33 mottbZOWl

THIS booklet epitomises outstanding facts concerning Australia.

It is one of a series of publications issued by the Australian National Publicity Association, an organisation whose activities are designed to make Australia more widely and more favourably known abroad.

The Association is non-profitmaking and is supported by the j Australian Government, the Railways of Australia, the shipping companies operating to Australia, and by a large number of leading business interests. Control of the Association is vested in an Honorary Board, representative of the various groups providing financial support.

A list of the Association's offices is shown on the back cover of this booklet, and further publications or information concerning Australia will gladly be supplied therefrom on request. Most travel agencies and shipping offices outside the immediate war zone are also supplied with the Association's publications.

—Issued August, 1941—


(Figures indicate Section Numbers)

Historical - - -





Area and Population





Sociological - -





Climate and Health





Topography, Flora and




Cities - - -





Primary Production





Electric Power and Water Supplies


Financial and Economic





Permanent Residence





Education - - -





North Australia -





Sporting - - -





Transport and Service Australia - -





Reference Publications





Statistical Summary






(1) The Birth of a Nation.

Australia, as a nation, was cradled in the colony of New South Wales, in 1788, when Governor Captain Arthur Phillip sailed into Botany Bay with eleven ships and a personnel of 1,000-odd. Colonisation spread over the continent, and isolated settlements at Hobart (Van Diemen's Land), Moreton Bay, Swan River, Port Phillip and Torrens River became respectively the colonies of Tasmania, Queensland, Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia. The full privileges of self-government were granted to New South Wales in 1855; to Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia in 1856; to Queensland in 1859, and to Western Australia in 1890.

The Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1st January, 1901, by the agreement of the colonies to surrender to a federal authority such functions as defence, customs and excise, currency, postal services, immigration and external affairs, while retaining sovereign rights as States with legislative control of land settlement, agricultural development, water conservation, railways, justice, police, education and

other internal functions. Australia is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It is self-governing, and legislation passed by the Federal and State Parliaments is formally assented to by the GovernorGeneral and the State Governors respectively, who are the King’s personal representatives.

(2)    Intensive History.

Within a century and a half Australia has passed from the “Colonial” pioneering stage and the fevered, romantic days of the gold diggings, has reclaimed immense tracts of primeval forests and brought 23,500,000 acres under cultivation, has built approximately 28,000 miles of railroad and constructed huge dams for water conservation and irrigation with a total capacity of over 4,000,000 acre-feet, developed 27,000 manufactories, and established cities that rank with some of the largest and finest in tho world. Australia, too, has made her contribution to civilisation in science, art and literature.

(3)    Area.

With an area of 2.974,581 square miles, Australia is practically equivalent in size to the United States of America, twenty-five times greater than Great Britain and Ireland, and three-quarters the size of all Europe.


The Stockman

(4)    Australia’s People.

Eight-six per cent, of the people living in the Commonwealth are Australian-born, and 97 per cent, of the total population of more than seven millions are of British stock. They are rapidly developing into a distinctive race—tall, strong and athletic, proud of the freedom and progress of their own country, yet loyal to the land of their forefathers, speaking its language, and living up to its best traditions of justice, humanity and hospitality.

(5)    Aborigines.

There are still in Australia about 48,000 full-blood and 25,000 half-caste aborigines. Approximately 26,000 are nomadic, and still live in the remote unsettled areas of the interior and Northern Australia in the primitive style of the Stone Age, using the fire stick, stone knife and stone axe. Most of the remainder are in employment on the “outer” sheep and cattle stations, or are settled in Government supervised camps.

(6)    A Democratic Country.

Universal adult suffrage ensures for Australia democratic governments, irrespective of party. Religious, political and social extremes are absent. In Australia, too, a man’s worth is judged by what he is rather than by what he possesses.



(7)    The Anzac Tradition.

Australia is the country that, in cooperation with New Zealand, bred the Anzac tradition of imperishable memory. Australians to the number of 329,883 went voluntarily to the War of 1914-18, and suffered over 226,000 casualties (including: personnel wounded more than once, but excluding: others evacuated through sickness). The cost of that War to Australia has reached £944,000,000 (including £362,000.000 for interest and sinking fund), and the annual recurring war expenditure is at present (1941) about £19 millions, apart from the huge expenditure being incurred in connection with the War now in progress, in which Australia has pledged her all in the British Empire’s fight for freedom.

(8)    White Australia.

To the principle of “White Australia” all political parties in the Commonwealth subscribe, for the economic reason that the white man's standard of living would be endangered by the introduction of coloured labour. Thus, the inflow of Englishspeaking people is especially encouraged.

(9)    Genial Equable Climate.

More than one-third of Australia—1,149,320 square miles—lies within the tropics. The remainder—1,825,261 square miles—is within the temperate zone. Because of an insular


geographic position, and the absence of marked physical features, the Australian climate is on the whole more temperate, latitude for latitude, than that of other continents. Over the greater part of the Commonwealth, within the temperate zone, the climate resembles that of California, Southern France or Italy.

(10) Follow the Sun Southward.

When Europe and America are in the grip of winter, Australia is a land of glorious sunshine. Taking the nearest points of contact it is only 28 days* steam from Great Britain in peace-time, and 17 days from the United States of America; by air. Great Britain is 8 days distant in peacetime, and the United States of America 6 days. The Australian seasons are approximately as follow:—

Spring - September, October, November Summer - December, January, February Autumn - March, April, May Winter - June, July, August The range of climate is so extensive in Australia that during the winter months you can ski or toboggan on exhilarating alpine slopes and, within 24 hours, travel northward to enjoy surf-bathing on a sundrenched coast. The average hours of sunshine yearly in the State Capital cities are: Perth, 2,830 hours; Brisbane, 2,706; Adelaide, 2.535; Sydney, 2,473; Canberra, 2,381; Melbourne. 2,225; Hobart, 2,116.

(11)    Rainfall.

Nearly one million square miles of country has an annual rainfall of from 10 to 20 inches, and 747,643 square miles front 20 to 40 inches. Sydney has twice the average rainfall of London, but considerably fewer wet days; Brisbane, twice that of Paris; Melbourne, a little more than that of Marseilles; Adelaide, a little less than that of Berlin; Perth and Hobart, approximately those of Chicago and Edinburgh respectively.

(12)    Australia for Health.

Serious epidemics are practically unknown in Australia and New Zealand, which are the healthiest countries in the world. The combined death-rate is 9.7 per 1,000, compared with 11.8 in Great Britain, and 10.7 in the United States of America. Australia's infantile mortality rate of 38 per 1,000 births is lower than that of any other country except New Zealand and the Netherlands.

(13)    Snow-capped Mountains.

Australia's Great Dividing Range runs from Cape York Peninsula in North Queensland through New South Wales and Victoria, and ends in Tasmania. It is a great series of ranges interspersed with wide dissected plateaux. Mt. Kosciusko (7,328 feet), near the New South Wales-Victoria

boundary, is the highest point. The Australian Alps in this vicinity are snow-capped for several months of the year. Some of the Tasmanian mountains are also snowcapped during the winter months.

