Depression : an important comorbidity with metabolic syndrome in a general population

Dunbar, James, Reddy, Prasuna, Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie, Philpot, Benjamin, Laatikainen, Tiina, Kilkkinen, Annamari, Bunker, Stephen J., Best, James D., Vartiainen, Erkki, Lo, Sing Kai and Janus, Edward D. 2008, Depression : an important comorbidity with metabolic syndrome in a general population, Diabetes care, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2368-2373, doi: 10.2337/dc08-0175.

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Title Depression : an important comorbidity with metabolic syndrome in a general population
Author(s) Dunbar, JamesORCID iD for Dunbar, James
Reddy, Prasuna
Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie
Philpot, Benjamin
Laatikainen, Tiina
Kilkkinen, Annamari
Bunker, Stephen J.
Best, James D.
Vartiainen, Erkki
Lo, Sing Kai
Janus, Edward D.
Journal name Diabetes care
Volume number 31
Issue number 12
Start page 2368
End page 2373
Publisher American Diabetes Association
Place of publication Alexandria, Va.
Publication date 2008-12
ISSN 0149-5992
Keyword(s) depression
cardiovascular disease
metabolic syndrome
Summary OBJECTIVE—There is a recognized association among depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine in a sample representative of the general population whether depression, anxiety, and psychological distress are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Three cross-sectional surveys including clinical health measures were completed in rural regions of Australia during 2004–2006. A stratified random sample (n = 1,690, response rate 48%) of men and women aged 25–84 years was selected from the electoral roll. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and psychological distress by the Kessler 10 measure.

RESULTS—Metabolic syndrome was associated with depression but not psychological distress or anxiety. Participants with the metabolic syndrome had higher scores for depression (n = 409, mean score 3.41, 95% CI 3.12–3.70) than individuals without the metabolic syndrome (n = 936, mean 2.95, 95% CI 2.76–3.13). This association was also present in 338 participants with the metabolic syndrome and without diabetes (mean score 3.37, 95% CI 3.06–3.68). Large waist circumference and low HDL cholesterol showed significant and independent associations with depression.

CONCLUSIONS—Our results show an association between metabolic syndrome and depression in a heterogeneous sample. The presence of depression in individuals with the metabolic syndrome has implications for clinical management.
Language eng
DOI 10.2337/dc08-0175
Field of Research 111714 Mental Health
Socio Economic Objective 920209 Mental Health Services
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2008, American Diabetes Association
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Medicine
Higher Education Research Group
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