ANY hundreds of people visit Bournville each year. Often on leaving they ask for some record of what they have seen, and some account of the social life of the employees. This little book is designed to supply that need. It is a “ picture book” because it is felt that pictures in such a case tell more than words.
ways, but chiefly so in the beauty of their setting.
The Offices—South Side.
Bournville Works are fortunate in many When Cadbury Brothers moved their Works from the centre of Birmingham, in 1879, they chose a site in one of the prettiest outlying districts. There were then 230 employees. To-day the factory is a great hive of industry in which over 6,500 employees are engaged, and the city has approached its boundaries. Yet Bournville still retains the pleasant features of the countryside. With the rapid growth of the business, additional land has been frequently purchased for extension, including an old, well-timbered estate of extreme beauty. When Mr. George Cadbury founded the garden village of Bournville an estate of 650 acres was added, which included the pretty valley of the Bourn, rich with the beauties of woodland and stream. Again, quite recently, some sixty acres of meadowland were acquired as additional playing fields for the employees. In this favourable situation the factory itself is surrounded by its own picturesque grounds consisting of many acres of field and woodland. Among the factory buildings pretty shrubberies lend their green to brick and stone, while flower
gardens ablaze with colour give brightness to the scene of labour.—'No wonder people speak of Bournville Works as “ The Factory in a Garden.”
These healthy surroundings have their counterpart inside the factory. The workrooms are large and airy, and the health of the workers—essential in the manufacture of a food commodity—is insured in every possible way by the provision of baths, gymnasia, and other facilities for recreation. The working hours are short—42 per week for women and girls, and 48 for men.
The Export Office, from which the Foreign and Colonial trade is controlled.
THE OFFICES.—The conducting of the business involves the employment of a large army of clerks. Apart from the General Office, shown in the view, which is occupied by the Invoicing, Accounts, and Ledger Departments, there are a number of other offices devoted to the functions of Buying, Advertising, Export Trade, Wages, Engineering, and the administration of the various Social Institutions. The equipment of the offices is of an up-to-date character, the automatic time and labour-saving devices of the modern counting house being generally adopted.
IN THE WORKS.—In the manufacture of cocoa, the cocoa beans, which are imported from the tropics in bags, are first carefully sorted and selected ; they are then roasted in large cylinders and “ broken down ” into what are known as “ cocoa nibs ” at the same time the husk, or shell, of the bean is removed. Next,the nibs are ground betweenhorizontal millstones, and a proportion of the natural oil, or “ cocoa butter,”
is extracted by pressure, leaving firm, dry cakes which are again ground and passed through fine sieves before being made up into the well-known tins and packets of “Cadbury’s Cocoa Essence” and “Bournville Cocoa.”
In making chocolate, fine white sugar is mixed with the cocoa nibs and both are ground together to a paste. This is run into bright tin moulds, and is afterwards made up in the form of cakes,
Neapolitan Machines, by which the
familiar tablets of “ C.D.M.,” “ Bournville,” and “ Mexican ” Chocolate are covered with tinfoil and the outer wrapper in one operation.
Cutting and preparing the material for the cardboard boxes in which the chocolates are packed.
tablets, etc., or is used for covering the immense varieties of pdtes, crimes, fruits, and other dainty confections associated with the name of Bournville.
Apart from the manufacturing departments directly connected with the Bournville industry, which include cocoa making and the manufacture of many hundreds of chocolate and confectionery lines, there are a number of de-
_^ pendent trades carried on. Numerous rooms
—__ are devoted to the manufacture
of the immense quantities of card and wood boxes, bags, and tins
required, and there is a large printing house where labels,
wrappers, etc., are printed. There are also two saw mills,
a case-making factory, an extensive engineering plant for
machine making and repairs, power and lighting plant, and
a building department whose operations, with the constant
developments, have never ceased since the factory at
Bournville was commenced. The Works
with Railway sidings and yards now
cover an area of 40 acres apart
from 90 acres of recreation
A corner of the Laboratory, where the purity of all Bournville product* is tested.
Arrival of the daily Milk Train from the country. The milk of over 3,000 cows is required each day for the large quantity of milk chocolate manufactured.
SAFEGUARDING MACHINERY.—Special attention is given to the guarding of machinery in order to prevent accidents, and all dangerous parts are fenced or fitted with safety appliances. The whole time of an expert is devoted to guarding the factory machinery, and to regular inspection. All new machines are examined by him, and extra guards, in addition to those provided by the makers, are devised if thought necessary. Several ingenious safety devices have been thought out by the employees themselves, and adopted in the factory, prizes having been gained. As a result of the precautions
Hinging Wood Boxes. Danger to the hands is avoided by making the machine unworkable unless the box is in the right position, when its pressure against the little projecting rod devised (see arrow) sets the machine in gear.
taken, the number of accidents occurring is very small Accidents are also prevented by the special training of workers engaged in work in which there is any element of danger—for instance, in the proper method of lifting weights.
