Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder : a population-based study
Pasco, Julie A., Williams, Lana J., Jacka, Felice N., Ng, Felicity, Henry, Margaret J., Nicholson, Geoffrey C., Kotowicz, Mark A. and Berk, Michael 2008, Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder : a population-based study, British journal of psychiatry, vol. 193, no. 4, pp. 322-326, doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.046706.
Background : Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among people with psychiatric illness.
Aims : To investigate smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder.
Method : A population-based sample of women was studied using case–control and retrospective cohort study designs. Exposure to smoking was self-reported, and major depressive disorder diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV–TR (SCID–I/NP).
Results : Among 165 people with major depressive disorder and 806 controls, smoking was associated with increased odds for major depressive disorder (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.46, 95% CI 1.03–2.07). Compared with non-smokers, odds for major depressive disorder more than doubled for heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day). Among 671 women with no history of major depressive disorder at baseline, 13 of 87 smokers and 38 of 584 non-smokers developed de novo major depressive disorder during a decade of follow-up. Smoking increased major depressive disorder risk by 93% (hazard ratio (HR)=1.93, 95% CI 1.02–3.69); this was not explained by physical activity or alcohol consumption.
Conclusions : Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggests that smoking increases the risk of major depressive disorder in women.
This is an author-produced electronic version of an article accepted for publication in the British Journal of Psychiatry. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at http://bjp.rcpsych.org
Field of Research
119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective
970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
Unless expressly stated otherwise, the copyright for items in DRO is owned by the author, with all rights reserved.
Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO.
If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact email@example.com.
Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.