Qt^ PßOPtp

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\'//¡V///, m. xw////;;,an¥7 TiwiTrr ï&î8^*»^ C

J A N UARY I « 19 0 1

....

ffîr. Barry Rickards’ ^ -

RICKARDS' * * Australian enterprises.

TIVOLI THEATRE, Sydney, and

Solo Proprietor ail'd Manager :    TIVOLI HOTEL.

Mb. Hakky Rickards. •

Treasurer : T. 1). Scott.    Business Manager : John C. Leete.

Grand Xmas Pantomime — “ PUSS IN BOOTS,’

Written by Victor Stevens, Esq.

Miss Billie Baki.ow. Miss Noni Rickards.


Jack Grist (Principal Boy) -Princess Pansy (Principal Girl)

BIJOU THEATRE, Melbourne.

Sole Lessee and Manager : Mr. Harry Rickards.

Treasurer : Frank Barnes.    Business Manager : Fred. Aydox,

GIGANTIC VAUDVILLE COMPANY    stnr

Miss LOTTIE COLLINS.

GAIETY THEATRE, Melbourne,

Sole Lessee and Manage


Mr. Harry Rickards.


RICKARDS’

NEW


OPERA HOUSE (Meltaurne),

,    T T    T T 1 Now Building. Architect : Hon. William

and Opera House Hotel, nm, m.i.cf.r.i.y.a.

1    7 Contractors : Messrs. Baxter and Boyne.

Mr. Harry Rickards


Sole Proprietor and Manager

Rickards’ TIVOLI THEATRE (Adelaide),

Sole Lessee and Manager -    -    -    . Mr. Harry Rickards.

Treasurer: J. T. Larkin.    Business Manager : M. Marcus.

GIGANTIC VAUDVILLE COMPANY, headed by Mr. George D’Albert,

The Great London Descriptive and Character Vocalist.


DEDICATION

. TO

HIS EXCELLENCY

SIR FREDERICK DARLEY, K.C.M.G.,

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR AND CHIEF JUSTICE OF NEW SOUTH WALES.

This Work is respectfully dedicated as a small token of regard and esteem for those sterling good qualities“which have gained for him the affection and respect in which he is held by all classes of the people of this Colony.

PARSONS’ PURE JAM.

W. JNO. BAKER, Cutkr>

3 HUNTER STREET, SYDNEY.


WIRE KEY KNIFE


W. Jxo. Baker’s Rec.d. FARMER’S o- STATION KNIFE,

as illustrated, 6s. post free. Larger size, 7s. post free. For presents' tion, with Pearl or Tortoise-shell handles, 8s. 6d. and 10s. (i I. each.

Name engraved, Is. each.

DESIGNED IN AUSTRALIA FOR AUSTRALIANS.

VV. .1 so. Baker’s


CASES OF RAZORS,


containing 2 f Baker’s Standard Sheffield Razors, ivory handles, lull hollow-ground, Ones quality, very handsome, in Leather, Velvet, and Silk lined eases, ■21s. per ease, complete, post free. If with black handles, lös. per ease, complete, post free.

W. Jxo. Baker’s Patent BOUNDARY RIDER’S KIT.

Knife, Sheath and Steel (lOin. over all), set complete, with plain Sheath, os. ; capped Sheath, 7s. (id. ; Oriental (assketch) 10-. (id., all post free.

W. JNO. BAKER’S Brand CUTLERY sent post free any address in Australasia for

remittance with Order.

¿taT Please write for Free Illustrated Catalogue.

SOUVENIR

OF THE

PROCLAMATION

OF THE

Australian . . .

Commonwealth

JANUARY 1st, t90I.=/*

. . DEDICATED . .

By Special Permission to

His Excellency Sir Frederick Parley, K.C.M.G.,

Lieutenant-Governor and Chief Justice .. of. .

New South Wales.

THE COMMONWEALTH PUBLISHING COMPANY, 82 Pitt-strcet. Sydney, 1901.

Our Head Office, Town Office and all Branches are mutually connected by Telephone.

TELEPHONES 1524, 726, &c.


Best and Largest Drags in Sydney or Suburbs

for

Picnics or other Outings.

BE SEATED.


A PARTY OF 200 CAN

Have a look at our 5 Greys in Drag.


J.    MODERATE CHARGES.

ORDERS CAN BE LEFT AT OUR BALMAIN ADDRESSES OR AT ANY OF OUR SUBURBAN BRANCHES.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    ■')

In submitting this little work to the public of New South Wales the publishers have endeavoured to make it as complete and comprehensive a Souvenir of the great event of January ist, 1901, as possible. Within its cover will be found articles from the Hon. Edmund Barton, the acknowledged Federal Leader of Australia ; Mr. Russell French, General Manager of the Bank of New South Wales; Mr. Richard Teece, Manager of the A.M.P. Society; and Mr. Donald Cormack, one of the delegates to the Bathurst Federal Convention. All these gentlemen write on subjects on which they are particularly qualified to express an opinion, and it is trusted that these articles will be found of special interest to readers at the present time. No care has been spared to make the collection of photographs as complete and interesting as possible, while, in addition to the usual portraits of local celebrities will be found a series of types of the British Army that will take part in the procession on January ist. These drawings have been specially executed for this work, and no pains have been spared to ensure their fidelity. Another feature of the work is the series of biographical sketches which accompany each portrait ; these also have been specially prepared for the Souvenir, and special attention is drawn    to    the story of    the    British

Regiments, which accompanies each portrait. The publishers desire to express their thanks to the proprietors of United Australia for permission to    use portions of    the    articles

contained herein, as also to the    Falk Studios    for the care

and attention they gave    to    the preparation    of the

photographs appearing above their name ; and also to Messrs. Freeman and Co., Limited, for the portrait of the late W. C. Wentworth. In conclusion, the publishers desire to wish all their readers A Bright and Prosperous New Year, and that the blessings of the years to come may be showered on the head of the New Nation, which comes into existence To-day.

Sydney, January ist, 1901.

PARSONS’ FLAKED OATMEAL.

Engines and s> Threshing Machines.

HOWARDS^*

x Buffalo Pitts Celebrated

Engines and Threshers.


E have great pleasure in again bringing before the notice of the Farmers of Australasia these Wonderful Engines and Threshers. Now that we have sold so many of them throughout the Colonies, we can recommend them with the greatest possible confidence, as we have pioved them to be the Best and Cheapest on the Australasian Market.


Alary Vale,,

21st July, 1900.

Messrs. J. C. Howard, Sydney.

Dear Sirs,—The Buffalo Pitts Trac’ tion Engine which I purchased from you some years ago does its work splendidly, and is extremely handy in shifting from place to place. I think no one with a spark of common sense would purchase a portable when these kind of engines are to be had. I work a 5 ft. Clayton and Shuttleworth thresher with it, a Ladd’s straw press, a Hope stone crusher, Andrew and Bevans’ large size chaff cutter, and twenty shearing machines, all of which it drives magnificently, with lots of power to spare. Yours faithfully,

(Signed) R. M. SMITH.

The Engines are very light and strong, and work at a pressure of 1201bs. to the square inch, have large wood-burning fire boxes, brake, etc, and price for price are more powerful than any other engine on the market. The Threshers are fitted with 22ft. straw stackers, brake, bag tally and numerous other improvements to suit the Australian grain threshing, and price for price and size for size will put through more grain in a day than any other thresher made, at the same time making an exceptionally good sample.

Full particulars, prices and descriptive catalogues post free' on application to—

J. & C. HOWARD,

280 and 280! PITT STREET, SYDNEY, N.S.W.

• (Sole Agents for Australasia.)

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    7



PARSONS’ PURE JAM.


DOCKER’S^,

Varnishes

and. . .

Coac# Colours

Manufactured only by . .

DOCKER BROS

IÓ5 Clarence Street,

SYDNEY, N.S.W.

LORD HOPETOUN

FIRST GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF UNITED AUSTRALIA

PARSONS’ D.S.F. MUSTARD.

London and Lancashire

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY.

Established in Sydney, 1862.

libeeal,    secure.

Security to Insurers -    - - £3,201,080.

NEW SOUTH WALES BRANCH—

295 piti Street, Sy

DIRECTORS :

Hon. JOHN SEE, iM.P.    I    P. HOGAN, Esq., J.P.

ROBERT KERR, Manager.

City Mutual Fire

INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD.

Established 1877.

HEAD OFFICE:

95 PITT ST., SYDNEY.

Security to Insurers Exceeds £3,000,000.

Rates Lowest. -    -    -    - Settlements Prompt.

A Cash Bonus Paid to Insurers every Year.

Robert Kerr, flanager.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    11




PARSONS’ PURE JAM.


Telephone 23S2.    *    Telephone 27 Petersham

Jjesi and Cheapest.

Goodearl Bros. Hooker and Go.

<$>


manufacturers,


<$>


135 York Street, Sydney,

For the following Lines : —

TEXTS and TARPAULINS.

HORSE RUGS and WATER BAGS. BEIMHXG—all sorts and kinds.

Patentees ot the “ Reversible Mattress,” MATTRKSSES.

TFT. '*>

factories at . . .

Windsor Road, \ Carlton Crescent, / 135 York St,

Petersham j Summer Hill {    Sydney

E. BUTCHER & GO.,

MANUFACTURING

Jewellers, Watchmakers, &c.

All Classes of Jewellery Made to Order and Refaired Old Jewellery Made Up into Modern Designs.

Old Gold and Silver Bought; also Precious Stones.

Electro-plating and Gilding.

All kinds of Medals, Badges, Trophies, &c., Made to Order»; Designs submitted.

Best Workmanship Guaranteed.

126 Pin STREET, SYDNEY.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 13

Lord Hopetoun’s Sons.

The Hon. \ ietor Alexander Ho])e (Lord Hope) was horn September 24th, 1887, and is therefore in his fourteenth year.

The Hon. Charles Melbourne Hope was horn at Melbourne, Victoria, February 20th, 1802. Roth these young gentlemen accompany their father, His Excellency the Governor-General, to Australia.

USE IVY JAM.

JAMES KELMAN’S



Sydney Office and Cellars :

EQUITABLE BUILDING,

GEORGE STREET.


Vineyards :

BRANXTON,

HUNTER RIVER N S W.