Card Box Making. In this by-industry over 400 girls are occupied.
Some of the motor vans for local delivery.
CONVENIENCES, ETC., FOR EMPLOYEES.—The attention paid to the physical needs and daily necessities of the workers results in maintaining the factory life at a high standard of efficiency and well being. Personal cleanliness is systematically promoted, and spacious dressing rooms are provided where all women employees change into washable frocks of white holland, and the men into overalls suitable for their vocation. There are comfortable dining rooms for
the Men, Girls, Forewomen, Foremen, Clerks, and Staff, all served conveniently from a large and fully equipped Kitchen. Food, in large variety, is procurable at low cost. The Catering and Dining Room Staff numbers 35, including chefs, bakers, waitresses, etc. On an average 3,570 meals are provided daily for the workpeople, or over one million a year, this in addition to the provision of some 22,000 meals at social and other functions.
RECREATION.—The beautiful recreation grounds adjacent to the factory are laid out to meet the requirements of all modern sports and athletics for men and girls. On the men’s side—in connection with a large club which is managed entirely by the employees themselves—there are three cricket and six football teams, two hockey elevens, and two bowling teams, apart from the thirteen teams of the Youths’ Club (see page 25). There are also tennis, swimming, and fishing clubs, and an athletic and cycling section which holds a well-known Annual Sports Meeting. The different sections are affiliated with the leading games leagues and associations of the Midlands, of whose trophies they hold an ample share.
Open Air Baths, for men and boys.
Sport for the girls is organised by their own club, assisted by qualified lady gymnastic instructors. There are two cricket teams and five hockey elevens, while swimming, netball, tennis, and other games are enthusiastically taken up. The happy, healthy appearance of the Bournville workers is very largely due to the exceptional opportunities they have for outdoor recreation. Sixty acres of land have been purchased for additional playing fields.
THE MEN’S RECREATION GROUNDS, covering 18 acres, with facilities for cricket, football, hockey, bowls, tennis, and other sports and pastimes.
Hockey la popular at Bournville both with men and girls. The Girls’ Club run five teams, who in a recent season played 98 matches.
County Cricket at Bourn-ville.—Important hockey and cricket matches have been played in the Bournville grounds. The photograph shows a cricket match between the Worcestershire and Essex County teams.
A View at the Employees' Summer Party—the attendance numbering over 8,000. A half day is given, and the entertainments are organized by the employees.
A performance of one of the outdoor masques, produced at the Summer Party. The subject is “ Robin Hood and his Merry Men." All of the 200 performing are Bournville employees.
THE GIRLS’ RECREATION GROUNDS, covering over twelve acres.
A NETBALL MATCH. Like Hockey and Cricket,
Netball is a popular pastime with the girls.
SWIMMING, one of the most healthful of sports, is encouraged by the provision of baths for both men and women. The Girls’ Baths, in addition to the swimming bath, contain slipper baths and sufficient hot and cold spray baths for each of the girls to have the opportunity of using them once each week in work hours—this apart from the use of the swimming bath. Hair drying appliances and other up-to-date conveniences are provided. In the basement of the building is a fully-equipped laundry. Since 1906 some 4,000 girls have learnt to swim in these Baths.
THE GIRLS’ BATHS.
THE SWIMMING BATH.
Dimensions : 80 feet by 45 feet.
Capacity : 105,000 gallons.
THE PERGOLA—Girls Grounds.
SUMMER CAMP.—Each year about 150 youths spend ten days at a seaside camp.
THE I.IBRARY. — Beside, general literature the collection includes a large and carefully compiled section of technical works for apprentices.
THE GAMES ROOM.
YOUTHS’ CLUB.—It is in the receptive age of adolescence that the future career of the man is chiefly determined, and the wholesome influence of the Youths’ Club
at Bournville is an incalculable benefit to the boys who share its life. It is a club in the very best sense, providing means for the improvement of both mind and body, and offering that camaraderie which no healthy boy can do without. The Club House consists of reading and lecture rooms, library, museum, and games rooms. The recreative facilities are almost unlimited : for instance, there are nine football teams, four cricket teams, and cycling, rambling, and harriers sections (all these quite apart from the athletic organizations referred to elsewhere).
needs. The importance of the care of the teeth as a preventive is in these days widely recognised, and dental treatment at Bournville is gratuitous for boys until 21, and for girls throughout their employment ; no less than 6,800 visits were paid in a recent year by employees to the dental surgery.
