Nouri, Alireza, Chen, Xiaobo, Li, Yuncang, Yamada, Yasuo, Hodgson, Peter D. and Wen, Cui`e 2008, Synthesis of Ti–Sn–Nb alloy by powder metallurgy, Materials science and engineering A: structural materials: properties, microstructures and processing, vol. 485, no. 1-2, pp. 562-570.
The microstructural evolution and characteristics of the Ti–16Sn–4Nb powder particles and bulk alloys sintered from the powders ball-milled for various periods of time were studied. Results indicated that ball milling to 8 h led to the development of a supersaturated hcp α-Ti and partial amorphous phase due to the solid solution of Sn and Nb into Ti lattice. The bulk Ti–16Sn–4Nb alloy made from the powders ball milled for a short time, up to 2 h, exhibited a primary α and a Widmanstätten structure consisting of interlaced secondary α and β. With an increase in ball milling time up to 10 h, the microstructure evolved into a fine β phase dispersed homogeneously within α phase matrix. The microhardness values of the bulk alloy in both α- and β-phases increased with the increasing of the ball milling time and reached a plateau value at 8 h and longer, i.e. 687 and 550 HV for α- and β-phases, respectively. Likewise, the microhardness of the α phases was always higher than that of the β phases in the bulk alloys made from the powders ball milled for the same milling time.