Sir Frederick Darley, K.C.M.G*

His Excellency Sir Frederick Darley, K.C.M.G.. Lieutenant-Governor and Chief Justice of New South Wales, is the son of the late Henry Darley, of County Wicklow, Ireland, where he was born on September 13th, 1830. He received his earlv education at Dunnagon College ; proceeding thence to Trinity College, Dublin, where he took the degree of B.A. in 1851, and was «ailed to the Irish liar in 1853. After practising for some time in Ireland Sir Frederick decided to come to Aus ralia, where he was called to the Bar of New South Wales in 1802; here his great talents as an advocate, and his sound wisdom as a lawyer, soon secured him that place in the front rank of his profession he so richly deserved, and in 1808 he was appointed a member of the Legislative Council ; ten years later, in 1878, he “took silk,” and in 1881 lie was appointed Vice-President of the Executive Council, which office lie held till 1883.    ()•» the death of Sir

James Martin in November, 1886, Sir Frederick was offered the position of Chief Justice of New South Wales, which offer, however, lie declined. Owing to subsequent events which occurred he was again urged to reconsider his decision, and finally, under pressure, he accepted the position, which lie has filled with such dignity and marked ability ever since. His Excellency was created a Knight Bachelor in 1887, and appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the colony in 1891 in succession to the late Sir Alfred Stephen ; in 1897 he was created a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St George. A • rilliant barrister, a great Judge, and a perfect gentleman, his Excellency has gained the sincere respect and affection of all classes of the community.

MADAME KING’S


2)resscuttirjg, jVîalçiqg, aqd jYiilUqerg Schools .    ,    .    ,


Commercial Chambers, George & Bathurst Streets.

The Scientific Measurement System taught in ten lessons. Dressmaking in all Branches. Tailor-made Gowns,

. . . Millineiy, Smocking . . .

Classes meet at the . .

OLD MILITARY OFFICE. PENRITH,

on Saturdays from 10 a.m to 5 p.m. Paterns Cut to Actual Measurement Orders Taken.

Also at . . .

CHURCH STREET, PARRAMATTA.

on Thursdays, from 2 p.m. to 9 p.m.

Please send for Full Particulars to Head Office,

86 Commercial Chambers, George <k Bathurst Streets,

SYDNEY-

yibiteacR poultry prm,

MOWBRAY ROAD, CHATSW00D.

Dressed Table Poultry Direct    Delivered in Sydney .    .    .

from the Farm a Speciality, '^r    .    . and Suburbs Daily.

The Poultry is reared and fattened on the Farm, and entirely fed on grain and pollard. No meat or offal of any kind used. The advantages offered are, “ the best of poultry, thorough cleanliness, low prices, and prompt delivery.”

SETTINGS OF EGGS FROM PRIZE POULTRY AT . . . REDUCED RATES . . .

EGGS FROM FOWLS FED AS ABOVE ARE THE VERY BEST.

SPECIAL TERMS FOR HOTELS AND BOARDING HOUSES.

PERCY G. WHITTALL, Proprietor.

TEL. No. 13, CHATSWOOD.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 17



AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    19




..HOTEL..

Most centrally situated Hotel in Sydney. Within two -m minutes of Electric, Cable and Steam Trams & Circular Quay.

In the Centre of . . .

Government Offices, Exchanges, and Stock and Station Agents.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 21


CITIZENS’ *

LIFE ASSURANCE COY., Ltd.

HEAD OFFICES—

Castlereagh and Moore Streets, Sydney.

---

The Premier Industrial Ordinary Life Office of " Greater Britain.”

--

Directors :

John J. Garvan, Esq., F.S.S., Managing Director.

The Hon. Sir W. J. Lyne,


The Hon John See, m.p. (Colonial Secretary), Chairman. F. B. Freeiiill, Esq., m.l.a.

F. Coffee, Esq.

General Secretary:

Arthur M. Eedy, j p.

Asst. Gen. Sec:

John Fitzsimons. Valuator:

The Hon. S. H. Hyam, m.l.c.

K.C.M.G., M.P.

(Premier at d Colonial Treas.) J. J Power, Esq., m.b. Sir. W. P. Manning, Kt.

Actuary:

Wm. R. Dovey, f.f.a.

O.H. Asst. Secretary :

P. J. O’Driscoll. Consulting: Actuary:

R. P. Hardy, Esq., f.i.a.

upwards 0f HALF-A-MILLION Starling.

Distinguishing Features :

ABSOLUTE SECURITY. ANNUAL BONUSES.

IMMEDIATE SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS. UNRESTRICTED ASSURANCES. LIBERAL POLICIES. ANNUITIES.

Branches and Agencies throughout Australasia.

All descriptions of Life Assurance Business transacted.

TO H N FARRELL, Resident Secretary*

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 23

Great Britain’s Attitude towards the Australian Commonwealth.

(By Edmund Barton, Q.C.)

Before the next quarterly issue of this magazine, the Australian Commonwealth will have been established, and the Constitution have come into operation. What views are held in England as to the Australian Colonies and as to the new nation ? That is the question which 1 have been asked to answer ; and while the answer may be imperfect, it is unhesitating. If it is a great thing for us to begin our new path with a fervent “ God-speed ” from our countrymen of the United Kingdom, then we are assured of that great thing in all its meaning, sentimental or material. I have not met a statesman of either party in the old country who has any doubt or misgiving as to the wisdom of our union, or who can see in it any danger either to Great Britain or to Greater Britain. All are sanguine, whether the outlook be Empire or Federation, that our race will gain largely in prestige and in power by the swifter but steadier development of this continent. Of course, we shall make our blunders, but everyone over there is confident that they will be but small spots on the sun of our success. Trust in the capacity of the race is not a jot diminished when the Englishman makes the Australian the subject of it. That feeling for us has always been abundant among the British people. But since Britons from both hemispheres have learned to fight, to bleed, and to die together, in mutual self-reliance, and with equal and common heroism, there are few, if any, to be found in the old country who see any difference between this part and that of Her Majesty’s dominions as cradles for the makers of Empire. On this point, and in this splendid trust, there is no difference between Conservative and Liberal. There are some perhaps who think we shall always be better for a little fatherly guidance and direction. At the other extreme there may be some who think that Imperial cohesion will keep us

USE IVY JAM.

24 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.

OFFICIAL PROGRA/AA\E-

On MONDAY, 31st December, at 11 p.m., SPECIAL SERVICES will be held in all the CHURCHES for Prayer and Intercession to ALMIGHTY GOD for Divine Blessing on the Empire, the Commonwealth, and the States.

Tuesday. January 1.

The Inaugural Ceremonies.

The Procession starts at 10.30 a.m., following the route to Centennial Park as shown on the plan printed herein.    •

The Swearing-in Ceremony will begin at 12.30, « lien 10,000 Public School Children, accompanied by massed bands, will render several musical items, and 1,000 voices, under the auspices of the Sydney Philharmonic Society’ wdl lead the Old Hundredth, and the Hallelujah Chorus from the Messiah. The School Children will sing “ Federated Australia,” “ Advance Australia Fair,” “ Rule Britannia.” and the National Anthem.

The Procession will be composed of the following bodies :_

Mounted Police.

Military and Naval, including Imperial, Indian, and Intercolonial Troops.

Major-General Commanding and Headquarters Staff. Governor-General’s Advance Escort.

Governor-General.

Governor-General’s Rear Escort.

Governor-General’s Suite.

His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor.

His Excellency the Admiral.

Distinguished invited Guests.

Official Consuls.

Executive Council.

President and Members of the Legislative Council. Speaker and Members of the Legislative Assembly.

Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Sydney.

The Judges.    "    "

Heads of the Churches.

Chancellor of the University.

Heads of the Government Departments.

Public Officials.

Chamber of Commerce.

Representatives of Friendly Societies.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 25in leading strings, neither useful nor beneficial ; but neither of these views is favoured by the great bulk of English public opinion. That opinion denies the first proposition, because it believes that men of our stock, wherever they live, be it in Nottingham or in Narrabri, are absolutely fit to manage their own affairs ; and it denies the counter proposition, because it has had ample proof that partnership in Empire carries with it no badges of inferiority and no chafing bonds. Being . a sensible public opinion, it looks first for safety, and it finds safety for each part of the Empire in local autonomy, and safety for the whole as well as each part in unanimous acceptance of the burdens of Empire in war as well as its benefits in peace. One party may accuse the other of aggressive militarism, and the other may retort with the taunt of “ Shiver and scuttle.” These are words for extremists to apply to each other ; but in his heart of hearts the Englishman believes that his brethren, being like himself, want none of these things, and that his brother in Australia likes them as little as he does.

The belief, then, in the value of the Empire to the Kingdom grows at least as rapidly as the belief in the value of the Kingdom to the Empire ; and if for his sake, Australians will hold fast to the latter belief, the Englishman on his part will hold quite as firmly to the former. It is indeed somewhat less than the truth to say that the pride of race is rapidly taking the place of pride of possession, and that the consciousness of the enormous material value of tire Colonies to Great Britain is far transcended by the splendid valuation which is placed upon the loyalty and affection of the colonists themselves, as living and active partners in one great heritage. To take but not to give is far from being the doctrine of our countrymen across the ocean. They are grandly ready to give heart for heart and help for help without a niggard eye for mere measure. If an Australian or a Canadian can fight as well as an Englishman, then it goes without saying that the Englishman thinks him as good a man as himself; but he does not stop there. Convinced as he is that the offshoots are as strong and as lusty as the parent stem, he is prepared to look upon all their aspirations with inspiring gratitude and with generous pride.

So far I have answered in general terms the question put to me. How then does the Englishman’s view manifest itself? The Federal Delegates in England had the opportunity of gauging the good opinions and good wishes of leading Englishmen, not only by their speeches but in many interesting conversations ; and these were not the least part of the great privileges they enjoyed during their visit. Thus they became acquainted with the views of men of great influence, not only

. PARSONS’ HOMOEOPATHIC COCOA.

26 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.

Official Programme (Continued.)

Representatives of Trades Unions.

Other Public Bodies.

Bands.

(night.)

LEAGUE OF WHEELMEN, Night Carnival, on the Sydney Cricket Ground, at 8 p.m.

STATE BANQUET at Town Hall, 7.30 p.m.

CITY ILLUMINATIONS at 8 p.m.

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 2.

(DAY.)

Highland Gathering, Sydney Cricket Ground, 10 a.m. Fire Brigade Procession through City Streets, at 10.30 a.m.

Swimming Carnival, Fitzrov Dock, at 11 a.m.

Fire Brigade Display in Prince Alfred Park, at 3 p.m. Conversazione, Town Hall, at 2.30 p.m.

(night.)

Continental in Domain, 7.30 p.m.

Highland Concert, Town Hall, at 6 p.m.

Military Tattoo, at Agricultural Ground, 8 p.m.

City Illuminations, at 8 p.m.

THURSDAY, JANUARY 3.

(day.)

Military Review by His Excellency the Governor-General, In Centennial Park, at 10.30 a.m.

Commerce Luncheon, Town Hall, 1 p.m.

Public Schools Gathering, Sydney Cricket Ground, at 2 p.m.

(night.)

Command Night, at Theatres, 8 p.m.

Philharmonic Concert, Town Hall, 8 p.m.

Cycling Carnival, Sydney Cricket Ground, 8 p.m.

City Illuminations, at 8 p.m.

FRIDAY, JANUARY 4.

(day.)