(14)    Bush Beauty.

Pen and pigment in the hands of many celebrated writers and artists have focussed much attention on the Australian bushland. There is nothing like it anywhere else. Stately giant eucalypts or gum trees— approximately 360 varieties of them—that shed their bark but not their leaves, are the keynote of immense forests that instead of being damp, deeply shaded and all of the one species, as are forests in many other countries, arc well lighted and filled with other forests of shorter wattles, tree-ferns, and other indigenous trees, the whole giving extraordinarily beautiful effects.

(15)    Floral Glory.

Apart from the 600-odd varieties of acacias, of which the wattle is the best known, and the brilliant crimson waratah, every Australian State has a wealth of unique wildflowers. Parts of Western Australia, in particular, are during the spring carpeted in the most vivid reds, blues, purples and greens of extraordinarily beautiful blooms, which include orchids,

boronia, wax-plants, pitcher plants, the bottlebrush, the kangaroo-paw, and more than 70 species of ever-lasting flowers. New species, previously unknown to the science of botany, are discovered almost every year in Australia. Bunches of wildflowers, frozen in blocks of ice, are frequently sent overseas for exhibition purposes.

(16) The Great Barrier Reef.

The Great Barrier Reef extends for a thousand miles and more along the Queensland coast and has been accepted by leading scientists as one of the marine wonders of the globe, and by other visitors as a world of mysterious, wild beauty, where Nature plays an endless symphony of colour and call and cry.

T. C. Roughley, in his "Wonders of the Great Barrier Reef,*' writes: "The work of the tiny coral polyps responsible for the 1,250 miles of coral, for the formation of hundreds of coral islands, is amazing enough, but the habits of much of the animal life associated with the reef are almost incredibly wonderful.

"In the Great Barrier Reef nature has allowed herself to run riot. Marine animals which elsewhere are small and inconspicuous may grow there to be giants of their race; those which elsewhere are drab and unattractive may be seen there dis-

played in the most brilliant of colours. The colourful life of the Reef is one of its greatest attractions. Whether it be the delicate tints of the corals or the brilliant hues of the fish and the clams, the beauty displayed by the Reef is not surpassed by any other forms of life, not even by the flowers of our gardens. No description can adequately convey to the mind an impression of the beauty of the coral and the life associated with it.*'

This strange coral rampart is, after a million years of building, still growing. Palm and mangrove and innumerable forms of other vegetation sprout and grow luxuriantly in the warm sunshine on the atolls that dot the Reef. Turtle, seabirds, and w'onderfully-coloured and often strangely-formed fish abound. The waters of the Reef provide excellent fishing.

(17) The Lure of the Tropics.

Over one-third of Australia that lies in the tropics has a great attraction to the holiday-maker, particularly during the colder    months—May to October—when

Queensland has a special appeal for the people living in the southern parts of the continent. The climate is then ideal for the exploration of the luxuriant jungle of North Queensland, with its tall, creeper-festooned forest giants, tree-ferns, palms, orchids, stag-horn and elk-horn ferns, of

waterfalls and gorges, and of coral islands that dot the bluest of seas. From fertile tablelands one glimpses sweeping panoramas of plantations verdant with sugar cane, pineapples, bananas, papaws, custard-apples, granadillas, and other tropical fruits. Vivid, colourful country, it imprints an abiding memory.

(18)    The World’s Oldest Continent.

Youngest in white settlement, Australia is actually the world’s oldest continent. Rock masses and vegetation (which in other countries can be studied only as fossils) in the remoter areas, and animal remains excavated from time to time, supply ample evidence of its age to the scientist. Pouched mammals, such as the kangaroo and the duck-billed, claw-web-footed beaver-tailed furred platypus that lays eggs and suckles its young, are of types long extinct in other parts of the globe, yet they are still found flourishing in Australia. Many of the aboriginal tribes are no more advanced than was Stone-Age man.

(19)    Australia’s Strange Birds.

Every bird family in the world, with two or three exceptions, is represented in Australia. Australia is the headquarters of cockatoos and parrots, and possesses a remarkably rich variety of gorgeously


“Old-Man” Kangaroo

plumed and interesting: birds. Some of them are glorious songsters. Australian birds range from the brilliant parrot to the lyre bird, with its extraordinary powers of mimicry; from the essentially Australian kookaburra, or laughing jackass—the comedian of the bush—to the emu, the second largest bird in the world; from the golden-throated magpie to the dainty blue wren. The scrub-hen, the mallee hen and the brush-turkey create natural incubators for their eggs by covering them with a mound of dirt and decaying vegetable matter. The Australian wedge-tailed eagle has a wing-spread of up to 10 feet.

(20)    Australia’s Big Cities.

The populations of two of Australia’s capital cities are: Sydney, 1,303,000, and Melbourne, 1,046,750, respectively the third and seventh largest cities in the British Empire. Adelaide and Brisbane have each about one-third of a million, Perth, 225,000, and Hobart, 65,500.    (31st December, 1939)

(21)    City Life.

City life in Australia’s larger centres has all the amenities of civilisation in older countries—modern hotels, theatres, restaurants, cinemas, art galleries, museums, clubs, shops and stores, racecourses and sports grounds, electric train, tram, ’bus,


Tall Timber

taxi and ferry services. Dignified public and private buildings line the busy streets and spacious boulevards, and well-kept parks add a nature note of beauty. Hard by the capital cities are beach, bush and hill resorts.

(22)    Canberra—Capital of Australia.

On the stock runs of yesterday, in territory set apart, Australia is building a capital city—a second Washington—in which to express its nationhood. Incorporating the most modern ideas of town-planning and architecture, typified by its public buildings, with broad sweeps of boulevard and park, Canberra promises to become one of the garden cities of the world. As the result of a world-wide town-planning competition, the design for Canberra of an American architect, the late Mr. Walter Burley Griffin, was adopted. Canberra is now the seat of the Commonwealth Government, and the official residence of the Governor-General is located there. The first Parliament in Canberra was opened by King George VI. (then Duke of York), on 9th May, 1927. Canberra has a population of about 13,000.

(23)    Sydney’s Huge Bridge.

Over its beautiful harbour, Sydney has built a mammoth bridge which straddles the harbour in one colossal span. The main

arch and steel spans in approach are 3,770 feet long, and weigh 50,200 tons. It is constructed to carry four lines of electric railway traffic, six lines of vehicular traffic and two footways. Its capacity is 138 trains,

6,000 road vehicles, and 40,000 pedestrians an hour.

(24)    The Golden Fleece.

Wool, of which Australia produces the finest in the world, is the Commonwealth's most important primary industry, and is worth approximately £55,000,000 a year. Australia provides more than a quarter of the world's requirements, although its flocks represent less than a sixth of the world's sheep. Australia's wool-clip represents one-half of the world's production of fine quality merino wool. As a result of skilful breeding, three generations of sheep-breeders succeeded in doubling the average weight of fleece per sheep, which, including lambs, now averages nearly 9£ lb. The year 1939-40 saw the record wool-clip to date of

1,128,000,000 lb. The bulk of Australia's wool is exported.

