Vitamin C and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

Zhang, C., Williams, M.A., Frederick, I.O., King, I.B., Sorensen, T.K., Kestin, Mark M., Dashow, E.E. and Luthy, D.A. 2004, Vitamin C and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study, Journal of reproductive medicine, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 257-66.

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Title Vitamin C and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study
Author(s) Zhang, C.
Williams, M.A.
Frederick, I.O.
King, I.B.
Sorensen, T.K.
Kestin, Mark M.
Dashow, E.E.
Luthy, D.A.
Journal name Journal of reproductive medicine
Volume number 49
Issue number 4
Start page 257
End page 66
Publisher Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Inc.
Place of publication St. Louis, MO
Publication date 2004
ISSN 0024-7758
Summary OBJECTIVE: To examine whether low maternal dietary intake of vitamin C and low maternal plasma ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
METHODS: Cases were 67 women with GDM meeting National Diabetes Data Group criteria. Controls were 260 women without such a diagnosis. Maternal dietary vitamin C consumption during the periconceptional period and during pregnancy was assessed using a 121-item, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Maternal plasma AA concentrations were determined using automated enzymatic procedures on specimens collected during the intrapartum period.
RESULTS: Mean maternal daily consumption of vitamin C and plasma AA concentrations were 10% and 31% lower, respectively, among GDM cases as compared with controls (130.7 +/- 10.2 vs. 145 +/- 4.9 mg/d, P = .190; 36 +/- 2.0 vs. 53 +/- 1.0 micromol/L, P <.001). After controlling for maternal age, race, prepregnancy adiposity, family history of type 2 diabetes, energy intake and income, women reporting low daily vitamin C intake (< 70 mg/d), as compared with the other women, experienced a 3.7-fold increased risk of GDM (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-8.2). There was a linear relation in risk of GDM with decreasing concentrations of plasma AA (P for linear trend <.001). After adjusting for confounders, women in the lowest quartile (< 42.6 micromol/L), as compared with women in the highest quartile (> 63.3 micromol/L), experienced > 12-fold increased risk of GDM (OR = 12.8, 95% CI 3.5-46.2). CONCLUSION: Low maternal dietary vitamin C intake and low plasma AA concentrations are associated with an increased risk of GDM. Large, prospective, cohort studies are needed to further evaluate the potential beneficial role of vitamin C and other antioxidants in the prevention of impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy.
Language eng
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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