A defense system against DDoS attacks by large-scale IP traceback
Xiang, Yang and Zhou, Wanlei 2005, A defense system against DDoS attacks by large-scale IP traceback, in Third International Conference on Information Technology and Applications : 4-7 July 2005, Sydney, Australia : proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., pp. 431-436.
In this paper, we present a new approach, called Flexible Deterministic Packet Marking (FDPM), to perform a large-scale IP traceback to defend against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. In a DDoS attack the victim host or network is usually attacked by a large number of spoofed IP packets coming from multiple sources. IP traceback is the ability to trace the IP packets to their sources without relying on the source address field of the IP header. FDPM provides many flexible features to trace the IP packets and can obtain better tracing capability than current IP traceback mechanisms, such as Probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM), and Deterministic Packet Marking (DPM). The flexibilities of FDPM are in two ways, one is that it can adjust the length of marking field according to the network protocols deployed; the other is that it can adjust the marking rate according to the load of participating routers. The implementation and evaluation demonstrates that the FDPM needs moderately only a small number of packets to complete the traceback process; and can successfully perform a large-scale IP traceback, for example, trace up to 110,000 sources in a single incident response. It has a built-in overload prevention mechanism, therefore this scheme can perform a good traceback process even it is heavily loaded.
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