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Modifying the bitterness of selected oral pharmaceuticals with cation and anion series of salts

Keast, Russell and Breslin, Paul A. S. 2002, Modifying the bitterness of selected oral pharmaceuticals with cation and anion series of salts, Pharmaceutical research, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1019-1026.

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Title Modifying the bitterness of selected oral pharmaceuticals with cation and anion series of salts
Author(s) Keast, Russell
Breslin, Paul A. S.
Journal name Pharmaceutical research
Volume number 19
Issue number 7
Start page 1019
End page 1026
Publisher Springer Netherlands
Place of publication Dordrecht, Netherlands
Publication date 2002-07
ISSN 0724-8741
1573-904X
Keyword(s) bitter taste
bitterness blocking
salts psychophysics
pseudoephedrine
ranitidine
acetaminophen
Summary Purpose. NaCl has proven to be an effective bitterness inhibitor, but the reason remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a variety of cations and anions on the bitterness of selected oral pharmaceuticals and bitter taste stimuli: pseudoephedrine, ranitidine, acetaminophen, quinine, and urea.
Method. Human psychophysical taste evaluation using a whole mouth exposure procedure was used.
Results. The cations (all associated with the acetate anion) inhibited bitterness when mixed with pharmaceutical solutions to varying degrees. The sodium cation significantly (P < 0.003) inhibited bitterness of the pharmaceuticals more than the other cations. The anions (all associated with the sodium cation) also inhibited bitterness to varying degrees. With the exception of salicylate, the glutamate and adenosine monophosphate anions significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited bitterness of the pharmaceuticals more than the other anions. Also, there were several specific inhibitory interactions between ammonium, sodium and salicylate and certain pharmaceuticals.
Conclusions. We conclude that sodium was the most successful cation and glutamate and AMP were the most successful anions at inhibiting bitterness. Structure forming and breaking properties of ions, as predicted by the Hofmeister series, and other physical-chemical ion properties failed to significantly predict bitterness inhibition.
Notes The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com
Language eng
Field of Research 170112 Sensory Processes, Perception and Performance
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2002, Plenum Publishing Corporation
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30004133

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.