Investigations of the I Ching : II. Reliability and validity studies

Storm, Lance 2009, Investigations of the I Ching : II. Reliability and validity studies, Australian journal of parapsychology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 111-142.

Attached Files
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads

Title Investigations of the I Ching : II. Reliability and validity studies
Author(s) Storm, Lance
Journal name Australian journal of parapsychology
Volume number 9
Issue number 1
Start page 111
End page 142
Publisher Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research Inc.
Place of publication Gladesville, N.S.W.
Publication date 2009-06
ISSN 1445-2308
Keyword(s) Divination -- China
Divination -- Psychological aspects
Parapsychology -- Research -- Methodology
Psychology -- Experiments
Summary In six studies on the I Ching - an ancient Chinese system of divination - successful predictions of first- and second-hexagrams (i.e., hexagram hitting) based on pre-selections of corresponding descriptor-pairs have ranged from chance, to significantly above chance. No significant effect below chance has ever been found. Hexagram hitting has been predicted by measures such as paranormal belief, time perspective, and meaningfulness. Storm (2008a) found a near-significant aggregate hexagram hit rate of 27%. Though these results are encouraging, there has been no assessment of the reliability and validity of the main test instrument used in the I Ching studies, the Hexagram Descriptor Form (HDF). To test the validity of the HDF, three control methods were tested against the experimental method. Taking first- and second-hexagram hit rates together, three out of 22 tests on the experimental method (14%) were significant or near-significant. Three significant or near-significant outcomes out of 66 control tests (4.5%) were attributed to chance. Inter-rater reliability was tested using two I Ching experts who judged the 64 descriptor-pairs of the HDF for suitability against their corresponding hexagram readings. The correlation between judges' ratings was not significant (the mean rating ranged between 60% and 82%). Using the pooled data of six studies, the HDF was tested for possible selection and outcome biases. A selection bias was found, but no outcome biases were found. The I Ching and the HDF were considered suitable for parapsychological research.
Language eng
Field of Research 170103 Educational Psychology
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
HERDC collection year 2009
Copyright notice ©2009, AIPR
Persistent URL

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Psychology
Connect to link resolver
Unless expressly stated otherwise, the copyright for items in DRO is owned by the author, with all rights reserved.

Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 0 times in TR Web of Science
Scopus Citation Count Cited 0 times in Scopus
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 496 Abstract Views, 0 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Tue, 08 Sep 2009, 13:51:48 EST by Deborah Wittahatchy

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact