Slowly and sadly we laid him down.

15.    He was tired but happy.

■—oOo—

CHAPTER 7.—THE VERB.—VOICE.

You have already learned that a verb is transitive when it expresses an action which passes from a doer to a receiver. Notice the following sentences:—

The boy caught a fish.

The girl baked a cake.

A bird builds a nest.

The subject-words—“boy,” “girl” and “bird” are the names of doers of actions. They stand for active persons or things. The word “active” is derived from a Latin word ago (actum) meaning “I do.”

It is possible to write each of the above sentences in another way without changing its meaning, e.g.—

A fish was caught by the boy.

A cake was baked by the girl.

A nest was built by a bird.

In this latter group of sentences the subject-word is not the name of the doer of the action. It is the name of the person or thing acted upon. It is the name of a passive person or thing. The word passive is derived from a Latin word patior (passus) which means “I suffer.”

When the subject-word is the name of the doer of the action we say that the verb is active voice but when the subject-word is the name of the person or thing acted upon we say that the verb is passive voice.

In changing a verb from the active form to the passive form, the object becomes the subject and the subject becomes part of the predicate. The form of the transitive verb is altered and some part of the verb “to be” is used in making the change. The verb, however, is still transitive.

Learn this:—“Voice is the form of a verb which denotes whether the subject-word is the name of the doer of the action, or of the person or thing acted on.”

Intransitive verbs cannot be used in the passive voice.

(a) Change the following sentences from the active to the passive form:—

1.    The dogs hunted the deer.

2.    Many boys sell newspapers.

3.    A Scottish nobleman bought a castle.

4.    The lady lost her purse.

5.    The farmer prunes his fruit trees.

6.    The man tied the ass to the fence.

7.    The sentry fired a shot.    .

8.    We shall sell our house.

9.    The old man rents a little cottage.

10.    The noise of the trams disturbed the invalid.

11.    The conductor will collect the tickets.

12.    The Prince threw his last apple.

13.    The boys in sixth grade play cricket.

14.    The aeroplanes will bomb the fortress.

15.    The careless boy broke the plates.

16.    The soldiers will attack the enemy.    .

17.    A customer had ordered a large vat.

18.    A pack of wolves is crossing the lake.

19.    The Governor will present the prizes.

20.    The bush fire has destroyed the crops.

(b) Change the following sentences from the passive to the active form:—

1.    This house was built by my grandfather.

2.    The sails were being hoisted by the sailors.

3.    The crops are often ruined by floods.

4.    The runaway slave was captured by a band of

soldiers.

5.    The enemy ships will be attacked by submarines.

6.    The poor captive was placed in the arena.

7.    The cotton will be picked by members of the

"Women’s Land Army.

8.    The tree has been struck by lightning.

9.    The cow was sold by Jack for a bag of beans.

10. The road is being built by prisoners.

E.V.—5.

11.    Has Tom been given a job by his uncle?

12.    The pilot was knighted by the King.

13.    The children were entertained by a conjurer.

14.    San Francisco was destroyed by an earthquake.

15.    The crops are being eaten by locusts.

16.    The prisoners will be pardoned by the Queen.

17.    Magna Carta was signed by King John.

18.    Peace will be proclaimed by the victors.

19.    Many enemy planes have been destroyed by

Spitfires.

20.    Heavy loads are drawn by elephants.

Notice the following sentences in which the verb has two objects—direct and indirect. Either object may become the subject in the passive form.

“The traveller told the children many interesting tales”

may become

“The children were told many interesting tales by the traveller,” or

“Many interesting tales were told the children by the traveller.”

Similarly,    _

“The lady gave me a penny” may be written

“I was given a penny by the lady,” or “A penny was given me by the lady.” _

Examples of first steps in parsing verbs:—

Mary gathered the eggs. The eggs were gathered

by Mary. The troops arrived this morning.

Word.

Parsing.

gathered

a verb, transitive, active voice (object

“eggs”).

were gathered

a verb, transitive, passive voice.

arrived

a verb, intransitive.

(c) Parse the verbs (part of speech, transitive or intransitive, voice) as in the examples given:—

1.    The batsman hit the ball to the boundary.

2.    These cakes were baked by my sister.

3.    The boys swim in the river.

4.    Milk is brought to town every day by the

dairyman.

5.    The grocer sells tea, sugar and butter.

6.    The children went to the concert.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 8,—THE VERB,—TENSE.

Verbs do more than merely express action, or being, or having. Certain forms of verbs are used to denote the different times at which actions take place.

Examine these sentences:—

The boy writes now.

The boy wrote yesterday.

The boy will write to-morrow.

The word “writes” is that form of the verb used to indicate that the action is taking place at the present time—the word “wrote” that the action took place in the past and the verb “will write” that the action will take place in the future. We do not speak of the time of verbs but of their tense. Tense means time.

There are three divisions of time—the present, the past, and the future. To correspond with these time divisions, verbs have three tenses:—Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense. Here are some examples.

Present Tense.

Past Tense.

Future Tense

I see

I saw

I shall see

I run

I ran

I shall run

I work

I worked

I shall work

I sleep

I slept

I shall sleep

I walk

I walked

I shall walk

I write

I wrote

I shall write.

The present tense has forms other than the one given above.

If you were asked the question, “What are you doing?” you would not reply “I write,” but “I am writing. ’ ’ This is another, and very common form of the present tense. It denotes that an action is going on or continuing.

There are similar forms for the Past and the Future Tenses, e.g. “I was writing” and “I shall be writing.”

The past tense is usually formed by changing the form of the verb in the present tense:—see becomes saw, run becomes ran, and work becomes worked.

A few verbs retain the same form in the past tense as in the present, e.g., cut, put, hurt, spread and rid.

The Future Tense is formed by using the auxiliary or helping verbs shall and will. Shall is used when the subject of the verb is first person, and will when the subject is either second or third person, e.g., “I shall write,” but “You will write” and “He will write.”

There can be no future tense without sh-all or will (or the past tense of those verbs—should or would).

If you do not remember this, you may be misled by the verbs “may” and “might” which, at times, puzzle children. In such sentences as “I may go to town,” or “I might come to see you,” the idea of futurity (or of something to be done in the future) is suggested, but neither verb is future tense. Neither of the verbs which is essential to the forming of the future tense is there.

Here are the tense forms of the verb “to be,” with pronouns as subjects.

Past Tense.


Present Tense.

1st per. 2nd per. 3rd per.


Sing.    Plural.

I am    we are

thou art    you are

he    they are

(she or it) is

Future Tense.


Sing.

I was thou wast he was


Plural.

we were you were they were


Sing.

I shall be thou wilt be he will be


Plural.

we shall be you will be they will be


The second person singular number forms as shown are not now used in every-day speech and writing. In their place, it is customary to use the plural forms.

Memorise:—

Tense is the form, of a verb used to denote the time at which an action (or being or having) takes place.

(a) Write out the three Tenses of the following verbs:—play, swim, sing, talk, see, listen, read, sleep, wake, dig. Set out your work in this way:—

Present Tense.    Past Tense.    Future Tense.

write    wrote    shall write or will write

(&) Write the verbs in the following examples and, after each verb, state its tense:—

1.    Away they went, hand in hand.

2.    Father watches a cricket match each Saturday

afternoon.

3.    Sigfrid will find us in the forest.

4.    The soldiers are marching across the desert.

5.    With these thoughts the proud king fell asleep.

6.    We shall visit our grandparents on Sunday.

7.    A scarecrow stood in a field one day.

8.    I shall plant the seeds in the corner of the

garden.

9.    Blue Bonnet sat astride the three-rail fence.

10.    We found the lions on a small hill.

11.    I shall call my master.

12.    The men will he working to-night.

(c) Re-write the following sentences changing the verbs from the Present Tense to the Past Tense:—

1.    The bushman fills his billy from the hidden

stream out West.

2.    Trees grow closely together in the forest.

3.    The teams go creeping by.

4.    The bushman’s children hear the cracks of the

whips.

5.    There is a watchman at the gate.

6.    I come from haunts of coot and hern.

7.    I do not quite understand how you come to be

in the trap.

8.    All the lowlands are filling with sounds.

9.    He goes on Sunday to the church.

10. The charcoal burner is free from wicked thoughts and he laughs at such stories.

(d) Re-write the following sentences changing the verbs from the Past Tense to the Present Tense:—

1.    Aladdin was walking about the town.

2.    They went to a house about two miles away.

3.    The spearman heard the bugle sound.

4.    I wmsn’t in the trap.

5.    When Aladdin reached home he found his

mother in great anxiety.

6.    Down sank the bell with a gurgling sound.

7.    He felt the cheering power of spring;

It made him whistle, it made him sing.

8.    But he heeded not nor heard them.

9.    In that same hour and hall, the fingers of a

hand

Came forth against the wall and wrote as if on sand.

10. The monarch saw and shook and bade no more rejoice.

(e) Change the verbs in the following sentences into the Future Tense:—

1.    I watch the Dutchmen on their way.

2.    They gave me my name and sailed away.

3.    The boat has left a stormy land.

4.    Our axes rang in the woodland.

5.    The creek at the ford is but fetlock deep.

6.    You see the squadrons marching by.

7.    I am a good Cavalier.

8.    All I ask is a merry yarn from a laughing

fellow rover.

9.    We work with a will unceasing.

10.    When the winter rains begin

He sits and smokes by the blazing brands.

11.    I slip, I slide, I gloom, I glance.

12.    Three fishers went sailing away to the west.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 9.—THE NOUN,—SPECIAL CASES.
THE VERB,—AGREEMENT OR CONCORD.
(i) Case after Copulative Verbs.

You have already learned that certain verbs require complements. The most commonly used of these verbs are “to be,” “to become,” “to appear,” “to look,” “to seem,” “to remain,” and “to grow.” They are called' copulative verbs. “Copula” is a Latin word meaning a “link” or “something which joins or couples things together.”

The noun or pronoun which comes after these words is simply another name for the person or thing spoken about in the subject. It tells us more about the person or thing which the subject names. In the sentence, “The boy is a good scholar,” the words “boy” and “scholar” are different names for the same person. The word “scholar” gives further information about the boy. The verb “is” is the copula or link joining the two words of similar meaning.

Care must be taken not to confuse “objects” with “complements.” Remember that the noun or pronoun in the complement denotes the same person or thing as the noun or pronoun in the subject; whereas the noun or pronoun in the object names or denotes a different person or thing. The sentences which follow should make this point clear. “Tom is a good boy.” “Boy” is the complement and is really another name for “Tom.” “Tom ate the apple.” “Apple” is the object and is the name of something quite different from “Tom.”

Here is a rule which will enable you to find the case of nouns or pronouns in the complement:—

The verb “to be” and other copulative verbs take the same case after them as before them, as both words mean the same person or thing.

In the sentence “Tom is a good scholar,” the word “Tom,” being the subject-word, is nominative case to the verb “is.” The word “scholar” which comes after “is” is also nominative case. We say it is nominative case after “is.”

In the sentences “Henry became King” and “Mary seems a nice girl,” “King” is nominative case after “became,” and “girl” is nominative case after “seems.”

which


Prince’s

team


horses

many

children


Examine tlie following sentence very carefully:—

The police believed the man to be a thief.

The verb “to be” is a copulative verb and, according to the rule you have just learned, must take the same case after it as before it. What case is the noun “man” which precedes it? “Man” with the words that follow is “objective” in sense and so we say that “man” is objective case governed by the transitive verb “believed.” Therefore “thief” is objective case after the verb “to be.” (Do not say that it is objective case governed by “to be” because all parts of the verb “to be” are intransitive.)

Here are further examples of nouns which are objective case after “to be”:—

I knew him to be a clever boy.

The boys made Tom (to be) captain.

I found him to be a trusty comrade.

(a) Write the case of the nouns and pronouns in black type:—

1.    Thou art the man.

2.    Dogs are faithful animals.

3.    Marlborough was appointed Commander-in

Chief.

4.    Old King Cole was a merry old soul.

5.    A merry old soul was he.

6.    Mr. Churchill became Prime Minister.

7.    Jim remained a pupil at the school for many

years.

8.    Three jolly sailors are we.

9.    It was I whom you saw.

10.    Is this boy your brother?

11.    We believe Henry to be the winner.

12.    The three friends became pilots.

13.    My brother has been a flying officer for some

time.

14.    That engineer appears a very clever man.

15.    The matron seems a kindly soul.

16.    The King believed him to he a traitor.

17.    The men on the ship were returned soldiers.

18.    The young monkey soon became a great pet.

19.    Old Nicholas Nye was a lonely donkey.

20.    We know him to be a good workman,

(ii) Nominative Case of Address.

When a noun is used simply to name the person or persons to whom we speak, that noun is said to be Nominative Case of Address. In the sentence, “Mr. Chairman, I thank you for your courtesy”—the noun “Mr. Chairman” is the name or title of the person addressed. It is not grammatically related to any other word in the sentence. Similarly in the sentence, “Tom, come here,” Tom is the name of the person addressed. The subject of the sentence is “ (you).”

