Titanium foams fabricated by a new powder metallurgical process have bimodal pore distribution architecture (i.e., macropores and micropores), mimicking natural bone. The mechanical properties of the titanium foam with low relative densities of approximately 0.20-0.30 are close to those of human cancellous bone. Also, mechanical properties of the titanium foams with high relative densities of approximately 0.50-0.65 are close to those of human cortical bone. Furthermore, titanium foams exhibit good ability to form a bonelike apatite layer throughout the foams after pretreatment with a simple thermochemical process and then immersion in a simulated body fluid. The present study illustrates the feasibility of using the titanium foams as implant materials in bone tissue engineering applications, highlighting their excellent biomechanical properties and bioactivity.
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