Research in the US, Europe and Australia shows that women's participation in international assignments is low. This book seeks to understand why this is the case. A conceptual framework of the factors related to the participation of women in international assignments was developed. Areas covered include the organisational environment, interpersonal factors and support, individual variables, characteristics and repatriation factors. Three studies were conducted using international assignees, repatriates and human resource managers. The conceptual framework was empirically supported by the three studies. It is anticipated that this knowledge will assist women, HR managers and the HR function to develop selection systems, environments and attitudes that are supportive of women participating in international assignments in MNEs. The research should be useful to practitioners, and academics who are interested in the field of international human resource management, and to women considering participating in an international assignment.