All nouns which are Nominative Case of Address are second person.

(&) In the following sentences pick out the nouns which are Nominative Case of Address:—

1.    Mother, may I go to the football match?

2.    Come here, my boy!

3.    I hope, sir, that you are enjoying yourself.

4.    0, boys, boys, don’t throw stones at that poor

bird.

5.    Friend, be of good cheer.

6.    Young man, I am ashamed of you.

7.    Where are you going to, my pretty maid?

8.    I hope, madam, that you are enjoying your meal.

9.    Carlo, come here!

10.    0 Death, where is thy sting?

11.    Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your

ears!

(iii) Apposition.

The word “apposition” means “in position near to” or “beside.” Very often two nouns, each meaning the same person or thing, are placed together for the sake of giving further information. In the sentence, “ Sinbad, the sailor, met with'many wonderful adventures”—Sinbad is the subject word and is, therefore, nominative case to the verb “met.” The word “sailor” is merely another name for Sinbad and it stands beside the word Sinbad in the subject. We say that “sailor” is nominative case in apposition with “Sinbad.” In the sentence “Have you met Henry, the hunterf” “hunter” is objective case in apposition with ‘ ‘ Henry ’ ’; and in the sentence ‘ ‘ The boys listened with interest to the stories of Peter, the whaler,” “whaler” is objective case in apposition with “Peter.”

When nouns in apposition are in the possessive ease, the sign of that case (’s or ’ ) is used with only one of the nouns, e.g. Smith, the baker’s shop was closed. Although the sign of the possessive case is omitted, the noun Smith is possessive case governed by “shop” and baker’s is possessive case in apposition with “Smith.” ,

(c) State the case of the words in black type in each of the following sentences:—

1.    Peter the Hermit preached to the people.

2.    The Victoria Falls were discovered by the great

missionary, Livingstone.

3.    We were pleased to meet Jim, my brother’s

mate.
4.    Hereward, the Wake, fought against William,
the Conqueror.

5.    Henry I., the Lion of Justice, became king in

the year 1100 A.D.

6.    We called on Mr. Smith, the lawyer.

7.    Great deeds were performed by Hercules, the

hero.

8.    Palissy, the Potter, produced articles of great

beauty.

9.    The Murrumbidgee River was discovered by

Hamilton Hume, an enterprising young settler.

10. Jack, the cook’s monkey, was the prince of them all.

(iv) The Verb. Agreement or Concord.

Verbs, like nouns and pronouns, have number and person. When the subject is singular the verb is singular, and when the subject is plural the verb is plural.

The cow eats grass. The verb “eats” is singular because the subject “cow” is singular.

Cows eat grass. The verb “eat” is plural because the subject “cows” is plural. You will notice that in the third person, singular, most verbs add the letter “s.”

Verbs change their forms in accordance with the number and person of their subjects. This is most noticeable in the verb “to be.” We write “I am,” “thou art,” “he is,” “we are”; am is singular number, first person; art is singular number, second person; is is singular number, third person and are is plural number, first person. Remember that each verb is the same number and person as its subject-word. Learn this rule:— A verb agrees with its subject in number and person.

Here is an example in parsing:—We saw the soldiers.

saw: a verb, transitive, active (object “soldiers”), past, plural, first person agreeing with its subject “we.”

Now look at these sentences:—

Tom is reading. Tom and is reading are both singular number, third person. Bill is reading. Bill and is reading are both singular number, third person.

They are reading. They and are reading are both plural number, third person.

Instead of ‘ ‘ They are reading, ’ ’ we might have written, “Tom and Bill are reading.” As two persons are named in the subject, a plural verb is required. Similarly we write:—The boy and the girl are playing in the park. The cow and the horse are feeding in the paddock. He and I are studying French. Father, mother and grandmother are going to church.

Learn this rule:—When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns or pronouns connected by “and” the verb is plural.

Now study this sentence:—Either Tom or Fred is to go to town. This sentence tells us that one person only— Tom or Fred, not both—is to go to town; %o the singular form of the verb is required,

Here are sentences of similar form:—

Neither father nor mother expects you so soon. Either Grace or Kate is telling an untruth.

Neither the general nor the admiral has arrived. Either Don or Max owns this bat.

Learn this rule:—When the subject consists of singular nouns or pronouns connected by “ either-or” or “ neither -nor” the verb must be singular.

When “each” is used as a pronoun, it is singular number and requires a verb in the singular number. Any noun qualified by “each” or “every” is singular number and must be followed by a verb in the singular, e.g.:—

Each of the boys was punished.

Each of the fruit trees is laden with fruit.

Every person is expected to obey the law.

Every boy does his best.

Everyone is pleased to hear the good news.

(a) Form sentences using the following subjects:—j (Each verb is to be present tense.) ,

1.    The dog and the cat

2.    The trees and the flowers

3.    The cup or the saucer

4.    Both the lady and the gentleman

5.    Neither Tom nor his brother

6.    Each girl    .

7.    Every soldier

8.    The tiger and the leopard

9.    The opossum and the koala

10. Neither of the cows

11.    Everyone

12.    Neither of the rivers

13.    Either Bill or Tom

14.    Neither he nor I

15.    She and her brother

16 Each person

17.    My father or my brother

18.    Joy and happiness

19.    Either of the dogs

20.    My father and my uncle

—oOo—

CHAPTER 10.—RULES OF SYNTAX. CONTRACTIONS IN PARSING.

(i) Rules of Syntax.

(a)    The subject of a sentence is always nominative case.

(b)    The object of a transitive verb is always objective case.

(c)    Prepositions govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case.

(d)    The possessive case of a noun is governed by the name of the thing possessed.

(e)    The verb “to be” and other copulative verbs take the same case after them as before them.

(/) A verb agrees with its subject in number and person.

{g) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns or pronouns connected by “and” the verb is plural.

(h) When the subject consists of singular nouns or pronouns connected by “either—or” or “neither— nor” the verb must be singular.

Sentences for Correction.

1.    Neither bird nor beast live in that lonely place.

2.    Has the firemen arrived yet?

3.    There must be no secrets between you and I.

4.    A soldier and a sailor visits us every Sunday.

5.    Each of the boys play very well.

6.    Have either of your brothers been to see you?

7.    Each one of the birds have lovely feathers.

8.    Do either of the cats catch mice?

9.    Neither Tom nor Ben have written to me.

10.    Snow and ice covers the land and the sea.

11.    Great is the sea and the heaven.

12.    Every one of the children go to bed early.

13.    Both the goose and the duck swims well.

14.    Uncle Tom took Bill and I to the circus.

15.    Here is the man who we met in Sydney.

16.    Gone is the horror and terror of war.

17.    Mountain and valley was bright with sunshine.

18.    None of the boys are to swim to-day.

19.    Either Ned or Ben are to blame.

20.    The fisherman and his child was drowned.

21.    Nor shout nor whistle strike his ear.

22.    There was two spotted eggs in the nest.

23.    Not one of the boys are playing well.

24.    From rock to rock leaps the goat and her kid.

25.    Side by side blooms a red rose and a white one.

26.    None of our roses are white.

27.    It was me who broke the vase.

28.    Whom do men say that I am?

29.    That is the boy who I want.

30.    One of our planes were shot down.

(ii) Contractions in Parsing.

To save time in writing, words used over and over again (as in Parsing) are shortened or contracted. The shortened, portion of the full word must always have a full stop placed after it. The full stop indicates a contraction, except, of course, when it is used at the end of a sentence.

Here are examples of contractions used freely in writing answers to questions in Analysis and Parsing.

Princ. for principal; cl. for clause; adj. for adjective or adjectival; adv. for adverb or adverbial; sing, for singular; neut. for neuter.

Examples of Parsing, using contractions

The clouds are scudding across the moon. We shall wait for you at the City Hall.

Word.

Parsing.

s'

clouds

a noun, plur., 3rd., nom. to

“are

scudding’’

shall wait

a verb, intrans., future, plur.,

1st.’,

agreeing with “we”

(a) Parse the words in black type:—

1.    Very soon the birds will build their nests in

the gum tree.

2.    Into which room did they move their luggage?
3.    Our friends will visit us at Easter.
4.    My dog brings me the newspaper every morning.

5.    The horses were found in the paddock beyond

the creek.

6.    Since their arrival in Brisbane, all members of

the family have obtained employment.
7.    The boy from whom I received this pencil is
my nephew.
8.    Tom, the captain of our cricket team, scored

a century last Saturday.

9.    Jack, we shall wait for you.
10.    It is the prettiest little parlour that ever you

did spy.

11.    We voted the secretary five pounds.

12.    They crowned her queen of the carnival. ,

13.    Do you know Mary, the typist in my office?

14.    The boys were very hungry when they returned

home.

15.    Slowly and sadly we retraced our steps.

—oOo—

PART III.—MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES.

CHAPTER I.—WORDS OF OPPOSITE MEANING, AND OTHER EXERCISES.

(a)—

(1)    Write words of opposite meaning to:—

broad, raise, finish, guilty, regular, failure, denied, generous, ordinary, release.

(2)    Write 'words of opposite meaning: to:—

patient, smooth, approaching, courageous, '    grieve, accept, mortal, violent, difficult,

ancient.

(&)-

(1)    Combine the following into one sentence:— (Do not use “and” or “but.”)

(i) A crow was very thirsty.

He flew to a pitcher to drink.

He hoped to find some water in it.

(ii) The bear roams over the ice.

It reaches a place.

The ice is melted there.

(2)    Combine the following into one sentence:—

(Do not use “and” or “but.”)

(i) A little boy was going home in the evening.

He saw a hole in one of the walls.

The water was trickling through this hole.

(ii) The lion will not go to the springs.

The moon is shining.

He could easily be seen.

(c)    Insert suitable adjectives:—

Nellie with her father and mother was having an — trip in a — steamer. With them they had their — dog, Nero, who gazed at his — mistress \ with — eyes. The steamer was very —, with three — decks and two — funnels. Suddenly l a — cry ran out. — Nellie had fallen into the — water. — Nero hurled himself after her.

(d)    Insert suitable prepositions in the following:—

1.    The children ran — the garden.

2.    The speaker broke off — the middle of a sentence.

3.    On the death of his father the prince succeeded —

the throne.

4.    The hunters succeeded — escaping from the

wolves.

5.    — the fog he could see the enemy approaching.

6.    The tiger sprang — the buffalo.

7.    The house was built — two hills.

8.    The girls picked the apples — the trees.

9.    The children were pleased — their presents.

10. Our house is quite different — yours.

(e)    Punctuate and supply necessary capital letters:—

In the days of old there lived a wealthy english baron who owned broad lands in england and v wales when at length he lay on his death bed he called his sons to him and said if you were compelled to become birds tell me each of you what bird you would choose to resemble.

CHAPTER 2.—SUBSTITUTIONS, AND OTHER EXERCISES.

(a)    Construct sentences to show that yon understand the meaning of the following expressions:—

1.    As far as the eye could reach.

2.    All at sea.

3.    As the crow flies.

4.    To play the game.

5.    The fat is in the fire.

(b)    Write one word for each of the following:—

1.    A small room at the top of a house.

2.    A room on board ship.

3.    Water which heat has turned into a semi-liquid

cloud.

4.    A place where leather is made.

5.    A song for two people.

(c)    Turn the adverbs in black type into phrases:—

1.    Harold marched quickly to meet the Normans.

2.    The English held a strongly fortified position.

3.    William ordered his archers to fire their arrows

upward.

4.    Then Harold’s brother was guarding the

standard.

5.    He fought bravely.    , v

6.    The Normans charged furiously.

7.    The Normans retreated speedily.

8.    Immediately the English broke their serried

ranks.

9.    Wearily they toiled until sunset.

10. There fell the last of the Saxon kings.

(d)    Combine the following sentences in as many ways as you can :—

1.    The hunters are returning home. They have

had a day’s sport in the woods.

2.    The slave began to moan and sob. He had

never been on the sea before.

3.    He picked up the glove. He returned safely to

his place.

4.    The crowd of peasants began to murmur. They

perceived that Tyler was slain.

5.    Caesar returned to Rome. He had beaten the

Gauls in battle.

(e)    Turn the following from indirect to direct speech:—

The traveller asked the king if he might put to him a question or two.

He told me that I was right and that he would not disobey me again.

He said that it was a pure accident for which he was very sorry.

He gravely told them that an old witch who owed him a grudge had just arrived.

The tramp replied that he never worked after supper.

CHAPTER 3.—WORDS OF SIMILAR MEANING, AND OTHER EXERCISES.

'(a) Write a word of similar meaning in place of each word or phrase in black type:—

1.    The Royalists had been defeated and the King

had been put to death.

2.    “You may flourish your arms,” exclaimed the

Knight, “but you will never scare me.”

3.    Without remorse he would sell the husbandman’s

plough.

4.    In the end the baron was obliged to accept the

charcoal burner’s proposal.

5.    Springing up as nimbly as he could, the baron

attempted to draw his hunting knife.

