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The role of eicosanoids in the brain

Tassoni, Danni, Kaur, Gunveen, Weisinger, Richard S. and Sinclair, Andrew 2008, The role of eicosanoids in the brain, Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 17, no. S1, pp. 220-228.

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Title The role of eicosanoids in the brain
Author(s) Tassoni, Danni
Kaur, Gunveen
Weisinger, Richard S.
Sinclair, Andrew
Journal name Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition
Volume number 17
Issue number S1
Start page 220
End page 228
Total pages 9
Publisher HEC Press
Place of publication McKinnon, Vic.
Publication date 2008-01
ISSN 0964-7058
1440-6047
Keyword(s) eicosanoids
docosanoids
polyunsaturated fatty acids
brain
arachidonic acid
docosahexaenoic acid
Summary The brain contains two main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These PUFA are located almost exclusively in the sn2-position of phosphoglycerides which are found in the neural cell membranes. Liberation of these PUFA from the phosphoglycerides occurs via the action of specific phospholipases (PLA2). Free AA can be metabolised by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandins and  thromboxane, while both AA and DHA can be metabolised by lipoxygenases to form hydroxy derivatives and leukotrienes. AA is also metabolised to  lipoxins via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. The eicosanoids formed play important roles in neural function including sleep induction (PGD2), long  term potentiation, spatial learning and synaptic plasticity (PGE2), resolution of inflammation (lipoxins) and anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective  bioactivity (dihydroxy-docosatriene, neuroprotectin D1, formed from DHA). COX-inhibitors have been shown to reduce oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Additionally, drugs which are used to treat depression have been shown to reduce the turnover of AA to PGE2 in the brain. Diets deficient in omega 3 PUFA lead to reduced DHA in the brain and increased turnover of AA to eicosanoids, an effect which is overcome by restoring the omega 3 PUFA to the diet. In neural trauma and neurodegenerative diseases, there is a dramatic rise in the levels of AA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast,  DHA-derived compounds can prevent neuroinflammation. Clearly, the eicosanoids are very important for the normal functioning of the brain, while the PUFA themselves are important in membrane structure and function.
Notes Reproduced with the specific permission of the copyright owner.
Language eng
Field of Research 110104 Medical Biochemistry: Lipids
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
HERDC collection year 2008
Copyright notice ©2008, HEC Press
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30017664

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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