Globalizing heritage: world heritage as a manifestation of modernism and the challenge from the periphery
Logan, William 2001, Globalizing heritage: world heritage as a manifestation of modernism and the challenge from the periphery, in 20th century heritage : our recent cultural legacy : proceedings of the Australia ICOMOS National Conference 2001, 28 November - 1 December 2001, Adelaide, the University of Adelaide, Australia, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, S.Aust., pp. 51-57.
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Government efforts to protect monuments and sites of cultural heritage value have gone on for many centuries. The distinctive new chapter that the 20th Century brought to cultural heritage protection was the establishment of a globalized effort over and above the work of nation states, This led to a new cultural heritage bureaucracy at the international level, the development of new sets of 'universal' standards, and a new set of places deemed to be of world heritage significance, All of this was done in the spirit of goodwill and optimism that infused the modem movement and that made possible the establishment of the so-called Bretton Woods organizations such as the United Nations as well as the parallel organizations specifically dealing with Cultural Heritage - UNESCO, ICOMOS, ICOM and ICCROM, In recent decades cultural relativists have challenged the drive towards uniformity implicit in the global activities of the modernist organizations, and various parts of the periphery have reacted against aspects of the global cultural heritage approach, The Venice Charter is no longer regarded as the single, universal way to conserve heritage places. It has been replaced or supplemented in large parts of the world by alternatives and modifications such as the Nara Document and Burra Charter. If it is no longer acceptable to provide a universal answer to the question of how do we identify and save heritage, the challenge of the 21st Century is to make the most of the complexity of standards that now exists.
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