Objectives: To increase a review's relevance to practitioners and service users and identify the implications for systematic review methodology. Methods: A systematic review of the effects of smoking cessation programmes implemented during pregnancy integrated process indicators and the views of maternity service users and health promotion specialists. Additional qualitative data were extracted systematically from included randomised control trials (RCTs) to determine whether the design of interventions and conclusions arising from their evaluation related to the views of service users. On completing the review we reflected on the types of observational and qualitative research it drew on, where this research was incorporated into the review, and its added value. Results: Incorporating process indicators into the review revealed: 1) problems with implementation and transplantation of some interventions and 2) studies with more stringent quality criteria and process evaluations demonstrated greater impact (weighted mean difference in smoking). Pregnant smokers were rarely involved in the design or evaluation of the interventions. Prior observational and qualitative studies and small scale consultations influenced the criteria by which the effectiveness of the interventions were judged, and revealed to what extent these criteria are adopted in practice. Conclusions: Systematically abstracting data about the development and delivery of interventions revealed gaps that might be filled by the active involvement of service users.
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