Athletic and Cycling Sports, Sydney Cricket Ground, at 9 a.m.

Harbour Aquatic Demonstration, at 1 p.m.

Theatrical Matinees for the Poor, at 2 p.m.

(night. )

Continental in Domain, at 7.30 p.m.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 27

in public affairs, but also in Commerce and in Literature, in Learning and in the Arts. The Judge, the Merchant, the Professor, the Ironmaster, the Journalist, the Labour Leader, have but little difference of view as to the duties of Empire ; and the nonsensical “ Cut the painter” cry is as unheeded in London as it is here or in New Zealand. What the people desire, and that very strongly, is to know more about us ; and that desire will, I believe, soon be satisfied in greater measure by the splendid Press of the kingdom. In this respect, we must not be too exacting. If every busy man in London made it a point to learn every day from his newspapers all that was to be known of the dealings of the people of the Empire, he would not find much time left for his business. Great newspapers are plentiful in London ; and if the man of business sought to assist the digestion of his news by finding out in what way the leading dailies were guiding or expressing public opinion on this huge range of affairs, his own concerns would be sadly neglected. But Australian affairs are quickly acquiring greater prominence at the heart of the Empire, and I have great hope that the prominence will soon be amply reflected in the columns of the great leading Press.

At present, no doubt, people otherwise well informed are somewhat “dicky” in their knowledge of Australian geography. For example, I was sometimes alluded to as the Delegate from Tasmania, and similar mistakes were made as to the place of origin of my brother delegates. We may, however, think little of such matters as these ; for as time goes on, we shall become more Australian and less provincial, more contented with our noble continental designation and less jealous to be known according to our particular States. What is more important is that there is a growing eagerness to know more of us and of our country, to learn thè resources of the new member of the august family of British nations, and an ever-growing wish that we on our part may know how genuinely and how lovingly our progress will be watched and our success rejoiced in.

The distinguished men who have held Australian governorships retain their sympathy with us, in all its ardour. Lord Jersey, Lord Carrington, Lord Hampden, Sir Henry Norman and Lord Kintore are as anxious to be helpful to Australia and Australians as ever they were ; and Lord Brassey, who so lately left us, will certainly share in that helpful friendship. Whatever changes may take place in political parties at Westminster, the development of the Commonwealth will be watched and its interests safeguarded by many great men. These it would be invidious to single out ; but who does not know that the present Secretary of State for the Colonies has made his department one of the greatest in the government

USE IVY JAM.

28 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.

Official Programme (Continued.)

Harbour Fireworks Display, at 8 p.m.

Amateur Orchestral Concert, Town Hall, at 8 p.m.

City Illuminations, 8 p.m.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 5.

(day.)

New South Wales Defence Force Rifle Association Meeting, Randwick Rifle Range, at 7.45 a.ni.

Trades Unions and Friendly Societies’ Procession through the City Streets, at 10.30 a.m.

Sports and Demonstration of above bodies at Agricultural Grounds, at noon.

New South Wales v. South Australia, Cricket Match, Sydney Cricket Ground, at noon.

(night. )

Naval and Military Banquet, Town Hall, at 7.30 p.m. Continental at North Sydney Oval, at 7.30 p.m.

Cycling Carnival, Sydney Cricket Ground, at 8 p.m.

City Illuminations, at 8 p.m.

SUNDAY, JANUARY 6.

(DAY.)

Military Church Parade, at 10 a.m.

Special Services, at 11 a.m.

United Church Service, Town Hall, 3 p.m.

MONDAY, JANUARY 7.

(DAY.)

New South Wales Defence Force Rifle Association Meeting, Randwick Rifle Range, at 7.30 a.m.    ■

Military Sports, at Agricultural Grounds, at 10 a.m.

New South Wales v. South Australia, Cricket Match, Sydney Cricket Ground, at noon.

Municipal and Civic Luncheon, at Town Hall, at 1 p.m. (night.)

Harbour Excursion, with Bands on Steamers, at 8 p.m. Liedertafel Concert, at Town Hall, at 8 p.m.

City Illuminations, at 8 p.m.

TUESDAY, JANUARY 8.

(DAY.)

Military Sports, at Agricultural Ground, at 10 a.m.

New South Wales v. South Australia, Cricket Match, Sydney Cricket Ground, at noon.

(night.)

. Press Dinner, at Town Hall, at 7.30 p.m.

City Illuminations, at 8 p.m.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 29

of the Empire, and that the advancement of our continent has been and will be a work which will endure as a signal mark of his brilliant tenure of office ? Sure am I, too, that when his turn comes to relinquish office, there will be found a successor equally convinced that the prosperity of the Empire involves a due regard for the interests and the needs of the Australian factor, just as it is vital to ourselves as Australians that the interests of the component States of the Commonwealth should be jealously guarded by federal statesmen.

Finally, Imperial statesmen are satisfied that Australians ■would think it inconsistent with their own firm adhesion to the Empire, to rest quiet when its intregrity is anywhere attacked. Knowing that Australia will expect to be backed by the Empire with all its might in case of need, they know that Australians are not mean enough to repudiate a reciprocal duty which they will not be ashamed or afraid to recognise and discharge in the future as they have done already. In this, I believe with all my heart that they have judged us aright.

The Great Line

0«o. 8. Edwards’ Jams

Premier Line

fät of the «£

Commonwealth.

Sir VV. J. Lyne (Premier of New South Wales).

Snt William John Lyne, K.C.M.G., is the eldest son of the late John Lyne, Esq., of (Jala, Tasmania, and was born at Apslawn, Tasmania, April 6th, 1844. When but a lad of 20 years o’f age he went to Queensland and was one of the first to take up squatting country on the Gulf of Carpentaria. Returning for a short visit to his native colony, Mr. Lyne in 187-> crossed over to N.S.W. and engaged in squatting pursuits near Albury. It; 1880 he was elected member for the Hume, and has sat for that constituency ever since. He was Secretary for Works in the first Dibbs Ministry of 1885, and in the Jennings Ministry 1886-1887 ; Secretary for Lands, second Dibbs Ministry, 1889 ; and Minister for Works, third l)ibbs Ministry, 1S91 to 1894. When Sir George Dibbs retired from politics one year later Mr. Lyne became leader of the Opposition, and in September, 1S99, when he defeated the Reid Ministry, he became Premier of N.S.W. For his patriotic services in sending troops to South Africa in the recent Boer War, Mr. Lyne was created a K.C.M.G. in 19(H). On the arrival of His Excellency the Governor-General, Sir William Lyne was sent for to form the first Federal Ministry' of the Commonwealth, but after due consideration he returned his commission to His Excellency.

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    33

types of tbe British Jfrtny.


The First Life Guards.

Officer Commanding : Lieut. -Col.

Croie-Wyndham, c.b.

This regiment, together with the 2nd Life Guards and the Blues is justly regarded as the finest cavalry regiment in England, if not in the world, and is the pride and boast of the British Army. Raised in 1661 from the scattered remnants of the Cavalier regiments who had fought for Charles the First to he the bodyguard of the Sovereign, it has held that proud position ever since, and well and ably fulfilled its trust, and. without casting any slight on other regiments, it would not he too much to say that the Household Cavalry are the most popular regiments in England. They carry on their standards the proud name of “Dettingen” (the lust battle where a British monarch ever commanded in person), “Peninsula,” “ Waterloo,” “ Egypt, 1882,” “ Tcl-el-Kebir.” They bear the Royal Arms as their crest, and have as their pride and glory the silver trumpet which sounded the last great charge at Waterloo. In 1701 the Life Guards were engaged in putting down the Gordon Riots, and the picture in the New South Wales National Gallery will enable the reader to contrast the quaint uniform of that time with those of to-day. It is impossible to dissever from one another the separate achievements of the First and Second Life Guards, or the Blues, as in all the great actions whose names they bear on their standard, the Household Cavalry fought together. We will, therefore, consider the battles of Dettingen, Peninsula, and Egypt under the Second Life Guards (E. V.)

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The Hon. Edmund Barton, Q.C., First Federal Premier.

The Hon. Edmund Barton, Q.C., who is justly regarded by all Australians as Leader of the l-'ederal Movement, was born at the Glebe, Sydney, on January 18th, 1849. Educated at the Fort Street School, and then at the Grammar School, he entered the Sydney University, where he graduated with first class classical honours in 1868, and was called to the Bar in 1871. Represented the University in the Assembly in 1879 ; and subsequently was elected for Wellington. Speaker of the Assembly 1883 to 1887 ; and in 1888 was raised to the Legislative Council. AttorneyGeneral in the Dibbs’ Ministry of 1889 ; resigned from the Council in 1898, and was elected for East Sydney in same year. Mr. Barton took a most prominent part in the proceedings of the first Federal Conference, and was deputed, in conjunction with Sir Samuel Griffith, to draw up a draft Commonwealth Bill for the consideration of the Conference. On the formation of the Dibbs’ Ministry Mr. Barton again took office as Attorney-General, and was acting Premier during the absence of Sir George Dibbs in England. At the election of delegates for the Federal Convention in 1897, Mr. Barton received a further proof of the honour and respect in which he is held by his countrymen by being elected at the head of the poll, with 1(X),000 votes cast in his favour. On the meeting of the Convention he was unanimously chosen as the fittest man for the Federal Leader, and how well and nobly he has fulfilled that trust is known to all Australians He was the N.S.W. Federal Delegate to England last year, and as a signal proof of Royal favour was entrusted by Her Majesty the Queen with the custody of the Table and Inkstand used by her when giving the Royal Assent to the Commonwealth Bill. On Sir William Lyne failing to form a Federal Cabinet, Mr. Barton was at once sent for by His Excellency the Governor-General, and immediately proceeded with the formation of his Cabinet

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 37

R. E. O’Connor, Esq., Q.C.

Mr. R. E. O’Connor, Q.C., who is one of the leaders at the Bar in New South Wales, is also one of the strongest champions of the Federal Movement in this colony. Elected a member of the Convention of 1897, he at once took a leading part in its proceedings, and in the long fight which followed he was throughout one of the strongest supporters of the Bill. From first to last Mr. O’Connor’s attitude towards Federation has been unswervingly loyal, and at all times has he been ready tp aid the cause by every means in his power. In conjunction with Mr. Barton, Mr. Wise, and Mr. Bruce Smith, he conducted the campaign which led to the acceptance of the Bill by the people of this colony at the second referendum. Mr. O’Connor was nominated to the Legislative Council in 1887, and in 1891, when Sir George Dibbs became Premier of the colony for the third time, Mr. O’Connor accepted the portfolio of Minister for Justice in his Ministry.

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Right Hon. G. H. Reid, P.C., Q.C., D.C.L., fl.P.