(25)    Growth of the Sheep.

The first sheep census in Australia was dated 1st May, 1788, when 29 sheep were recorded. In 1795 there were 862, and three years later 10,057. By 1820, after the coastal ranges of New South Wales had been

crossed and the real development of the Australian wool industry had commenced, there were 156,000 sheep, and by 1860 the number had increased to 23,000,000. The very large total of 106,421,068 was recorded in 1891. Latest returns show a total of more than 119,000.000.

(26)    Room for More.

Although there are some very large sheep stations in Australia, 59 per cent, of the sheep are in flocks of less than 5,000 head, the average being 1,157 head. Only 4,000 owners possess flocks of more than 5,000. There is still considerable room for expansion in sheep-farming. Sheepmen are successfully developing new areas. In addition, there is considerable scope for increasing the carrying capacity of areas already settled.

(27)    Wheat Wealth.

The development of wheat-growing during the last 30 years is the most interesting feature of agriculture in the Commonwealth. Approximately 13,284,000 acres were under crop during the year 1939-40, producing

210,284,000 bushels, and vast areas are still available. The existing production which averages approximately 160,000,000 bushels per annum over a five-year period, is sufficient for local needs and permits of an average of 110,000,000 bushels being exported

yearly, either as wheat or flour. Where the land and climate are suitable, wheat and sheep are farmed together.

(28)    Efficient Farmers.

Wheat production costs are substantially lower than those of European countries. This is brought about by a widening of the ratio between man-labour and power-labour, whether by team or tractors. Six, eight and ten horse teams are commonly used in drawing multi-furrow ploughs, 18 feet and 24 feet wide harrows, 12 feet wide seed drills, and the 8 or 10 feet wide Australian harvester, a machine that reaps and threshes the standing crop, and winnows the grain in one operation as the team marches on. On many wheat farms in Australia motor-driven tractors are employed. The farmer with the help of one labourer at harvest time can sow and harvest from 250 to 300 acres of crop.

(29)    Enormous Cattle Stations.

Cattle-raising and horse-breeding are prominent Australian industries. There are

1,700,000 horses and 13,100,000 cattle in the Commonwealth. Some of the cattle stations situated in the remote inland areas and in the Northern Territory cover enormous areas, two exceptionally large leases being each over 10,000 square miles.

(30)    Export of Meat.

Australia exported in 1938-39 186,000,000 lb. of mutton and lamb, and 272,000,000 lb. of beef. From time to time Australian producers also supply considerable quantities of meat on contract to the British Army and Navy.

(31)    Sugar.

Over 357,000 acres are utilized in Queensland and New South Wales in the growing of sugar-cane. The annual yield of the cane averages more than 5,500,000 tons, of which about 94 per cent, comes from Queensland, and the quantity of sugar recovered 800,000 tons. Australia produces annually 250 lb. of sugar per head of population, and the value of the net exports is approximately ¿4,000,000. An average of about 4,600 tons of sugar is obtained each year from sugar beet grown in Victoria.

(32) Tobacco.

Tobacco has been cultivated commercially at a number of points in Australia for many years. Efforts are being made to improve the smoking qualities of leaf grown in the established districts, and to locate new areas. The present crop yields about

5,000,000 lb. weight of cured leaf per annum.

(33)    Rich Dairying Lands.

The great natural advantages of a splendid climate, allowing cows to graze on pastures the year through, and soils producing rich grasses and fodder crops, coupled with the introduction of cold storage, which made the world an open market for produce, and the application of co-operative marketing principles, have resulted in dairy-farming making rapid strides in Australia. The figures for 1938-39 show a production of

456.000. 000 lb. of butter, worth nearly £28,250,000, and 66,000,000 lb. of cheese, valued at £2,172,000. A feature of Australian dairying is the rapidly developing use of pure breeds. Jerseys, Ayrshires, Milking Shorthorns, Friesians and Red Polls are the most popular.

(34)    Fruit.

Approximately 11,000,000 bushels of apples,

5.000. 000 bushels of oranges, 2,500,000 of bananas, 2,300,000 of pears, and 2,600,000 of peaches and nectarines, besides grapes, apricots, cherries, lemons, grapefruit, pine« apples, plums, strawberries, raspberries, almonds, olives, figs, mangoes, papaws, custard-apples, and guavas, are grown in Australia, and sold at prices within the reach of all. In 1938-39 their gross value amounted to over £9,500,000.

Fruit-canning is one of Australia’s important industries, and canneries are established

in each of the States. The principal fruits canned are apricots, pears, peaches and pineapples. The main production of canned fruits is carried out on the irrigation areas of Victoria and New South Wales. Australia's production during 1938-39 was approximately 150,000,000 lb. of which 60 per cent, is canned in Victoria. Exports total more than 81,000,000 lb. The fruit is processed under rigid official supervision.

(35)    Dried Fruits.

Australia produces approximately 150,000,000 lb. of dried fruits—sultanas, currants and raisins—which are equal in quality to any in the world, and are handled by white labour under sanitary conditions. The exports of dried fruits, which are mainly to the British Isles and Canada, averaged over £2,250,000 (Australian currency) per annum over the last five years.

(36)    A V/ine Country.

From 123,000 acres of vineyards, Australia produces not only the grapes for drying, as mentioned in the preceding paragraph, and large supplies for table use, but also an average of about 1S.000,000 gallons of wine annually. Many distinctive types of wines are made, which connoisseurs have pronounced excellent. In Australia, local wines available at very reasonable prices may be obtained in varieties suitable for

every occasion. Seventy per cent, of Australian wines are produced in the State of South Australia.

(37)    Rice Growing.

Established on the Murrumbidgce irrigation area in New South Wales, the ricegrowing industry has proved extremely successful. The quality of the first commercial yield in 1924-25 (16,240 bushels) proved to be much superior to the imported product. In consequence, the industry has grown in importance so rapidly that the 193S-39 crop, harvested from 24,000 acres, amounted to 2,775,000 bushels of paddy rice. Production during the last three seasons was more than sufficient to meet local requirements, which average about 1,100,000 bushels yearly. In this one irrigation district there are 53,000 acres of land suitable for rice-growing, and 23,500 acres are under cultivation.

(38)    World’s Finest Hardwoods.

Many of Australia’s trees have high commercial value as hardwoods. Railway sleepers cut from Australian hardwoods have an average life of 25 years, although, in some instances, red ironbark sleepers have remained in the track for 50 years, while grey box sleepers are considered to have an average life of 40 years. The jarrah, a eucalypt of Western Australia, Is

one of the few white-ant resisting timbers, and has been known to withstand fire to a remarkable degree. Ironbark and grey box timbers offer an even greater resistance to white ants than does the jarrah. Several of the hardwoods, including mountain ash, blackwood and stringy-bark, take a polish, and exhibit a beauty of grain equal to the best-known furniture timbers, not excluding mahogany. Queensland silky oak, maple and cedar provide splendid timbers for furniture and veneering.

