Effect of process variables on formation of dynamic strain induced ultrafine ferrite during hot torsion testing
Hurley, Peter and Hodgson, Peter 2001, Effect of process variables on formation of dynamic strain induced ultrafine ferrite during hot torsion testing, Materials Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1360-1368.
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Ultrafine grain sizes were produced using hot torsion testing of a 0.11C-1.68Mn-0.20Si (wt-%) steel, with ultrafine ferrite (<1 µm) nucleating intragranularly during testing by dynamic strain induced transformation. A systematic study was made of the effect of isothermal deformation temperature, strain level, strain rate, and accelerated cooling during deformation on the formation of ultrafine ferrite by this process. Decreasing the isothermal testing temperature below the Ae3 temperature led to a greater driving force for ferrite nucleation and thus more extensive nucleation during testing; the formation of Widmanstätten ferrite prior to, or early during, deformation imposed a lower temperature limit. Increasing the strain above that where ferrite first began 0.8 at 675C and a strain rate of 3 s¯1 increased the intragranular nucleation of ferrite. Strain rate appeared to have little effect on the amount of ferrite formed. However, slower strain rates led to extensive polygonisation of the ferrite formed because more time was available for ferrite recovery. Accelerated cooling during deformation followed by air cooling to room temperature led to a uniform microstructure consisting of very fine ferrite grains and fine spherical carbides located in the grain boundaries regions. Air cooling after isothermal testing led to carbide bands and a larger ferrite grain size.
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