Friction plays an important role in sheet metal forming (SMF) and the roughness of the surface of the sheet is a major factor that influences friction. In finite element method (FEM) models of metal forming, the roughness has usually been assumed to be constant; even though it is commonly observed that sheet drawn under tension over a tool radius results in the surface becoming shiny, indicating a major change in surface morphology. An elastic–plastic FEM model for micro-contact between a flat surface and a single roughness peak has been developed. The model was used to investigate the effect of the membrane stress in the sheet on the deformation of an artificial roughness peak. From the simulation results, the change in asperity, or deformation of the local peak, for a given nominal tool contact stress is significantly influenced by the local substrate stress. The height of the asperity decreases with increasing substrate stress and the local pressure is much higher than the nominal pressure. In addition, the local contact stress decreases with an increase in the substrate stress levels.
Available online 28 May 2002.
Field of Research
091399 Mechanical Engineering not elsewhere classified