(39)    Treasures of the Mines.

In Australia are mined antimony, arsenic, asbestos, bismuth, coal (black and brown), chromite, cobalt, copper, diamonds, gold, gypsum, iron, lead, manganese, mica, molybdenite, opals, osmiridium, phosphate, platinum, radio-active ores, salt, sapphires, scheelite, shale oil, silver, tin, wolfram, and zinc. Its greatest mineral wealth in 1938 was in gold, coal, silver and lead, iron, zinc, copper and tin, in that order. Mineral production value for the last five years averaged about £27,000,000, but the output in 1938 rose to £32,000,000.

(40)    Power for Industry.

Throughout Australia, electric power is available for manufacturers at rates comparable with those obtaining in Great Britain. In Perth, the Western Australian

Government plant at East Perth supplies the requirements of the city and surrounding: areas. Adelaide in South Australia is served by the Adelaide Electric Supply Co. Ltd., and the Municipal Tramways Trust. In Victoria, the State Electricity Commission has reticulated practically the whole of the State, and the same applies to Tasmania where distribution of power is controlled by the Hydro-Electric Commission. The Sydney County Council, the Electric Light and Power Supply Corporation, and Clarence River County Council in New South Wales have extensive distribution systems, and fairly extensive regional generating and distribution schemes have been established by the Public Works Department with supplies drawn from the Burrinjuck hydroelectric station and Port Kembla. In Queensland, the City Electric Light Company, Brisbane City Council, and Barron Falls Hydro-Electric systems supply the bulk of the requirements. There is practically no limit to the amount of power that can be furnished in the areas where manufacturers are likely to establish themselves.

Electric power in Australia’s capital cities is usually 240-250 volts A.C.

(41) A Gigantic Undertaking.

At Yallourn, in the south-eastern corner of Victoria, there exists a tract of brown coal, 800 square miles in area, and estimated

to contain 27,000,000,000 tons. A State Electricity Commission is mining, by open-cut method, a comparatively small area of the field, containing 6,000,000,000 tons, under an average overburden of 40 feet, and is using the product for electric power generation and the manufacture of briquettes, of which 1,200 tons are produced daily. The present installed capacity of the generating plant is 233,000 horse-power, plus 13,000 horse-power that is a by-product of the drying process in the manufacture of briquettes. About 4,000.000 tons of coal a year are required for electrical generation and briquette production. On such outputs, the coal in the Yallourn area will last for 1,500 years. The open-cut, in which more than 300 acres of coal 180 feet deep have been uncovered, is really a huge quarry, in which land dredges excavate both coal and overburden. The two coal dredges operating have a combined normal capacity of 1,000 tons an hour. The ratio of coal to overburden in this cut is about 6 to 1; on the whole Yallourn field it averages about 4 to 1.

Auxiliary to Yallourn are a group of five hydro-electric stations in the North-Eastern district, and two peak-load stations in the metropolitan area, while approval has been given to a hydro-electric scheme on the Kiewa River (North-East Victoria), and extensions to metropolitan heat-power stations which will add 230,000 kilowatts to the State systems in the next 12 years. 24

Approximately 75 per cent, of the population of the State (nearly 2.000.000 in number) have access to electricity supply. 4.000 route miles of transmission and distribution lines supply 500 towns, some of which are up to 300 miles from the main generating station.

Electricity is supplied to residential premises under a two-part tariff with an energy charge (in the metropolitan area) of 0.9d. per kilowatt hour (night-rate waterheating 0.35d. per kilowatt hour). Commercial and industrial consumers are supplied under block tariffs for light and power, or. alternatively, under an “All Purposes“ tariff for power, heating and light through a single meter. Prescribed hour—off-peak-rate of 0.3d. is available.

(42) Hydro-Electric Power.

Tasmania is the hydro-electric State of the Commonwealth owing to her abundant water-power resources. It has been determined that the potential water powers of Australia on a 100 % load factor basis amount to 2.373,000 horsepower of which 74 % or 1,750.000 horsepower is located in Tasmania. Since the population of this State is about 250,000 the horsepower available per 1,000 people is 7,000, a figure that is exceeded by only one country, viz., the Belgian Congo.

The Waddamana, Shannon and Tarraleah

Power Schemes of the Hydro-Electric Commission have a total installed capacity of

150.000    horsepower, while immediate extensions of 82,000 horsepower are planned. Including private plants such as those of Mining Companies, the Launceston City Council, &c., the total power developed from the waters of Tasmanian Rivers is

166.000    horsepower.

(43) Huge Waterworks.

To ensure the productivity of large areas of land, minimise the effect of droughts, give safety to important fruit-growing districts, and stimulate the growth of fodders for its great herds and flocks, Australia has constructed extensive Water Conservation and Distribution Works. Development has been greatest in the South-Eastern portion of the continent in the Murray River (Australia’s Nile) Basin which embraces some

400.000    square miles in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and South Australia.

On the Murray and its tributaries storages such as the Hume (1,250,000 acre-feet), Burrinjuck (772,000 acre-feet), Lake Victoria, Eildon, Waranga and some minor reservoirs have been constructed with a total capacity of 3} million acre-feet, nearly half the average flow of the River—a very high proportion—and investigations are being carried on as to possible further storages. This

great body of water, augmented by storages in other parts of Victoria, is being distributed over some 36,000 square miles, or 23,000,000 acres, by thousands of miles of channels for various Irrigation and Stock and Domestic Schemes. There is a pipe distribution in South Australia of some

6,000 miles in length for stock and domestic purposes. Other great extensions are in active construction in the wool growing districts and fodder lands of New South Wales and Victoria and will be completed in a few years. An estimate of the improved capital value of the total 36,000 square miles when served, based on known rateable value, is some 100 million pounds.

In addition the Murray River has been “harnessed” by the construction of 13 locks and weirs rendering the River navigable all the year round for some 600 miles from its mouth and providing a valuable reserve storage of some 500,000 acre-feet for irrigation supplies to the important dried fruit settlements along the River. Three important Diversion and Control Weirs at Yarra-wonga on the Murray, and at Redbank and Maude on the Murrumbidgee have been completed, and the Murray mouth has been effectively controlled by some miles of barrages to prevent the inflow of sea water, and retain «the fresh water, which would otherwise be wasted, for the use of the adjacent valuable settlements.

In Victoria the total area artificially supplied with water is 15,118,000 acres. Of this area 2,124,600 acres are served by irrigation channels. The irrigation supply channels have a length of 4,233 miles and the domestic and stock supply channels a length of 8,288 miles. The mileage of drainage channels is 2,054.

The principal domestic and stock system is the Wimmera-Mallee Domestic and Stock Scheme in North-Western Victoria, which is the largest scheme of its kind in the world. Supplies are drawn from reservoirs in the Grampians from which water is carried by some 6,000 miles of earthen channels to provide domestic and stock supplies to 11,000 square miles of farm lands.

