Determinants of bone density in 30- to 65-year-old women: A co-twin study

MacInnis, R.J., Cassar, C., Nowson, Caryl, Paton, L.M., Flicker, L., Hopper, J.L., Larkins, R.G. and Wark, J.D. 2003, Determinants of bone density in 30- to 65-year-old women: A co-twin study, Journal of bone and mineral research, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1650-1656, doi: 10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.9.1650.

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Title Determinants of bone density in 30- to 65-year-old women: A co-twin study
Author(s) MacInnis, R.J.
Cassar, C.
Nowson, CarylORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl
Paton, L.M.
Flicker, L.
Hopper, J.L.
Larkins, R.G.
Wark, J.D.
Journal name Journal of bone and mineral research
Volume number 18
Issue number 9
Start page 1650
End page 1656
Publisher Wiley - Blackwell
Place of publication Durham, NC
Publication date 2003-09
ISSN 0884-0431
Summary Introduction: Reported effects of body composition and lifestyle of bone mineral density in pre-elderly adult women have been inconsistent.

Methods: In a co-twin study of 146 female twin pairs aged 30 to 65 years, DXA was used to measure bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, total hip, and forearm, total body bone mineral content, and lean and fat mass. Height and weight were measured. Menopausal status, dietary calcium intake, physical activity, current tobacco use, and alcohol consumption were determined by questionnaire. Within-pair differences in bone measures were regressed through the origin against within-pair differences in putative determinants.

Results: Lean mass and fat mass were associated with greater bone mass at all sites. A discordance of 10 pack-years smoking was related to a 2.3-3.3% (SE, 0.8-1.0) decrease in bone density at all sites except the forearm, with the effects more evident in postmenopausal women. In all women, a 0.8% (SE, 0.3) difference in hip bone mineral density was associated with each hour per week difference in sporting activity, with effects more evident in premenopausal women. Daily dietary calcium intake was related to total body bone mineral content and forearm bone mineral density (1.4 ± 0.7% increase for every 1000 mg). Lifetime alcohol consumption and walking were not consistently related to bone mass.

Conclusion: Several lifestyle and dietary factors, in particular tobacco use, were related to bone mineral density. Effect sizes varied by site. Characterization of determinants of bone mineral density in midlife and thereafter may lead to interventions that could minimize postmenopausal bone loss and reduce osteoporotic fracture risk.

Language eng
DOI 10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.9.1650
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2003, Wiley-Blackwell
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