Imprisonments and fines are the standard sanctions employed by most western countries in punishing offenders. Where neither of these penalties is appropriate, the courts normally have a variety of indeterminate sanctions at their disposal. However the general effectiveness of these sanctions is questionable. This paper argues that the criminal justice system has been too slow and unimaginative in developing efficient and effective methods of punishing offenders. There are ways of inflicting pain on offenders that do not encroach on their liberty or affect their material wealth. It is suggested that new sentencing options should include the annulment or suspension of an offenders academic qualifications and the making of orders preventing an offender from working or being enrolled in an educational or vocational pursuit.
Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.