From the Burrinjuck dam, a storage on the Murrumbidgee River which is a tributary of the Murray in New South Wales, water is supplied to about 270,000 acres in the Leeton and Griffith districts.

Another outstanding water supply scheme is that of the Mundaring Reservoir in Western Australia. Five million gallons of water is pumped daily to the Kalgoorlic gold fields, 352 miles distant, and en route farms in the wheat belt are served.

A 240-mile pipe-line is now being installed between Morgan, on the Murray River, and Whyalla, an industrial centre on the western shore of Spencer’s Gulf in South

Australia. This will deliver 100.000,000 Rations of water a month to Whyalla and 75.000,000 gallons a month to northern districts of South Australia.

Numerous extensive water works have already been constructed in Australia for City and Town supplies, power, and flood prevention and are being constantly added to, the Kiewa (Vic.), Great Lake (Tas.), Brisbane River (Qld.), being notable developments. Australia recognises that it is not so favoured as other countries as regards rainfall, but can w’ell be proud of the attention it is giving to the conservation and distribution of available water supplies.

(44) Artesian Water.

Although large areas of Australia enjoy an annual rainfall of less than 15 inches, the presence of seemingly inexhaustible supplies of artesian water has enabled much of this country to be developed, usually as cattle and sheep stations. There are nine large areas of under-ground water, the most important one, known as the Great Artesian Basin, underlying some 600,000 square miles of territory, mostly in Queensland and Central Australia. By sinking bores, ranging in depth from less than 50 feet to as much as 7,000 feet, this artesian water can be tapped and gushes forth in a continuous stream, some exceptional bores giving up to 1,750,000 gallons a day.

(45) Manufactures.

Australian industries are protected by a Customs Tariff imposing: ad valorem and fixed rate duties. The British Preferential Tariff is applicable to goods the produce or manufacture of the United Kingdom and to a large variety of goods of Empire origin. The Intermediate Tariff is the basis for trade negotiations and can be applied by Proclamation to specified goods which are the produce or manufacture of such countries specified in the Proclamation. The General Tariff applies to all goods except those the produce or manufacture of the United Kingdom, those covered by reciprocal tariff agreements and those entitled to the Intermediate Tariff.

Protective rates of duty on goods admissible under the British Preferential Tariff are, in many instances, subject to a reduction to compensate for the protective incidence of the depreciation in Australian currency in relation to that of sterling. Rates of duty which have been amended since 6th December, 1934, have, however, been based on existing conditions applicable to depreciated Australian currency, and in consequence are not subject to deduction. Where rates have been imposed in relation to existing exchange conditions, provision has been made for an automatic increase in the rates by a prescribed percentage for each £1 by which the equivalent in Australian currency of £100 sterling: is less than £125 at the date of exportation.

Primage duty, subject to exemption in respect of many classes of capital goods and aids to production, is payable at varying rates of duty of 4, 5 and 10 per cent.

Customs ad valorem duties are assessed on value, plus inland freight to port of shipment in country of export, plus a statutory 10 per cent, addition. The value is the domestic value or the selling price to the purchaser in Australia (whichever is the higher), less the cost of outside casing; otherwise f.o.b. value uncased is taken.

[See also Talking Point No. 59]

At the outbreak of the War the annual gross output of Australia’s 27,000 factories was valued at more than £500,000,000 and the number of hands employed had reached the all-time record of 565,000.

Australia is thus better equipped than ever before in her history to meet the challenge of modern mechanised warfare. Australian heavy industries, which made unprecedented advances in the immediate pre-war years, have been harnessed to a great munitions drive which has already made Australia the Pacific arsenal of the Empire.

Many entirely new industries, requiring the highest degree of technical skill, have been successfully established and many more are now nearing the production stage. Progress in the machine-tool industry, which is the basis of all engineering production, has been almost incredibly rapid and has contributed greatly to the success of other new developments, such as the manufacture of aircraft, Bren guns, antiaircraft guns, anti-tank guns, new types of shells and small arms ammunition and a wide range of other essential implements of war. Progress in many branches of munitions production has been so substantial that Australia is now not only meeting her own requirements but is also able to contribute in growing volume to the needs of Britain and of the British countries represented in the recently-formed Eastern Group Supply Council.

Apart from munitions production In the narrow sense, Australian factories are turning out in ever-increasing quantities uniforms, blankets, boots, radio equipment, optical instruments and innumerable other articles required by the fighting services. In this field, also, Australian industries are supplying many of the essential war-time needs of other Empire countries.

Australia’s secondary industries, established and fostered in the past under a

sound protective policy, are to-day playing a very important part in the total industrial war effort of the Empire.

(46)    Wages in Australia.

Basic wages in most industries are fixed by Federal or State Tribunals. The basic wages declared by the Commonwealth Arbitration Court for six capital cities in May, 1941, varied from £4 2s. to £4 8s. per week (of from 44 to 48 hours) according to locality (includes a loading of from 4/- to 6/- per week, granted by the Court on 23/6/37, and fully operative from first pay period commencing after 1/10/37).

(47)    Iron and Steel Works.

Established at Newcastle, New South Wales, in 1915, the iron and steel industry has to-day reached an amazingly high standard of efficiency. The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd. operates a modern iron and steel works at Newcastle, New South Wales, and another modern iron and steel plant is operated by the B.H.P. Company’s subsidiary (Australian Iron and Steel Ltd.) at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Iron ore, for the production of iron and steel at these works, is mined at Iron Knob, South Australia. The Company’s fleet of eight ore-carrying steamers form part of the fleet of ships required to take the ore from Whyalla, South Australia, to the

Newcastle and Kembla works whose aggregate annual production exceeds a million and a half tons of steel ingots. This is marketed at the world's lowest prices. The B.H.P. Company obtains its coal from the eleven mines owned by the organisation, situated at Port Kembla and in the Newcastle district, where a number of subsidiary and allied industries have been established, producing a wide variety of iron and steel products, including wire and wire netting, galvanised iron, railway tyres and axles, wire ropes and steel pipes and tubes. It is estimated that the operations of the B.H.P. Company, which has nearly 20,000 shareholders, provide direct employment for 33,000 men.

(48) Britain’s Third Customer.

Notwithstanding its small population, Australia is Great Britain’s third largest customer of British-made goods. Of its £102,156,352 (British currency) worth of imports during the financial year 1938-39, the United Kingdom supplied £40,433,590 worth, the Empire as a whole, £60,602,575 worth, and the United States of America £14,648,667. These figures are indicative of the Commonwealth's prosperity, as reflected in its purchasing power. On the other hand, during the year In question, commodities valued at £140,496,312* were exported from »Estimated British Currency value, £112,201,372 34

Australia. Of this total, the United Kingdom absorbed £68,716.031 worth, the Empire as a whole £87,105,626 worth, and the United States of America £19,562,376 worth.

(49) Big Figures for a Small Population.

