Exercise, diet and skeletal muscle gene expression

Hargreaves, Mark and Cameron-Smith, David 2002, Exercise, diet and skeletal muscle gene expression, Medicine & science in sports & exercise, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1505-1508.

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Title Exercise, diet and skeletal muscle gene expression
Author(s) Hargreaves, Mark
Cameron-Smith, David
Journal name Medicine & science in sports & exercise
Volume number 34
Issue number 9
Start page 1505
End page 1508
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Place of publication Philadelphia, Pa.
Publication date 2002-09
ISSN 0195-9131
1530-0315
Keyword(s) physical activity
nutrients
transcription
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Summary Skeletal muscle, as a consequence of its mass and great capacity for altered metabolism, has a major impact on whole-body metabolic homeostasis and is capable of remarkable adaptation in response to various physiological stimuli, including exercise and dietary intervention. Exercise-induced increases in skeletal muscle mRNA levels of a number of genes have been reported, due to transcriptional activation and/or increased mRNA stability. The cellular adaptations to exercise training appear to be due to the cumulative effects of transient increases in gene transcription after repeated exercise bouts. The relative importance of transcriptional (mRNA synthesis) and translational (mRNA stability or translational efficiency) mechanisms for the training-induced increases in skeletal muscle protein abundance remains to be fully elucidated. Dietary manipulation, and the associated alterations in nutrient availability and hormone levels, can also modify skeletal muscle gene expression, although fewer studies have been reported. A major challenge is to understand how exercise and diet exert their effects on gene and protein expression in skeletal muscle. In relation to exercise, potential stimuli include stretch and muscle tension, the pattern of motor nerve activity and the resultant calcium transients, the energy charge of the cell and substrate availability, oxygen tension and circulating hormones. These are detected by various cellular signaling mechanisms, acting on a range of downstream targets and a wide range of putative transcription factors. A key goal in the years ahead is to identify how alterations at the level of gene expression are coupled to the changes in skeletal muscle phenotype. It is clear that gene expression, although representing a specific site of regulation, is only one step in a complex cascade from the initial stimulus to the final phenotypic adaptation and integrated physiological response.
Language eng
Field of Research 060405 Gene Expression (incl Microarray and other genome-wide approaches)
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2002, American College of Sports Medicine
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30001627

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Health Sciences
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