The concept of tissue-engineered heart valves offers an alternative to current heart valve replacements that is capable of addressing shortcomings such as life-long administration of anticoagulants, inadequate durability, and inability to grow. Since tissue engineering is a multifaceted area, studies conducted have focused on different aspects such as hemodynamics, cellular interactions and mechanisms, scaffold designs, and mechanical characteristics in the form of both in vitro and in vivo investigations. This review concentrates on the advancements of scaffold materials and manufacturing processes, and on cell–scaffold interactions. Aside from the commonly used materials, polyglycolic acid and polylactic acid, novel polymers such as hydrogels and trimethylene carbonate-based polymers are being developed to simulate the natural mechanical characteristics of heart valves. Electrospinning has been examined as a new manufacturing technique that has the potential to facilitate tissue formation via increased surface area. The type of cells utilized for seeding onto the scaffolds is another factor to take into consideration; currently, stem cells are of great interest because of their potential to differentiate into various types of cells. Although extensive studies have been conducted, the creation of a fully functional heart valve that is clinically applicable still requires further investigation due to the complexity and intricacies of the heart valve.
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