(6) Combine each of the following pairs into one sentence:—(Do not use “and” or “but.”)

(i)    The slippery ice began to move up and down with the waves. The men were in danger of sliding into the water.

(ii)    The monkey used to spring on the back of one of the pigs. The pig then scampered round the deck in a fright.

(iii)    The soldiers were now ready. They advanced towards the bridge.

(c) From what verbs are the following nouns formed:—

competition; flight; carriage; suspicion; exhibition; argument; pleasure; resignation ; explanation; confidence; pursuit; contents; obedience; pronunciation; residence ; repetition; destruction; decision; perception; revolution.

(d)    Re-write the following, using words of opposite meaning to the words in black type:—

1.    The admiral was tall of stature, thickset in

build.

2.    His plan of battle concealed great folly.

3.    The small, graceful vessels were noisily

,    manoeuvring for position.

4.    The Prince w^as noted for his cowardice and

,    weakness.

5.    The sky was overcast and gloomy.

6.    The travellers departed as the sun was rising.

7.    Tom was commended for his action.

8.    The king said that his chosen knight was

valiant and loyal.

(e)    Re-write these sentences splitting each quotation into two parts. Insert the necessary stops:—■

1.    The Arab said, “In the desert no man meets a

friend. ’ ’

2.    My friend said, “I do not think that there are i any signs of an approaching storm.”

3.    The teacher asked, “Do you know where Fred

Brown is to-day?”

4.    Alice replied in an offended tone, “I’ve had

nothing yet so I can’t take more.”

5.    Abou Ben Adhem said, “I pray thee, then, write

me as one who loves his fellow men.”

CHAPTER 4.—SUBSTITUTIONS: PUNCTUATION EXERCISES.

(a) Construct sentences which will show that you understand the meaning of the following expressions:—

1.    A hard nut to crack.

2.    To cry over spilt milk.

3.    A dog in the manger.

4.    In the nick of time.

5.    A poor look-out.

(&) Write one word for each of the following:—

1.    Vehicles which transport sick or injured people

to hospital.

2.    A person who makes and sells ladies’ hats.

3.    A number of people in church.

4.    A number of people singing together.

5.    A number of boys or girls drilling together.

(c) Substitute an adverb for each phrase in black type:—

1.    Without a sound the cat moved towards the

unsuspecting bird.    '

2.    All of a sudden the machinery stopped.

3.    The wombat lives under the ground.

4.    The two events occurred at the same time.

5.    Now and then the farmer visited the city.

6.    The men in the factory are paid every week.

7.    The boy acted in a, foolish manner.

8.    Each, night the city gates are closed.

9.    We paid a visit to the Museum not long ago.

10. With great patience the soldiers awaited the attack.

(d)    Insert words of similar meaning to each word in black type:—

1.    The hunter was not terrified by his peril.

2.    The elephants push their way warily through

the long grass.

3.    They know well the strength of the enemy.

4.    The tiger crouches on the ground, his tail

lashing his flanks.

5.    The driver was often a merry old fellow who

could amuse the passengers with quaint stories.
6.    A gallant spectacle the coach made as it rattled
swiftly along the high road, with its four mettlesome horses.

7.    Here and there were to be found meagre patches

of herbage.

8.    The camel’s foot terminates in two toes.

9.    A vast concourse of people assembled in the

streets.

10. The trees were reflected in the waters of the placid stream.

(e)    Complete the punctuation:—

(1) How many harpoons have now been flung at the whale cried one of the men.

The old man replied the whale casts up a shower of spray through a hole in the top of his head.

What do we get from whales said the sailor with a smile.

Why oil from some whalebone from others.

(2) That is a fire engine said Jack’s father. It is f    going to put out a fire. A glad shout went up

from the people: the fire engine, the fire engine here is the fire engine at last. What did they do next asked Jack were the good firemen in time. Yes said his father and this is how it all happened.    ,

’    *    —0O0—

CHAPTER    5.—COMBINING SENTENCES, AND
OTHER EXERCISES.

(a) (1) Combine the following into one good sentence:—(Do not use ‘‘and” or “but.”)

(i)    Among the wounded Arabs was a man named

IJassan.

'    He had a very fine horse.

The horse had also fallen into the hands of the Turks.

(ii)    The mocking bird is watching by the side of the

nest.

Its mate is sitting in the nest.

(iii) Aliek, the trapper, was only too glad to keep Billy.

Aliek’s dog had been killed in a trap.

(2) Combine the following into one sentence without using “and” or “but”:—

(i)    The potato is a native of America.

It was brought to Europe by Sir Walter Raleigh.

(ii)    The soldiers returned from the war.

They were greeted by thousands of cheering people.

The people thronged the streets of the city.

(iii) The apples were grown in Tasmania.

You see them in the shop windows.

Tasmania is an island lying south of Victoria.

'(&) Use in sentences:—

]. mighty mountain.

2.    from crag to crag.

3.    gathering mists.

4.    drifted snow.

5.    set off in pursuit.

6.    gazed in admiration.

7.    overcast and gloomy.

8.    boisterous wind.

9.    tall of stature.

10.    dire calamity.

11.    secure haven.

12.    tranquil scene.

13.    dying embers.

14.    gleaming in the rays of the setting sun.

15.    a source of pride and satisfaction.

(c) For the words in black type, substitute a suitable adjective, putting each into its proper place:—

1.    He is a man of lovable disposition.

2.    A man in low circumstances appealed to me for

help.

3.    Your writing is not able to be read.

4.    He is a man who can neither read nor write.

5.    That story is beyond belief.

■(d) (1) Form adjectives from the words:—

:    adjective, verb, adverb, preposition,

condition,    predicate, conjunction,

participle.

(2) Give the verb from which each of the following is formed:—

possessive,    interrogative, relative,

analysis, extension, objective, nominative, demonstrative.

(e) Turn the following into Indirect Speech:—

(1)    “Did you hear a noise?” the young hunter asked his companions.

“Yes, I thought I did,” replied one of his mates.

“It must be a pack of wolves,” said another.

“I can see them slipping between the tree trunks,” cried the third man excitedly.

“We shall have to fight for our lives now,” said the man who had first spoken.

(2)    (i.) “I think, Maxwell,” said Mr. Fairweather,

“that you should celebrate the opening of your railway with an entertainment.”

(ii.) While they stood amazed, Sally asked John,

“Did you leave Joe at the house?”

(iii.) “Since yesterday,” he observed, “the weather has changed.”

CHAPTER    6.—SUBSTITUTIONS; PUNCTUATION
EXERCISES.

(a)    Write sentences which will show that yon understand the meaning of the following expressions:—

1.    To work with a will.

2.    As round as a ball.

3.    Helter-skelter.

4.    To put to flight.

5.    Up hill and down dale.

(b)    Write one word for each of the following:—

1.    A bunch of flowers.

2.    A person who sells papers, pens, books, &c.

3.    A figure with three sides.

4.    A figure with four sides.

5.    A creature with two feet.

(c)    By the use of a suffix, change each of the following into a noun:—

prompt, likely, clever, revere, perfect, hearty, lovely, cruel, dry, manly, able, docile, gay, true, legal.

(d)    Write down the name given to a native of each

of the following

countries:—

Belgium

France

Norway

Peru

China

Holland

Sweden

Mexico

Denmark

Japan

Canada

Spain

(e) Re-write each of the following statements in such a way that the actual words of each speaker will be used:—

1.    The old gentleman asked me where I lived.

2.    The man’s reply was that he had lost his way.

3.    I told him to call and see me to-morrow.

4.    The old lady asked if she might sit in the

garden for a while.

5.    The teacher said that there was no need to

shout.

6.    The old gentleman inquired whether or not I had

ever been to Sydney.

7.    The spider asked the fly to walk into his

parlour.

8.    My friend told me that he did not like bananas.

9.    The manager of the theatre asked the lady to

remove her hat.

10. Mother whispered that baby had just fallen asleep.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 7.—COMBINING SENTENCES; PUNCTUATION EXERCISES.

(d) Combine each of the following groups into one sentence:—

(i)    The cooper’s courage began to fail.

He discovered in the distance a second pack of wolves.

(ii)    The knight rode down into the valley.

He was mounted on a fine white charger.

(iii)    A fierce and cruel dragon lived in the valley. The dragon had devoured many poor peasants.

(iv)    The mother stork sat in her nest with her four

little ones.

They were stretching out their heads with their pointed bills.

The hills had not yet turned red.

(&) Substitute a verb for the words in black type:

1.    The passengers went on board the ship.

*

2.    He satisfied the needs of the inner man.

3.    The king gave up his throne.

4.    The people in the audience clapped their hands.

5.    The leaves hung limply in the hot sun.

(c)    Give a word opposite in meaning to each of the following:—deep, liquid, extravagance, famine, dainty, shabby, simple, brief.

(d)    (1) Change the following; into the Plural form and use in sentences:—

1.    soldier’s weapon

2.    bird’s song

3.    horse’s head

4.    child’s book

5.    lamb’s tail

6.    fireman’s axe

7.    lady’s dress

8.    hunter’s gun    ■*

9.    nurse’s cap

10.    mouse’s tail

11.    man’s hat

12.    woman’s gloves

(2) Re-write in the Plural, making any necessary alterations:—

1.    The child went to meet her friend.

2.    The man and the woman picked a daisy in the

field.

3.    The wolf moved quickly across the plain.

4.    The mouse eats a hole in the cheese.

5.    The church was bombed by the enemy.

6.    The workman’s duty was not very heavy.

(e) Re-write the following sentences in Indirect Address (or Indirect Speech) :—

1.    Farmer Jones said, “I have never had such a

good crop of wheat.”

2.    “Will you walk into my parlour?” said a spider

to a fly.

3.    “To whom were you speaking before I came

in?” asked father.

4.    The old hunter whispered, “Take aim at a point

behind the shoulder.”

5.    “Stand back!” said the policeman to the crowd.

6.    “I have answered two questions correctly,” said

the dull pupil.

7.    “Is this where Mr. Smith lives?” asked the old

gentleman.

8.    The disappointed children asked, “Will the

rain never stop?”

9.    “Ah! that won’t do,” cried Joe.

10. The butler cried in a loud voice, “Dinner is served!”

—oOo—

CHAPTER 8.—CORRECTION    OF SENTENCES,
AND OTHER EXERCISES.

(a) Correct the following sentences:—

1.    The boy didn’t ought to rob the farmer’s

orchard.

2.    I am sure that it was her who first sighted the

island.

3.    I have a friend who I intend to take with me.

4.    He would have fallen but for the help of my

brother and I.

5.    Do not forget who yon are speaking to.

6.    He could wield a sword better than me.

7.    I am taller than him.

8.    No one is more surprised than me.

9.    Courage was the virtue what he most displayed.

10.    Which of the two coaches runs the more regular ?

11.    If we are in time we will see the sunset.

12.    I will be drowned and no one shall save me.

13.    It is unlikely that any accident would happen.

14.    A boy may slide or skate until he grows tired

of them.

15.    The carriages were full with people.

16.    The toboggan is swifter but not so comfortable

as the sleigh.

(b)    Substitute a word of similar meaning for each word or phrase in black type:—

1.    I saw everything with extraordinary vividness.

2.    I concluded that 1 had better give the signal

to haul me up.

3.    The widow crouched beneath a projecting rock

and pressed her child to her trembling bosom.

4.    Sinbad began to wonder whether he had gained

anything by quitting the desolate island.

5.    I stored them carefully in the leather wallet

in which I carried my provisions.

6.    Such was Whang’s thrift, that he would every

now and then lay some money by, which he would at intervals count and contemplate with much satisfaction,

(c)    Give the adjectives and adverbs that correspond to the following nouns:—

Examples:—

Noun.    Adjective.    Advert).

courage    courageous    courageously

hope    hopeful    hopefully

beauty, mischief, truth, fury, gladness, noise, pride, success, warmth, ease.

(d)    Construct sentences to show that you understand the meaning of the following expressions:—

1.    To lend a hand.

2.    To pull oneself together.

3.    To take to one’s heels.

4.    To strike while the iron is hot.

5.    To let the cat out of the hag.

(e)    Change to Direct Speech, and insert all necessary capital letters and punctuation marks:—

1.    he said he was sorry he could not come

2.    when he reached home his father asked him where

he had been

3.    he replied that he would prove what he said to

be true

4.    where are you going mary asked mother

5.    I am going into the garden to help father replied

the girl

6.    when he reached home his mother asked him why

he was late

7.    he replied that he had been playing with some

boys

8.    I asked the man if he would accept three

shillings for the book

9.    the boy stammered that he had been suspected

before of stealing but that he was innocent of the charge

10. and what said ralph hesitating a little was the cause of the quarrel.

CHAPTER 9.—COMBINING SENTENCES; PUNCTUATION EXERCISES; CORRECTION OF SENTENCES.

(а)    Combine each of the following groups into one sentence:—(Do not use “and” or “but.”)

(i) There was once a pretty, delicate, little girl.

She was poor.

She had to go barefoot.

*(ii) The third sister was the boldest of them all. She swam up a broad river.

