Habit retraining for the management of urinary incontinence in adults (review)

Ostaszkiewicz, Joan, Johnston, L. and Roe, B. 2004, Habit retraining for the management of urinary incontinence in adults (review), The Cochrane library, vol. 4, pp. 1-34.

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Title Habit retraining for the management of urinary incontinence in adults (review)
Author(s) Ostaszkiewicz, JoanORCID iD for Ostaszkiewicz, Joan orcid.org/0000-0003-4159-4493
Johnston, L.
Roe, B.
Journal name The Cochrane library
Volume number 4
Start page 1
End page 34
Publisher John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Place of publication Hoboken, N.J.
Publication date 2004
ISSN 1465-1858
Summary Background
Habit retraining is toileting assistance given by a caregiver to adults with urinary incontinence. It involves the identification of an incontinent person's natural voiding pattern and the development of an individualised toileting schedule which pre-empts involuntary bladder emptying.

To assess the effects of habit retraining for the management of urinary incontinence in adults.

Search strategy
We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group specialised register (9 May 2002), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2004), EMBASE (January 1980 to Week 18-2002), CINAHL (January 1982 to February 2001), PsychINFO (January 1972 to August 2002), Biological Abstracts (January 1980 to December 2000), Current Contents (January 1993 to December 2001) and the reference lists of relevant articles. We also contacted experts in the field, searched relevant websites and hand searched journals and conference

Selection criteria
All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing habit retraining delivered either alone or in conjunction with another intervention for urinary incontinence in adults.

Data collection and analysis
Data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken by at least two people working independendy of each other. Any differences were resolved by discussion. The relative risks for dichotomous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Where data were insufficient for a quantitative analysis, a narrative overview was undertaken.

Main results
Three trials with a total of 337 participants met the inclusion criteria, describing habit retraining combined with other approaches compared with usual care. Participants were primarily care-dependent elderly women with concurrent cognitive and/or physical impairment, residing in either a residential aged-care facility or in their own home. Outcomes included incidence and/or severity of urinary incontinence, the prevalences of urinary tract infection, skin rash and skin breakdown, cost and caregiver preparedness, role strain and burden. Caregivers found it difficult to maintain voiding records and to implement the toileting program. A 61% compliance rate was reported in one trial .

There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence and in the volume of incontinence between groups. Within group analyses did however show improvements on these measures. Reductions were also reported for the intervention group in one study for skin rash, skin breakdown and in caregivers' perceptions of their level of stress. Descriptive data on the. intervention suggests that habit retraining is a labour-intense activity. Electronic loggers, used as an adjunct to caregiver-delivered wet/dry checks, were reported as providing more accurate data than that from caregiver conducted wet/dry checks. To date, no analysis of the time and resources associated with these comparisons is available.

Reviewers' conclusions
Data on habit retraining are few and of insufficient quality to provide a firm basis for practice.
Language eng
Field of Research 111001 Aged Care Nursing
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2004, The Cochrane Collaboration
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30004331

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