Understanding ring strain and ring flexibility in six - and eight-membered cyclic organometallic group 14 oxides
Beckmann, Jens, Dakternieks, Dainis, Lim, Allan, Lim, Kieran and Jurkschat, Klaus 2006, Understanding ring strain and ring flexibility in six - and eight-membered cyclic organometallic group 14 oxides, Journal of molecular structure: THEOCHEM, vol. 761, no. 1-3, pp. 177-193.
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A simple model was developed for the approximation of ring strain energies of homo- and heterometallic, six- and eight-membered cyclic organometallic group 14 oxides and the degree of puckering of their ring conformations. The conformational energy of a ring is modelled as the sum of its angular strain components. The bending potential energy functions for the various endocyclic M–O–M′ and O–M–O linkages (M, M′=Si, Ge, Sn) were calculated at the B3LYP/(v)TZ level of theory using H3MOM′H3 and H2M(OH)2 as model compounds. For the six-membered rings, the minimum total angular contribution to ring strain, ERSGmin was calculated to decrease in the order: cyclo-(H2SiO)3 (13.0 kJ mol−1)>cyclo-H2Sn(OSiH2)2O (7.0 kJ mol−1)>cyclo-H2Ge(OSiH2)2O (4.9 kJ mol−1)>cyclo-H2Si(OSnH2)2O (3.4 kJ mol−1)>cyclo-(H2SnO)3 (1.7 kJ mol−1)>cyclo-H2Si(OGeH2)2O (0.8 kJ mol−1)≈cyclo-H2Ge(OSnH2)2O (0.7 kJ mol−1)>cyclo-H2Sn(OGeH2)2O (0.1 kJ mol−1)≈cyclo-(H2GeO)3 (0 kJ mol−1). All of the six-membered rings were predicted to adopt (nearly) planar conformations (a=0.996<a<1). By contrast, all eight-membered rings were predicted to adopt strainless, but puckered conformations. The degree of puckering was predicted to increase in the order: cyclo-(H2SiO)4 (a=0.983)<cyclo-H2Sn(OSiH2O)2SiH2 (a=0.959)<cyclo-(H2SiO)2(H2SnO)2 (a=0.942)< cyclo-H2Si(OSnH2O)2SiH2 (a=0.935)<cyclo-(H2SnO)4 (a=0.916)<cyclo-(H2GeO)4 (a=0.885). The differences in ring strain and the degree of puckering were linked to the different electronegativities of Si, Ge and Sn. The results obtained are consistent with experimental ring strain energies; reactivities towards ring opening polymerizations or ring expansion reactions and observed ring conformations of cyclic organometallic group 14 oxides.
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