The river emptied into the sea.

(б)    Substitute an adverb for the words in black type:—

1.    He did it of his own free will.

2.    He spends his money with open hands.

3.    He shook his head with the utmost vehemence.
4.    She cast down her eyes with a look of affected
modesty.
5.    I did it without meaning- to do it.
6.    They met in such a way that no one knew
they met.

(c) Fill in the blanks correctly:—

1.    Either you or I — wrong.

2.    Neither Tom nor his sister — present.

3.    Each one of those girls — how to be useful.

4.    None of us — too old to learn.

5.    She is taller than — (pronoun wanted).

6.    He is as tall as — (pronoun wanted).

7.    You are stronger than — (pronoun wanted).

8.    A big crowd of soldiers — in sight.

9.    May as well as her sister — there.

(d)    Correct the following sentences:—

1.    On the peg was his hat and coat.

2.    Either Tom or Harry have forgotten their lunch.

3.    These kind of apples are the sweetest.

4.    A mob of cattle were crossing the bridge.

5.    Neither Mary nor her sister were at the concert.

6.    The retreating army were pursued by the enemy.

7.    In the farmyard was a fat pig and a lean cow.

8.    Either you or I are to leave this house.

9.    The lion and the unicorn was fighting for the

crown.

10.    Neither the soldier nor the sailor were wounded.

11.    The army and the navy and the air force defends

our shores.

12.    Neither of the boys were able to do the sum.

13.    Each of the girls in the class make her own

clothes.

(e)    (1) Re-write as Indirect Address:—

“Now, Uncle,” asked Harry, who was a favourite of the old gentleman, “can you tell me what happens when you put a candle out?”

(2) Re-write as Direct Address:—

I asked Grace if she wmuld come to tennis with me.

She said she was sorry she could not as she was going out to tea but that she would come, on Wednesday.

CHAPTER    10.—WORD    BUILDING, AND
CORRECTION OF SENTENCES.

(a) (1) Add “-able” to each of the following, making any necessary alteration to the spelling:—

agree, change, service, sale, advise, move, pity, rely.

(2) Add the following suffixes, making any necessary change in the spelling:—

1.    -ly:—day, whole, noisy, true, ease, cool.

2.    -tion or -sion:—admire, devote, attend, permit,

ascend, prevent.

3.    -eous:—right, court, plenty, beauty.

4.    -hood:—likely, knight, lively, child.

5.    -d or -ed:—fade, age, reply, pay, refer, quarrel,

pad, equal.

6.    -ence:—depend, insist, reside, refer, revere,

excel.

(5) Substitute words of similar meaning for the words or phrases in black type:—

1.    Then he gathered sufficient wood to make a

glowing fire.

2.    He fled a considerable distance before the

keepers perceived that he had eluded them.

3.    ‘Willebrod was perplexed at his friend’s unhappy

situation.

4.    He had never turned a deaf ear to an appeal

for assistance.

5.    Simon Danz has come home again from cruising

about with his buccaneers.

6.    There are silver tankards of antique styles.

(c)    Re-write the following sentences making each Irefer to past time, and to more than one person or animal or thing:—

1.    The army advances rapidly.

2.    The child lies in the snn.

3.    The tooth grows slowly.

4.    The ox eats the grass in the field.

5.    The baby cries incessantly.

6.    The lady sings sweetly.

7.    My son-in-law writes interesting books.

8.    The man-of-war fights on the high seas.

9.    The goose flies northward in summer.

10.    I see the bird in the wattle tree.

11.    The fisherman catches cod and mackerel.

12.    The mouse seeks shelter in a hole in the wall.

(d)    Correct the following sentences:—

1.    Neither of the prisoners speak good English.

2.    Does your uncle and aunt know that you are

coming?    ,

3.    The cat and her kitten was playing on the lawn.

4.    One of the children were very rude.

5.    Close to the school was a saw-mill and a tannery.

6.    Neither of the horses were shod.

7.    Either a bomber or a fighter were shot down by

the guns.

8.    Do either of the books please you?

9.    Neither of the pictures were worth seeing.

10.    Everyone of the boys play cricket.

11.    The gentleman and his wife travels to town by

train.

12.    Each of the sailors wear a white uniform.

13.    Neither you nor your friend are to go to the

circus.

14.    Not one of the apples are ripe.

15.    The bunch of keys are in my pocket.

(b) (i) Punctuate the following in two different ways, using the exact words of (a) the motorist, and (b) the injured man:—

The motorist said the injured man did not look where he was going.

(ii) Re-write the following, inserting the necessary capital letters and punctuation marks:—

1.    well how much did you get asked the duke a

shilling said the boy and there’s half of it to you but surely you got more than a shilling said the duke no said the boy that is all I got and I think it quite enough.

2.    When the school was out Hanson said to john for

what did you get a mark because I was late said john I know that but why were you not in time.

*—oOo—

. ' '

PART IV.—DERIVATION AND WORD BUILDING.

CHAPTER 1.—LATIN PREFIXES.

In the Fourth Grade you had some practice in using prefixes and suffixes. Most of those you used were of Old English origin. You are now to learn some more affixes. These are of Latin origin. Latin, as you know, was the language used many centuries ago by the Romans. Among them were many great scholars and great writers. From them we have borrowed a large number of words. A study of Latin prefixes and sutfixes should help you to understand their meaning and to build up many more words. In this Chapter, you will find a list of common Latin prefixes. You will do well to study them carefully, to learn their meaning, and to use them, with the help of your teacher, in word-building. You will notice that some of the prefixes have several forms. For instance the prefix 11 ad” is written “ ac” when the stem of the word begins with the letter “c” (ac-cept, ac-count, ac-cent), “af” when the stem begins with “/” (af-fix, af-ford), “an” when the stem begins with “n” (an-noy, an-nex) and so on.

Examples of words containing prefixes and suffixes are given; you will be able to find many more if you use your dictionary:—

a (ab, abs) means “from” or “away,” as in a-vert, a-void, ab-sent, abs-tract. In the word “a-vert” the stem of the word, “vert,” means “to turn,” and the whole word means “to turn away” or “to prevent.” Use your dictionary to find the meanings of the other words given.

ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as and at) means “to,” (Learn these three groups of prefixes as combined— adacafag, alanapar, and asat, and you will have the various forms of the prefix). Words are:—ad-mit, ac-cept, af-fix, ag-grav-ate, al-lege, an-nex, ap-pend, ar-rive, as-sist and at-tain.

ante means “before” as in ante-ced-ent, ante-chamber.

circum means “round about,”—circum-fer-ence, circum-vent, circum-stance, circum-seribe.

con '(co, cog, col, com and cor) means “together,”— con-nect, co-in-cide, cog-nate, col-leet, com-merce, cor-rect.

contra (counter) means “against,”—contra-diet, counter-act, counter-sign, counter-mand.

de means    “down,”—de-cay,    de-duct, de-cline,

de-scribe.

dis (di, dif) means “asunder” or “apart,”—dis-sect, dis-tract, di-vert, dif-fer.

“dis” sometimes means “not” or “the opposite of,” as in dis-able, dis-agree, dis-appear, dis-arm, dis-honest.

ex (e, ec, ef) means “out of” or “out,” as in ex-tract, ex-tort, ex-cuse, e-lect, e-ducate, ec-centric, ef-fect, ef-face.

extra means ‘ ‘ beyond, ’ ’—extra-ordinary, extra-vagant.

in (il, im, ir) means “in” or “on” or “into” when used with verbs,—in-cline, in-clude, il-lumine, im-pel, im-pose, ir-ritate.

in (and sometimes ig, il, im, ir) means “not” or “the opposite of” when med with adjectives,—in-accurate, in-correct, ig-noble, il-literate, im-possible, ir-regular.

inter means “between” or “amongst,” as in intercede, inter-cept, inter-fere, inter-rupt, inter-national.

intro means “within,”—intro-duce.

ob (o, oc, of, op) means “in the way of ” or “against,” —ob-ject, ob-struct, o-mit, oc-cupy, oc-cur, of-fend, op-pose.

per means “through” or “thoroughly,”—per-fect, per-forate, per-manent.

post means “after,”—post-pone, post-script, post-erity.

pre means “before,”—pre-fer, pre-side, pre-sume, pre-tend, pre-vent, pre-fix.

pro (pur) means “for, forth, or forward,” as in pro-ceed, pro-ject, pro-tect, pro-vide, pur-sue, pur-pose.

re means “back” or “again,”—re-cline, re-deem, re-fer, re-flect, re-form.

se means “aside” or “from,”—se-cede, se-leet, se-cure, se-parate.

-sine (tin or dm) means “without,”—sine-cure, sin-cere, sim-ple.

sub (sue, suf, sug, sup, su£) means “under,” as in sub-mit, sub-ject, suc-eeed, suf-fer, sug-gest, sup-port, sus-tain.

super (sur) means “above”—super-intend, superlative, super-natural, sur-mount, sur-pass.

^trans (tran, tra or traf) means “beyond” or “across/* as in trans-gress, trans-mit, tran-scribe, tran-scend, traverse, traf-fie.

Exercises.

(a)    Form verbs from the following nouns:—slave, circle, body, power, list, roll, courage, strength, length, dew, head, bed, class, spark, nest, friend, captive, knee, hand, heart, witch, throne, danger.

(b)    Form verbs from the following adjectives:—feeble, rich, dear, able, new, fresh, little, pure, simple, short, broad, deep, black, white, weak, hard, soft, calm, clean, dim, bright, large, glad, sweet.

(c) Form other verbs from the following verbs (use prefixes) :—speak, think, please, bid, rise, lie, reach, come, charge, look, lay, behave, trust, fill, lead, furl, do, set, see, arm, give, take, run, turn.

—0O0—

CHAPTER 2.—LATIN SUFFIXES.

It is important to recognise the parts of speech formed when suffixes are added to words.

Noun-forming Suffixes

(i)    Denoting agent or doer (one who).

ain, an, en, on: chieftain, Roman, citizen, glutton. ant or ent: sergeant, emigrant, merchant, dependant, student, agent.

ary, ar, er, eer, ier: adversary, scholar, subscriber, engineer, grenadier.

ate: curate, advocate, primate.

ee: employee, trustee, examinee.

ive or iff: fugitive, motive, plaintiff, bailiff. 1/

(ii)    Denoting state or condition (forming abstract nouns).

age: courage, homage, advantage.

ance, ence: abundance, ignorance, absence, prudence, science.

ice: service, notice, cowardice.

ion: rebellion, transcription, opinion, extension.

ment: punishment, excitement, judgment, compliment.

or, our, eur: error, terror, honour, rumour, splendour, grandeur.

ery: cookery, trickery, slavery.

tude: gratitude, solicitude, multitude, fortitude.

ty: beauty, cruelty, fidelity, charity, safety. • ure: adventure, verdure, nature, culture. y: misery, study, victory, luxury, modesty.

(iii) Forming diminutives (Nouns). cule, ole: molecule, particle, icicle, corpuscle. el: damsel, morsel, parcel. et, ette: eaglet, pellet, cigarette.

Adjective-forming Suffixes.

These suffixes usually mean “able,” “full of,” or “belonging to.”

able, ible: portable, movable, sensible, visible, audible. al: annual, royal, loyal, final, equal. ant, ent: distant, obedient, patient. ar, ary: regular, similar, necessary, contrary. ate: delicate, considerate. el, le: cruel, double, gentle, subtle. ic, ical: frantic, romantic, domestic, clerical, musical, comical.

He, ine: fragile, fertile, sterile, divine, genuine, masculine.

ive: active, retentive, successive, decisive, attentive. ous: dangerous, glorious, famous, curious, copious.

Verb-forming Suffixes.

These usually mean “to make.”

ate: alleviate, abbreviate, graduate, captivate, agitate. fy: purify, magnify, signify, qualify, stupify, modify. ish: finish, diminish, flourish, nourish, polish. ite: ignite, incite, expedite.

Exercises.

l(a) Form nouns from the following adjectives:—long, broad, deep, high, wide, stupid, lazy, dark, pure, slow, useful, warm, good, solid, fresh, free, gay, busy, distant, sure, fragrant, lovely, sly, tierce, timid, cruel, modest, wise, ignorant, great, savage, royal, manly.

(5) Form nouns from the following verbs:—flow, break, see, admire, know, enjoy, confuse, give, believe, refer, lose, sing, fly, speak, describe, try, mix, erect, refuse, do, extend, grow, bury, marry, retire, advance, serve, judge, cook, laugh, nourish, lead, treat, dictate, teach, heal, seize.

(c) Form other nouns from the following nouns:— slave, coward, hero, boy, man, fortune, sheep, king, school, stream, nest, hand, lamb, duck, lock, cigar, general, law, war, mill, friend, team, victor, leader, child.

—0O0—

CHAPTER 3.—HOW THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE GROWS.

