Increasingly, measures of dietary patterns have been used to capture the complex nature of dietary intake and investigate its association with health. Certain dietary patterns may be important in the prevention of chronic disease; however, there are few investigations in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of adolescents and their associations with sociodemographic factors, nutrient intakes, and behavioral and health outcomes. Analysis was conducted using data collected in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey of participants aged 12–18 y who completed a 108-item FFQ (n = 764). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and associations with sociodemographic factors and behavioral and health outcomes investigated. Factor analysis revealed 3 dietary patterns labeled a fruit, salad, cereals, and fish pattern; a high fat and sugar pattern; and a vegetables pattern, which explained 11.9, 5.9, and 3.9% of the variation in food intakes, respectively. The high fat and sugar pattern was positively associated with being male (P < 0.001), the vegetables pattern was positively associated with rural region of residence (P = 0.004), and the fruit, salad, cereals, and fish pattern was inversely associated with age (P = 0.03). Dietary patterns were not associated with socioeconomic indicators. The fruit, salad, cereals, and fish pattern was inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0025) after adjustment for age, sex, and physical activity in adolescents ≥16 y. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are already evident in adolescence and a dietary pattern rich in fruit, salad, cereals, and fish pattern may be associated with diastolic blood pressure in older adolescents.
Field of Research
111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective
970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences