Migration is usually analysed as a function of state policy of sending and receiving countries in the context of global movements of people. Thus, despite their sponsorship and support of thousands of migrants, independent, voluntary, religious and ethnic organisations have often been marginalised in international migration studies. This article arises from a broader investigation into the role of such organisations in the peopling of Australia and Canada from the 1890s to 1939: their visions, relationships with governments, significance and legacies. The aim is to bring a new perspective to comparative migration and population research and to assess how far such organisations paralleled, or stepped outside of, the racialised, gendered and class structures of ofŽficial immigration policies and practices of the time. Here the focus is particularly on the place of women and girls in the migration schemes of some of the organisations operating in both Australia and Canada. The use of case studies such as the British Women’s Emigration Association, the Salvation Army and Dr Barnardo’s Homes provides an opportunity to examine the sexual distinctions implicit in these schemes and the direction of both women and men into what were seen at the time as gender-appropriate societal roles and occupations.
Field of Research
160303 Migration 210303 Australian History (excl Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History)