The language we speak is English. It has been built up from the days of King Alfred. The ideas and occupations of our fore-fathers were comparatively simple, so the stock of words they required to express their ideas was not large. Most of their words were names of common things, common actions and simple feelings, such as: fire, roof, rain, snow, sea, stream, cow, sheep, loaf, cake, furrow, sheaf, eat, drink, sleep, walk, love, hate, good and bad.

As the years passed the English became more civilized. From the Normans they learned how to build better houses and streets and how to live in greater comfort. Trade with foreign countries increased. Foreign customs and modes of living were imitated, and many new animals, plants, trees and foods became known. A larger number of people became educated.

The story of this progress you have learned, of course, from your study of history. But have you thought about the thousands of new words that were required to name or convey ideas about new things? You can see that a history may be written about words as well as about kings and wars and exploration and trade. And a very interesting history it is too.

New words come into our language because we need them. To-day you use scores of words that were not used a hundred years ago because there was n® need for them. Here are two—telephone and aeroplane. Try to think of a dozen more.

From what sources have we obtained our new words? Some are made up to imitate a sound such as boom (the sound of a cannon), mopoke and cuckoo. Others such as boomerang, zebra, algebra, tea, bamboo and bazaar, are borrowed directly from another language. But the vast majority of our words that are not Anglo-Saxon have come from two ancient languages, Latin and Greek. The Romans and the Greeks were great scholars and great writers. Their books are studied to this day. From Latin and Greek words, Englishmen have made up new words for their own use. For example, an instrument that carried the sound of the voice along a wire to a distant point was invented. A name was required for the instrument. Two Greek words, tele meaning ‘ ‘ afar ” or “ distant ’ ’ and 'phone, “the voice,” were joined to form the new word, telephone. In this example two whole words have been borrowed. But, very often, we use only the main part of a foreign word and with the aid of prefixes and suffixes make number of new words.

Examples of this are: exceed (to go beyond), proceed (to go forward), recede (to go backward) and intercede (to go between). If we examine these words we find one main part, ceed or cede, common to all. This part is the stem and it is formed or derived from the original Latin word cedo (cessus) which is called the root. The Latin root cedo (cessus) means “I go.”

Now in Grade V. yon are for the first time learning Latin roots. You have already learned prefixes and suffixes. By using these with roots, you should increase your vocabulary considerably. Also the roots will help you to find the meaning of a strange word when you see it in print.

Perhaps you will wonder why two forms of the same Latin root are often given, for example, pax (pads) meaning ‘‘peace,” from which we form the English word, pacify (to soothe or make peaceable). Pax, in Latin, is nominative case and pads is genitive or possessive case. Sometimes we form words from the genitive of the root. So, also, another part of the Latin verb fundo (I pour) is fusus; knowing this part helps you to see how we get the word profuse (poured forth in abundance).

Let us have a little practice in building up words from three common roots. For a start we shall take the Latin verb, mitto (missus) meaning: “I send,” and form as many English verbs as we can. Llere is a chance to make good use of the Latin prefixes. Taking them in alphabetical order and joining them to the main part of the root, we get the following list of verbs:—ad-mit; com-mit; e-mit; per-mit; re-mit; sub-mit, and trans-mit.

The literal or exact meaning of these verbs is:—admit, —‘‘ to send to ”; commit,—‘£ to send together ’ ’; omit,—‘ ‘ to send out”; permit,—“to send through”; remit,—“to send back ’ ’; submit,—‘ ‘ to send under ’7; and transmit,—‘‘ to send across.” Use your dictionary to find the ordinary meaning of each verb.

By using the second part of the root together with the suffix “ion,” we can form the nouns—admission, commission, emission, permission, remission, submission and transmission.

The suffixes “-ing” and “-ed” can also be added to those verbs making admitting, admitted; committing, committed ; etc.

We can use other suffixes to form adjectives and adverbs. From submission we get the adjective “submissive” and from “submissive” the adverb “submissively. ’ ’    .

Other English words derived from this root are: mission, missionary, missile, message, promise and missive.

Here is another common Latin root—cedo (cessus) meaning “I go.” Proceeding as with mitto, we form the verbs:—ac-cede, con-cede, ex-ceed, inter-cede, pre-cede, proceed, re-cede, se-cede and suc-ceed. Notice the difference in the spelling of these words and learn the correct forms. Try to form nouns, adjectives and adverbs from the verbs. Here is an example:

Verb

Noun

Adjective

Adverb

succeed

success

successful

successfully

succession

successive

successively

You will find some of the words quite difficult to deal with, but build up as many as you can with the aid of a dictionary. Remember that the chief function of suffixes is to indicate the part of speech of a word. '

The following list of verbs is built from pello (pulsus) meaning “I drive”:—compel, dispel, expel, impel, propel and repel. Form other parts of speech from these. Do not forget to use the second part of the root (pulsus).

You have now read about three Latin roots:—-cedo (cessus): I go. mitto (missus): I send. pello (pulsus): I drive.

During the year you are expected to learn one hundred Latin roots. Most of the roots given in the lists in succeeding chapters have words derived from them in G'rade Y. Reader. A few other words commonly used are also given.

Harder roots can bo left for a higher grade.

The root (and its correct spelling) from which a word is derived should be learned, together with the meaning of the root. Older pupils have noticed that the meanings of roots can be classified as verbs, adjectives or nouns. It may help, therefore, if we classify roots in this way:—■

(a) Verbs.

(&) Adjectives.

(c) Nouns—

(i)    Parts of the body;

(ii)    Common things, etc.

Here are several roots, classified so that they can be remembered easily:—

(a)    Verbs—

porto (portatus): 1 carry. jungo (junctus); I join.

(b)    Adjectives—

brevis: short. durus: hard.

(c)    Nouns—

(i)    facies: the face.

pes (pedis): the foot.

(ii)    insula: an island. flos (floris): a flower.

(a)    From the root “porto” we take “port” and use prefixes, making deport, export, import, report, support. Another group of words is obtained by adding the suffix “-ing” to each of the verbs already formed.

In the same way “-ed” makes exported, reported, &c. Now notice some nouns formed from the same root—port, importance, portfolio, portmanteau, reporter and supporter.

From jungo (junctus) we obtain several groups of words:—junction, conjunction, injunction, subjunctive; adjoin, enjoin and rejoin; also the word joint.

The largest groups of words are derived from verbs.

(b)    Few words in our language are derived from brevis and durus. From “brevis” we get brief, brevity, and abbreviate; from “durus” we get endure, durable and duration.

(o) (i) Facies is the root of the words face, deface, efface, surface. Facial is an adjective made by using the suffix -al.

Biped and quadruped, words meaning two-legged and four-legged, respectively, are nouns made from pes {pedis). Other words are impede, impediment, pedal, pedestrian, expedite and centipede.

(ii) Insula, an island, is a root easily remembered. Words derived from this root are insular and insulate. The word floral is commonly used; it is derived from flos (floris). Other words from this root are florid and flourish.

A study of derivation assists you to learn the meanings of words, to understand them, and to see the relationship of words derived from the same root. Thus you may so enlarge your vocabulary that you will be better able to say what is in your mind on any subject.

Words derived from a root are called “derivatives” of the root.

Exercises.

(а)    Form adjectives from the following nouns:— man, woman, child, boy, health, wealth, fright, rain,

water, life, wool, wood, home, dirt, awe, hate, book, fool, fear, grass, haste, star, sun, cloud, friend, danger, poet, family, picture, speech, sponge, glory, hope, quarrel, war, fame, earth.

(б)    Form adjectives from the "following verbs:— enjoy, rest, appear, notice, describe, act, trust, excel,

collect, read, dream, talk, work, obey, attend, explain, elect, extend, receive, repulse, admit, introduce, fancy, satisfy, continue, grieve, suit, watch, admire, respect, desire, love, decide, remark, attract.

—0O0—

CHAPTER 4.—LATIN ROOTS—VERBS.

Here are some Latin roots from which words in the Grade V. reader are derived. Lists of additional words derived from these roots, together with the part of speech of each word, are given. Do not forget that the list of verbs can be increased by adding “-mg” or “-ed“ to most of them, as :—occurring, recurred; also, recurring and recurred.

Where you cannot tell the meaning of a word from its root and prefix (and sometimes the suffix, too) look up .the word in your dictionary.

(N.B.—The numeral under each word in the first column indicates, the page in the Reader on which the yvord is found.)

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Word.

Root and Meaning.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

course

curro (cursus) :

occur, recur,

occurrence,

(3)

I run

concur

current, -— corridor,

courier

distance

sto (status) :

establish ..

constant,

circumstance.

(3)

I stand

stationary ^

instance,

stationery,

static,

obstacle

proceedings

cedo (cessus) :

exceed,

excessive

process,

(3)

I go

recede,

intercession,

proceed,

access,

succeed

abscess

contend

tendo (tensus) :

attend,

intense,

extent

(4)

I stretch

intend,

extensive

intention,

contend,

extend

tendon

observe

servo (servatus) :

reserve,

, ,

reservoir, *—"

(7)

I keep

conserve,

preservation

serve •

regular

rego (rectus) :

correct,

corrective,

region,

W

I rule or

direct, regu-

rectangular

rectangle,

straighten

late, erect

regiment

producing

duco (ductus) :

deduce,

educative,

reduction,

(9)

I lead

adduce,

productive

duke,

deduct,

product,

subdue

education

motion

moveo (motus) :

promote,

mobile

emotion,

(13)

I move

demote

motive,

motor,

mobility

object

(18)

jacio (jactus) : I throw

project,

inject,

subject

adjectival

adjective,

conjecture,

projectile,

subjection

commit

mitto (missus) :

emit, remit,

submissive

submission,

(20)

I send

commit,

admittance,

dismiss

promise

compelled

pello (pulsus) :

repel,

compulsory,

repulse,

(20)

I drive

compel,

impulsive

compulsion.

expel,

propel

impulse

Word.

Root and Meaning.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

purpose

pono (positus) :

impose,

positive

post,

(20)

I place

repose,

suppose,

deposit

capable,

position,

preposition,

posture,

exposure

perceive

capio (captus) :

accept,

exception,

(32)

I take

deceive,

intercept,

deceptive

captive,

anticipation

increased

cresco (cretus) :

increase,

, .

crescent,

(22)

I grow

decrease

concrete

refuse

fundo (Jusus) :

confuse,

futile,

fuse,

(29)

I pour

diffuse

profuse

confusion,

transfusion

fragments

frango (fractus) :

infringe

fragile

fraction,

(32)

I break

fracture,

infraction

Exercises.

(a) Give the prefix and its meaning in each of the following words:—

surcharge, opposition, inclusive, irregular, disapprove, arrest, promotion, seclude, sufficient, interstate.

(5) Give the Latin root with its meaning from which each of the following words is derived:—

omission, propellor, direction, static, extension, antecedent, contend, reservation, effusion, rectify.

(c) To the following stems add prefixes which mean to:—

fix,* here, peal, scend, tract, verb, cede, lude, nex, cess, rive, sist.

CHAPTER 5.—LATIN ROOTS—ADJECTIVES.

This month words derived from roots with adjectives as their meanings will be taken from the reader. To help yon to obtain a better grasp of the language, some other roots are added.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

r

difficult

(18)

facilis : easy

facilitate

facile

faculty,

facility

endurance

(48)

durus : hard

endure

r~

durable

duration

December

(42)

decern : ten

decimate

decimal

century

(100)

centum : a hundred

# *

* *

centenary,

centigrade,

cent.

unus : one

unite

unitary,

unanimous

unit,

unity,

union

duo : two

duplicate

dual,

double

duet,

duel

mille : a thousand

••

••

millenium

liberty

liber : free

liberate

deliberate,

delivery,

(29)

deliver

liberal

deliberation

novus : new

renovate

novel

novelty,

novice

solus : alone

r~

••

desolate,

solitary

solitude,

solo

indignant

(123)

dignus : worthy

dignify

condign

dignity,

indignity,

indignation

bonus : good i—^

••

bountiful

bounty,

boon

malus : bad

maltreat,

malign

malicious,

malignant

malady,

malice,

malaria

satisfied

satis : enough

satisfy

satisfactory

satisfaction

(22)

clarus : clear-

clarify,

declare

••

declaration,

claret

brevis ■' short

abbreviate

brief

brevity

gravis : heavy

gravitate,

aggravate

grave

grief,

gravity

Word.

Boot and Meaning.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

assemble

(117)

similis : like *•"

resemble,

dissemble

similar

similarity,

resemblance,

simile

sacrifice

(157)

sacer : holy

consecrate,

sacrifice

sacred,

sacrificial

sacrilege,

sacrament

Exercises.

'(a) From your knowledge of derivation, give the literal meaning of each of the following words:—

reserve, observe, deserve, conserve, preserve, reservation, observation, conservation, preservation, reservoir, observatory, conservative, preservative.

(&) Making use of the derivation you have learned, give one word in place of each of the following:—

1.    to go back.

2.    to throw forward.

3.    to send out.

4.    placing against.

5.    (blood) poured across from one to another.

6.    to drive apart.

7.    to carry out.

8.    a moving forward.

