Research plays an important role in underpinning a country's economic and social life. Universities are at the centre of the research and human capital generating process. The aim of this paper is to explore the links between research output, research income, academic and non-academic labour and some of the characteristics of Australian universities. The results indicate that research income, academic staff and postgraduates are all positively associated with research output. There are noticeable differences across different types of universities, with the newer universities lagging in research performance.