Pregnancy and lactation have no long-term deleterious effect on measures of bone mineral in healthy women: a twin study

Paton, Lynda M., Alexander, Jo L., Nowson, Caryl, Margerison, Claire, Frame, Mandy G., Kaymakci, Bahtiyar and Wark, John D. 2003, Pregnancy and lactation have no long-term deleterious effect on measures of bone mineral in healthy women: a twin study, American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 707-714.

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Title Pregnancy and lactation have no long-term deleterious effect on measures of bone mineral in healthy women: a twin study
Author(s) Paton, Lynda M.
Alexander, Jo L.
Nowson, CarylORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl
Margerison, ClaireORCID iD for Margerison, Claire
Frame, Mandy G.
Kaymakci, Bahtiyar
Wark, John D.
Journal name American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume number 77
Issue number 3
Start page 707
End page 714
Publisher American Society for Clinical Nutrition
Place of publication Bethesda, MD
Publication date 2003-03
ISSN 0002-9165
Keyword(s) pregnancy
bone mineral density
bone mineral content
Summary BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of pregnancy and lactation on measures of bone mineral in women remain unclear.

OBJECTIVE: We studied whether pregnancy or lactation has deleterious long-term effects on bone mineral in healthy women.

DESIGN: We measured bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) in women aged > or = 18 y. Analyses were performed on 3 data sets: study 1, 83 female twin pairs (21 monozygous and 62 dizygous) aged (x +/- SD) 42.2 +/- 15.5 y who were discordant for ever having been pregnant beyond 20 wk; study 2, 498 twin pairs aged 42.3 +/- 15.0 y; and study 3, 1354 individual twins, their siblings, and family members.

RESULTS: In study 1, there were no significant within-pair differences in unadjusted BMD or BMD adjusted for age, height, and fat mass at the lumbar spine or total-hip or in total-body bone mineral content (BMC; kg) (paired t tests). In study 2, there was no significant within-pair difference in measures of bone mineral or body composition related to the within-pair difference in number of pregnancies. In study 3, subjects with 1 or 2 (n = 455) and > or = 3 pregnancies (n = 473) had higher adjusted lumbar spine BMD (2.9% and 3.8%, respectively; P = 0.001) and total-body BMC (2.2% and 3.1%; P < 0.001) than did nulliparous women (n = 426). Parous women who breast-fed had higher adjusted total-body BMC (2.6%; P = 0.005), total-hip BMD (3.2%; P = 0.04), and lower fat mass (10.9%; P = 0.01) than did parous non-breast-feeders.

We found no long-term detrimental effect of pregnancy or breast-feeding on bone mineral measures.
Language eng
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2003, American Society for Clinical Nutrition
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