Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing threats to human health in westernised and developing countries and is associated with central obesity, atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertension. Insulin resistance, defined as a diminished response to ordinary levels of circulating insulin in one or more peripheral tissues, is an integral feature of T2D pathophysiology. This includes an impairment of insulin to inhibit hepatic glucose output and to stimulate glucose disposal into muscle and fat. While insulin is responsible for a number of specific biological responses, stimulation of glucose transport is critical for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. The primary mechanism for insulin stimulation of glucose uptake into muscle and fat is the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface from intracellular storage vesicles within the cell. A major advantage in focussing on insulin regulation of glucose transport is that this represents the endpoint of multiple upstream signalling pathways. This chapter describes the measurement of GLUT4 translocation in cultured cells and its potential application for both mechanistic and therapeutic studies.
Field of Research
060199 Biochemistry and Cell Biology not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective
970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences
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