In a little more than a century, Australia has built up a sound financial and economic edifice, which has for its supporting pillars the Commonwealth Bank of Australia— operating under guarantee of the Commonwealth Government and acting as Australia’s Central Bank as well as providing General and Savings Bank facilities—and strong trading banks, the largest of which is the Bank of New South Wales. The paid-up capital and reserve funds of the Australian banks, including the Commonwealth Bank, exceed £78,000,000, while the total assets exceed £630,000,000.

Also prominent in the financial sphere, are insurance corporations such as the Australian Mutual Provident Society, which is the largest mutual life office in the British Empire with an income of over £16,340,000 a year and existing assurances, including reversionary bonus additions, amounting to £382,350,000.

Evidences of thriving retail trade are furnished in big city department and other stores, one of which has 4,000 employees and more than 100 selling departments.

(50)    Plenty of Banks.

Apart from the Commonwealth and State Banks» fourteen cheque-paying joint-stock banks operate in Australia, where eight of them have their head-offices, three others being controlled from London, one from Wellington (New Zealand), one from Paris, and one from Yokohama.

Australian banking is on the branch system, rather than unit banking, and branches of one or more of the trading banks are established in each community of any size throughout the Commonwealth.

(51)    Currency Used.

Australia's currency denominations are similar to those of Great Britain, but its coinage, which is minted in the Commonwealth, and which does not, incidentally, include the half-crown, is distinctive. The Treasury note issue is controlled by the Commonwealth Bank.

(52)    Prosperous People.

Wealth is more evenly distributed in Australia than among the older communities. The average per head of population, according to a survey made in 1929, was about £526. Savings Bank deposits aggregate nearly £250,000,000, or an average of over £35 per head of population. Next to the British Post Office Savings Bank comes the Commonwealth Savings Bank, which, in point of deposits, is the largest institution of its kind in the Empire.

(53)    Little Industrial Unrest.

The average loss in days through industrial disputes per Australian worker over the 17-year period ended 1938 was 0.64 per year. For the five years ended 1938 the loss in days per worker per year decreased to 0.36.

(54)    Permanent Residence.

Australia merits consideration as a place of permanent residence and the idea is finding favour. There is the paramount advantage that money brought to Australia appreciates in value (£1 sterling equals 25/-Australian currency) ; the climate is mild and equable; living is not expensive; and primary education, which is on a high plane, is national and free, while there are also many excellent private and public schools.

Capital transferred to Australia from most countries not only increases because of the exchange advantage (£100 sterling becomes £125 Australian), but, when invested in Australian securities, it produces a larger income than it would in most other countries.

Australia is a young: country with a high standard of living, and is rapidly expanding in primary and secondary industries. In consequence, Australia offers greater opportunities for permanent residence than most countries of the world.

(55)    Cost of Living.

Although the standard of living is high, the cost of living, paradoxically, is low. As a pointer to the cost of living, it is mentioned that the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration has fixed a basic wage which varies automatically with changes in the cost of living index figures. The basic wages declared by the Court for the Australian capital cities in May, 1941, varied from £4 2s. to £4 8s. a week. A system of child endowment, under which a payment of 5/- a week will be made for each child in excess of one under the age of 16 years in a family, has just been introduced as a measure applying to all families throughout Australia irrespective of income.

(56)    Taxation.

So far as Federal taxation Is concerned, incomes derived from oversea sources are not subject to taxes if taxes are paid in the country from which the income is received.

In a number of the States, also, incomes from oversea sources are exempt from taxation to a greater or lesser extent.

The assessments for various incomes from personal exertion, covering both State and Federal taxes, in one leading State, as at 1st June, 1941, are as follow:—


Tax Payable

£750 per annum £500 per annum £300 per annum £200 per annum

-    -    £133    14    8

-    -    £57    19    2

-    -    £19    16    10

-    -    £1    18    2

The vast expenditure for defence purposes has resulted in the taxes for the year 1940-41 being greatly in excess of those of pre-war years, the corresponding figures for 1938-39 being £57 9s. 2d., £22 14s., £7 7s. 2d., and £2 2s. 10d., and, while the war continues, additional taxes are inevitable.

The taxes quoted are those which should be paid by a single man. Deductions from income which may be claimed by the taxpayer in the State referred to include £50 for wife and each dependent child under 16 years of age, medical expenses and life insurance premiums, and taxes paid during the preceding year. These deductions would, of course, reduce the taxes quoted, and somewhat similar deductions are allowed in the other States. Taxes are at present swollen to some extent because of the addition of unemployment relief special taxation. This is, however, gradually being: reduced.

Residents of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, are called upon to pay Federal taxes only.

(57) Housing.

The cost of houses varies greatly, according to the proximity to the city and the neighbourhood, but the average person might pay anything from £900 to £1,500 for a detached house with a frontage of ordinarily not less than 50 feet and a depth of three times as much. Most Australian homes are detached, are built of brick or concrete with red or grey tiled roof and are characterised, even the most modest, by attractive gardens.

Generally speaking, all houses are modern buildings with latest labour-saving appliances, electric power, gas, refrigeration, and telephones all being available. At the 1933 census, no fewer than 794,040 homes throughout Australia were occupied either by the owner of the property or by a tenant purchasing the home by instalments. As there were 1,300,000 married couples in Australia at that time, roughly 61 per cent, of Australian families were living in their own homes.

The charge for electric light for an average home of five rooms would be about £1/10/- per quarter, including two power points, and for gas about 25/- per month.

Flats are available in all capitals, and a reasonably well-appointed furnished flat, containing two bedrooms, kitchen and sitting room, would probably be obtained for about £3/10/- a week. Unfurnished flats with two or three rooms and kitchenette can be obtained in good districts from about £2/5/- a week. Central heating is not customary in Australia, but flats with central heating or air conditioning are usually available at rentals somewhat higher than for those not so equipped.

(58) New Settlers’ Personal Effects, Furniture and Household Goods.

The Australian Customs Tariff provides for the admission free of duty of passengers' personal effects. Provision also exists in the Australian Customs Tariff for the admission free of duty of passengers* furniture and household goods which have been in actual use for at least one year and which do not exceed £100 in value for each adult passenger. Two children may be regarded as one adult for this purpose. All articles ordinarily used in the household, such as linen, plate, pianos, pianolas, organs, gramophones and wireless receiving: sets are included.

The personal effects of a passenger include the passenger’s own wearing apparel and articles of personal use. They include also jewellery, hair-brushes and essential personal toilet requisites, personal sporting requisites, bicycles, saddles, fire-arms, camp equipment of travelling sportsmen, tradesmen’s own hand tools, typewriters, portable gramophones and records therefor, surgeons’ instruments, exposed (or exposed and developed) films for home cinematographs recording incidents of their travel abroad brought back to Australia by overseas passengers, provided that such films are not imported for purposes of trade or advertising and that they are not otherwise prohibited imports under the Customs Act, provided that every such article is the passenger’s own exclusive property, is in his possession, is for his own use, and is not intended for gift, sale, exchange, or trade.