The Right Honorable George Houston Reid is the son of the Rev. John Reid, and was born at Johnston, Renfrewshire, Scotland, in 1845. In 1852 he came with his parents to Melbourne, and in 1859 the family came over and settled in New South Wales. Five years later Mr. Reid entered the Civil Service of this colony, and in 1869 was appointed Clerk of Correspondence to the Treasury, which position he held till 1878, when he became Secretary to the Attorney-General. Mr. Reid was called to the Bar of New South Wales in 1879, and in 1880 entered Parliament as one of the members for East Sydney. In January, 1883, he was appointed Minister for Public Instruction, which office he held till March of the following year, when he resigned. In 1891 he was elected Leader of the Opposition. After the resignation of the Bibbs Ministry in 1894, the then Governor, Sir Robert Duff, sent for Mr. Reid, who took office as Premier. After a protracted struggle with the Legislative Council, in 1895 Mr. Reid appealed to the eonstituences, who, by a large majority, endorsed his policy. In 1897 he was one of the Colonial Premiers who visited England, at the invitation of Mr. Chamberlain, to take part in Her Majesty’s Diamond •Jubilee Ceremonials. While in England Mr. Reid was created Privy Councillor by Her Majesty the Queen, and the University of Cambridge conferred the Degree of D.C.L. upon him ; he also received an address of welcome from his native town in Scotland. In September, 1899, the Ministry was defeated on a motion of censure, since which date Mr. Reid has again been leader of the Opposition. For five brilliant essays, which he wrote on the subject of Free Trade, Mr. Reid was elected a member of the Cobden Club.

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 41

types of the British Hr my.


Officer Commandin

Lieut. -Col.

Croie Wyndham, c. u.

Having glanced: at the ■ constitution of the Household Cavalry under the First Life Guards, it will be well to refer to some of their most brilliant actions. At the battle of Dettingen theGuardswell earned the.ir title of the bodyguard of the Sovereign ; twice was the life of the King in imminent danger, and on each occasion it was saved by the courage and devotion of his Household troops. For five hours they were exposed to a galling fire from the enemy, which, with British stubbornness they stolidly resisted, and when night put an end to the conflict, they remained on the field exposed to a drenching rain, without food or repose (exactly as seventy years later they remained at Waterloo), and when their Colonel next day gave them the order,

“ Charge .!” with irresistible impetus they swept forward, and the field of Dettingen was won for England. By their famous charge at the battle of Vittoria there fell into the hands of the British 151 guns, 450caissons, and the whole military chest of the enemy. But another name on the standard is again to prove the prowess of the Guards—“ Waterloo.” On June 17th, while the Iron Duke was falling back on Waterloo, they charged and scattered a great force of the enemy’s lancers supported by cuirassiers, and then rejoined the army at Waterloo. All through that night, without food, without shelter in the blinding rain, each man stood at his horse’s head waiting for the dawn, which was to change the fate of Europe and add another giory to their name. The share of the Guards in that fateful day is a matter of history—time after time they charged the flower of France, then in the zenith of her power, and, at last, when the fateful moment had come, they heard the welcome order, “ The day is won, up Guards and a! ’em!” Their more recent actions in Egypt and the Transvaal are too fresh in public memory to need any reference here.

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As ttie whole of this page is occupied by the personality of the great Father of Federation, now gathered to “ the mighty dead,” so is there no comment needed on the life of one who has rendered such great services to the New Nation.

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Right Hon W. Bede Dailey, P C., Q.C.

The late'Rioht Hon. William Bkdk Dalley, Patriot, Orator and Statesman, was born at Sydney in 1831, and was called to the Bar of New South Wales in 185(1. From the first his great oratorical gifts made themselves felt, and was elected member for Sydney in the first Parliament under Responsible Government. In 1858 he was Solicitor-General in the Cowper Ministry, which office he held till 1859. Subsequently he retired from active politics, and devoted himself with great success to the practice of his profession. He, however, visited England with the late Sir Henry Parkes as one of the Commissioners for Emigration. In 1875 he was nominated to the Legislative Council, and joined the Robertson Government as Solicitor-General, which office he held till 1877 ; and on Sir John Robertson returning to power again the same year, Mr. Dailey resumed his old office. On the resignation of this Ministry, Mr. Dailey remained out of ofiice till 1883. when he became Attorney-General in the Ministry of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Alexander Stuart. It was during this Administration that Mr. f»alley took that step that will forever stamp him as one of the foremost of Australian statesmen : While acting as Premier, during the illness of Sir A. Stuart, the news came of the murder of General Gordon in the Soudan, and popular indignation was at fever heat. Parliament was not sitting, but without waiting to call it together Mr. Dailey took upon himself the responsibility of offering a contingent of New South Wales troops for service in the Soudan. This • offer was accepted by the Imperial Government, and, amid a scene of frenzied enthusiasm, the Contingent started on its mission. He resigned office in 1885, and two years later his seat in the Legislative Council, on the ground of ill-health. Mr. Dailey, who had refused Knighthood as well as the position of Chief Justice, was created a member of the Privy Council in 1885, being the first Australian upon whom this honour had been conferred. He died in October, 1888, and in 1890 a tablet to his memory, executed by the late Sir Edgar Boehm, was erected in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, the ceremony of unveiling it being performed by Lord Rosebery.

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 47

Cppes of the British JIrmy.


The Black Watch.

Officer Commanding: :

lieutenant C. McLean.

'I'ii is famous regiment, which was founded in 1729, lias had one of the most brilliant careers of any regiment in Her Majesty’s Army. For some time after its foundation the regiment was kept at home, but when at length it was sent abroad on active service the Black Watch quickly began to build up that reputation for dash and bravery, under trying circumstances, which it has so ably maintained ever since. The battle of Fontenoy was where the 42nd first displayed that dogged pluck and determination which are its great characteristics. Returning home, the regiment was next sent in 1756 to America, where many of its laurels have been won. At the famous battle of Viconderoga, the Black W ateh had no less than 650 killed or wounded ; they then served for two years in Canada, and during the lamentable struggle for American Independence, which began in 1776, the regiment won praise from friend and foe alike for their remarkable courage and resource in face of danger. Returning home again, they next served in the campaign in Egypt, against the great Napoleon, and were conspicuous for bravery at the battle of Alexandria, and crossing thence to Spain were with Sir John Moore at the disastrous retreat to Corunna, and served throughout the campaign with their accustomed gallantin' and dash. The Black Watch now had a rest, or practically a rest, till the outbreak of the Crimean War in 1S54, where, under Sir Colin Campbell they formed part of that band of heroes, the famous Highland Brigade. Their dogged pluck and endurance during the trying months before Sebastopol won them golden opinions from all; but it was at the battle of Alma where they delivered their famous charge. The decisive moment had comeand turning round, Sir Colin Campbell said : “ Now, men, the army is watching us ; don’t make me ashamed of my Highland Brigade,” and then coming with irresistible dash up the slope, the Black Watch delivered that famous charge which won the day for Britain. Of their later deeds in India and South Africa it is not necessary to speak here, they are too well-known to all. Suffice it to say that, wherever they have been, the Black Watch have ever maintained the honour of the Empire and the regiment.

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 49

Life Assurance under Federation.

(By Richard Teece, General Manager of the Australian Mutual Provident Society.

One of the duties assigned to the new Federal Parliament is that of the control of the large and rapidly increasing Life Assurance interest. The Colonial Life Offices have policies in existence covering assurances (including bonuses) for upwards of ^100,000,000, and their accumulated funds probably amount to about ^(30,000,000. The figures are somewhat startling for a young country just about to cross the threshold of its national manhood. They represent a result of the practice of thrift and self-denial, and an indication of the material well-being of the people not paralleled in any other part of the world. The mere statement of these facts is sufficient to indicate that the interest is one which requires constant and efficient supervision and protection ; the future welfare of the colonists is largely associated with ■ its success : its failure would entail unspeakable disaster. I nropose to consider very briefly what the Federation can do for the benefit of this great interest.

It will be necessary, however, to a proper understanding of the subject, to review shortly what has already been done by individual colonies in the way of life assurance legislation.

The first step to be taken by the life assurance legislator is to provide that no “wild cat” or bogus office shall be suffered to prey upon the credulity of the public. Neither New South Wales nor Queensland affords any protection in this direction. In other colonies the right to transact business is secured by compliance with the following conditions :—

In Victoria, a deposit of ^(5000, which may be withdrawn when the funds amount to £ 15,000.

In New Zealand, a deposit of ¿£5000, increasing to ^(20,000, in the case of local companies, and to

■    ¿(50,000, in the case of foreign companies ; such

increase being provided in the former case by the annual addition of 75 per cent, of the premium receipts, less payment for claims ; and in the latter, by 5 per cent, of each ^(100,000 assured. A foreign company means' any company established out of the colony.

50    AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.


AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 51

In South Australia, a deposit of ^5000, increasing up to ^20,000, by the annual addition of 25 per cent, of the excess of receipts over disbursements.

In Tasmania, a deposit of ^5000, which shall be refunded when the life assurance fund shall amount to ^15,000.

In West Australia, a deposit of ^,'10,000, increasing to ^20,000, by the annual addition of 25 per cent, of the excess of receipts over disbursements.

It will be observed that in several colonies these provisions appear to have had a common godfather. Where they exist they probably do effect the purpose for which they are intended, viz., to prevent any “ wild cat” company commencing business. Had the matter stopped here, sufficient would have been done. But, in some cases, steps of an empirical and utterly ineffective character have been taken, presumably with the view to protect the interests of local policy-holders, and to ensure, as far as they are concerned, the continued solvency of the company. The following cases are in point: —

In Victoria, it will be observed, the initial deposit may be withdrawn ; but there are other provisions in the Act under which a company may voluntarily make larger deposits than are required. These, on registration, are termed “ secured assets,” and are held to be inapplicable to the discharge of other than local liabilities. From a close study of the foregoing provisions it would appear that the authors of the various Acts were guided by two fundamental principles, which they desired to make the ground-work of the measures; first, to prevent the operations of unsound companies, and second, to protect the interests of local colonists. In the first they have probably succeeded ; but in the second they have failed lamentably, as they deserved. For instance, to take the case of a company established in Victoria, it would obviously be a grossly immoral proceeding to protect the interests of the holders of policies issued in Victoria, while the policies issued by the same company to residents in other

Colonies would have no protection whatever. It is a matter

for congratulation, therefore, that this attempt to create and foster a spirit of the narrowest possible provincialism has signally failed. If a company—life assurance or other —is to give guarantees for the due fulfilment of its obligations, such guarantees should surely be equally available to the whole oi its creditors, in proportion to their respective interests. No such partiality as I have indicated above will, presumably, be possible under a Federal Act.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 53

One of the most important privileges secured to policyholders by legislative enactments in the colonies is the protection (within varying limits) of the proceeds of policies against the claims of creditors. This is the sole provision in any of our laws for which the mother-colony can claim the credit. It was first embodied in the Act of incorporation of the Australian Mutual Provident Society in 1857, and subsequently made general by the Life Assurance Encouragement Act of 1862. The principle has since been embodied in the Life Assurance legislation of every colony. All the colonies, with the exception of New South Wales, have made provision for the payment of claims (where the amount does not exceed from ;£ioo to ^250) without the necessity for taking out Letters of Administration. This point leads to the consideration of the general question of the grant of Probate or Letters of Administration ; a question which has, owing to the varying legislation by different colonies, been left in the most perplexing condition. I believe the legal position is that Probate or Letters of Administration must be taken out in the colony where the bona notabil’a are, while the distribution of the assets follows the law of the colony in which the deceased was domiciled.

