Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation of body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans

van Loon, Luc, Oosterlaar, Audrey, Hartgens, Fred, Hesselink, Matthijs, Snow, Rodney and Wagenmakers, Anton 2003, Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation of body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans, Clinical science, vol. 104, pp. 153-162.

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Title Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation of body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans
Author(s) van Loon, Luc
Oosterlaar, Audrey
Hartgens, Fred
Hesselink, Matthijs
Snow, Rodney
Wagenmakers, Anton
Journal name Clinical science
Volume number 104
Start page 153
End page 162
Publisher Medical Research Society
Place of publication Colchester, England
Publication date 2003
ISSN 0143-5221
1470-8736
Keyword(s) creatine phosphate
ergogenic aids
functional foods
metabolism
oxidative capacity
skeletal muscle
substrate utilization
Summary Most research on creatine has focused on short-term creatine loading and its effect on high-intensity performance capacity. Some studies have investigated the effect of prolonged creatine use during strength training. However, studies on the effects of prolonged creatine supplementation are lacking. In the present study, we have assessed the effects of both creatine loading and prolonged supplementation on muscle creatine content, body composition, muscle and whole-body oxidative capacity, substrate utilization during submaximal exercise, and on repeated supramaximal sprint, as well as endurance-type time-trial performance on a cycle ergometer. Twenty subjects ingested creatine or a placebo during a 5-day loading period (20g·day-1) after which supplementation was continued for up to 6 weeks (2g·day-1). Creatine loading increased muscle free creatine, creatine phosphate (CrP) and total creatine content (P<0.05). The subsequent use of a 2g·day-1 maintenance dose, as suggested by an American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable, resulted in a decline in both the elevated CrP and total creatine content and maintenance of the free creatine concentration. Both short- and long-term creatine supplementation improved performance during repeated supramaximal sprints on a cycle ergometer. However, whole-body and muscle oxidative capacity, substrate utilization and time-trial performance were not affected. The increase in body mass following creatine loading was maintained after 6 weeks of continued supplementation and accounted for by a corresponding increase in fat-free mass. This study provides definite evidence that prolonged creatine supplementation in humans does not increase muscle or whole-body oxidative capacity and, as such, does not influence substrate utilization or performance during endurance cycling exercise. In addition, our findings suggest that prolonged creatine ingestion induces an increase in fat-free mass.
Language eng
Field of Research 111603 Systems Physiology
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2003, The Biochemical Society and the Medical Research Society
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30008641

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