The determination of urea in wine – a review

Francis, Paul 2006, The determination of urea in wine – a review, Australian journal of grape and wine research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 97-106.

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Title The determination of urea in wine – a review
Author(s) Francis, PaulORCID iD for Francis, Paul
Journal name Australian journal of grape and wine research
Volume number 12
Issue number 2
Start page 97
End page 106
Publisher Wiley Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Place of publication Milton, Qld
Publication date 2006
ISSN 1322-7130
Keyword(s) urea
yeast metabolism
ethyl carbamate
acid urease
Japanese rice wine
flow-injection analysis
diacetyl monoxime
Summary The concentration of urea in wine is not routinely measured in Australian laboratories, but has been examined in studies of yeast metabolism and the formation of ethyl carbamate, a known carcinogen. For alcoholic beverages that may contain high levels of urea, steps have been taken to reduce the concentration of urea and therefore prevent ethyl carbamate production. Methods for the determination of urea in wine can be grouped into three categories that indicate how selectivity for urea is achieved; those based on colour-forming reactions, enzymatic hydrolysis and chromatographic separation. The two dominant methods used by research groups over the past fifteen years for the determination of urea in wine are based on the urea/ammonia test kit available from Boeringer Mannheim/R-Biopharm and the reaction of urea with 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oxime; both are time-consuming and labour-intensive, but involve relatively straightforward and well-established procedures. However, other options are available that may be better suited to the desired application and the instrumentation available in any particular laboratory.
Notes s
Language eng
Field of Research 030199 Analytical Chemistry not elsewhere classified
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2006, Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.
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