The question of the assignment of policies is one which has been dealt with by the Legislatures of all the colonies, except New South Wales and Queensland. In Victoria assignments “ shall be,” and in South Australia, Tasmania and West Australia, “ may be,” by a statutory endorsement on the policy, which must be registered by the company. A mortgage of the policy must, on the contrary, be made by means of a separate instrument. As the form of assignment is given in a schedule to the Act, and the transaction can be carried through without cost, while a mortgage deed is more or less expensive, the assignment is invariably resorted to, even by those who really give only mortgages over their policies. This cause gives rise, sometimes, to much evil, and frequently encourages imposition. The New Zealand Act, dealing with this subject, supplies forms of assignment, mortgage, and sale, and enables any transaction to be completed quickly and without expense.

I11 order to enable experts to form an opinion regarding the stability of a life office, it is necessary that a very full, detailed statement of its proceedings and operations should be made public. Colonial legislation in this direction has followed that of Great Britain, and is in strong contrast to the American system. In America, the supervision of life offices is in the hands of State officials, known as commissioners and superintendents ; and certificates of solvency from these gentlemen are necessary to enable the offices to continue

54 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.


AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 55

to carry on business. There is, however, no publicity required ; neither is there any uniformity in the several States ; and an office which may be solvent in one State may be technically insolvent in another. In Great Britain, on the contrary, the State exercises no restraint, beyond requiring the fullest publicity ; and this course has wisely, I think, been generally followed in these colonies. Each colony, however, has required information in a different form ; and while no vital question of principle is involved, the requirements of the several colonies entail on the offices a considerable unnecessary expense and a large amount of useless labour. It is to be hoped that under a Federal Act one uniform statement of accounts (the life offices care not how exhaustive) will be sufficient.

The existing condition of affairs is that the Mother Colony and her northern neighbour have practically no legislation dealing with or efficiently controlling the enormous interests indicated at the commencement of this article. The legislation of such colonies as have taken the matter up bears the impress of a feeling of jealousy, and the evidence of a mistaken attitude of defence, under the guise of the protection of their citizens, leading to constant irritation, and creating a feeling of doubt and uncertainty. Under a comprehensive Federal Act, the existing spirit of jealousy would be mollified ; provincialism would die from want of proper nourishment; the legal doubts to which 1 have referred would disappear; numerous obstacles now placed in the way of the practical conduct of the business would be removed ; procedure would be cheapened ; a new energy and increased vitality would be imparted to an interest which has already assumed enormous proportions, and which is destined to become one of the most, potent factors in the growth of our national life.


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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 57

His Excellency the Admiral.

His Excellency Hugo Lewis Pearson, Rear-Admiral and Naval Comniander-ni-Chief of Her Majesty’s Navy on the Australian Station, took command of the station January 10th. 1898. His Excellency entered the Navy December 12th, 1855, and attained the rank of Sub-Lieutenant June 30th, 1802 ; Lieutenant, September 14, 1863; Commander, February, 0th, 1872; Cai tain, December 9th, 1879; and was raised to the rank of Rear-Admiral January 1st, 1895. His Excellency was Naval A.D.C. to Her Majesty the Queen from January 17th, 1892, to January 1st, 1895. Admiral Pearson was second in command of the Reserve Fleet during the British Naval Manoeuvres of the years 1893 and 1897.

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Thk i.atk Hon. W. C. Wkntwoktii, pat riot and statesman, was the son of D’Arcy Wentworth, Esq., an Irish surgeon and Imperial Government Medical Officer at Norfolk Island, where the subject of this notice was born, in the month of October, 1793. At the age of seven years he was sent to England to receive his early education; returning to Sydney he joined Messrs. Blaxland and Lawson in their attempt to cross the Blue Mountains, which had hitherto proved inaccessible to white men. The party left Sydney May 11, 1813, and, after almost incredible hardships, returned successful on dune 6th • f the same year. On his return to England he-entered Cambridge University, where he graduated as B.A., and was called to the English Bar in 1822. He returned to Sydney in 18-24, when he was called to the Australian Bar, and from that out begins one of the most brilliant careers ever known in Australian history. At a time when the government of the Colony was in the hands of practically a military despotism, Mr. Wentworth rapidly became the moving spirit of the-Patriotic League. " hen. after years of ceaseless agitation and constant rebuffs, the people were at last permitted to vote for the Legislative Council, Mr. Wentworth was, in 1843, elected the first member for Sydney. And now commenced the great fight for the constitutional liberty of New South Wales. After years of struggle, Mr. Wentworth, in 1854, carried the Constitution Bill through the Council, and with Mr (afterwards Sir) E. Deas Thompson, was appointed a delegate to England to plead the cause of the measure before the Bar of the Imperial Parliament. His efforts were thoroughly successful, and the new Constitution came into force in 1856. In 1850 he carried the Charter of the Sydney University, which was opened two years later.. From 1861 to 1862 he was President of the Legislation Council, from which he retired in the latter year and returned to England, where he died in 1879. In accordance with his wish, his remains were brought out to Sydney, where they' were interred in the famil. vault at Vaucluse.

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Officer Commanding:

Lieut, the Hon L. d’H. Hamilton.

The Coldstkea m G u ards was originally a Parliamentary regiment, and established in 1650. They were the special regiment of Lord General Monk, and when the short and weak reign of the second Cromwell came to an end, they, with their General at their head, marched into London on that memorable 2nd of February, 1660, and announced to the delighted people that the reign of the Parliament was over, and that “ the King had come into his own again.” Their first real active service began under William of Orange, when, dining the famous Dutch campaigns of that monarch, they greatly distinguished themselves. At Namur, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet they gallantly upheld the honour of England, and later, at Dettingen and Fontenoy, they greatly distinguished themselves. After the battle of Bunker’s Hill they were sent to America, where they took part in the unhappy struggle which resulted in the foundation of the Great Republic. During the Peninsular War the Coldstreams were ever to the fore, and the names of Talavera and Waterloo on their standards bear witness to their prowess at these memorable battles. After Waterloo the Coldstreams had a short period of rest, only to cover themselves with more glory on the fields of Alma and Inkerman and before Sevastopol. The charge of Inkerman is well known. Thrice did the hordes of Russians charge up the hill, where stood a few hundred of the Coldstreams ; thrice was the foe repulsed, the ground became slippery with blood, and then—the ammunition gave out undaunted, with bayonets fixed, they stood to receive the last charge. It came, but not with the result that the Russians, anticipated, for the Coldstreams took a charge on their own account. The mass of Russians was seen to waver and give way, and, charging through the erstwhile victorious enemy, came the Coldstreams, who had again upheld the honour and the glory of Old England. It is from this memorable struggle came tho expression—“ The thin red line.”

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JOHN YORK, Jun.,

Brass Musical Instrument Maker & Practical Repairer,

32 Regent Street. Sydney.

Also Manufacturer of the Aurora Diamond Light, “ACETYLENE GAS BAND LAMPS5’ (as suppliée! to the Irish Rifles).

(Extract from the “ Evening News,” 27-12-1899.]

My Repairing Department.

All Band Instruments, Violins, Accordéons, &c.

I HAVE a splendid connection in Repairing, and the work is turned out in the most approved style by capable workmen, under John York's personal supervision.

My English representatives keep me fully supplied with the best appliances for expediting all Repairs. Only the best English materials used in my establishment. No rubbish.

Prompt attention to all orders, never being behind time estimated, combined with low charges, tend to keep my patrons, and I never fail to give every satisfaction.

Always supply name and address with all Instruments sent for repair, and also state exactly what is required to be done.

X.B.—This is not a Mushroom Agency but a real live business, built on its founder’s tact and .ability. Established 15 years.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 63

Hon. B. R. Wise, Q.C.

Thu Hon. B. R. Wise, Q.C., M.L.C., Attorney-General, is the second son of the Late Mr. Justice Wise, and was born in Sydney, where he received his early education. Proceeding to England, he entered at Queen’s College, Oxford, where he graduated as B.A. in 1881. In 187!) Mr. Wise entered the Middle Temple, and was called to the English Bar in the early part of 1883, and, in the same year, was also admitted to the Bar of New South Wales. In February. 1887, Mr. Wise entered the Legislative Assembly as Member for South Sydney, and in May of the same year was appointed Attorney-General in the Cabinet of Sir Henry Parkes, which office he held till February, 1888, when lie resigned office. In 1889 he was defeated for South Sydney, and was also unsuccessful in his candidature for West Macquarie. Mr. Wise again entered Parliament in 1894 as Member for the Flinders Division of Sydney, and in 1898 was returned by a narrow majority for Ashfield. On Sir William Lyne coming into office in September, 1899, he was offered, and accepted, the portfolio of AttorneyGeneral, which office he still holds. Mr. Wise married, April ¿hid, 1884, Lilian Margaret, third surviving daughter of John Forster Baird, Esq.

Crown and Stanley Streets,

SYDNEY-

Sydney - Steam - Laundry.

[Established 1877.]

The William Street Tram and Omnibuses pass within a few doors of the Laundry.

rHE SYDNEY STEAM LAUNDRY is the most extensive Estab lishment of th** kind in the Australian Colonies. The management by having a thorough practical knowledge of the best systems atd appliances adopted in the great American and North of Ireland Laundrying and Linen Finishing Establishments, are now enabled to wash and fini-h in a careful and superior style, in quick time and all kinds of weather, large quantities of work at very low prices. Goods are carefully Washed, Finished, and returned pefectly DRY, and fit for immediate use.

Steamship Companies, Ships, Hotels, Clubs, Restaurants, Boarding Houses, Colleges, Baths or other Establishments using large quantities of Linen, contracted for at special low rates.

Household and personal Linen Collected in City and Suburbs, and carefuly \\ ashed, Finished, and Delivered (Lists and Prices given on application).

PARSONS’ D.S.F. MUSTARD.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 65

William rVcflillan, Esq.

