Objective: To determine the effect of a high-fat diet on the expression of genes important for fat oxidation, the protein abundance of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms α and γ, and selected enzyme activities in type I and II skeletal muscle. ResearchMethods and Procedures: Sprague-Dawley rats consumed either a high-fat (HF: 78% energy, n = 8) or high-carbohydrate (64% energy, n = 8) diet for 8 weeks while remaining sedentary. Results: The expression of genes important for fat oxidation tended to increase in both type I (soleus) and type II (extensor digitorum longus) fiber types after an HF dietary intervention. However, the expression of muscle type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I was not increased in extensor digitorum longus. Analysis of the gene expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator and forkhead transcription factor O1 demonstrated no alteration in response to the HF diet. Similarly, PPARα and PPARγ protein levels were also not altered by the HF diet. Discussion: An HF diet increased the expression of an array of genes involved in lipid metabolism, with only subtle differences evident in the response within differing skeletal muscle fiber types. Despite changes in gene expression, there were no effects of diet on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator and forkhead transcription factor O1 mRNA and the protein abundance of PPARα and PPARγ.
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