History of amenorrhoea compromises some of the exercise-induced benefits in cortical and trabecular bone in the peripheral and axial skeleton : a study in retired elite gymnasts

Ducher, G., Eser, P., Hill, B. and Bass, S. 2009, History of amenorrhoea compromises some of the exercise-induced benefits in cortical and trabecular bone in the peripheral and axial skeleton : a study in retired elite gymnasts, Bone, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 760-767.


Title History of amenorrhoea compromises some of the exercise-induced benefits in cortical and trabecular bone in the peripheral and axial skeleton : a study in retired elite gymnasts
Author(s) Ducher, G.
Eser, P.
Hill, B.
Bass, S.
Journal name Bone
Volume number 45
Issue number 4
Start page 760
End page 767
Total pages 8
Publisher Elsevier
Place of publication New York N.Y.
Publication date 2009-10
ISSN 8756-3282
Keyword(s) hypoestrogenism
menstrual dysfunction
peripheral quantitative computed tomography
bone geometry
volumetric bone density
Summary Background : Female gymnasts frequently present with overt signs of hypoestrogenism, such as late menarche or menstrual dysfunction. The objective was to investigate the impact of history of amenorrhoea on the exercise-induced skeletal benefits in bone geometry and volumetric density in retired elite gymnasts.
Subjects and methods

24 retired artistic gymnasts, aged 17–36 years, who had been training for at least 15 h/week at the peak of their career and had been retired for 3–18 years were recruited. They had not been engaged in more than 2 h/week of regular physical activity since retirement. Former gymnasts who reported history of amenorrhoea (‘AME’, n = 12: either primary or secondary amenorrhoea) were compared with former gymnasts (‘NO-AME’, n = 12) and controls (‘C’, n = 26) who did not report history of amenorrhoea. Bone mineral content (BMC), total bone area (ToA) and total volumetric density (ToD) were measured by pQCT at the radius and tibia (4% and 66%). Trabecular volumetric density (TrD) and bone strength index (BSI) were measured at the 4% sites. Cortical area (CoA), cortical thickness (CoTh), medullary area (MedA), cortical volumetric density (CoD), stress–strain index (SSI) and muscle and fat area were measured at the 66% sites. Spinal BMC, areal BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were measured by DXA.
Results

Menarcheal age was delayed in AME when compared to NO-AME (16.4 ± 0.5 years vs. 13.3 ± 0.4 years, p < 0.001). No differences were detected between AME and C for height-adjusted spinal BMC, aBMD and BMAD, TrD and BSI at the distal radius and tibia, CoA at the proximal radius, whereas these parameters were greater in NO-AME than C (p < 0.05–0.005). AME had lower TrD and BSI at the distal radius, and lower spinal BMAD than NO-AME (p < 0.05) but they had greater ToA at the distal radius (p < 0.05).
Conclusion

Greater spinal BMC, aBMD and BMAD as well as trabecular volumetric density and bone strength in the peripheral skeleton were found in former gymnasts without a history of menstrual dysfunction but not in those who reported either primary or secondary amenorrhoea. History of amenorrhoea may have compromised some of the skeletal benefits associated with high-impact gymnastics training.
Language eng
Field of Research 110602 Exercise Physiology
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
HERDC collection year 2009
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30019653

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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