9.    a place in which to stancl or remain,

(c) Substitute words derived from pello (pulsus) for the words in black type:—

1.    The vessel was driven forward by powerful

engines.

2.    The garrison drove back the enemy who attacked

the fortress.

3.    The enemy was forced to retire.

4.    The heart beat of the invalid was weak.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 6.—LATIN ROOTS,—VERBS AND NOUNS.

Word.

Boot and Meaning.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

adventure

(33)

venio (ventum'): I come

convene,

invent

venturesome

avenue,

convent,

revenue,

convention

offered

fero (latus) :

confer,

fertile,,

reference,

(38)

I bear

relate,

defer,

suffer

relative,

superlative

conference,

relations

destruction

struo (structus) :

instruct,

instructive,

structure,

(46)

I build

obstruct,

destroy

construct

constructive

instrument,

construction

vision

video (visus) :

visit,

evident,

provision,

(56)

I see

survey,

provide,

subdivide

visible

surveyor,

revision,

evidence

include

claudo '

conclude,

inclusive,

clause,

(64)

(clausus) : I. shut

include,

exclude

exclusive

inclusion

consequence

(64)

sequor (secutus) : I follow

pursue,

ensue,

prosecute

execute

consequential

sequel,

sequence,

executor,

persecution

Word.

Root and Meaning.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

expedition

pes (pedis) :

impede

expeditious

biped,

(12)

the foot

expedite

pedalf

quadruped,

pedestrian

dexterity

(59)

dexter :

the right hand

dexterous

dexterity

manus : the hand

• •

manual

manuscript

courage

cor (cordis) :

accord,

discordant,

discord

(71)

the heart

record

courageous,

cordial

surface

(97)

facies : the face

deface,

efface

facial,

superficial

face

dens (dentis) : a tooth

indent

dental

dentist,

dentifrice

capital

(138)

corpus : the body

incorporate

corpulent

corporal,

corporation

caput : the head

precipitate

precipitous

cape, captain, Capitol, precipice

Exercises.

(а)    (i) Give the Latin roots of which the meanings are:—

heavy, like, new, face, hard.

Give also a noun derived from each root.

(ii) Give a verb formed from each of the following roots:—

clarus, novus, unus, durus, gravis.

(б)    Give the full derivation (roots and prefixes with their meanings-, and suffixes with the parts of speech they indicate) from which each of the following words is made:—

fractional, exposure, successive, establish, admittance, compulsory.

(c)    (1) What words derived from capio (captus) mean:—

to take prisoner; a person taken prisoner; one who* takes a prisoner; to take or receive from another; an article for taking or holding something?

(2) What words derived from cedo (-cessus) mean:— to go between; to go before; to go forward; to go back; to go apart or away from?

(d)    Use words derived from curro (CAirsus) to fill in the blank spaces:—

1.    The captain set a — for Colombo.

2.    The steamer moved very slowly against the

swift —.

3.    An — train is to be run from Toowoomba to

Brisbane.

4.    My father thought it unwise to — such heavy

expenses.

5.    Such an — is rare in our country.

—oOo—

CHAPTER 7.—LATIN ROOTS,—VERBS.

Word.

Root and Meaning.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

independent

(70)

pendeo (pensus) : I hang down

depend,

impend,

suspend

dependent

pendulum,

pendant,

dependant,

suspension

resolved

solvo (solutus) :

solve,

soluble,

solution,

(74)

I loosen

resolve,

dissolve,

absolve

dissolute

dissolution,

resolution

describe

(75) ,

scribo (scriptus) : I write

inscribe,

prescribe,

scribble

descriptive

script,

postscript,

conscript,

scripture

Word.

Root and Meaning.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

attract

(79)

traho (tractus) : I draw

contract,

detract,

extract,

retreat

attractive

tract,

contraction,

traction,

tractor

collect

lego (lectus) :

elect,

eligible,

intellect,

(81)

I gather or select

select,

recollect

selective,

collection

reclining

(93)

clino : I bend

incline,

decline,

recline

••

declension,

inclination

descending

(103)

scando (sccmsus) : I climb

ascend,

descend,

condescend

ascent,

condescension

respected

specio (spectus) :

despise,

special,

specimen,

(107)

I see or look

expect,

speculate,

suspect

expectant,

respectable

spectacles

affluence

(108)

fluo (fluxus) : I flow

fluctuate

influential,

superfluous

fluid,

influence,

confluence

occasion

(110)

cado (casus) : I fall

decay

casual,

deciduous,

occasional

case,

chance,

decadence

transport

(110)

porto (portatus) : I carry

import

export,

report,

support

important

port,

portfolio

traverse

(112)

verto (versus) : I turn

invert,

convert,

divert,

advert

convertible

verse,

advertise

ment,

controversy,

conversion

Exercises.

(a) Making use, as far as possible, of the derivation you have learned, give a word in place of each of the following:—

1.    to treat badly.

2.    to climb up.

3.    easily broken.

4.    a ‘hundred years.

5.    to throw back.

6.    a shortness (in speech).

7.    one who runs (with news).

8.    not alike.

9.    to bend back.

10. to make free.

(5) Substitute words derived from pono (positus) for the words in black type:

(i)    A poll tax was placed on the people.

(ii)    Tired after a hard day’s work, Mother lay at rest on the sofa.

(iii)    The girl placed together a few lines of poetry.

(iv)    The sentry was instructed to stay at his place.

(c)    Give the literal meaning (according to the derivation) of the following words:—

endure, infringe, exception, extensive, promoting.

(d)    Use words derived from specio (spectus) to fill the blank spaces:—

(i) The mountain, standing in the midst of a vast plain, was a — object.

(ii)    The poor bedraggled fugitives presented a

sorry —.

(iii)    The collector showed us some fine — of butterflies.

(iv)    My neighbour lent me his lawnmower as a — favour.

(v)    The farmer regarded the ragged tramp with —,

CHAPTER 8.—LATIN ROOTS. NOUNS,—COMMON THINGS, ETC.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Word.

Boot and Meaning.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

mariner

mare : the sea

maritime

marine,

submarine

(32)

rustic,

rural

rus (ruris) :

..

(78)

the country urbs : a city

••

rural

urban,

suburban

suburb

aqua : water

, .

aquatic <-—

aqueduct

arrive

rivus : a stream

derive

• •

derivation,

(87)

arrival

territories

terra : the earth

inter

territorial

terrace,

(137)

terrier,

Mediter-

ranean,

territory

mons :

mount

mountainous

promontory

a mountain insula :

insulate

insular

insulation

an island

isolate

immediately

medius :

mediate

medium

Mediter-

(43)

the middle

ranean, '

meridian

participator

pars (partis) :

part.

partial

particle,

(48)

a part

parse,

participle,

depart,

portion,

impart

partition

circus : a ring

circulate

circular

circle,

circulation

linea : a line

line, '

outline,

reline

lineal

lining

forma :

form,

uniform

uniform,

a shape or

conform

information,

form

deform

reformer

profound

fundus :

refund,

..

fund,

(74)

the bottom

found

founder,

foundation

unlimited

limes :

limit

limitation

(156)

a boundary norma : a rule

finis : an end

define,

normal,

enormous,

abnormal

final,

finality,

confine,

finite,

finance,

finish

infinite

definition

Exercises.

(a) Give the full derivation (roots and prefixes with their meanings, also the suffixes with the parts of speech they indicate) of each of the following:—

destructive, prosecution, isolation, precipitous, dentist, prescription, occasional, contractor, conversion, inhabitant.

(5) Making use of the derivation you have learned, endeavour to give a. word in place of each of the following :—

1.    (a creature) with a hundred feet.    i

2. belonging to the sea.    ,

3. a flowing together.    ,

4.    to loosen apart.

5.    money coming back to the government.

G. a placing after.

7.    the state of gathering (things) together; or

(money) gathered together.

8.    to draw away.

(c) Use words derived from venio (vent us) to fill the blank spaces:—

1.    The life savers warned us not to — beyond the

second line of breakers.

2.    I wish you had called at a more — time.

3.    It is not desirable to — in the quarrels of other

people.

4.    Edison was the — of the phonograph.

5.    Strong walls were built to — the flood waters

from entering the fields.

(d) Write the Latin words which mean:—the earth, a field, the heart, the head, water, a mountain, a man, the sea, the foot, a stream.

•—0O0

CHAPTER 9.—LATIN ROOTS. NOUNS,—COMMON THINGS, ETC.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Root and Meaning.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

hospitality

hospes

hospitable

host,

(80)

(liospitis) :

hostel,

a guest

hotel,

hospital

congregation

grex (gregis) :

segregate,

gregarious

aggregate

(100)

a flock

pater : a father

congregate

patronize

paternal

patron

mater : a mother

maternal

matrimony

civis (civis) :

civilize

civil, P

civilization,

a citizen

civic

city,

citizen

populus :

populate,

popular

population

the people

publish

popularity

companion

panis : bread

accompany

companion-

pantry,

(62)

able

company

ager : a field

agricultural

agriculture, pilgrimage f

domus : a house

domesticate

domestic

dome

liber : a book

libellous

library,

librarian,

libel

navis : a ship

navigate

naval

navigator,

navy

arbor : a tree

. .

• .

arbour «—-

flos : a flower

flourish

floral,

florid

florist

rebelling

bellum : war

rebel

. .

rebellion,

(71)

belligerent

famished

James : hunger

••

• *

famine

(81)

procured

(103)

cura : care

care,

secure,

accurate,

curious,

curate,

curiosity

procure

incurable

illumination

illumined

lumen : light

illumine

luminous

(137)

Exercises.

(a) Give a noun and a verb derived from each of the following roots:—

claudo, facies, specio, porto (portatus), solvo (solutus), fero (latus), dens (dentis), video (visus), clino, scando.

(&) State the roots of which the meanings are here given. Then give a noun derived from each root:—

I turn, I flow, like, free, I seek, I build, I follow, bad.

(c)    Give the root and its meaning in each of the following verbs, and then construct a noun from each root:—(Endeavour to use a prefix other than the one given.)

confine,, procure, depart, expel, inform, divert, extract, dissolve.

(d)    Insert, in the blank spaces below, suitable words of Latin Origin:—•

(In each case the root of the word to be used is given in parentheses.)

(i)    The — to celebrate Anzac Day passed along the main streets of the city. (cedo, cesms)

(ii)    The flood waters remained — for some hours. (sto, station)

(iii)    The Sahara desert — right across the continent of Africa. ('tendo, tensus)

(iv)    The Sultan refused to set the — free. (capio)

(v)    The lady was delighted to hear of the — of her son in the cricket team. (claudo, clausus)

(vi)    The Arab horse is famous for his speed and — .

(durus)______________________

(vii)    As the enemy soldiers approached the castle they were greeted by a shower of — . (mitto, missus)

(viii)    The judge ordered that the traitor be — . (porto,

portatus)

(ix)    The Germans made several attacks but were — with heavy loss, (petto, pulsus)

(x)    The crops were — by a heavy fall of hail, (struo,

structus)

(xi)    The doctor — complete rest for the patient. (scribo, scriptus)

(xii)    The victorious army continued to — the fleeing enemy, (sequor, secutus)

—oOo—

CHAPTER 10.—LATIN ROOTS,—VERBS.

Word.

Root and Meaning.

Derivatives Commonly Used.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Nouns.

reflected

flecto (flexus) :

inflect,

flexible,

reflection,

(114)

I bend

deflect

reflex

inflection

inspiration

(118)

spiro (spiratus) : I breathe

expire,

conspire,

perspire,

transpire

spiritual

conspiracy,

perspiration,

spirit

picture

(149)

pingo (pictus) : I paint

depict

picturesque

pigment,

paint

preparations

(151)

paro (paratus) : I make ready

compare

prepare,

repair

preparatory

comparison,

parade

apparatus

nonsense

(159)

sentio (sensus) : I feel

consent,

assent

sensible

sensation,

sentiment,

sentence,

dissension

Exercises.

(а)    Making use of your derivation, state the words which have the following meanings:—

1.    pertaining to the country.

2.    part of the earth.

3.    (all of) one shape.

4.    one who (directs the steering of) the ship.

5.    to make (into) a citizen.

6.    one who takes bread with (others).

7.    pertaining to the rule.

8.    the under (or outside) part of a city.

9.    pertaining to the end.

10. to flock together.

(б)    (i) Give a noun derived from each of the following:—

pater, lumen, finis, pars (partis), mare, ager, fames.

(ii) Give the Latin root of each of the following, and then supply a verb derived from each root:—

a flower, care, circle, a shape, a stream, a house, light.

(c) Give the Latin root and its meaning in each of the following-—

sensible, flexible, companion, repair, arbour, picturesque, accurate, hotel, rebellious, curious.

(d) Making use of the derivation you have learned, state the words which have the following meanings:—

1.    to draw back.

2.    to conquer with (words or an action).

3.    (to throw) light on.

4.    to set free.

5.    pertaining to (a liking for) guests.

6.    warlike.

7.    the middle of the earth.

(e) Complete the table below:—

Hoot.

Derivatives.

Verb.

Adjective.

