Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder : a population-based study
Pasco, Julie A., Williams, Lana J., Jacka, Felice N., Ng, Felicity, Henry, Margaret J., Nicholson, Geoffrey C., Kotowicz, Mark A. and Berk, Michael 2008, Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder : a population-based study, British journal of psychiatry, vol. 193, no. 4, pp. 322-326, doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.046706.
Background : Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among people with psychiatric illness.
Aims : To investigate smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder.
Method : A population-based sample of women was studied using case–control and retrospective cohort study designs. Exposure to smoking was self-reported, and major depressive disorder diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV–TR (SCID–I/NP).
Results : Among 165 people with major depressive disorder and 806 controls, smoking was associated with increased odds for major depressive disorder (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.46, 95% CI 1.03–2.07). Compared with non-smokers, odds for major depressive disorder more than doubled for heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day). Among 671 women with no history of major depressive disorder at baseline, 13 of 87 smokers and 38 of 584 non-smokers developed de novo major depressive disorder during a decade of follow-up. Smoking increased major depressive disorder risk by 93% (hazard ratio (HR)=1.93, 95% CI 1.02–3.69); this was not explained by physical activity or alcohol consumption.
Conclusions : Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggests that smoking increases the risk of major depressive disorder in women.
This is an author-produced electronic version of an article accepted for publication in the British Journal of Psychiatry. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at http://bjp.rcpsych.org
Field of Research
119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective
970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
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