Personal effects do not include—

(i)    Partly-made wearing apparel, piece goods of silk, wool, or other materials, lace, or goods of any kind for making into wearing apparel or furnishings;

(ii)    Household goods or furnishings or any article for use, decoration, or ornament in a house or premises;

(iii)    Perfumes, spirituous liquors, tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, or confectionery;

(iv)    Motor cars.

The Import Licensing system, as explained in paragraph (59), does not apply to—

(a)    Bona fide passengers* baggage and effects; and

(b)    Passengers* furniture and household goods which have been in actual use by such passengers for at least one year.

(59) Import- Licensing.

A system of import licensing associated with measures of exchange control has been enforced since 1st December, 1939. The administrative arrangements are directed towards the conservation of “non-sterling** exchange. They aim to ensure that the foreign exchange needed for the purchase of essential war and civil requirements is not absorbed in the purchase of unessential imports.

Goods entering into the import trade are graded according to their importance into four categories, viz., A, B, C and D.

Licences are not granted for the importation from “non-sterling** countries of goods classed in Category D. They are issued within varying limits for goods classed in the other three categories.

Goods originating in the sterling area which includes Egypt, Sudan, and all countries of the British Empire, except Canada, Newfoundland and Hong Kong, are exempt from the import licence restrictions.

Following on the conclusion of special monetary arrangements, products of the following countries are now (May, 1941) also exempted from licensing requirements: Netherlands Indies, Belgian Congo and Ruanda Urundi, French Equatorial Africa, Camcroons under French mandate, French Oceania (including New Caledonia), French Establishments in India, Iceland and the Faroe Islands.

However, the importation of certain listed products (including aluminium, jute products, metal-working machine tools and tetra-ethyl lead) is prohibited from all countries, except under licence. Generally speaking, the importation of these goods is subject to control by the Department of Supply and Development and import licences are granted only to applicants who have first obtained a certificate of approval from that Department.

The Import Licensing system is administered by the Department of Trade and Customs in collaboration with the Commonwealth Bank representing the Treasury.


The Platypus

(60)    Domestic Help.

A general resident maid can normally be obtained for about 30/- a week. Temporary help in housekeeping is not difficult to secure —that is, a maid working half the day only can be obtained for about £1 per week, and daily help at the rate of 1/3 per hour. At the present time, because of the employment of so many girls in the making of munitions, there is a shortage of girls for domestic service and wages up to 45/- a week are being asked.

(61)    Australian Schools.

Primary education in national schools throughout Australia is free, secular and compulsory up to the age of 14. Elementary schools are also conducted by private persons and religious bodies. Beyond this stage, the various States encourage education in continuation schools, high schools, domestic art schools, junior and senior technical colleges, agricultural colleges, and universities. The university courses compare very favourably with those of the old-world universities, and degrees are conferred in arts, science, law, medicine, music, engineering and other arts and faculties. Liberal subsidies and endowments, scholarships and bursaries smooth the path of the intelligent and ambitious youth. There are also privately established grammar schools and other schools which


The Koala

broadly correspond to the British public schools. They are usually denominational, and are controlled by councils or trustees.

(62)    Teaching the Young Farmer.

In most of the States, agricultural colleges, agricultural high schools and experimental farms are established to promote more scientific farming methods. Both theoretical and practical instruction is provided, at an inclusive cost to the student of about £50 a year.

The Waite Agricultural Research Institute, which is under the aegis of the Adelaide University, is admirably equipped, and has a staff of acknowledged experts.

(63)    North Australia Awaits


The Northern Territory is an area of 523,620 square miles which, with South Australia, forms a zone of country some 600 miles wide, running across the middle of the continent from north to south. There is a population of about 10,000; the natives, it is estimated, number a little more than 15,000.

Until 1911, the Northern Territory was part of South Australia, but in that year

the Commonwealth Government took over the responsibility of this vast and practically undeveloped area. It is now administered as a Territory of the Commonwealth with an Administrator stationed at Darwin, the capital and principal port. There is a District Officer at Alice Springs, in the south of the Territory.

The pastoral industry and mining are the chief sources of income for the inhabitants of the Northern Territory. There were 922,581 head of cattle, 32,721 horses and 38,587 sheep in the Territory in 1940. In this area are cattle stations of enormous extent, the two largest being Alexandria Downs (10,793 square miles) and Victoria River Downs (10,409 square miles). Mineral production was valued at £309,589 in 1940, £233,789 being derived from gold, £47,836 from wolfram, and £21,114 from mica. Tin, silver-lead, copper and tantalite are also mined.

During the year 1939-40 the pearling fleet based on Darwin gathered 179 tons of pearlshell of a value of £14,350. The hunting of water-buffalo for their hides is a minor industry—the animals were introduced into Australia from the East Indies in the early days and were allowed to run wild when the garrisons were withdrawn. During 1937-38, 16,549 buffalo hides were exported.

(64) Sporting Australia.

Because Australians, through heredity and environment, are, above all, sportsmen, the visitor can enjoy some of the world’s finest horse-racing in ideal surroundings, such as the Melbourne Cup, which is run in November each year. He can join with thousands of others in witnessing the championship cricket matches or seeing the titanic struggles of the football field in various codes. He can also play golf, polo, tennis, baseball or lacrosse; motor, yacht, ride a horse, a camel, or a surf board, or enjoy ski-ing, tobogganing and ice skating. He can join in hunting, or shoot game and wildfowl. Even buffalo and crocodile shooting are obtainable by the intrepid enthusiast.

(65) The Compleat Angling Ground.

Well-stocked streams in New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania offer the rodman excellent dry-fly trout fishing, and the big-game fisherman finds thrilling sport with swordfish, sharks, tunny, and other game fish.

Briefly summarised, Australia's seaangling calendar reads as follows:—

December to April—Marlin, sharks and light game-fish off the coast of New South Wales; tunny in South Australia.

May to October—Many varieties of game-fish are caught in the waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, including Spanish mackerel, queenfish, turrum, giant pike, kingfish, albacore, bonito, tunny and sharks. Marlin are sometimes landed and probably are more common than is at present realised.

September to November—Tunny off the south coast of New South Wales.

The most favourable months for shark fishing in South Australia, where world-record white sharks have been caught, are January and February, but the season lasts from October to April, and even in the off season excellent catches have been made.

Australia’s coastal waters are being further explored to determine their angling possibilities, in particular along the Great Barrier Reef, and at Albany, Western Australia, where a 560 lb. marlin was recently landed in a fisherman’s net and where large tunny have also been caught.

(66) Surfing All the Year Round.

Australia has 12,000 miles of the world’s finest beaches, and bathing and surfing are national pastimes. On many of the beaches bathing is continued throughout the winter, owing to the warmth of the Pacific and Indian Ocean waters. During the summer it is usual to see the popular

beaches crowded both day and night. Electric lights playing on the gay costumes of the swimmers, as they dive in and out of the waves or ride the breakers, make scenes of unexcelled colour and beauty. The surf clubs, which are distinctively Australian, develop physically splendid specimens of manhood and womanhood, who perform a fine service in safeguarding the less-accomplished swimmers.