Noun.

cedo (cessus) : I go

exclude

soluble

opposition

collection

duco (ductus) : I lead

permit

partial

struo (structu-s) : I build

attend

description

— ■

attractive _

PART    V.—COMPOSITION    EXERCISES.

GROUP A.

Completing Stories Already Begun.

Below you will find the beginning of several stories. These you may finish in any way you like. Make your stories as interesting and exciting as possible. Give each one a suitable title.

(а)    Not far from our school in the west of Queensland is a large and deep waterhole, in which school children love to bathe. One very hot afternoon my mates and I rushed off for a swim as soon as school was dismissed. We were having great fun until ....

(б)    “Look, Joe!” called Tom to his friend. “I think our time on this raft is drawing to a close at last.”

“I see an island ahead,” said Joe.

(c)    In “Brownlees” where Mr. and Mrs. Brown and their four children lived there was great excitement. Mr. Brown had brought home the good news that he had been granted a month’s holiday. (Tell of a holiday spent—

(i)    At the seaside.

(ii)    On a farm.

'(iii) In the mountains.

(iv) In the city.)

(d)    A wise old mouse called her young ones around her and gave them some advice. “My dears,” said she, “you are now grown up and ready to leave home.”

(e) Last Sunday my brother and I went for a walk in the country. As we were passing a farmhouse we heard cries of “Fire!”

(/) Last Christmas holidays Dad rented a cottage at the seaside, and took my mother, my cousins, and me for a holiday. One day we hired a motor boat and went to Garden Island. While we were there a terrific storm arose.

(g)    A horse harnessed to a milk-cart stood near the pavement in front of our house. A passing motorist sounded his horn. Off dashed the horse.

(h)    Fred. Barlow, a lad of fifteen years of age, had always lived in the city. Desiring a change of scene he went to work on a farm in the country.

The morning after his arrival, the farmer put him on a quiet old pony and told him to muster the cows and drive them to the milking yard.

(i)    An old man kangaroo and his family were feed

ing quietly in a forest glade. Two prowling dingoes caught sight of them-

(j)    One wet morning, five of the men from the homestead decided to catch a wild pig which had become a nuisance about the station.

With three cattle dogs they set out on the hunt determined to take the trespasser alive.

(fc) Father was painting the interior of the bathroom. When he had finished two walls Mother called him to have a cup of tea. Just as Dad left the room, little Peter, aged four, walked in and saw the pot of paint and the brush on the floor.

'    GROUP B.

Composing Stories to Suit Given Endings.

Below you will find some short paragraphs. Each one is the concluding paragraph of a story. Write the story in such a way that the paragraph will make a suitable ending. Give each story a suitable title.

(a) “Mother, dear, I think all my friends have had a very happy time. You have given me a wonderful birthday party.”

(5) The young rabbit slipped into a burrow just in the nick of time. His heart beat rapidly, and he was almost breathless. He resolved that, for the future, he would heed his wise old mother’s advice.

(c)    At sunset we moored our launch to the buoy at the foot of the garden. Collecting our camping gear and creels, we wended our way to the house, sunburned and tired, but resolved to have another such excursion at the first opportunity.

(d)    The wind dropped, the rain ceased, the sun shone through a rift in the clouds, and we left the little cave which we had been fortunate enough to find.

(e)    The great match was over. The players had left the field and crowds of spectators were making their way towards the gates. Though disappointed that our side had not won, my brother and I agreed that it had been an exciting game.

(/) At last, to our great satisfaction, the spare tyre was fixed in position. We took our seats in the car and were soon speeding on our way.

(g) The life-savers carried the young man to the beach, and rendered First Aid. When he had recovered they advised him not to venture beyond the flags in future.

(h)    The vast crowd in the street cheered as the fireman descended the long ladder, carrying in his arms the lad who, though overcome by smoke, was otherwise uninjured.

(i)    The poor fellows had almost given up hope of rescue. Then, one morning a ship appeared off the island. The captain saw their signals and lowered a boat. Soon the castaways were on board the ship where they were treated with great kindness.

(j)    The black-fellow went quickly forward towards a clump of bushes. We hurried after him. In the shad* of a bush, asleep and worn-out, but unhurt, lay our little girl. I have never ceased to wonder at the skill which Jacky displayed in following Mary’s tracks over the hard stony ground on which we could not see a mark of any kind.

(k)    Tom told his father that he was very, very sorry, and that he would try harder with his lessons in future, and would attend school every day.

(l)    With a sad and sorry look, I decided that, in

future, I would not count my chickens before they were hatched.    —

—0O0—

GROUP C.

Expanding Outlines of Stories.

Expand each of the following outlines into a complete story. Write freely and naturally. Do not forget to make paragraphs. Give each story an appropriate title.

(a)    Red-haired boy—tired of being called “Ginger” and “Carrots”—made up his mind to dye his hair—used the wrong dye—hair green.

(b)    Traveller lost in desert—without food or water-wandered wearily along—saw bag lying on sand—pounced on it—opened it quickly—full of gold,

(c) Thirsty crow—finds deep pitcher—water at the bottom—cannot reach it—drops in stone after stone-water rises in pitcher—crow drinks.

(d)    Crow found piece of cheese—flew to tree top— cheese in beak—fox saw her—flattered crow—beautiful bird—must have lovely voice—crow very pleased—opened bill to sing—dropped cheese—fox seized it.

(e)    Young man hires ass—rides—owner walks behind —very hot sun—rider dismounts—sits in shadow of ass— owner says he did not hire shadow—fierce quarrel—ass runs away.

(/) Lonely island—ship-wrecked passengers and crew —huts from wreckage—long weary weeks—food—ship appears—frantic signals—boat lowered—survivors rescued —home at last.

(g)    Cave on cliff side—above high water mark— children explore—forget time—tide comes in—trapped—• parents’ frantic search—low tide—return of children—• “all’s well that ends well.”

(h)    Circus—boys invited to ride donkey—prize offered—boy after boy unseated—none badly hurt—much laughter—donkey wins. ,

(i)    Two goats—meet on plank across rushing stream—■ no room to pass—each wants to go on—push and struggle —fall into stream—both drowned.

(j) Hot day—ant drinking at stream—slipped in-carried away—dove drops leaf—ant climbs on leaf—reached bank—next day—man with gun—dove on tree—man takes aim—anb sees him—bites his foot—shot goes wide—dove flies away.

(Jc) Old lion—lived in cave—too old and feeble to hunt —said he was sick—asked animals to visit him—many went in—none came out—wise old fox—lion asked him in—saw tracks going in but none coming out—smiled—said goodbye and walked off.

(1) Two cocks in farmyard—jealous—fight to see who will be master in yard—one beaten—hides in corner— winner flies to top of barn—crows loudly—eagle hears him— swoops and carries him off.

GROUP D.

Expanding Outlines: Descriptive Composition.

Expand the following outlines into descriptive compositions.

(а)    jRiver.

Began in small lake—high in mountains—flowed swiftly at first—rocks and boulders—grew in size—wider and deeper—entered plain—flowed slowly between farms and through towns—slid under bridges—fishermen—tributaries—bigger and bigger—ships and boats—wharves— open sea. (Think of Tennyson’s poem, “The Brook.”)

(б)    Wheat.

Grain-bearing grass—queen of the grasses—food for man—sown in drills—in winter—ripe in early summer months—turns yellow—ears of grain—each grain wrapped in husks—harvested by wonderful machinery—bagged— sent to mills—ground into flour, bran and pollard—where grown.

(c)    Wag-Tail.

Small black-and-white bird with long tail—continually on move—hops along—insect eater—searches lawns—on horses and cattle—friendly—beautiful little nest—hair, grass, &c.—lined with feathers—eggs—brave in defence of young—attacks bigger birds.

(d)    Opossum.

Fur-bearing animal—Australian—size of cat—long tail—sharp, strong claws for climbing—sleeps by day— hollow of tree—comes out at night—eats gum leaves—will eat corn—snared for beautiful fur—why it has warm fur—-how young are carried.

(0)    Frog.

Many kinds—green—brown—cold-blooded—bright eyes—strong legs for jumping—long sticky tongue for catching insects—lays eggs in water—tadpoles—marshy ground—croaks—eaten by snakes.

(/)    Butter.

Made from cream—cream separated from milk-separator—cream to factory—churned—butter milk— salted—packed in boxes—pats—cold stores—much exported —refrigerated space.

(9)    Sugar Cane.

Giant tropical grass—sugar bearing sap—Sugar Experimental Stations develop suitable types of cane— grows on rich coast lands—some farms irrigated—white labour—cane-cutting—sugar mills—cutting season from July to November—cane crushed—juice boiled—raw sugar to refineries—rum—power alcohol and bagasse (megass).

(h)    Pineapples.

Tropical plant from America—orchid type—suckers, slips or tops planted—rough and smooth leaved types— juicy fruit—canning factories.

(1)    Ambulance.

Sickness and accidents—country people not near doctors or hospitals—transport to hospitals—sometimes First Aid needed—Bearers wear uniform—Red Cross and motto—Ambulance maintained by voluntary giving and regular subscribers—ready to help others—we should help Ambulance.

130

ENGLISH—GRADE V.

U)

A Dairy Farm.

Grassy paddocks and tilled fields—strong fences— dams, windmills and creeks—shade trees—quiet, cud-chewing cattle—dawn and dusk—easily caught saddle horse and well trained dog—laughing jackass—lowing of cows, bellowing calves, cackling fowls and squealing pigs—peace and quiet of cowyard broken by rattling of buckets, opening of bail door and whine and hum of separator—washing of utensils and cleaning of floors—cool, clean creamery with white-washed walls—covered lorry of cream carter.

(k)    Post Office.

Arranges for transport and delivery of letters and parcels—stamps — addresses — postman—telephones—telegrams—postal notes—wireless messages—every township has Post Office—how we would get on without Post Office.

(l)    Irrigation.

Plat, fertile, loamy farmlands of creek and river valleys —settlers want to prevent brown fields, poor crops and dying cattle—oil engines and heavy pipe lines, water flowing over the thirsty soil—costly and heavy work but certain crops—spectre of ruin departs.

In some places electric power lines and motors—light galvanised pipes with spray nozzles—more farmers irrigating—more prosperity in the countryside and rural towns.

With spread of irrigation, control of pumping, weirs on creeks, wells (sub-artesian) being sunk—scientists helping by advising farmers on problems.

Crops grown give high returns per acre—potatoes, vegetables, lucerne, onions, pumpkins, orchards—spray systems used on these—furrow system used for sugar cane and cotton.

Irrigation extends settlement and gives greater security for Australia.

O)    A Flood.

River watershed and basin with many tributaries— flow through wide valleys with farms, roads, bridges, stock, towns.

Heavy rain on the steep slopes of mountainous watershed—weeks of rain—quick “run-off” from hills and mountains, water-soaked land on the plains—rivers and streams rise—wash away bridges, fences, roads—traffic held up—river backs up and water covers miles of flat country —interrupts railway lines—rains have ceased yet water flows from tributaries—cattle and horses drowned and swept away—houses and sheds float downstream—some times people drowned—crops ruined and soil washed away.

Water falls leaving behind mud, ruined countryside, and loss of all kinds of life.

Man can control floods by damming rivers, stopping bushfires, preventing over-stocking, keeping earth covered with vegetation.

(n)    Drought.

Bush life depends on natural rainfall for food and prosperity—rain uncertain and crop failures—discouraged and unhappy people.

Time when months without rain—people anxious, stores of feed low, stock in poor condition, milk supplies fail.

Months lengthen—ground is parched—farms bare— cattle fall and bog in muddy dams and streams—still no rain—stock die—skinning animals—burning bodies. Some stock moved for agistment—freight trains and expense— debt—bushfires—burnt fences and homes.

Farmers and graziers lose homes—life’s work lost— great discouragement, and young lives ruined through laqk of opportunity.

Rain comes—grass and crops grow—banks lend money freely—and damage remedied by hard work—losses prevented by water supply and fodder conservation—nation benefits—need for water—storage in dams and weirs.

■—0O0—    ,

GROUP E.

Imaginary Conversations. Autobiographies.

Write imaginary conversations between:—

(а)    A soldier and a sailor.

(б)    A town child and a country child.

(c)    Mother and child after the latter’s first day at school.

(d)    Mother and daughter shopping.

(e)    A boy and his grandfather.

(/) The stove and the ice-chest.

Write short autobiographies of:—    ;

(a) An old farm horse.

(&) A worn-out bicycle.

(c)    A tame magpie or a caged parrot.

(d)    A broken doll or an old cricket bat.

'(e) An old shoe.    ,    •

(/) An old school bag.

GROUP F.

Letterwriting, (i) Outlines Given.

In writing the following letters be sure that, in each, your address is set out properly, and that the salutation and ending are suitable. The matter for each paragraph is given to you.

(a)    A letter to the Editor, Children’s Column, “Daily News,” Brisbane.

(i)    Your school:—how far from your home; whether you walk, cycle, or travel by tram or bus; your class and your progress in it; the subjects you like best, and the ones you like least.