In connection with the medical side
HEALTH AND THE WORKER.—Health in the factory is ensured chiefly by preventive measures. As already shown, the workrooms are spacious and well lighted, pure air being obtained by a thorough system of ventilation ; the hours are short, and recreation of all kinds is encouraged. Again, all applicants for employment must pass a medical A R.,t Room to whlch „mployM.
examination. Employees’ ailments, however, have careful attention. temporarily indisposed
The services of a doctor and lady doctor, also two dental surgeons, may ,et,re-
all fully qualified, together with a nursing staff, are devoted to their
are a dispensary, surgery, and consulting rooms, and cosy rest rooms are provided for those temporarily indisposed. Medicine is dispensed at a nominal cost, and massage treatment is provided where it is prescribed. With ample first-aid appliances in all departments, and the establishment of a highly-trained ambulance corps, emergency cases can be dealt with promptly. The prevention of accidents is a matter of special organisation, and is described elsewhere. Situated among the hills of Herefordshire the Firm have a Convalescent Home accommodating 21 girls.
AN AMBULANCE CORPS. Conducted by the Works Doctor.
There is also a Corps of girls.
About 120 employees each year gain the St. John awards.
One of the Men’s Dressing Rooms, with lavatories and shower baths.
All youths employed receive physical training up to the age of 18. The courses include swimming and life saving.
Classes are held during work hours.
The younger girls also attend both physical training and swimming classes during work hours.
PHYSICAL TRAINING.—Mental and general efficiency, even character itself, depend largely upon physical fitness, and keeping in view the old ideal, "Mens sana in corpore sano,” a systematic organisation of physical training is in force at Boumville. To take this training for four years is a condition of employment with all young employees. Twice weekly both girls and youths leave workshop or office to attend classes held at the works. The training includes physical culture—on the Swedish system for girls, and an adaptation for youths—also Swimming and Life Saving. There are in addition, classes on most evenings for voluntary students. Three qualified instructors are in charge of the
Practically all Bournville girls and youtha learn to swim. The group shows one year's girl learners, numbering 250.
A Life Saving Corps. About 70 youths and girls each year gain the certificates and medals of the Royal Life Saving Society.
training of boys and men, and five lady instructors superintend the girls’ classes. The physical development of each, student is carefully recorded, and remedial classes are held for any who may be below normal. Physical culture, complementary as it is to mental training, is organised in connection with the Works Educational Scheme ; under a. Reward Scheme for general proficiency the employees’ physical progress is taken into account. As a result of this care the death rate of those employed has averaged less than three per thousand for the last ten years.
EDUCATION OF EMPLOYEES.—The success of a business organisation depends upon the efficiency of the collective brain behind it, and the training of the worker is at Bournville regarded as of the utmost importance. The school training of all young employees k supplemented by an educational course extending over four years,
from the school age up till eighteen. The instruction is received partly at a day school (the first of its kind in the country) and partly at other day and evening classes. It includes a co-ordinated course in English, Arithmetic, History, Citizenship, Geography, Science, Art. At 16 the curriculum becomes more specialized. For boys it is commercial if in the office, or technical if on the industrial side. Under an Apprenticeship Scheme the course is extended for those working at trades, and apprentices have the advantage of training at the best educational institutions locally and in Birmingham, while scholarships at Universities are granted in
Under an apprenticeship scheme 25 different trades are taught*
special cases. For the girls, of whom 75% get married in their twenties, the training is domestic, including dressmaking, home-nursing, cookery and laundry work, terminating with a year’s course at a typical cottage in the village.
Side by side with this training, all young employees take the four years’ course of physical culture and swimming
already described. A camp school is held for boys during the summer months.
Under what is known as the “ Bournville Works School,” a number of special classes are held, including trade classes in such subjects as box making, biscuit making, confectionery, office routine, etc.
Throughout the system the aim is that the unskilled worker and women employees shall receive as careful attention as the skilled craftsman. About 2,000 students attend local classes as a condition of employment, and an additional 420 pursue their studies voluntarily. The special Works classes are attended by 400 employees.
Girls take their fourth year in housewifery training at classes held in work
hours at a typical Bournville cottage.
A performance by the Works Dramatic Society.
A scene from “Twelfth Night.” in the open air.
MUSIC AND THE DRAMA AT BOURNVILLE.
