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Depressed mood and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake from fish: non-linear or confounded association?

Appleton, Katherine M., Peters, Tim J., Heatherley, Susan V., Hayward, Robert C., McNaughton, Sarah A., Rogers, Peter J., Gunnell, David, Ness, Andrew R. and Kessler, David 2007, Depressed mood and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake from fish: non-linear or confounded association?, Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology: the international journal for research in social and genetic epidemiology and mental health services, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1007/s00127-006-0142-3.

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Title Depressed mood and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake from fish: non-linear or confounded association?
Author(s) Appleton, Katherine M.
Peters, Tim J.
Heatherley, Susan V.
Hayward, Robert C.
McNaughton, Sarah A.ORCID iD for McNaughton, Sarah A. orcid.org/0000-0001-5936-9820
Rogers, Peter J.
Gunnell, David
Ness, Andrew R.
Kessler, David
Journal name Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology: the international journal for research in social and genetic epidemiology and mental health services
Volume number 42
Issue number 2
Start page 1
End page 5
Publisher Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag
Place of publication Darmstadt, Germany
Publication date 2007-02
ISSN 0933-7954
1433-9285
Keyword(s) n3 fatty acids
fish
supplements
diet
depressed mood
age
social deprivation
lifestyle
Summary There is increasing evidence of an association between low dietary intake of essential n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 EFAs) and depressed mood. This study aimed to evaluate this association in a large population-based sample of UK individuals. N-3 EFA intake (intake from fish alone, and from all sources (fish and supplements)), depressed mood (assessed using the short-form Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales) and demographic variables (sex, age, Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) based on postal code, and date of questionnaire completion) were obtained simultaneously by self-report questionnaire (N = 2982). Using polynomial regression, a non-linear relationship between depressed mood and n-3 EFA intake from fish was found, with the incremental decrease in depressed mood diminishing as n-3 EFA intake increased. However, this relationship was attenuated by adjustment for age and IMD. No relationship between depression and n-3 EFA intake from all sources was found. These findings suggest that higher levels of n-3 EFA intake from fish are associated with lower levels of depressed mood, but the association disappears after adjustment for age and social deprivation, and after inclusion of n-3 EFA intake from supplements. This study does have a number of limitations, but the findings available suggest that the apparent associations between depressed mood and n-3 EFA intake from fish may simply reflect a wider association between depressed mood and lifestyle.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s00127-006-0142-3
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2007, Springer
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30009143

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