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Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake

Crowe, Timothy, La Fontaine, H., Gibbons, C., Cameron-Smith, David and Swinburn, Boyd 2004, Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake, European journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1485-1491, doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601994.

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Title Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake
Author(s) Crowe, Timothy
La Fontaine, H.
Gibbons, C.
Cameron-Smith, David
Swinburn, Boyd
Journal name European journal of clinical nutrition
Volume number 58
Issue number 11
Start page 1485
End page 1491
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2004-11
ISSN 0954-3007
1476-5640
Keyword(s) diet
nutrition
food
beverages
weight control
Summary Objectives: The energy density (ED) of the diet is considered an important determinant of total energy intake and thus energy balance and weight change. We aimed to compare relationships between ED and macronutrient content in individual food and beverage items as well as population diet in a typical Western country. Design: Nutrient data for 3673 food items and 247 beverage items came from the Australian Food and Nutrient database (AusNut). Food and beverage intake data came from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (a 24-h dietary recall survey in 13 858 people over the age of 2). Relationships between ED and macronutrient and water content were analysed by linear regression with 95% prediction bands. Results: For both individual food items and population food intake, there was a positive relationship between ED and percent energy as fat and negative relationships between ED and percent energy as carbohydrate and percent water by weight. In all cases, there was close agreement between the slopes of the regression lines between food items and dietary intake. There were no clear relationships between ED and macronutrient content for beverage items. Carbohydrate (mostly sucrose) contributed 91, 47, and 25% of total energy for sugar-based, fat-based, and alcohol-based beverages respectively. Conclusions: The relationship between ED and fat content of foods holds true across both population diets and individual food items available in the food supply in a typical Western country such as Australia. As high-fat diets are associated with a high BMI, population measures with an overall aim of reducing the ED of diets may be effective in mediating the growing problem of overweight and obesity.
Notes Reproduced with the specific permission of the copyright owner.
Language eng
DOI 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601994
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2004, Nature Publishing Group
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30002432

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.