Mk. William McMillan, one of the partners in the well-known firm of W. and A. McArthur, is the son of the Rev. Gibson McMillan, formerly IVesleyan minister at Londonderry, Ireland, and was born November 14th, 1850. In 1869 he arrived in Sydney, and in 1887 he entered Parliament as member for East Sydney. On the formation of the Parkes’ Ministry of 1889 he occupied the office of Colonial Treasurer, which office he resigned jn 1891 in order to devote more time to his business affairs. In the same year he was appointed President of the New South Wales Commission to the Chicago Exposition. Mr. McMillan, who is a staunch Federalist, was one of the New South Wales delegates to the Federation Conference at Melbourne in 1890, and was one of this colony’s representatives to the 1891 Convention, and in 1897, on a vote of the whole colony, Mr. McMillan was again chosen as one of the colony’s representatives at the great Convention which met at Adelaide, Melbourne, and Sydney, and of which the present Constitution of Australia is the outcome.

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flajor-General French, [Photo, by Falk studio.

Commandant of the New South Wales Forces.

Major-Genkral George Arthur French, R.A., C.M.G., who was appointed Commandant of tlie New South Wales Military Forces in 1896, was educated at Sandhurst and Woolwich. He joined the Royal Artillery as a Lieutenant in 1860, and in December, 1861, he accompanied the lixpeditionary Force that was sent to North America in connection with the “Trent Affair,” and was Adjutant of the R.A., then quartered at Kingston in Crftiada, from 1862 to 1868. In 1870 General French was appointed Inspector of Artillery, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. December, 1878, saw his appointment as Commissioner of the North Western Mounted Police, one of the finest bodies of troopers in the world ; this force was raised, organised and equipped by General French, and remains'to-dav a lasting monument to his skill and ability as a military organiser. He led the famous Red River Expedition in 1874, from the Red River to the Rocky Mountains, with signal ability, judgment and foresight, and the success of the expedition was largely due to his possession of these important qualities. The next appointment was Inspector of Warlike Stores at Davenport, which position he tilled from 1878 to 1883, when, with the rank of full Colonel, he was appointed Commandant of the Queensland Forces, and remained in Queensland till 1891. During the recent trouble in South Africa, Major-General French volunteered on several oec sions for active service, but owing to the organising of the Colonial troops then in progress the N.S. W. Government was unable to spare him.


J. A. WILKINSON’S

COOLHLTH VINEVHRDS,

Offices:    ^ Appointed Wine merchant to...

374 GEORGE STREET. SYDNEY. *    ....)$is Excellency Earl Beauchamp.

The Wines are the Lightest in Australia.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 69

Zypes of the British Jfrmy.


The Seventh (Queen’s Own) Hussars.

This regiment was originally raised in Scotland in 16!)0, during the struggles following the accession of William and Mary. For some time the regiment was engaged in small engagements and campaigns of minor importance, and at one time was actually disbanded ; but, from the reign of George I., '>vhen a Royal Warrant again called it into existence, the bril-liantcareer of the Seventh may really be said to date. At Dumblane, under Colonel Kerr, they fought with great bravery against the Scots, and in 1743 they played a brilliant part in the battle of Dettingen, and served with mu'ch distinction during the various campaigns in Flanders In the Peninsular War their dash and utter disregard for danger got them the name of “The Saucy 7th.” For their general bravery during these campaigns they arc entitled to have the word “ Peninsula ” embroidered on their standards, and for conspicuous bravery on that occasion they also blazon “ Waterloo.” After a prolonged rest at home, they were ordered to India to suppress the mutiny. Here they served under Sir Hope Grant, and were of great service in the. terrible days at Lucknow; for this they bear the name “Lucknow” on their standards.

USE IVY JAMS.

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    71

The Right Hon. Sir George Turner, P C., K.C.M.G., n.L.A.

(Premier of Victoria.)

The Right Hon. Sir George Turner, P.C., K.C.M.G., J.P., LL.D., M.L.A., Premier of Victoria, is a Solicitor by profession, and lias represented St. Kilda from March, 1889 to the present time. In 1891 he joined the Munro Ministry as Commissioner of Trades and Customs, and when the Ministry was reconstructed under Mr. Shiels he also took over the office of Solicitor-General, which offices he held till 1893. In 1894 Mr. Turner became Premier and Treasurer, and continued in office till December, 1899, when, in consequence of an adverse vote, he resigned office. On an appeal to the country at the expiration of the Parliament Sir George Turner was again returned to power, and is now, for the second time, Premier of Victoria. During his first Premiership Sir George visited England to take part in the celebrations attending Her Majesty’s Diamond Jubilee, and on that occasion was created a Privy Councillor and received the honor of Knighthood.

USE IVY JAM.

LINDEMÄN’S C1W1BM


AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    73

types of the British Hr my.


The Rovai. Engineers.

Officer Commanding: Captain Powell.

This corps, which is one of the scientific branches of the British Army, was established in 1083, and, like their comrades of the Royal Artillery, they have had the proud distinction of having served in nearly every battle and seige of any importance in British annals. Although of necessity from the nature of their work there is not so much of the “pomp and circumstance of glorious war” to record about them, still it is impossible to overestimate the magnificent service this corps has, at all times, been to the British Army, or the individual devotion and heroism of its members, and many a name on the glory roll of the Victoria Cross can testify to this. All are familiar with the picture of “The Defence of Rorke’s Drift” in the National Gallery, Sydney, and most know its story, how, after that awful day at Isandhlwana, Lieutenant Allemdofl'and a soldier came galloping to Rorke’s Drift then under command of Lieutenant (afterwards Major V. C. Chard, R.E.) to tell the tale of slaughter and how 134 men kept at bay no less than 3000 of the enemy till at last help arrived. There are two names inseparably connected with the Royal Engineers. The one, Chinese Gordon, who, when 29 years of age, and a Major, was recommended to the Chinese Government by England as the man to take the supreme command of the disorganised Chinese Army, has died a soldiers death at Khartoum, the other, Kitchener, is now in the front rank of British Generals; and received a peerage for his groat national services in avenging the murder of his old regimental comrade on the spot where he fell.

74    FROM COLONY TO COMMONWEALTH.



AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    75

Federal Currency;

(By J. RusselltFrengh*—General Manager, Bank of New South Wales.)

The framers of the Bill which has been accepted by the people of Australia as the Constitution under which the Colonies or States which have decided to join the Union shall federate, have included among the matters which shall be exclusively regulated by the Federal Parliament:—Banking and Currency. There can be no doubt that this is a wise provision, and one which, in the opinion of those competent to form an opinion, will tend to place the laws regulating both on a more satisfactory footing than is at present the ■case.

It maybe taken for granted that by the term currency, as used in the Convention Bill, is meant what we are accustomed to as the note circulation of the country, which has hitherto been almost exclusively a bank note circulation. Some writers on political economy qualify this as a representative currency, inasmuch as in their view the real currency of the country is that metallic basis made up of the various coins of the realm —principally gold—on which all rests, whereas the note is only an undertaking to pay so much of that metallic currency on demand. It is not necessary for present purposes to enter into these intricate questions and definitions, and it is immaterial whether we call the note circulation actual or representative currency ; the fact remains that in common with other civilised communities we have paper representatives or vouchers of value circulating amongst us as freely as, and" side by side with, the coins of the realm themselves, and performing a very useful function and duty in the dealings of the members of our community with one another; and when speaking of currency it is usually this form of it which is in our minds

The paper currency of Australia from the earliest days of the settlement of the country up to the present time has been almost exclusively in the form of notes of various denominations of value, issued by the several banks doing business within its borders.

In the early days of the settlement of Australia, the note issues of the Banks played a much more important part in their operations than they do now. A study of the Banking statistics of different periods will shew that the proportion of

76 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. Group of Delegates.

Victoria.


USE IVY JAM.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 77

notes in circulation to deposit liabilities—at one time fairly large—has gradually become less as time has gone on, until it is now not more than between four and five per cent, of the amount of the deposits. There are several reasons for this state of things, of which two may be cited as being the principal reasons, namely : The improvement in means of communication between the different parts of the country, which causes the notes to come back more rapidly to their place of issue, where they are paid and cease to be part of the circulation till issued again ; and the further reason that under existing laws and taxation there is no great inducement for the Banks to make efforts to extend their circulation. The total amount of the note issues of the Banks in Australasia is now only between four and five millions, or-scarcely more than one pound per head of the population, which is not so^jreat as that of Great Britain, in spite of the fact that the note circulation of that country is largely restricted by the Bank of England minimum note having been fixed at When it is considered that the deposits of the Banks in these colonies amount to something like ^100,000,000, of which probably ^4*5,000,000 are on current accounts, it will be conceded that the note circulation plays a comparatively unimportant part in the vast sum which make up our Banking figures.

Such as it is, our currency is more or less under the sanction of and regulated by the Parliaments of the various Colonies of Australasia, as it is universally recognised in civilised communities that it is the duty of the State to control every form of active currency. But the laws are almost as various as the Colonies represented, and nearly every bank has some special charter or act of its own under which it issues its notes. Under these circumstances, it is scarcely to be wondered at that the currency has not assumed a more important phase than it has. The crisis of 1893 proved the shortcoming of the system, and also to some extent gave the clue to the possibilities which might be made out of it. In all the Colonies the note circulation, though absolutely safe, as was proved by events, for all note holders were paid in full, was quite without expansive qualities, which would have been powerful in assisting to stay that crisis had they existed.

The position was fully recognised by the Bankers of Australia after the 1893 crisis. They felt that, though, so far as the public were concerned, the existing currency was probably as safe as could be desired, it was not based on any really scientific principles, and owing to its want of elasticity was quite incapable of even temporary extension, no matter how great the necessity, unless very drastic measures were taken, such as I have referred to. A Conference of Bankers

78 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.


Group of Delegates.

West Australia.



AUSTRALIUN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    79-

was held in Sydney in 1895, to discuss the position, and the matter was very thoroughly threshed out. Certain conclusions were arrived at, and a complete scheme formulated and agreed to, which will be referred to later on in detail. This scheme was made public, but it was the opinion of nearly all the Bankers that to be effective it must be uniform throughout the colonies ; and, as Federation was not then thought to be so near, it was suggested that the Legislature of each colony should be moved to take the matter up, and deal with it on the same lines. Nothing came of it, however, chiefly because of the inherent difficulty of getting the various separate Parliaments to act simultaneously and harmoniously. Under Federation this will be possible, and it is to be hoped that it is one of those matters which the Federal Parliament will take up as soon as it gets into thorough working order.

There are several difficult problems involved in the establishment of a sound and yet comprehensive Currency, and the utmost care and consideration will be necessary in making the attempt. Fortunately we have the experience of older and more populous countries to guide us as to the main principles to be kept in view. But here, again, discrimination is necessary, because our circumstances and conditions are not exactly like those of other countries. Great Britain has one system—a composite one—France another, Germany yet another, and the United States something quite different. None of these would exactly suit us, but a study of them will help us, nevertheless, in coming to a conclusion. And, as I have said, the Bankers of Australia in conference propounded a scheme in 1895. The main features of the scheme are :—

The present issues of the Banks in the Australian colonies to be given up, and their place taken by a uniform issue for each colony, managed and regulated by commissioners under appropriate Acts of Parliament. The Banks to act are the agents or medium of distribution, and to share with the Governments in the appointment of representatives on the commission, and also in the profits derivable from the working of the issue.

