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Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

Kanwar, Jagat and Kanwar, Rupinder 2009, Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal, BMC immunology, vol. 10, no. Article 7, pp. 1-19.

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Title Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal
Author(s) Kanwar, Jagat
Kanwar, Rupinder
Journal name BMC immunology
Volume number 10
Issue number Article 7
Start page 1
End page 19
Total pages 19
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2009
ISSN 1471-2172
Summary Background: Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC), heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products.

Results: Enprocal (undigested) and digested (Enprocal D) selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int) and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells). Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated) maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER) assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80), MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells)-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and up-regulated IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.
Language eng
Field of Research 110704 Cellular Immunology
Socio Economic Objective 920204 Evaluation of Health Outcomes
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
HERDC collection year 2009
Copyright notice ©2009, Kanwar and Kanwar
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30022595

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.