Modelling direct and indirect water requirements of construction

McCormack, Michael, Treloar, Graham J., Palmowski, Laurence and Crawford, Robert 2007, Modelling direct and indirect water requirements of construction, Building research and information, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 156-162, doi: 10.1080/09613210601125383.

Attached Files
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads

Title Modelling direct and indirect water requirements of construction
Author(s) McCormack, Michael
Treloar, Graham J.
Palmowski, Laurence
Crawford, Robert
Journal name Building research and information
Volume number 35
Issue number 2
Start page 156
End page 162
Publisher Routledge
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2007-03
ISSN 0961-3218
Keyword(s) embodied water
environmental impacts
key indicators
water consumption
Summary Water consumed directly by the construction industry is known to be of little importance. However, water consumed in the manufacture of goods and services required by construction may be significant in the context of a building's life cycle water requirements and the national water budget. This paper evaluates the significance of water embodied in the construction of individual buildings. To do this, an input-output-based hybrid embodied water analysis was undertaken on 17 Australian non-residential case studies. It was found that there is a considerable amount of water embodied in construction. The highest value was 20.1 kilolitres (kL)/m2 gross floor area (GFA), representing many times the enclosed volume of the building, and many years worth of operational water. The water required by the main construction process is minimal. However, the water embodied in building materials is considerable. These findings suggest that the selection of elements and materials has a great impact on a building's embodied water. This research allows the construction industry to evaluate design and construction in broad environmental terms to select options that might be cost neutral or possibly cost positive while retaining their environmental integrity. The research suggests policies focused on operational water consumption alone are inadequate.
Language eng
DOI 10.1080/09613210601125383
Field of Research 129999 Built Environment and Design not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970112 Expanding Knowledge in Built Environment and Design
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2007, Taylor & Francis
Persistent URL

Connect to link resolver
Unless expressly stated otherwise, the copyright for items in DRO is owned by the author, with all rights reserved.

Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 12 times in TR Web of Science
Scopus Citation Count Cited 18 times in Scopus
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 956 Abstract Views, 111 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Mon, 29 Sep 2008, 08:51:34 EST

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact