Pharmacokinetic mechanisms for reduced toxicity of irinotecan by coadministered Thalidomide

Yang, Xiao-Xia, Hu, Ze-Ping, Chan, Sui Yung, Duan, Wei, Ho, Paul Chi-Liu, Boelsterli, Urs Alex, Ng, Ka-Yun, Chan, Eli, Bian, Jin-Song, Chen, Yu-Zong, Huang, Min and Zhou, Shu-Feng 2006, Pharmacokinetic mechanisms for reduced toxicity of irinotecan by coadministered Thalidomide, Current drug metabolism, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 431-454.

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Title Pharmacokinetic mechanisms for reduced toxicity of irinotecan by coadministered Thalidomide
Author(s) Yang, Xiao-Xia
Hu, Ze-Ping
Chan, Sui Yung
Duan, Wei
Ho, Paul Chi-Liu
Boelsterli, Urs Alex
Ng, Ka-Yun
Chan, Eli
Bian, Jin-Song
Chen, Yu-Zong
Huang, Min
Zhou, Shu-Feng
Journal name Current drug metabolism
Volume number 7
Issue number 4
Start page 431
End page 454
Publisher Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
Place of publication Hilversum, The Netherlands
Publication date 2006-05
ISSN 1389-2002
1875-5453
Keyword(s) irinotecan (CPT-11)
SN-38
thalidomide
toxicity
metabolism
transport
pharmacokinetics
Summary The clinical use of irinotecan (CPT-11) is hindered by dose-limiting diarrhea and myelosuppression. Recent clinical studies indicate that thalidomide, a known tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, ameliorated the toxicities induced by CPT-11. However, the mechanisms for this are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether combination of thalidomide modulated the toxicities of CPT-11 using a rat model and the possible role of the altered pharmacokinetic component in the toxicity modulation using in vitro models. The toxicity model was constructed by treatment of healthy rats with CPT-11 at 60 mg/kg per day by intravenous (i.v.) injection. Body weight, acute and delayed-onset diarrhea, blood cell counts, and macroscopic and microscopic intestinal damages were monitored in rats treated with CPT-11 alone or combined therapy with thalidomide at 100 mg/kg administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Single dose and 5-day multiple-dose studies were conducted in rats to examine the effects of concomitant thalidomide on the plasma pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and its major metabolites SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G). The effect of CPT-11 on thalidomide's pharmacokinetics was also checked. Rat liver microsomes and a rat hepatoma cell line, H4-II-E cells, were used to study the in vitro metabolic interactions between these two drugs. H4-II-E cells were also used to investigate the effect of thalidomide and its hydrolytic products on the transport of CPT-11 and SN-38. In addition, the effect of thalidomide and its hydrolytic products on rat plasma protein binding of CPT-11 and SN-38 was examined. Administration of CPT-11 by i.v. for 4 consecutive days to rats induced significant body weight loss, decrease in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, severe acute- and delayed-onset diarrhea, and intestinal damages. These toxicities were alleviated when CPT-11 was combined with thalidomide. In both single-dose and 5-day multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study, coadministered thalidomide significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of CPT-11, but the AUC and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of SN-38 were significantly decreased. However, CPT-11 did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of thalidomide. Thalidomide at 25 and 250 microM and its hydrolytic products at a total concentration of 10 microM had no significant effect on the plasma protein binding of CPT-11 and SN-38, except for that thalidomide at 250 microM caused a significant increase in the unbound fraction (f(u)) of CPT-11 by 6.7% (P < 0.05). The hydrolytic products of thalidomide (total concentration of 10 microM), but not thalidomide, significantly decreased CPT-11 hydrolysis by 16% in rat liver microsomes (P < 0.01). The formation of both SN-38 and SN-38G from CPT-11, SN-38 glucuronidation, or intracellular accumulation of both CPT-11 and SN-38 in H4-II-E cells followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the one-binding site model being the best fit for the kinetic data. Coincubation or 2-hr preincubation of thalidomide at 25 microM and 250 microM and its hydrolytic products at 10 microM did not show any significant effects on CPT-11 hydrolysis and SN-38 glucuronidation. However, preincubation of H4-II-E cells with thalidomide (250 microM), its hydrolytic products (total concentration of 10 microM), or phthaloyl glutamic acid (one major thalidomide hydrolytic product, 10 microM) significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of SN-38, but not CPT-11 (P < 0.01). The dose-limiting toxicities of CPT-11 were alleviated by combination with thalidomide in rats and the pharmacokinetic modulation by thalidomide may partially explain its antagonizing effects on the toxicities of CPT-11. The hydrolytic products of thalidomide, instead of the parental drug, modulated the hepatic hydrolysis of CPT-11 and intracellular accumulation of SN-38, probably contributing to the altered plasma pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and SN-38. Further studies are needed to explore the role of both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic components in the protective effect of thalidomide against the toxicities of CPT-11.
Language eng
Field of Research 111599 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences not elsewhere classified
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2006, Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30009172

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Medicine
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