This article applies univariate and panel data unit root tests to annual panel data for 182 countries over the period 1979–2000 to examine the stationarity properties of per capita energy consumption. The univariate unit root test can only reject the unit root null for 56 countries or 31% of the sample at the 10% level or better. However, univariate unit root tests have low power with short spans of data and therefore failure to reject the unit root null should be treated with caution. When we apply the panel data unit root test we find overwhelming evidence that energy consumption is stationary. We discuss the policy implications of these findings and offer suggestions for future research.
Field of Research
140209 Industry Economics and Industrial Organisation