(67)    Through Tropic and Southern


The trip to Australia from Europe in peace times is mainly through glorious tropic and southern seas, and in modern liners equipped for comfort and speed. Visitors find that carefree days at sea pass quickly, and they may sample the many joys and beauties of Cairo, Suez, Aden, Colombo, Cape Town and Durban, according to the route chosen.

(68)    Isles of Romance.

Travellers to Australia from the United States of America and Canada steam over the most peaceful of the oceans—the appropriately-named Pacific—through the warmth and brilliance of the tropics into that region of romance, the South Sea Islands. The Hawaiian Islands, Samoa, Fiji,

and New Zealand are on the way to Australia, and provide wonderful days ashore for the tourist.

(69)    Up-to-date Railways.

Australia has 28,000 miles of railway which, in one instance, penetrates nearly

1.000    miles inland, and in others hugs the coast and links the capitals, Hobart excepted. One can travel comfortably and quickly in Australia, and with the amenities of railway service as they are generally understood.

(70)    Expanding Airways.

Australia is fast developing her commercial airways. Nearly 30,000 miles of regular services are operated by up-to-date machines. Including operations in New Guinea, 190,000 fights were made over

14.076.000    miles with 160,000 passengers,

25.270.000    lb. of goods and 564,000 lb. of mail during the twelve months ended 30/6/40. Flying conditions, especially visibility, are excellent in Australia.

(71)    National Communications.

Postal, telegraph and telephone services throughout Australia are controlled by the Commonwealth Government. Along 27,228 miles of railway, 130,000 miles of roads and

21.000    miles of air routes, mails are carried

regularly, while coastal vessels are also used. Nearly 304,000 miles of telegraph lines and cables interlinking 9,450 telegraph offices, handle approximately 17,650,000 telegrams annually, the charges being amongst the lowest in the world—a 14-word telegram may be sent up to 7,500 miles for 1/-. Picturegram service is available between Melbourne and Sydney. Nearly 715,000 telephones are installed. The trunk line service embraces all States, and communication is available to certain overseas countries by means of radio-telephone channels. The total mileage of wire in the telephone exchange and trunk line systems is 3,121,000. More than 1,287,000 wireless broadcast listeners’ licences are issued annually; and, during peace-time, wireless telegraph communication is maintained with ships at sea and the principal countries of the world.

(72) Service to the Visitor.

Government and private tourist bureaux in six States work in co-operation to giro the visitor continuous travel service, so that his progress from any one point to any other is devoid of hitch, annoyance or misadventure. A wide range of inclusive-priced tours is available to suit the visitor's inclinations and time limits. Details of organised travel in Australia are supplied to Agencies outside Australia.


Aboriginal Fishermen

Members of the Overseas League will be welcomed at the League’s Australian club-rooms at:—

Sydney: 28 Martin Place.

Melbourne: 434 Collins Street.

Perth: 56 William Street.

(73)    Hotels in Australia.

There are good hotels in all the principal cities, and on the travel routes of Australia they are rapidly developing. The charges for accommodation are comparatively low. Inclusive hotel and guest house tariffs in the capital cities range from 12/6 per day to 35/-. Bookings can be made at most hotels on the Bed and Breakfast or Room Only rate. In both town and country areas, good guest house accommodation can be obtained at inclusive rates as low as £3/10/-per week.

(74)    Official Year Book.

For more detailed information regarding Australia, the Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, which is issued by the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Canberra, furnishes detailed statistics and general comment regarding all phases of life in Australia. The Year Book is 1,000 pages or more in size and is priced at 6/1 a copy post free anywhere in the British Empire, elsewhere 7/2. A miniature

Surf-canoeing    53

year book, published under the title, “Pocket Compendium of Australian Statistics,“ is also issued by the Commonwealth Statistician, and is on sale at 1/1 a copy, posted anywhere in the world.

(75)    Australia’s Geographic


Well-illustrated articles written for popular reading and dealing only with Australian and South Sea Island subjects have made the “Walkabout“ magazine an invaluable Australian reference library. “Walkabout“ is the only geographic magazine of Australia and is a high-class journal, published monthly. Subscription rates are 12/- a year, posted to any address in the world, figures being in Australian currency. “Walkabout,** Melbourne, Australia, is sufficient address for any inquiries.

(76)    Australian Handbook.

A much more comprehensive story ot Australia than can be set out within the limits of “Talking Points on Australia** is presented in a Handbook of Australia produced by the Australian National Publicity Association. The Handbook comprises 148 pages, including 27 pages of photographs, 8 pages of maps, and approximately 110,000 words of letterpress dealing with all phases of Australia, its people, and its institutions.

Copies of the Handbook may be obtained without charge from any of the offices of the Association as set out on the back cover of “Talking Points” (excluding the offices in Japan, China and Egypt). A charge of 2s. 6d. each is made for copies supplied in Australia from the Association’s offices at Railway Buildings, Flinders Street, Melbourne, or Endeavour House, Macquarie Place, Sydney.

(77) Statistical Summary.

POPULATION, 31/12/40, 7,068,689. EXTERNAL TRADE (British Currency Values), 1939-40:—

Imports (Merchandise only) - £115,675,505 Exports (Merchandise only) -    £118,762,122

BANK DEPOSITS, as at 31st March, 1941. All Cheque-Paying Banks - £455,880,000 Savings Banks -    -    -    -    £249,295,000






SECONDARY INDUSTRIES, Number of Factories    -    -

Number of Employees    -    -

Salaries and Wages Paid -    -

Value of Land, Buildings, Plant and Machinery -    -    -

TOTAL PRODUCTION, 1938-39. Primary ----- £269,247,000 Secondary    -    -    -    - £195,746,000


, 1938-39—


Value, C Australian Currency

Wool - - -



lb. -




Wheat - - -



bush. -




Other Cereals - -



bush. -




Hay - - - -



tons -




Sugar Cane - -



tons -




Fruits, Fresh - -






„ Canned -



lb. -




Dried Vine Fruits -



cwt. -




Wine - - - -



gall. -



Not avail.

Tobacco - - -



cwt. -




Hides and Skins (Exports)





Bacon and Hams -



lb. -




[INING PRODUCTION, 1938-Coal (black) - - -

tons -



Silver-Lead and Concentrates




Gold ....



♦fine 02. -




Iron ....



tons -




Copper - - -



tons -






1939—1,645,697 fine ozs.




Flinders Street Railway Building, Melbourne


510 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles

Australian Government Offices acting for the Association:

CANADA: 15 King Street West,Toronto


D.i.C. Building, Wellington

INDIA: Calcutta

NETHERLANDS INDIA: Batavia-.Centrum JAPAN: Tokyo    EGYPT: Cairo

CHINA: Shanghai

Note: On the outbreak of war, the Association’s London office (as well as its offlecs in Bombay, India, and Auckland, New Zealand) was closed, but information regarding Australia can be obtained from Australia House, Strand, London, W.C. 2, England.

Mason. Firth a McCutcheon MELBOURNE