(ii)    Your mate:—his (or her) name; nearness of your homes to each other; his looks and character; why you are great friends; other occasions when you meet.

(iii)    Your favourite game-.—where and when you play; an exciting match played in lately; other games you play; your liking for sport.

(iv)    Your leisure:—time spent on lessons at night; whether you take lessons in music or elocution; if you swim, when and where; how often a book is obtained from the school library; kind of book you like best; your liking for movies; any hobby you have.

(b)    Letter to your brother, Stanley, living at 15 Latrobe Terrace, Adelaide, where he has lived for three years:—(He has written to you, asking you to write and tell him “how you occupy your time.”)

(i) Introduction:—enjoyed reading his letter; proud to have special letter from ‘ ‘ big brother ’ ’; read letter aloud to family; hope he will write to you again.

(ii) School:—remind Stanley you are now eleven years old; in Fifth Grade; tell him that school, home lessons, sport, violin practice, and helping in garden (or housework) occupy most of day.

(iii)    Morning and evening:—occupation before breakfast; time of arrival at home after school; occupation before tea.; helping Mother “wash-up”; time on home lessons; listening to wireless, or reading or sewing.

(iv)    Evening meal-.—longer time than other meals (before clearing the table) ; all talk about events of the day; what young sister says; brother Bill’s story; sorry when Mother says, “Well, many hands make light work.”

(v)    Saturdays:—how morning is spent; the afternoon ; did Stanley spend his time that way ?

(c) You have been living with an Uncle and Aunt at 15 Bourbon Street, Maryborough. You are now sixteen years old and in employment. A letter to your little sister, Ann, aged eight years:—

(i)    Tell Ann you are sure she can read your letter by herself; Mother said she was good at reading; tell her to read it to the family at tea-time, not to her new doll.

(ii)    Enquire after that doll; has she made a dress for it; what is its name; does she play “school” and make the doll the pupil, and herself the teacher; you suppose she is a big girl now that she is in Grade II.

(iii)    Wish her many happy returns of her birthday; hope she likes her presents. Tell her the postal note for five shillings is to buy something she’d like, but hasn’t got; advise her to get sister May to take her to the Post Office to get the money.

(d) You live on a farm at Oakey Creek, via Milmer-ran, Darling Downs. A letter to your friend, Tom Wilson, 15 Roy Street, Newmarket, Brisbane, whose brother is very fond of sailing :—

(i)    Say that you received his letter telling about his day’s sailing on the Brisbane River; tell him that he is wrong in thinking country life dull, that you think country life far more interesting than life in a city, and that you will tell him how you spent last Saturday.

(ii)    Up at half past five and help Dad by driving the cows into the milking yard; ride your own pony, on return Dad has tea and toast made, then go to the yards and milk six cows; milking and separating are finished by half past seven, then have breakfast.

(iii)    Another regular job for Saturday morning is the cleaning of your poultry pen; your very own, and you have over ten pounds banked from the sale of eggs.

(iv)    Free on Saturday by ten o’clock; then fishing, riding, or picnicking.

(v)    Last Saturday you travelled to —— miles away where you played in a cricket match against —•; exciting match, your team won by five runs. Arrived home six o’clock, delightful surprise awaited you; mate from farm fifteen miles away had driven over with his parents, moving pictures in the dining room after tea; mate’s father showed moving picture film of the Great Barrier Reef where he had spent a holiday.

(vi) Finish off by reminding him that it is only two months to the holidays and advise him to get his fishing tackle ready.

(e) Your home is on a farm near Malanda. Write a letter to a mate, Fred Jones, who used to live on the next farm, but now lives at Hillcrest Farm, Maleny, via Lands-borough:—

(i)    Tell him that your heifer calf has just gained first prize in the — Show; say that she was entered in the class “Six Months and Under” and that twelve calves were shown; give the name of the judge, tell where he came from and what he said when he awarded the calf the blue ribbon.

(ii)    Describe your calf; give its breed, age, colour and tell how you came to own it.

(iii)    State that you groomed it twice daily for three months before the show and gave it leading exercises for twenty minutes each afternoon; describe the preparation day before the show— washed and dried thoroughly, horns and hooves scraped and polished with oily rag, the body when dry treated with oily rag, and then groomed; point out that you gave it a teaspoonful of cod-liver oil with each feed as this helps to make the coat glossy.

!(iv) Say that you are very proud of your success and that next year you intend competing again; ask your mate if he takes any part in the local show for his district.

(/) Your pen-friend lives at Easthampstead, Surrey, England, and is one year older than you. Your own home is in a small township in Queensland. Write a letter telling how you and your father took your Uncle “from

the city” out fishing:—(Remember to supply names of persons, places and animals where necessary.)

(i)    Uncle — lives in the city of —, works at —, came to our farm at — for a holiday, knew nothing of country life—tell some funny incident to prove this.

(ii)    Father suggested a night’s fishing at the — River — miles away; Uncle helped me dig for worms; Mother prepared food; food packed in a sack, sewn at both ends, with a slit in middle of one side and thrown over the horse behind saddle; used by all bushmen.

(iii)    Left home at four in the afternoon and arrived at the river at five; horses hobbled and allowed to graze; put up tent fly in case of rain; built fire and made tea; describe your meal—chops grilled on piece of fencing wire, toast and billy tea; Uncle enjoyed the meal; before we left camp Dad put log on the fire; told us that he was going to give us a treat for supper.

(iv)    Commenced fishing at seven; Uncle made first catch, a big eel; describe eel; Uncle greatly excited, had never seen one before; mosquitoes very bad, built smoke fire, a good catch—tell how many each one caught and name the fish.

(v)    For supper Dad cooked one in mud; tell how this is done; this was method the whites learned from the blacks.

(vi)    Rode home in the moonlight, Uncle and you very

tired; both overslept next morning till .    . .;

say that you enjoy country life and have no wish to live in a big city.

(g) Uncle Jack (Mr. J. K. Jones, 47 King Street, Kew, Melbourne) has paid as a birthday present for you

a year’s subscription to a library near your home. "Write a letter to him:—

(i)    Tell Uncle of pleasure in receiving letter and

happiness in being made member of .    .

Library (or School of Arts) ; the present will be one continuing throughout the year; how you like getting books from school library; will enjoy selecting books in library that “grownups” use.

(ii)    Wonder at Uncle’s thoughtfulness; very fond of reading; tell kind of book you like; mention one you have read lately and your opinion of it,

(iii)    Give names of several books you hope to read; refer to your liking for the radio and the kind of programme you like best; which you prefer ■—listening to the wireless or reading, and why.

(iv)    Mention name of book for adults of which you have heard Dad or Mother speak; ask if he has read it; some day you hope to talk about books to him.

(Ji) A letter to a friend (Jessie or James Adams, 52 Park Street, Manly, Sydney) who was a neighbour of yours and left last October for a new home:—

(i)    Class:—tell your friend you are now in Grade Y.; state who is your teacher; describe the room your class occupies; mention which new work for the year you like best; anything else that your friend might like to hear about the class.

(ii)    Sport:—the game that holds your chief interest, and with whom you play; mention to your friend any -class mate who has lately done well in sport; matches against other schools; games during week-ends and with whom.

(iii)    Home:—any mates who occasionally visit your home and to whose homes you go; what you do; any hobby you have commenced.

(iv)    Surroundings:—houses erected on vacant land, or houses pulled down; changes in neighbours; anything of interest about your own yard or garden, bicycle or father’s car.

(j) To your cousin Ken (or Jean) MacKay (aged 12) whose home is at 275 Peterhead Street, East Glasgow, Scotland:—(This is your first letter to your cousin, whose mother is sister to your own mother.)

(i)    Say your mother has asked you to write to your cousin; you feel you know something of Glasgow and the southern part of Scotland, for you have read about that part of the world and mother has described places and conditions, and told you of happenings when she was a girl.

(ii)    Tell your cousin something about your school— how far from your home, how you travel to school, the number of teachers, and something about the buildings and the grounds.

(iii)    Describe your sport—where and when you play; your chief hobby.

(iv)    Tell what you do in the afternoons after school; say how much time you have to yourself, and if you can, let him know at what time it becomes too dark to be out of doors in winter and in summer. (Remember darkness closes in early in winter in Glasgow, but they have long summer evenings.)

(v)    Now tell your cousin something about the locality

in which you live; materials of which houses are built, fences, streets (with trees or garden plots) and roads, the seaside or the bush.

(vi)    Suggest that your cousin write to you and let you know something of his life.

(7c) To Bob (or Nancy) Williams of yonr own age, living at 235 Ontario Street, Winnipeg, Canada:—(This boy or girl has written to yon asking you to describe the town in which you live or the nearest town to your home.)

(i)    Give the population of your town, and state the chief industry of the town or district; its situation '(so that it can be found on a map of Australia), and how it would be reached from Brisbane.

(ii)    Tell about the houses (wood, high stumps, iron roofs, verandahs), lawns, gardens, and parks or sports grounds.

(iii)    If you can, describe the difference between winter and summer in your district. (Remember snow falls during four months of the year in Winnipeg). Hot summers, open air life, seaside in summer (at Christmas time), light clothing generally, rain coats but few heavy overcoats, no stockings, open necks, short sleeves.

(iv)    Mention your games for winter and summer.

(v)    Ask your correspondent to write again; say you enjoyed his letter, and suggest that in each letter the writer mention some particular subject about which he desires information; inquire about school life in Winnipeg and whether pupils are taught anything about Australia.

(ii) Topics Given.

Here are some topics for letters which should be written by you without help.

(а)    Inviting a friend to a party.

(б)    Replying to a friend who has invited you to a party.

(c)    To Mother, who is away on a holiday.

(d)    To a friend describing a journey you have made.

(e)    To your Aunt describing how you spent a wet Saturday afternoon.

(/) To your Grandmother thanking her for a Christmas present.

(g)    To a friend after your return from a short holiday at his (or her) parents’ home.

(h)    To a friend describing a visit to a shearing shed.

(i)    To a mate recovering from an illness. You have sent your mate a book to read.

(j)    To a mate, describing a humorous incident.

(k)    To a friend, asking him (or her) to spend the Christmas vacation at your place.

—0O0—■

GROUP G.

Variety of Expression.

Read each of the passages referred to in the Grade Y. Reader very carefully and then re-write it, using your own words:—

(a)    Page 20, lines 12-18, from “Nabor” to “ esteem.”

(b)    Page 36, lines 15-19, from “I am” to “good sword.”

(c)    Page 40, lines 1-4, from “The question” to “proposal.”

(d)    Page 46, lines 13-16, the fourth stanza.

(e)    Page 48, lines 1-6, from “Macquarie” to “leg.”

(/) Page 54, lines 1-4, from ‘ ‘ Skipper ’ ’ to ‘ ‘ his say. ’?

(g)    Page 62, lines 7-14, from “The woodcutter” to ‘ ‘ settled. ’ ’

(h)    Page 80, lines 14-20, from “I shall make” to “wolves’ tongues.”

(i)    Page 94, lines 29-35, from “My heart” to “again.”

(j)    Page 97, fifth paragraph, from “After” to “trembling bosom.”

(k)    Page 108, lines 20-24, from “Such” to “dream.”

(l)    Page 120, first paragraph, in “Palissy, the Potter. ’ ’

(m)    Page 125, second stanza, from “Other” to “fame.”

(n)    Page 151, fifth paragraph, from “One by one” to “guests.”

A. H. TuckeKj Government Printer, Brisbane.

/




1

   The woods against a stormy sky their giant

branches tossed.

2

   Tell me a tale of the olden days.

3

t Qne, ’mid the forests of the West, by a dark -fnrp ' stream is laid.

4

   Have the workmen completed the road yet?

5

   Bring me my stock-whip and saddle.

6

   Amidst the flowers the tiny mouse now built its

home.

7

   A footpath with a border of flowers leads to the

front door.

E.V.—2.

8

Classify the clauses in the following sentences, state the kind, and the relationship of each subordinate clause:—

1.    The house in which I live is built on high

stumps.

2.    They climbed to the top of the hill from which

there is a fine view of the harbour.

3.    The gentleman whose house we purchased has

returned to town.

4.    It was that sales-girl from whom I bought the

material.

5.    In the distance was the peak from which the great

glacier descended.

6.    She is the lady whose daughter is in our class.

7.    Is there any way by which I can cross the

river ?

9

   The township was hidden (in mist; in the

valley).

10

   His young friend, half-dressed, lay upon the

bed.

11

   Brisbane will appear strange after his long

absence.

12

   The soldier from the Middle East has been

telling the children some of his experiences.

13

   People of this kind, with no interest in their

work, are rarely successful.

14

   Did you find the examination difficult?

15

   On which side of the road between these two

fences were the sheep and the cattle feeding ?

16

Re-write the following sentences, inserting a suitable relative pronoun:—

1.    That is the house my father built.

2.    Here comes the man I expected.

3.    My friend owns the book I found.

4.    He is a man we all admire.

5.    Some of the apples I bought were delicious.