Arts marketing challenges in multicultural societies
Kennedy, Wendy L. and Hall, John 2005, Arts marketing challenges in multicultural societies, in At the threshold : challenges and developments in social, sport and arts marketing. Proceedings of the 2nd Australasian Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference., Deakin University, Geelong, Vic..
Australasian Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference
Place of publication
With an increasingly diverse, multicultural society in many countries, it is timely to look more closely at the current literature on arts marketing, ethnic identity and segmentation issues. The growth of diverse, multicultural societies in many countries warrants a closer examination of arts marketing and the use of ethnicity as a basis for segmentation, as these issues have implications for attracting and retaining arts audiences and other consumers of arts related activities. Researchers in the arts industry have stressed the importance of understanding the fundamentals of audience development and the ability to focus on satisfying the needs and wants of their audiences. The focus on marketing activities comes at a time when there is greater pressure on arts organisations to move beyond their traditional role as subsidized non-profit organisations in order to become more self-supporting. Internationally, audience development in the arts industry has focused on segmentation dimensions such as youth, mature aged individuals, geographic location (rural), individuals with disabilities, low income earners, and individuals with culturally diverse backgrounds. Most of these potential segments are under represented in the population of arts consumers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Singapore, and North America. Of those dimensions, segmentation of arts markets by cultural differences such as ethnic identity appears to be a somewhat under researched area. Hofstede's (1980) model of national cultural differences continues to be widely used as a basis for strategic and marketing decisions in international business. However, the cultural characteristics attributed to individuals in their country of birth are likely to change through immigration to another country. In this situation, the ability to predict the consumption behaviour of various ethnic groups is complicated by acculturation processes in which arrivals attempt to adapt to their new environment. Over time, this process has resulted in the emergence of bicultural individuals who are able to switch, at will, between their ethnic identity and an identity aligned with their host country, or a combination of both at any time. Ethnic identity and affiliation with ethnic groups can also change over time, suggesting challenges for arts marketing approaches, and the application of market segmentation theory in particular.
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