The importance of music in life, and its value as a recreative pursuit is generally recognised. The present large and important musical organisation at Bournville is the evolution of many years. The •employees have their own orchestra, a prize silver band, instrumental and vocal quartettes, a male voice and mixed choirs. A fully qualified Director of Music gives his whole time to training and teaching At an Annual Musical Festival, departmental choirs compete to the aiumber of 25. The Works Dramatic Society meets fortnightly for play-reading, and produces two or three plays •each year.
The Prize Silver Band. Winners at Crystal Palace and other well-known contests.
COMPETITIVE MUSICAL FESTIVAL. An annual event lasting over three days, at which choral, vocal, and
The Works Organ.
instrumental contests are held. The open contest is a big Midland event
One of the Cycle Shelters. Accommodation is provided for 600 machines.
FIRE PRACTICE.—The Works Fire Brigade has 30 members. Their up-to-date equipment includes two “ steamers.” The Brigade has won In numerous competitions.
OTHER INSTITUTIONS.—Most of the social and recreational institutions described in this booklet have grown from small beginnings. In such organisations as the Athletic Clubs, and the Musical and other Societies, due care has been taken that the growth may be natural and not forced ; the value of employees’ own initiative and then- readiness to control these institutions themselves is fully recognised.
SUGGESTION SCHEME.—The successful results of the Suggestion
Scheme, by which employees have contributed many valuable ideas affecting
improvement in work and methods, show the importance of assisting the development of the workers’ latent capacities to their own and the Firm’s advantage.
SAVINGS FUND.—Thrift among employees is encouraged by the Firm’s allowance of 5% per annum on any savings up to £20 annually, which are paid through the Works Fund into the Post Office Savings Bank to the credit of each individual depositor. £80,000 has been saved in 17 years.
PENSION FUNDS.—Men employed receive pensions at 60. Their contributions vary from '2\% to 5% of their wages, according to age at entry, amounting to about £7,000 a year. The firm contribute an equal amount which remains permanently in the fund, from which pensions are derived. An employee’s contribution may be withdrawn with compound interest in the event of his leaving
the firm’s service before pension age. By an additional gift of over £70,000 the Pension benefits were increased as if employees had been contributing over half the period of their services previous to the establishment of the fund.
Women employees, by paying from 6d. to 1/- per week, according to age, may receive pensions at 50, 55 or 60, amounting to from 13/- to 26/- weekly. The Firm contribute an amount varying from 3\% to 3f% of the accumulations in addition to interest earned. The contributions of employees may be withdrawn, plus 5% compound interest, on marriage or on leaving, so that the scheme is also a valuable savings fund.
A scene on the Village Green. The octagonal building in the centre is the Rest House presented by Bournville employees to Mr. and Mrs. George Cadbury on their Silver Wedding.
THE BOURNVILLE VILLAGE.—When Cadbury Brothers moved their factory from Birmingham, in 1879, what is now known as Bournville Cottages, Bournville.
had no existence. A few cottages were built near to the newly erected works, but the surrounding district retained its rural character. It was in
1895 that Mr. George Cadbury set out to develop the garden village at Bournville, which has had so wide an influence on the movement for the better housing of the people.
THE VILLAGE SCHOOLS (presented to the Village by Mr. & Mrs. George Cadbury) accommodate 540 children. The Infants' School, the nearer building, accommodates an additional 250.
In 1900 Mr. Cadbury handed the estate over to a Trust, which has since administered it. The area of the estate to be ultimately laid out for building is over 660 acres. There are already upwards of 900 houses, and the population is over 4,000. The object of the founder was to provide healthy homes, with the advantage of outdoor village life, and tenancy is not confined to Bournville workers. With its ample gardens and open spaces the Village has become a place of beauty which is visited annually by thousands. The garden plots average 500 square yards in area, and their average yield, from tests taken, is 2/- each per week
THE ALMSHOUSES, a gift of the late Mr. Richard Cadbury. For old people of 60 and upwards. Each of the 33 houses has a living room, bedroom, and scullery, all on the ground floor.
throughout the year. The death rate for the five years ending 1913 was 5.6, compared with 14.0 for England and Wales. A Co-partnership Tenant Society has developed 20 acres of the estate. Another 20 acres is rented by a Company which has obtained facilities for development under the Industrial and Provident Societies Act.
By the Trust Deed of the Estate the revenue is to be applied to the further extension of the scheme, and to this end, when the development of Boumville is complete, land may be acquired in any part of Great Britain.
CADBURY" REGD. TRADE MARK. BOURNVILLE " REGD. TRADE MARK.
CADBURY, BOURNVILLE, ENGLAND.