The Banks on application to have rights to receive notes from the Commissioners in exchange for coin ; the supply of notes to each being regulated by their existing note issues and their total assets and liabilities in each colony—that is to say, in proportion to their business.

These notes to be used :—First, to retire from circulation existing notes of the Banks of Issue ; secondly, to provide Till money in lieu of the existing right to issue notes from their Tills.

80 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.

The coin so provided, save 25 to 30 per cent, kept as a reserve in coin, to be invested in local Government Stock.

Notes thus issued to be legal tender, save at the office of the commissioners, where they would be converted into gold.

The Expansion Clause provided for the issue of further quantities of notes to any Bank requiring them on special deposit of 20 per cent, of coin, in addition to lodgment of approved Government securities, on such terms of interest and repayment as might be arranged. Discretionary emergency powers were provided, so that the commissioners could issue notes on other classes of securities in yvéry special casés.

The foregoing scheme would be as applicable under Federation as in the case of separate colonies. The issue would, of course, need to be uniform in character throughout, and it would gain additional strength by resting on a much wider and more solid basis of Federal instead of State security. It is probable that the Bankers who formulated that scheme would not see any necessity to modify their opinions and conclusions very materially at the present day, and that is the reason why I have given it some prominence. Some scheme is earnestly to be desired of a federal character to place our paper currency on a satisfactory basis as regards its usefulness, and to lift it out of the comparatively subordinate position it now occupies. The Bankers recognise that this can be accomplished more successfully if the management is brought more closely in touch with the State ; but at the same time they believe that the Banks are the most •convenient and suitable medium of distribution. This is the universal experience almost of other and older countries. The reserves of the Banks are now held exclusively in coin, and the quantity held in the aggregate—over twenty millions —is out of all proportion to the real needs of the case. With a system of currency such as has been referred to, it would be safe to conduct the Banking business on much less coin than is at present held, which would be an advantage to the public as well as to the Banks, because it would enable the latter to grant accommodation on more liberal terms through having less reserve money on hand not earning interest. Encouragement would be given to Banks to invest portions of their reserves in Government stocks, as these would be capable of temporary conversion into currency in case of need. The Commonwealth would have a fair share of the profit derivable from the Note Issue.

In conclusion, though it must still be admitted that in normal times the paper currency of the country would still play a comparatively unimportant part in the settlement of the vast volume of monetary transactions which yearly take place in our community,—for these will, perhaps, more and

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 81

more be dealt with in other ways than through its agency, -nevertheless, as time goes on, and our population increases, and internal trade expands, the currency arrangements must be made to keep pace with them ; and if, in addition to the ordinary requirements, some elastic properties can be imparted to it of a sound but simple character, so that it may prove a weapon of defence in times of crisis, then it will become a real benefit to the community, instead of a very partial one as it is at present. I, for one, have confidence that this can be accomplished, and that the men who are likely to be returned to our Federal Parliament will have the ability to thoroughly grasp the requirements of the case, and to evolve, out of the elements of the existing system, one which will be a credit and a benefit to these colonies.

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AUSTRALIAN* COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 83

£vpes of the British Jtrmy.


The Royal Horse Artillery may be said to hold the same position among the regiments of Her Majesty’s Royal Artillery as the Guards do among the Cavalry, and i tsproud motto, “Ubique” (everywhere), speaks of its prowess in the service, for it may safely be said that since its formation as a regiment at the close of the 18th century there has been no British battle of note fought in which the Royal Horse Artillery has not taken a leading part. At Roliija and Vimiera they fought with unexampled bravery and courage. After the famous passage of the Duro, Sir Arthur Wellesley speaks in the highest praise of the conduct of the Royal Horse Artillery, and at Walchern a general order stated that “ it was impossible to do sufficient justice to the Royal Artillery. I,t would be impossible to set out in detail all the glories won by this brilliant corps during the Peninsular war, or of their final and culminating triumph on the day of Waterloo. Ever ready, alert and watchful, they added in every battle to the already swollen glory roll of their regiment, which was to shine still more brightly during the sad Crimean war. At the Alma the Royal Horse Artillery were the first to cross the river, while at Inkerman they lost their Beloved commander, General Fox Strangways ; and in the long and weary months that followed Sevastopol the Royal Artillery again and again upheld the honor of its name. Hardly was the Crimea over than the fierce strife of the Mutiny broke out in India, and the names of Agra. Delhi and Lucknow speak eloquently of the splendid capacity of the Royal Artillery during that fearful time. To enumerate their various actions in Burmah, Zululand, the first and present Transvaal wars would be impossible here, but one bright deed stands out pre-eminently as of yesterday—how Lieutenant Roberts, son of “ Bobs,” gave his life at Colenso to save the honor of his regiment and his guns.

RESULTS OF ANALYSIS

Water—Waste.


Carbonaceous-Fat and Heat.


Nitrogenous—

Bone, Flesh & Muscle Builders.


Showing: tho large amount of nutriment and force in Qranuma, Fodah and Homah, as compared with other foods

Lean Beef or

Mutton

Grama

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White

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QRANUMA

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FODAH

For Puddings. Delicacies and Invalid’s Food.

HOVIS FLOUR

Self-Raising and Plain Is the Real Staft of Life.

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is a perfect food in itself.

Prepared by the NATURAL FOOD MANUFACTURING COY.

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    85


His Excellency Lord Tennyson,

Governor and Commander.in.Chiei of South Australia.

Hallam, Lord Tennyson, of AldWorth, Surrey, and Farringdon, Freshwater, Isle of Vyight, in the United Kingdom, was born on the 11th of August, 1852, and is the son of the great Lord Tennyson, late Poet Laureate, whose magnificent poetry caused Ids elevation to the peerage. His Excellency succeeded his father as second Baron in 1892. His Lordship married in 1S84 Audrey (¡eorgiana Florence, daughter of Charles .1. Boyle, Esq., and has three sons.

86    AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.



AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 87

An Amended System of Federal Finance.

(By Donald Cormagk, Federal Delegate to the Bathurst Convention.)

In addressing the public upon a subject so vast as Australian Federation, the first thought is not what to say, but how to avoid perplexing the minds of the thoughtful by saying too little.

In this article I will endeavour to show how, by a departure from the rival systems of Freetrade and Protection, and the adoption of a system to suit the exigencies created by these outgrown and most unsuitable fiscal systems, Australia may develop from a borrowing to a lending power.

This system, which I shall term the Middle System, is one involving the use of the Custom House for State revenue and not for protective purposes, the establishment of excise duties on all primary products for the Commonwealth, and the creation of a Federal system of credit, to be used for stimulating production throughout Australia.

Prior to the consideration of financial obligations and of the consolidation of State debts, the fiscal policy of the Commonwealth shall be defined. Under Federation the fiscal question naturally falls into the hands of the Commonwealth out of the hands of the States, and there are those who are quite content to leave it without debate to the P'ederal Parliament to fix for New South Wales whatever policy a majority may decide. But we must never forget that fiscal faith may be defined by terms so plain that sometimes the extremes of both sides may strike a middle position without doing violence to sound economic principles. No matter of expediency should be allowed to neutralise our progressive condition of freedom, and my reference to this question now is to indicate a scheme of taxation agreeable with those principles. Believing firmly in the doctrine of taxing consumption, I am favourable to the Custom House as the machinery best fitted to spread over the whole people the cost of their own government. But in a borrowing country, the Custom

88    AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.


AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 89

House may be claimed as an economic right. It must be obvious to every thinking person that where money is borrowed by a State for general purposes, its repayment in the form of interest and principal must be devised through general means. The borrower is always servant to the lender, and one object of Federation in my judgment is to make Australia a lending country.

The debt per head will oblige Western Australia to render less service for her ^'47 per head than Queensland with her ^70 per head, and Victoria a less service for her ^,’40 per head than New South Wales with her ^,49 per head of debt, and the only rational way of adjusting this disparity within the Federal Constitution is to moderately tax private consumption without protecting industries, and to promote State production. My fiscal system for the Commonwealth would be—Revenue through Customs on few articles to provide for State purposes, and excise duty on primary products for Federal purposes. The balance of Excise, after cost of government, to provide a Federal credit system for State production, wherein every honest, sober and industrious poor man, under personal guarantee, may obtain sufficient to develop any enterprise requiring money to do it, labor being free to work more than eight hours a day. It will be necessary to fairly adjust the incidence of taxation, which will be impossible under present unequal conditions of obligations and resource. Therefore, is it, that just as the present policy of New South Wales, if extended to the Commonwealth, would crush the few producers for the sake of the many consumers, on the other hand, the adoption of Protection would ultimately crush the many consumers for the sake of the few producers.

The salient features of this Middle System of Federal Finance, as proposed by me, are :—

FIRST—That Bounties for State purposes are the most effective means for promoting production under the unique conditions of Australian Settlement.

SECOND—That the use of the Custom House for revenue duties is justified on the ground that borrowing for general purposes must be met with a federal scheme of taxation whose incidence shall be general and not particular.

THIRD—That instead of taxing land and freeing commodities, as taught by Henry George, the true doctrine is : Land shall be free, and products shall be taxed by Excise.

90 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.

Group of Delegates.

Zasmania.






HON. J. HENRY.


AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 91

FOURTH—That an Australian credit system, supported by Excise duties, is an absolute necessity of our financial solidity. Two and a half percent, on Australasia’s present production would give the Commonwealth ¿£2,500,000. Deduct ^500,000, probable cost of government, and issue ^,'4,000,000 of currency against ^,'2,000,000 of gold in Federal Treasury, to be used for production only.

Doubtless, many may raise the cry that Excise duties are a tax on industry. Others may object that most products are unprofitable to produce. Reply : They would not be more unprofitable if there were more consumers who helped to pay the taxes. Again, many might object that the demand is too limited to justify larger production. The answer is: Under Federation there would be more customers beyond present barriers. The profitable pursuits, such as wool-growing, might become alarmed. I would allay their fears with increased population, rendering their values higher than the Excise. Free labor beyond eight hours a day at the worker’s option, with living made cheaper through greater production, and new avenues of employment secured to them through individual thrift and State production, will increase the worker’s purchasing power and contentment better than any Act of Parliament of a restrictive character.

Mr. Coghlan, in his Seven Colonies, 1895-6,” pages 109 and 110, tells his readers that the cost of living in New South Wales for the year 1894 was no less a sum than ^46,655,900, and that her productions valued only ^'32,328,000. These figures show that we had to adjust in the Colony ¿£14,327,900 through our mercantile system, either in the shape of profits on consignments from investments abroad or by failure to pay foreign merchants, or by public or private loans to maintain the balance temporarily, while we gradually ate up the wealth which bankers call liquid, which should continually increase under economic conditions. The same author shows that the cost of living for the Colonies was ^144,169,500, and the productions were ^103,672,000, or short of their requirements ^40,497,500. Now, as by increasing the cost of living you increase the cost of production, it follows that by decreasing the cost of living you increase the value of productions for exchange purposes abroad. That decrease must be arrived at by each of the States, before Australia can become a lending instead of a borrowing country.

1 would favour the production of Colonial Wines, Spirits and Beers, under a system of bounty for consumption abroad

92    AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.

Group of Delegates.

South Australia.





AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 93

by the lending- countries, and, in this way, pay off our debts with the same material with which we constructed them.

Having established the principle that a country which is being supported by money borrowed for general purposes is entitled to a revenue tariff on as few articles as possible, it must be explained that the incidence of the tax must be general and not particular—that is to say, general as to consumption, so that the cost of living may not be unduly increased, and never specially favourable to any manufacturer.

Bounties are economically justified when they become a necessity of the State for removing obstacles to the right application of sound principles of political economy. The natural law of supply and demand, as exhibited in true barter, is destroyed by the artificial borrowing of money ; and trade, instead of being free as in natural barter, becomes forced trade, which is dangerous alike to the individual and the State encouraging it. The incidence of the bounty would be unfelt by the consumers, and the production, as in the case of iron, would be justified in cheaper articles. Were a State to go on ordering iron from British iron masters who may have oversold, prices would naturally be forced up against Australia, as well as other parts of the world. A State having in this way to pay more for its pots and pans and all articles made from iron, it follows that the State purchases of iron would be used as a weapon to weaken the purchasing power of its citizens, leading to the forcing down of wages in that State and the paralysis of all its manufacturing enterprises. Should anyone be disposed to deny the principle of bounties for State production, the history of Australian railways will furnish complete verification of the argument that increased orders raise prices of iron. I cannot leave this part of my subject without emphasizing the great shortage of production in New South Wales compared with the consumption of over 14,000,000 in one short year under the existing system of finance.

We have in New South Wales, roundly, 300,000 voters on the rolls, or about a fourth of the population. These voters being the breadwinners of the people, it follows that if they are not profitably employed and adequately remunerated, or if their families are thriftless or vicious, wealth naturally flies the country, wages decline and work is abandoned. By cheapening government and liberating capital in healthy productive pursuits, the surest means of peace and contentment within Australia will be secured, and the middle system will be found a better contrivance than either the Single Tax-cum-Freetrade or Protection to lift Australia out of the chasm of debt into which these systems have been forcing the people.

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AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 95

Sir John Madden.

His Excellency Sir John Madden, Lieutenant-Governor and Chief Justice of Victoria, is the son of John Madden, and was born at Melbourne in 1844. After receiving his early education in that city, he entered the Melbourne University, where he graduated as 15. A. in 18(54, and took the Degree of LL. I). in 1867. On being called to the Bar, His Excellency soon came into notice among the members of his profession, and from the very outset of his career was regarded as one of the coming men, which prediction he was soon to verify. In 1876 Dr. Malden was elected Warden of the Melbourne University, which position he held till 1881, and subsequently he was appointed Vice-Chancellor of his Alma Mater. In 1898 Dr. Madden was offered, and accepted, the position of Chief Justice of Victoria, and was created a Knight Bachelor the same year. His Excellency married, in 1872, Gertrude Frances, daughter of Francis J. Stephen, Esq., City Solicitor to the City of Melbourne.

PEARSON’S

Carbolie ® Sand « Soap,

For Cleaning and Polishing Kitchen and Dairy Utensils, Brass, Iron, Tin Copper, Steel and Enamel Ware.

For Scrubbing Tables, Dressers, and All Kinds of Wood Work.

MANUFACTURERS :

PEARSON BROTHERS,

Henry Street, Leichhardt, Sydney.

H3T Ask Your Storekeeper for Pearson’s Sand Soap, and Take No Other.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.    97




Union Box«Paeking Gase

aonvnjp^isr^r.

Joljijstoije St., Apandale, Rozelle Bay, Sydijey.


Th» LARGEST BOX MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE COLONY, and Contractors to the New South Wales Government. The Mills a'e fitted with the most modern Machinery for Boxmaking Purposes. The Impressing into the Wood of Trademarks, Names, or Figures of any design, a specialty, and cannot be obliterated without destroying the box. I he Export BUTTER BOX made by the firm is used by all the leading exporters. A Trial Solicited. Quotations given for large or small quail title

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 99

types of ilye British Jlrmy.

Tuts Regiment was founded in liX)0 as a tribute to tbe magnificent loyalty, dash, and bravery displayed by Her Majesty’s Irish troops during the recent campaign in South Africa. The uniform of tins regiment is scarlet, with green facings.

Officer Commanding:

Second-Lieutenant R. A. McCalmont.

D. KUSSMANN,

I!!! FASHIONABLE LONDON TAILOR,

196 Pitt Street, City, . . .

and

203 King Street, Newtown.

Whose Customers ali return with hundreds that they recommend.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 1Ó1 Group of Delegates.

« * licw South Wales. « «




and Wine and«..

CASEY’S HOTEL.


....Spirit Store. NEW BOTTLE DEPARTMENT.


Casey’s Special Price List.


Per Case, 1 doz    Per Bottle

45/-    Usher’s Special Reserve Whisky    ..    ..    3/9

47/- Walker’s ,, (Red Collar) ,,    ....., -

47/-    Crawford’s (P. & 0.)    ,,    .. ..    4 -

44/- Gaelic (Old Smuggler)    .... 3/9

42/6    Dawson’s (3 Diamond)    ,,    .. ..    3/3

54/-    John Jamieson *«*    „    ....    4/0

50/-    George Roe’s (10 year old)    ,,    ...    4 6

3S/-.    Burke’s *** .     3/6

48/-    Sir John Power’s (8Swallow),,    ..    ..    4/3

57/-    Shamrock (Imperial quarts),,    .. ..    5/-

56/-    Dickens’    ,,    ....    5/-

72/-    Hennessey *** Brandy........ 6/-

70/-    Marie Brizard ***     (>/•

76/-    Grand Supreme (The Crack) Brandy    ..    6/6

44/-    Boomerang Brandy ..........3 9

Per Case. 1 doz.

Per Bottle

46 9 Woolfe’s Schnapps, quarts

......4/-

46 9 „ „ 36 - Noelt’s ,,

pints

...... 2/-

quarts

......3/3

37 - Burke’s ,,

,,

......3/3

44 - Silverstream ,,

,,

...... */■

» »>

pints

......2/

40/-. Gjlbey’s Dry Gin    ... ......3/0

40 - Ticker’s    . . ......3/6

37/6 Sir R. Burnett’s Old Tom........’3/8

6:/- Key Gin (15 Bottles) ........‘4/3

57 - Marie Briz ird Rum (Wicker Bottles) .. 5/-50, - Fabon’s (3 Nigger)    ........4/6

110 - Heidsieck’s Dry Monopole, quarts ..***.. 10/-115/-    „    ,,    „    2 doz. pints^.. 5/-

PRICE LIST on application.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. Qroup of Delegates.

103


Western Australia.


*Rand Drill & Dackarock 0o.

R. A. HERYEY,

383 GEORGE STREET, BRISBANE (Q.)-Head Office: 171 CLARENCE STREET, SYDNEY, )N S.W.)

Importer, Manufacturer and Dealer in

ROCK DRILLS (Latest Improved for Steam or Air).

AIR COMPRESSORS, AIR RECEIVERS, ENGINES and BOILERS.

WOODBURY’S “ IMPERIAL” CONCENTRATING TABLE (latest improvement).

HOSE, Marlined and Metallic (Flexible) for Steam or Air.

CAMPBELL’S PATENT GAS AND OIL ENGINES, for all purposes.

STEEL—Andrews’, “Crescent,” “Tiger,” “3 Star,” and other brands.

WIRE ROPES (Black and Galvanised) Round or Flat, all sizes.

MICA and ASBESTOS ENGINE PACKINGS.

“JODELITE,” for Preserving Wood against Rot and all kinds of Vermin.

“ FERRODOR ” PAINT for Preserving Ironwork of all descriptions.

“ MICA” GREASE, for Lubricating Machinery.

LUBRICATING OILS—“Globe,” “Squirrel,” and other well-known brands.

ANDERSON’S SILICATE COTTON PIPE and BOILER CLOTH and BOILER LAGGING.

“ PURIMACHOS,” Heat, Fire, and Acid Proof Cement.

BILLET’S PATENT BLACKSMITH’S TUYERES (saves 25 per cent, in Fuel).

“ RACKAROCK ” Patent Blasting Compound, Dynamite, Gelignite and other Nitro-Glycerine Compounds, Blasting Powder.

ELECTRIC EXPLODING BATTERIES, POWDER and ELECTRIC FUSE and DETONATORS.

ALL ENQUIRIES ATTENDED TO WITH CARE AND DESPATCH

Telephone—No. 357.    Cypher— HERVEY, Sydney.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 105



106 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.


Al STRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 107

Group of Delegates.

Victoria.





Williams

S Tonic . . S Syrup . .

is an entirely new preparation, in accordance with the latest discoveries in medical science. It affords immediate relief and ultimate cure of Nervousness, Neuralgia, Debility and other ailments arising from poorness of blood, it restores vigor and energy, and, where there is no organic disease, completely renovates the constitution.

it is Sold in Bottles at Is 6d. & 2s. 6d

Williams’ Indigestion and Liver Cure.

Prepared from the prescription of an eminent physician : removes the cause of Giddiness, Constipation, unpleasant taste in the mouth in the morning, and the many troubles resulting from disordered liver. It will be found an admirable “pick-me-up.”

PRICE—i/- per Bottle.

Prepared only by . . .

W. WILLIAMS,

Chemist,

Newtown*

PARSON’S PASHA AND ELEPHANT COFFEES

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. 109 Group of Delegates.

South Australia.


110 AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR. Group of Delegates.

* « Tasmania. * «

MR. M. J. CLARKE.    MR. N. J. BROWN.





USE IVY JAM.


Ill AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH SOUVENIR.

[Photo by Freeman.

His Excellency Lord Lamington, K.C.M.G.

His Excellency Sir Charles Alexander Napier Ross, Cochrane-Baillie, K.C.M.G., of Lamington, County Lanark in the United Kingdom, ILL. County of Lanark, Lieutenant Lanark Yeomanry Cavalry, was born July 31st, I860, and succeeded his father as second baron in 1890. His Lordship represented St. Pancras in the House of Commons from 1886 till, on his father’s death in 1890, he was called to the House of Lords. On June 13th, 1895, be married Mary Haughton, youngest daughter of first Baron Newland. He was appointed as Governor of Queensland in 1895, and has one daughter, Grizel Gem Annabella, born February 14th, 1898.

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